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Volume 49, 1916
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Art. XV—Revision of New Zealand Notodontina.

[Received by Editors, 30th December, 1916; issued separately, 16th July, 1917.]

I now complete my revision of the New Zealand Lepidoptera by dealing with the Notodontina. This group is relatively more prominent in New Zealand than elsewhere, being only surpassed in numbers by the Tineina. It should be realized, however, that they are comparatively easy to collect, calling in general for little skill or acumen; so that the group is probably better known than any other, and would, indeed, have been pretty well exhausted before now if it were not that many species are strictly alpine and very local, requiring to be visited in their special haunts.

This group exhibits the same inequality of representation of families that has been noticed in the others; three-fourths of the whole number of species belong to the family Hydriomenidae, which is very adequately represented, whilst the Selidosemidae and Monocteniadae are very imperfectly exhibited, and the other families either wholly absent or indicated only by one or two casually introduced immigrants. Nearly all the local affinities are with the South American region, in accordance with the principles laid down in earlier papers of this series; but the few Monocteniadae are mainly related to Australian forms.

I take the opportunity of explaining here why I am unable to accept the proposal made by Mr. Prout, and communicated through Mr. Howes (Proc. N.Z. Inst. vol. 44, p. 54), to establish a genus Larentia Treitschke (whose name is disguised as Frietschke in the above communication) to include those species of Xanthorhoe in which the hindwings have “vein 5 from below centre of discocellular, which is angled,” since it may afford a useful lesson in the principles of classification, a subject on which I hope to be able to issue a more extended treatise some day. I will begin by explaining the nature of the structure referred to, using my own terminology.

The posterior wall of the cell of the hindwings (between veins 4 and 6) I call the “transverse vein”. From about the centre of this, or rather above it, a weak internal fold runs towards the base, representing an original internal vein, and the junction of these usually coincides nearly with the lower end of the dark discal spot; the transverse vein is commonly more or less slightly angled inwards at the point of junction, but may also be practically straight. Now, in some species of Xanthorhoe vein 5 rises from the point of junction mentioned above; in others it rises from a more or less pronounced outward angulation between this point and vein 4. Mr. Prout would keep the species of the first category as Xanthorhoe, and separate from them those of the second as Larentia, and the proposal sounds plausible.

When I formulated my classification of the European species of this group in 1892, on lines which have since met with general acceptance, I did not overlook this variation in structure, but rejected it after examination as unsuitable for use. Since that time, however, my available material has

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been greatly increased, and therefore, in view of Mr. Prout's proposal, I made a new examination of all the species which I have included under Xanthorhoe from all regions, and noted the following points:–

(1.) Every intermediate stage is found between these two types of structure, distinct as they may appear in extreme forms. The outward angulation of the lower part of the transverse vein depends solely on the postion of 5 as a concomitant variation, if 5 rises much below the point of junction the angulation is pronounced; if from near below, the angle is difficult of perception; and in some species 5 so closely approaches the point of junction that they can be classed in either category.

(2.) Insistence on this character would in repeated instances involve the separation of species which in all other respects appear to be closely and truly related together. For example, cinerearia would be a Larentia and semisignata a Xanthorhoe, as correctly noted by Mr. Prout. Now, these, though so similar as to have been long thought identical, are perhaps not so very closely related, having some difference also in antennal pectinations and shape of wing; but plumbea is so similar in all respects to cinerearia as to be nearly indistinguishable, agreeing with it exactly in all those characters of size, antennal pectinations, and shape of wing in which semisignata differs; and yet plumbea would be an undoubted Xanthorhoe. Again, beata, benedicta, and adonis must be admitted by every New Zealand entomologist to be exceedingly closely allied. Now, beata is an obvious Larentia, with 5 rather widely remote from the point of junction; in benedicta it is less remote, but still well separated in general (though I have an example in which one wing would pass for Xanthorhoe); whilst in adonis 5 is sometimes barely separate, but in general practically indistinguishable from normal Xanthorhoe, the transverse vein being straight, without either inward or outward angulation, and 5 rising from just by the lower end of the discal spot; similarly chorica, which is certainly more nearly related to these three than to any other, is quite as adonis. Again, consider the group of nearly related species 113–123 frivola and helias would be Xanthorhoe, recta would be Larentia, dionysias would be Xanthorhoe, aegrota to sericodes would be Larentia, nephelias would be Xanthorhoe. If nephelias is not closely related to sericodes, what is it related to?

(3.) Having grouped, as well as might be, all the species under the two heads of Xanthorhoe and Larentia, I considered the groups thus formed, to see if they had any characters of homogeneity as wholes, and it appeared that they had not: there was no other structural or superficial character which distinguished or belonged to one genus as compared with the other; nor was there any geographical support to the distinction, for both genera occurred indiscriminately in all regions.

(4.) Precisely the same variation of structure occurs in other allied genera, such as Hydriomena and Notoreas, and even in small genera such as Asaphodes. It must, therefore, either be a basic and primitive distinction, in which case all these genera must be thrown together and redistributed on this as a primary base (which is apparently not proposed by any one, and would confuse affinities to a degree far exceeding that shown above), or the particular modification of structure must be liable to arise independently in a number of instances: there is no other alternative. If the second of these alternatives is (as it appears) not disputed, there can be no reason why the modification should not arise independently in different parts of the same genus, as well as in different genera; and if that can take place the character is a bad one, and cannot be used for systematic purposes

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except where confirmed by other characters. When several genera of a family have been established on normal considerations, and it is found that a common variation tends to run through them, the employment of which as a distinguishing character would split up the whole into pairs of closely allied genera (the stalking or separation of veins 7 and 8 of the forewings in the Glyphipterygidae is a case in point, though the same character is of high importance in other families), it should not be so employed.

The proposed alteration appears, then, from (1) to be undefinable, from (2) to be unnatural, from (3) to be useless, and from (4) to be illogical. These would seem to be all the possible lines of argument, and they all point to the same conclusion, the rejection of the proposal. I find the fourth sufficient by itself; but with the support of the other three (which could be extended in detail if necessary) it ought to carry conviction.

One other case in which Mr. Prout's views as to genera differ from mine may be worthy of a short discussion. The two New Zealand and one European species which I unite in the genus Epirrhanthis he treats as forming three different genera. The purpose of genera is to unite species into groups based on a natural community of origin, so as to provide an abridged notation for their discussion as units in problems of phylogeny and geography. Monotypic genera are useless for this purpose (being simply species), and, though sometimes necessary, should be avoided when possible. Now, Mr. Prout has published his considered views on the Monocteniadae (to which Epirrthanthis belongs) in the Genera Insectorum (under the title of “Oenochrominae”). He admits these three genera to be nearly allied, for he places them together, and produces nothing else as being nearly allied to them, the genera on each side of them being remote; the distinctions alleged between them are in minor characters, which can be regarded as specific merely (it is often not understood that not only all species, but all individuals, differ in structure); it is true he treats one of the species (with doubt) as two, but there is small justification for that course (he was perhaps misled by the difference in the sexes); the aggregate of the three species can be defined as a whole (I so define it in this paper): what, then, is gained by keeping them separate? It can serve no object but a fancied equalization of generic standard, which Mr. Prout has himself elsewhere admitted to be unrealizable no two genera are equivalent in value. Whereas by uniting them the interesting geographical relation is clearly brought out and summarized under the single head: we are substituting a genus which signifies something for three which signify nothing.

As to some other opinions expressed by my friend Mr. Prout in the former paper quoted, it will be charitable to assume that they were not intended for publication. When, for example, he states that Selidosema “is a European genus, and probably does not occur in New Zealand” (p. 53), the argument seems defective, in view of the fact that all the largest New Zealand genera of Lepidoptera without exception are European. I add as a further generalization that they are always common European genera, and that they are never equally well developed in Australia. A more correct inference would have been that as the group of New Zealand species in question is a considerable one, therefore it is most probably European.

Again, when Mr. Prout recommends distinguishing euclidiata from catapyrrha by the absence of red on the underside, “until it can be proved that they are conspecific,” he seems to be wholly unaware that euclidiata is an Australian species, with double areole, and ciliated antennae of male, whilst catapyrrha has single areole and pectinated antennae (fully explained by

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me twenty-six years ago in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 1890, p. 876). If we are ever able to regard these as conspecific, our notions of species will have undergone remarkable change.

As in previous papers of this series, I have only given synonymy and references sufficient for local use.

1. Hydriomenidae.

Forewings: 10 rising separate, anastomosing with 11 and 9 (forming double areole), or rising out of 11 and anastomosing with 9 (forming simple areole). Hindwings: 5 fully developed, parallel to 4, 6, and 7 almost always stalked or connate, 8 anastomosing with upper margin of cell from near base to beyond middle, or seldom approximated only and connected by bar beyond middle.

A very large family of universal distribution, equally plentiful in New Zealand.

1. Tatosoma Butl.

Tatosoma Butl., Cat. Lep. N.Z. 17 (1874); type, agrionata Walk.

Face smooth. Antennae gradually dilated from base to near apex, apex attenuated, in ♂ simple. Abdomen in ♂ extremely long. Forewings: areole double. Hindwings small, in ♂ with dorsal lobe folded into a pocket, 8 free, connected with cell by bar before angle, in ♂ neuration normal.

Endemic; it is, however, a closely related development of the characteristically South American genus Rhopalodes, from which it differs only by the unusual elongation of the male abdomen. The habits of these curious insects should be an interesting study.

1. T. lestevata Walk., Cat. xxv, 1416; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 67; Huds, N.Z. Moths, 39, pl. vi, 25: ranata Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxxi, 11

Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch.

2. T. tipulata Walk., Cat. xxv, 1417; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xliii, 71: collectaria Walk., Cat. xxv, 1419: agrionata Huds., N.Z. Moths, 40, pl. vi, 26, 27.

Wellington, Nelson, Otira River, Dunedin, Wallacetown.

3. T. agrionata Walk., Cat. xxv, 1417; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xliii, 71: inclinataria Walk., Cat. xxv, 1418: mistata Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxxi, 12.

Christchurch, Wallacetown.

4. T. alta. Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlv, 76; apicipallida Prout, Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvi, 122.

Otira River, Humboldt Range (1,200–4,500 ft.).

5. T. transitaria Walk., Cat. xxv, 1419; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xliii, 71. Locality unrecorded; perhaps North Island.

6. T. fasciata Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvi, 118.

Lake McKenzie.

7. T. timora Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii, 64; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 40, pl. vi, 28, 29: agrionata Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 68.

Ohakune, Palmerston North, Wellington, Christchurch.

8. T. topia Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxxv, 247, pl. xxxii, 3, 4.

Otira River, Lake Wakatipu, Invercargill.

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2. Elvia Walk.

Elvia Walk, Cat. xxv, 1430 (1862); type, glaucata Walk.

Face with cone of scales. Antennae in ♂ flattened, bipectinated. Palpi rather long, rough-scaled. Forewings: areole simple, 11 running into 12. Hindwings normal. Wings longitudinally folded in repose.

Endemic.

9. E. glaucata Walk., Cat. xxv, 1431., Feld, Reis. Nov. pl. cxxxii, 25; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 65; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 46, pl. vi, 23, 24: donovani Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxxii, 5.

North and South Islands.

3. Microdes Guen.

Microdes Guen., Lep. x, 296 (1857), type, villosata Guen.

Face with cone of scales. Antennae in ♂ simple or ciliated. Palpi long or very long, rough-scaled. Forewings: areole simple, 11 running into 12. Hindwings in ♂ reduced, narrowed or distorted.

A genus of very few species, confined to Australia and New Zealand.

10. M. epicryptis Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1897, 384 Wellington.

11. M. villosata Guen., Lep. x, 297, pl. xv, 8; Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1890, 802 quadristrigata Walk, Cat. xxiv, 1200, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii, 67 interclusa Walk, Cat. xxiv, 1202. mixtaria Walk, Cat. xxvi, 1663 toriata Feld., Reis. Nov pl cxxxi, 34 rectilineata Huds, N.Z. Moths, 45, pl vi, 22 (bis)

Wellington, Stewart Island, common and widely distributed in Australia and Tasmania.

4. Phrissogonus Butl.

Phrissogonus Butl., Ann. Mag. Nat Hist (5) ix, 94 (1882); type, laticostatus Walk

Face with small cone of scales Antennae in ♂ simple or ciliated. Palpi moderate, rough-scaled Abdomen slightly crested. Forewings in ♂ with glandular swelling or projecting tuft on costa; areole simple, 11 running into 12. Hindwings normal.

A small Australian genus, of which two species are found also in New Zealand.

12. P. laticostatus Walk, Cat. xxiv, 1196, Meyr., Proc Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 1890, 801, id Trans N.Z. Inst. xlv, 22: canata Walk, Cat. xxv, 1357; Butl, Ann Mag Nat Hist (5) ix, 94

Nelson, Kermadec Islands; very common and generally distributed in Australia and Tasmania

13. P. denotatus Walk, Cat. xxv, 1361, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx 53; id Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 1890, 798, Huds., N.Z. Moths, 45, pl vi, 19 parvulata Walk, Cat. xxvi. 1721

North and South Islands; Kermadec Islands; common and widely distributed in Australia and Tasmania. Larva on flowers of Brachyglottis repanda

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5. Chloroclystis Hübn.

Chloroclystis Hubn., Verz. 323 (1816); type, rectangulata Linn. Pasiphila Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 66 (1884); type, bilineolata Walk.

Face with small cone of scales. Antennae in ♂ ciliated or simple. Palpi moderate or long, rough-scaled. Abdomen slightly crested. Forewings areole simple, 11 running into 12. Hindwings normal.

A rather extensive genus, well represented in India; occurring also in Africa, Europe, and Australia, but nowhere so prominent as in New Zealand. Owing to their variability and similarity the species have been much misunderstood, and require close study.

14. C. inductata Walk., Cat. xxv, 1322; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx, 53: subitata Walk., Cat. xxv, 1362

Locality unrecorded; this and other species collected by Colonel Bolton appear to indicate an interesting locality containing forms unfamiliar to modern collectors, but possibly destroyed.

15. C. semialbata Walk., Cat. xxvi, 1708; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlv, 23: indicataria Walk., Cat. xxvi, 1708; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx, 52; Huds., Subantarct. Isl. N.Z. pl. ii, 20–22.

Napier, Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch; Auckland Island; Kermadec Islands.

16. C. sandycias Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1905, 219; plinthina Huds., N.Z. Moths, 41, pl. vi, 8

Wellington, Otira River, Invercargill.

17. C. plinthina Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxi, 49.

Invercargill.

18. C. melochlora Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xliii, 58.

Otira River.

19. C. muscosata Walk., Cat. xxv, 1246; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx, 50: cidariaria Guen., Ent. M. Mag. v. 62: aquosata Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxxii, 38 bilineolata Huds, N.Z. Moths, pl. vi, 9, 10.

Auckland, Napier, Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch.

20. C. paralodes Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlv, 23.

Wellington, Lake Wakatipu

21. C. zatricha Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlv, 24.

Wellington.

22. C. lacustris Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlv, 24.

Arthur's Pass, Lake Wakatipu.

23. C. bilineolata Walk, Cat. xxv, 1246; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx, 50: antarctica Huds, N.Z. Moths, 42, pl. vi, 20.

Wellington, Christchurch, Arthur's Pass, Dunedin, Lake Wakatipu, Invercargill. Larva on Veronica.

24. C. lunata Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xliv, 115.

Wellington, Wallacetown. Larva on Veronica.

25. C. cotinaea Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlv, 24.

Masterton.

26. C. charybdis Butl., Cist. Ent. 2, 503; calida ib. 504.

Wellington, Dunedin.

27. C. dryas Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxiv, 97; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 43, pl. vi, 12.

Wellington.

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28. C. aristias Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1897, 385; Huds, N.Z. Moths, 42, pl. vi, 21, 22.

Mount Arthur; 4,000 ft.

29. C. furva Philp., this volume, p. 239.

Hunter Mountains.

30. C. rubella Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvii, 193.

Humboldt Range.

31. C. erratica Philp. MS.

Hunter Mountains.

32. C. modesta Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvii, 193

Humboldt Range; 3,000–4,000 ft

33. C. halianthes Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxxix, 107; rufulitincta Prout, Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvi, 123

Lake Wakatipu.

34. C. magnimaculata Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvii, 193.

Mount Cook, Lake Wakatipu.

35. C. malachita Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlv, 25; luminosa Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvii, 192.

Wellington, Lake Harris, Lake Wakatipu.

36. C. lichenodes Purd., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx, 70; Huds, N.Z. Moths. 44, pl. vi, 15, 16.

Wellington, Otira River, Dunedin, Stewart Island.

37. C. maculata Huds, N.Z. Moths, 44, pl. vi, 18

Wellington, Otira River.

38. C. sphragitis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxi, 51; Huds, N.Z. Moths, 43, pl. vi, 13, 14

Kaitoke, Wellington, Christchurch, Otira River

39. C. minima Huds., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxxvii, 356

Ida Valley. I have not seen this species

40. C. nereis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxi, 51; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 43, pl. vi, 11.

Ruapehu, Mount Arthur, Mount Hutt, Lake Harris, Mount Earnslaw. Humboldt Range; 2,500–5,000 ft.

6. Eucymatoge Hubn.

Eucymatoge Hubn., Verz. 325 (1816); type, togata Hubn.

Face with cone of scales Antennae in ♂ ciliated. Palpi moderate, rough-scaled. Abdomen with slight crests throughout. Forewings: areole double. Hindwings normal

A genus of moderate extent and general distribution, with the interesting feature of special development in the Hawarian Islands.

41. E. arenosa Howes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. xliii, 127, pl. 1, 2

Wellington, Moeraki.

42. E. gobiata Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxxi, 2; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 70; Huds, N.Z. Moths, pl. vi, 44. simulans Butl., Cist. Ent. 2, 506: unduligera ib. 506; rivularis ib. 507

North and South Islands. Larva on Corposma

43. E. anguligera Butl, Cist. Ent. 2, 506; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xli, 5: gobiata Huds, N.Z. Moths, pl. vi, 43

Wellington. Invercargill

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7. Hydriomena Hübn.

Hydriomena Hübn., Verz. 322 (1816); type, elatata Hübn. Cephalissa Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 93 (1884); type, siria Meyr. Anachloris Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xviii, 184 (1886); type, subochraria Doubl.

Face with cone of scales. Antennae in ♂ ciliated. Palpi moderate, rough-scaled. Abdomen sometimes crested on two basal segments. Forewings: areole double. Hindwings normal.

A very large genus, dominant in almost all regions, and extensively developed in Australia, but comparatively much less important in New Zealand.

44. H. siria Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 93; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 51, pl. vi, 48.

Dunedin, Invercargill. Isolated in New Zealand, but I have seen a Chilian species apparently closely related to it.

45. H. triphragma Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 74; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 49: siris Hawth., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxix, 283; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 55, pl. vii, 16.

Wellington, Blenheim, Dunedin.

46. H. purpurifera Fer, N.Z. Journ. Sci. 1, 531; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 75; Huds, N.Z. Moths, 49, pl. vii, 12.

Ohakune, Mount Arthur, Mount Hutt, Castle Hill, Dunedin, Lake Wakatipu.

47. H. rixata Feld, Reis Nov. pl. cxxxii, 1; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 75; Huds, N.Z. Moths, 49, pl. vii, 11: squalida Butl, Cist. Ent. 2, 505

North and South Islands.

48. H. similata Walk., Cat. xxv, 1413; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 76; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 50, pl. vii, 14: timarata Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxxii, 19.

Napier, Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin, Lake Wakatipu, Invercargill. Larva on Coprosma.

49. H. callichlora Butl., Cist. Ent. 2, 509; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 76; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 50, pl. vii, 13.

Wellington, Otira River, Christchurch, Invercargill.

50. H. amda Butl., Cist. Ent. 2, 509; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii, 64; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 50 pl. vii, 15: chaotica Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 76.

Picton, Mount Arthur, Akaroa, Mount Hutt, Arthur's Pass, Dunedin, Stewart Island.

51. H. hemizona Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1897, 385; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 48, pl. vii, 10.

Wellington, Mount Arthur, Lake Wakatipu.

52. H. officiosa Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlii, 69.

Kermadec Islands.

53. H. subrectaria Guen., Lep. x, 411; Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 1890, 829: responsata Walk., Cat. xxv, 1409: casta Butl., Cist. Ent. 2, 553.

Queenstown; also widely distributed in south-east Australia doubtless its home.

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54. H. deltoidata Walk., Cat. xxv, 1321; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi. 70; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 47, pl. vii, 1–9: inclarata Walk., Cat. xxv, 1411: perductata ib. 1412. congressata ib. 1412. conversata ib. 1413: descriptata ib. 1414: bisignata ib 1415: aggregata ib 1415: congregata ib. 1415. plagifuscata ib. 1416. pastinaria Guen, Ent. M. Mag. v, 64: inopiata Feld, Reis Nov. pl. cxxxii, 3 monoliata ib. 8: perversata ib. 14, 24

North and South Islands Larva on Plantago

55. H. prionota Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 73; Huds., N.Z. Moths. 47, pl. vi, 47

Mount Arthur, Castle Hill, Dunedin

56. H. subochraria Doubl., Dieff. N.Z. 2, 285, Butl. Cat. Lep N Z., pl. m, 16; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 73; Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 1890, 851; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 48, pl. vi, 45, 46. euboliaria Walk, Cat. xxvi, 1684: strangulata Guen, Lep. x, 423: fuscinata Guen, Ent. M. Mag. v, 92.

North, South, and Stewart Islands. Also widely distributed in Australia and Tasmania

57. H. lithurga Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xliv, 71

Makara. I think this may prove to occur in Australia.

8. Asthena Hübn.

Asthena Hübn, Verz. 310 (1816); type, candidata Schiff

Face smooth, flat. Antennae in ♂ ciliated. Palpi short, slender, loosely scaled Forewings: areole double. Hindwings normal

A small genus of wide distribution; the New Zealand species are of Australian type

58. A. schistaria Walk, Cat. xxiii. 782, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 69; Huds, N.Z. Moths, 52, pl. vi, 39–42: subpurpureata Walk, Cat. xxvi, 1588: tuhuata Feld, Reis Nov. pl. cxxviii, 5

North, South, and Stewart Islands. Larva on Leptospermum

59. A. pulchraria Doubl, Dieff. N.Z. 2, 286, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx, 69, Meyr., Proc Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 1890, 813, Huds, N.Z. Moths, 52, pl. vi, 37, 38. plurilineata Walk, Cat. xxii, 563, 676. ondinata Guen, Lep ix, 438, pl. xix, 4; Butl, Cat. N.Z. Lep., pl. iii, 20; Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxviii, 17.

North and South Islands Common and widely distributed in Australia and Tasmania.

9. Euchoeca Hübn.

Euchoeca Hübn, Verz. 298 (1816); type, obliterata Hufn. Epicyme Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xviii, 184 (1886)

Face smooth, flat. Antennae in ♂ ciliated. Palpi short, slender, loosely scaled. Forewings: areole simple. Hindwings normal.

Also small and widely distributed

60. E. rubropunctaria Doubl, Dieff. N.Z. 2, 287; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst, xvi, 60, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 1890, 811, Huds, N.Z. Moths, 51, pl. vi, 35. pulchraria Walk., Cat. xxiii, 780, Butl, Cat. N.Z. Lep pl. iii, 18. risata Guen, Lep. ix, 438. mullata Guen., Ent. M. Mag. v, 42

North, South, and Stewart Islands, Kermadec Islands Widely distributed in Australia and Tasmania Larva on Halorrhagis alata

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10. Venusia Curt.

Venusia Curt., Brit. Ent. 759 (1839); type, cambrica Curt. Epiphryne Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 60 (1884); type, undosata Feld. Pancyma Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xviii, 184 (1886); type, verriculata Feld. Aulopola Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xviii, 184 (1886); type, xanthaspis Meyr.

Face smooth. Antennae in ♂ bipectinated, apex simple. Palpi loosely scaled. Forewings: areole simple. Hindwings normal.

The typical species occurs throughout northern temperate regions, and I have also one from South America.

61. V. dissimilis Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvi, 118. Ben Lomond.

62. V. verriculata Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxxi, 20; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 62; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 53, pl. vi, 30, 31.

Wellington, Christchurch, Ashburton, Dunedin, Invercargill. Lava on Cordyline.

63. V. charidema Meyr., Subantarct. Isl. N.Z. 1, 70.

Wellington, Ben Lomond, Auckland and Campbell Islands.

64. V. undosata Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxviii, 2; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 60; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 54, pl. vi, 33, 34: citrinata Warr., Nov. Zool. x, 265.

Napier, Palmerston North, Wellington, Nelson, Mount Arthur, Mount Hutt, Christchurch, Dunedin, Lake Wakatipu. Larva on Plagianthus betulinus.

65. V. xanthaspis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 61; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 54, pl. vi, 32.

Tararua Ranges, Lake Guyon, Mount Arthur, Otira River, Lake Wakatipu.

11. Asaphodes Meyr.

Asaphodes Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xviii, 184 (1886); type, abrogata Walk. Probolaea Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xviii, 184 (1886); type, megaspilata Walk. Homodotis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xviii, 184 (1886); type, rufescens Butl.

Face with cone of projecting scales. Palpi moderate, rough-scaled. Antennae in ♂ bipectinated, apex simple. Forewings: areole simple. Hindwings normal.

Endemic.

66. A. stephanitis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxxix, 108.

Invercargill.

67. A. abrogata Walk., Cat. xxiv, 1075; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 61; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 55, pl. vii, 21: servularia Guen., Ent. M. Mag. v, 43.

Murimutu, Kekerangu, Christchurch, Castle Hill, Dunedin, Invercargill.

68. A. megaspilata Walk., Cat. xxiv, 1198; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 63; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 55, pl. vii, 17–20: assata Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxxi, 4: nehata ib. 6.

North and South Islands.

69. A. parora Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii, 63; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 56: humeraria Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 64.

Wellington, Christchurch, Mount Hutt, Dunedin.

– 258 –

70. A. rufescens Butl., Cist. Ent. 2, 502; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii, 63; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 56: cymosema Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 63.

Dunedin, Stewart Island.

12. Paradetis Meyr.

Paradetis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xviii, 184 (1886); type, porphyrias Meyr.

Face smooth. Antennae in both sexes bipectinated, apex simple. Palpi short, slender, loosely scaled. Forewings: areole simple. Hindwings in both sexes with 8 connected with cell by oblique bar before angle; in ♂ 2 absent.

Endemic. If related to any New Zealand genus it must probably be to Asaphodes, but the modification of hindwing is very remarkable; it resembles that found in Tatosoma and its allies, but there does not seem to be any other relationship with them, nor is there any apparent lobe or gland in the male which would account for the absorption of vein 2. This absorption, with reduction of the dorsal area, has been compensated by extension in the costal area, and conversion of the normal anastomosis of 8 into a connection by bar only, and this structure has been ultimately transferred to the female also, notwithstanding that in this sex there was no need for it, 2 being present as usual.

71. P. porphyrias Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 58; lb. xviii, 184; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 41, pl. vi, 36.

Wainuiomata, Mount Arthur, Otira River, Castle Hill, Lake Wakatipu.

13. Xanthorhoe Hubn.

Xanthorhoe Hübn., Verz. 327. (1816); type, montanata. Borkh. Helastia Guen, Ent. M. Mag. v, 94 (1868); type, cinerearia Doubl. Epyaxa Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 71 (1884); type, rosearia Doubl.

Face with cone of projecting scales. Antennae in ♂ bipectinated, apex usually simple. Palpi moderate, rough-scaled. Forewings: areole double. Hindwings normal.

A cosmopolitan genus of considerable extent, but relatively far more prominent in New Zealand than anywhere else; the species are numerous and varied, and evidently by no means yet exhausted.

72. X. chlamydota Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 72; Huds., N.Z. Moths., 59, pl. vii, 28.

Waiouru, Wellington, Christchurch, Akaroa.

73. X. lophogramma Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1897, 386; Huds., N.Z. Moths., 59, pl. vii, 47, 48.

Castle Hill.

74. X. orophyloides Huds., Subantarct. Isl. N.Z. 68, pl. ii, 12 (orophylloides).

Auckland and Campbell Islands.

75. X. orophyla Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 71; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 58, pl. vii, 24, 25.

Nelson, Castle. Hill, Mount, Hutt, Dunedin, Lake, Wakatipu; 2,500–4,000 ft.

– 259 –

76. X. semifissata Walk., Cat. xxv, 1320; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 72; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 59, pl. vi, 26, 27: ypsilonaria Guen., Ent. M. Mag. v, 64: delicatulata ib. 94.

North and South Islands; sea-level to 4,500 ft.

77. X. rosearia Doubl., Dieff. N.Z. 2, 285; Butl., Cat. N.Z. Lep. pl. iii, 13; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 71; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 57, pl. vii, 22, 23: ardularia Guen., Ent. M. Mag. v, 63: inamoenaria ib. 63.

Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch, Akaroa, Otira River, Dunedin; Chatham Islands. Larva on Nasturtium.

78. X. cinnabaris Howes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. xliv, 203 (cinnabari).

Garvie Mountains.

79. X. bulbulata Guen., Ent. M. Mag. v, 94; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 84; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 68, pl. viii, 1.

Wellington, Kekerangu, Castle Hill, Christchurch, Dunedin.

80. X. practica Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xliii, 72.

Porirua, Motueka.

81. X. lucidata Walk., Cat. xxiv, 1200; Prout, Proc. N.Z. Inst. xliv, 53: plurimata Walk., Cat. xxv, 1321.

Locality unrecorded.

82. X. venipunctata Walk., Cat. xxvi, 1666; psamathodes Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 81; lucidata Huds., N.Z. Moths, 64, pl. vii, 38.

Taranaki, Napier, Palmerston. North, Wellington, Dunedin, Stewart Island; Chatham Islands.

83. X. homalocyma Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1902, 274.

Chatham Islands.

84. X. subductata Walk., Cat. xxiv, 1198; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx, 55; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 57.

Auckland.

85. X. suppressaria Walk., Cat. xxvi, 1721; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii, 67.

Auckland.

86. X. cinerearia Doubl., Dieff. N.Z. 2, 286; Huds., N.Z. Moths, pl. viii, 2; Prout, Proc. N.Z. Inst. xliv, 52: invexata Walk., Cat. xxiv, 1199; Butl., Cat. N.Z. Lep. pl. iii, 11: inoperata Walk., Cat. xxiv, 1201: diffusaria ib. 1201: ? infusata ib. 1199: infantaria Guen., Ent. M. Mag. v, 62: eupitheciaria ib. 95: adonata Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxxi, 31.

North and South Islands; sea-level to 4,000 ft. Larva on lichens.

87. X. farinata Warr., Nov. Zool. 3, 388; Prout, Proc. N.Z. Inst. xliv, 52. Wellington.

88. X. plumbea Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvii, 194.

Lake Wakatipu; to 3,500 ft.

89. X. semisignata Walk., Cat. xxiv, 1200; Prout, Proc. N.Z. Inst. xliv, 52: punctilineata Walk., Cat. xxiv, 1202; Butl., Cat. N.Z. Lep. pl. iii, 12: dissociata Walk., Cat. xxvi, 1734: similisata ib. 1735: corcularia Guen., Ent. M. Mag. v, 61: cinerearia Huds., N.Z. Moths, pl. viii, 2A.

North and South Islands; sea-level to 3,000 ft.

90. X. periphaea Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1905, 220.

Lake Wakatipu; 4,000 ft.

91. X. falcata Butl., Cist. Ent. 2, 501; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx, 58; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 66.

Dunedin.

– 260 –

92. X. camelias Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx, 58; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 65.

Whangarei, Otira River.

93. X. chionogramma Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 82; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 65, pl. vii, 42, 43.

Mount Hutt, Mount Arthur; 2,000–4,000 ft.

94. X. cedrinodes Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xliii, 72; undulata Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlv, 76.

Mount Arthur (4,200 ft.), Dunedin, Invercargill.

95. X. umbrosa Philp., this volume, p. 241.

Hunter Mountains.

96. X. subobscurata Walk., Cat. xxv, 1358; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 66: petropola Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 82. Otira River.

97. X. cosmodora Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx, 57; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 62.

Mount Arthur; 4,500 ft. I am now rather inclined to believe that this is the female of bryopis.

98. X. bryopis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx, 57; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 62.

Mount Arthur; 4,500 ft.

99. X. prasinias Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 81; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 65, pl. vii, 41.

Mount Arthur, Castle Hill, Arthur's Pass, Invercargill.

100. X. limonodes Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx, 54; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 57, pl. vii, 46.

Ohakune, Wellington, Cape Terawhiti, Otira River.

101. X. benedicta Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvi, 102.

Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin, Invercargill.

102. X. beata Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 397, pl. xliii, 6; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 79; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 63, pl. vii, 35, 36.

Wellington, Mount Earnslaw, Lake Wakatipu, Invercargill, Stewart Island.

103. X. adonis Huds., N.Z. Moths, 63, pl. vii, 49.

Castle Hill, Lake Wakatipu, Invercargill.

104. X. chorica Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx, 58; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 66, pl. vii, 44.

Ohakune, Akaroa, Otira River, Invercargill.

105. X. cymozeucta Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlv, 25.

Ohakune.

106. X. obarata Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxxii, 33; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 82; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 66, pl. vii, 45.

Wellington, Christchurch, Mount Hutt.

107. X. prymnaea Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xliii, 73.

Mount Arthur; 3,600–4,200 ft.

108. X. clarata Walk., Cat. xxiv, 1197; Butl., Cat. N.Z. Lep. pl. iii, 14; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 79; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 61, pl. vii, 31, 32: pyramaria Guen., Ent. M. Mag. v, 93.

Waiouru, Tararua Ranges, Lake Rotoiti, Mount Arthur, Castle Hill, Mount Hutt, Dunedin, Lake Wakatipu; up to 4,700 ft.

109. X. declarata Prout, Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvi, 122.

Lake Wakatipu.

110. X. cataphracta Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 79; Huds, N.Z. Moths, 61, pl. vii, 33, 34.

Mount Arthur, Arthur's Pass, Lake Guyon, Lake Wakatipu; 3,000–4,500 ft.

– 261 –

111. X. stricta Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvii, 195.

Humboldt Range.

112. X. chlorias Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 80; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 63: princeps Huds., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxxv, 244, pl. xxx, 1.

Dun Mountain (Nelson), Castle Hill (3,100 ft.).

113. X. frivola Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlv, 26.

Invercargill.

114. X. helias Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 81; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 64, pl. vii, 40.

Dunedin.

115. X. recta Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxxvii, 330, pl. xx, 3.

Dunedin, Invercargill.

116. X. dionysias Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxxix, 109.

Dunedin.

117. X. aegrota Butl., Cist. Ent. 2, 499; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 80; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 64, pl. vii, 37.

Palmerston North, Kaitoke, Christchurch, Otira River, Dunedin, Lake Wakatipu, Stewart Island.

118. X. albilineata Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvii, 194 (albalineata).

Stewart Island.

119. X. exoriens Prout, Proc. N.Z. Inst. xliv, 54.

Lake Wakatipu.

120. X. imperfecta Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxxvii, 330, pl. xx, 6.

Invercargill.

121. X. oraria Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxxv, 248, pl. xxxii, 6.

Invercargill.

122. X. sericodes Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvii, 202.

Mount Earnslaw; 4,000 ft.

123. X. nephelias Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 78; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 61.

Mount Arthur, Arthur's Pass (4,600 ft.).

124. X. oxyptera Huds., Subantarct. Isl. N.Z. 1, 67, pl. ii, 23.

Auckland Island.

125. X. praefectata Walk., Cat. xxiii, 781; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 78; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 60, pl. vii, 30: subtentaria Walk., Cat. xxvi, 1610. absconditaria ib. 1611; Butl., Cat. N.Z. Lep. pl. iii, 21.

Palmerston North, Nelson, Mount Arthur, Christchurch, Otira River, Dunedin; sea-level to 4,500 ft.

126. X. mnesichola Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx, 56; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 60, pl. vii, 39.

Mount Arthur; 4,000–4,800 ft.

127. X. occulta Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxxv, 248, pl. xxxii, 5.

Tararua Ranges, Otira River, Invercargill.

128. X. stinaria Guen., Ent. M. Mag. v, 92; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 78; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 60, pl. vii, 29.

Christchurch, Mount Hutt, Dunedin.

14. Notoreas Meyr.

Notoreas Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xviii, 184 (1886); type perornata Walk.

Face and palpi roughly hairy. Antennae in ♂ bipectinated. Thorax and femora rough-haired beneath. Forewings: areole double. Hindwings normal.

Endemic.

– 262 –

129. N. synclinalis Huds., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxxv, 244, pl. xxx, 6; Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1905, 220.

Seaward Moss, Preservation Inlet, Stewart Island.

130. N. insignis Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 393, pl. xliii, 1; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 85; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 71, pl. viii, 3. Castle Hill; 4,000 ft.

131. N. orphnaea Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 85, Huds., N.Z. Moths, 71.

Lake Wakatipu (5,600 ft.), Hunter Mountains.

132. N. opipara Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvii, 196.

Stewart Island.

133. N. anthracias Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 84; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 67.

Mount Hutt, Lake Wakatipu; 2,000–5,400 ft.

134. N. atmogramma Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xliii, 59.

Mount Holdsworth., 4,000 ft.

135. N. mechanitis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 86; Huds, N.Z. Moths, 72, pl. viii, 9–11.

Arthur's Pass; 3,100 ft.

136. N. isoleuca Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1897, 386, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xliii, 59.

Mount Arthur, Mount Peel, Arthur's Pass, Castle Hill., 4,400–4,600 ft.

137. N. paradelpha Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 86; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 72, pl. viii, 12–14.

Mount Arthur, Mount Peel, Lake Wakatipu; 4,000–5,000 ft.

138. N. ischnocyma Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1905, 221; isoleuca Huds., N.Z. Moths, 72, pl. viii, 27.

Castle Hill; 5,600 ft.

139. N. perornata Walk., Cat. xxvi, 1672; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 87; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 72, pl. viii, 4–8.

Palmerston North, Wellington, Kekerangu, Mount Arthur, Lake Coleridge, Mount Hutt, Lake Wakatipu; up to 4,300 ft.

140. N. niphocrena Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 88; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 74.

Arthur's Pass., 4,500 ft.

141. N. simplex Huds., N.Z. Moths, 74, pl. viii, 26.

Mount Arthur; 4,000 ft.

142. N. ferox Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 392, pl. xlii, 8; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 88; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 74, pl. viii, 17.

Castle Hill.

143. N. brephos Walk., Cat. xxiv, 1037 (brephosata), Butl., Cat. N.Z. Lep. pl. iii, 14; Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxix, 5; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 89; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 75, pl. viii, 20–23. catocalaria Guen., Ent. M. Mag. v, 62: zopyra Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 89, Huds., N.Z. Moths, 74, pl. viii, 18, 19.

Mount Arthur, Castle Hill, Arthur's Pass, Mount Hutt, Mount Earnslaw, Invercargill.

144. N. vulcanica Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 89; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 75, pl. viii, 24.

Waiouru, Makatoku, Kaweka Range.

145. N. omichlias Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 90; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 76, pl. viii, 25.

Mount Holdsworth, Castle Hill, Humboldt Range; 4,000–5,000 ft.

– 263 –

15. Dasyuris Guen.

Dasyuris Guen., Ent. M. Mag. v, 92 (1868); type, partheniata Guen. Stathmonyma Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xviii, 184 (1886); type, hectori Butl.

Face and palpi roughly hairy. Antennae in ♂ ciliated. Thorax and femora rough-haired beneath. Forewings: areole double. Hindwings normal.

Besides the following, I have three Australian species and one from Labrador.

146. D. hectori Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 387, pl. xlii, 4; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 91; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 70, pl. viii, 32.

Mount Arthur, Arthur's Pass, Mount Hutt, Mount Earnslaw, Lake Wakatipu; 4,700–5,700 ft.

147. D. anceps, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 392, pl. xliii, 3; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 91; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 69, pl. viii, 29.

Mount Arthur, Castle Hill, Arthur's Pass, Lake Wakatipu; 4,000–5,000 ft.

148. D. enysii Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 391, pl. xlii, 9; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 69, pl. viii, 28: homomorpha Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 91

Nelson, Mount Hutt, 2,500–4,000 ft.

149 D. partheniata Guen., Ent. M. Mag. v, 93; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 92; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 70, pl. viii, 30, 31.

Waiouru, Tararua Range, Wellington, Mount Arthur, Mount Hutt, up to 4,000 ft.

150. D. fulminea Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvii, 195.

Humboldt Range.

151. D. strategica Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 87; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 73, pl. viii, 15.

Lake Guyon.

152. D. callicrena Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 87; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 73, pl. viii, 16.

Mount Cook, Arthur's Pass, Mount Earnslaw, Humboldt Range; 3,000–4,000 ft.

153. D. hexaleuca Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvi, 103.

Ben Lomond

154 D. transaurea Howes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. xliv, 203.

Garvie Mountains.

155 D. leucobathra Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xliii, 59.

Arthur's Pass, Otira River.

156. D. fulva Huds, Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxxvii, 357, pl. xxii, 3. Mount Ida; 3,500 ft.

16. Lythria Hübn.

Lythria Hübn., Verz. 300 (1816); type, purpuraria Linn. Arctesthes Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xviii, 184 (1886); type, catapyrrha Butl.

Face and palpi roughly hairy. Antennae in ♂ bipectinated. Thorax and femora rough-haired beneath. Forewings: areole simple. Hindwings normal.

There are also three European species.

– 264 –

157. L. catapyrrha Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 392, pl. xliii, 2; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 64: euclidiata Huds, N.Z. Moths, 68, pl. viii, 35.

Lake Rotoiti, Lake Guyon, Otira Gorge, Dunedin, Lake Wakatipu, Invercargill.

158. L. siris Huds., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xl, 106, pl. xv, 1.

Old Man Range; 4,000 ft.

159. L. chrysopeda Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx, 48; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 68, pl. viii, 33, 34.

Mount Arthur; 3,000–4,000 ft.

2. Sterrhidae.

Forewings: 10 rising out of 9, 11 anastomosing or connected with 9. Hindwings: 5 fully developed, rising from middle of transverse vein, parallel to 4, 8 very shortly anastomosing with upper margin of cell near base, thence rapidly diverging.

A very considerable family, well represented in all regions except New Zealand, where the single species is an immigrant from Australia.

17. Leptomeris Hübn.

Leptomeris Hübn., Verz. 310 (1816); type, umbellaria Hübn. Antennae in ♂ fasciculate-ciliated. Posterior tibiae in ♂ dilated, without spurs, in ♀ with all spurs present.

A large genus of almost universal distribution.

160. L. rubraria Doubl., Dieff. N.Z. 2, 286; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 57; Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 1887, 852; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 77, pl. viii, 37, 38: repletaria Walk., Cat. xxiii, 778: attributa ib. 779: acidaliaria ib. xxiv, 1037. figlinaria Guen., Lep. ix, 454, pl. xii, 8.

North and South Islands; Kermadec Islands; abundant and generally distributed in Australia and Tasmania.

3. Monocteniadae.

Hindwings: 5 fully developed, parallel to 4, 8 approximated to upper margin of cell to middle or beyond, sometimes with connection near base.

A family of moderate extent and early type, better represented in Australia than elsewhere. The first four genera are of Australian type, the fifth American and European.

18. Samana Walk.

Samana Walk., Cat. xxvii, 197 (1863); type, falcatella Walk

Face with cone of scales. Palpi very long, rough-scaled. Antennae in ♂ shortly ciliated. Forewings: 10 anastomosing with 9, 11 anastomosing with 10. Hindwings 6 or 7 connate or stalked, 8 approximated to beyond middle of cell.

Endemic.

161. S. acutata Butl, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 401, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii, 67; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 76

“Sea-level, South Island.”

162. S. falcatella Walk, Cat. xxvii, 197; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 93; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 76, pl. viii, 36.

Nelson, Dunedin.

– 265 –

19. Theoxena Meyr.

Theoxena Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 56 (1884); type, scissaria Guen.

Face smooth. Palpi moderate, rough-scaled. Antennae in ♂ fasciculate-ciliated. Forewings: 10 anastomosing with 9, 11 anastomosing with 10, sometimes also very shortly with 12. Hindwings: 6 and 7 connate or stalked, 8 approximated to beyond middle of cell.

Endemic.

163. T. scissaria Guen., Ent. M. Mag. v, 43; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 56; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 79, pl. viii, 41.

Christchurch.

20. Adeixis Warr.

Adeixis Warr., Nov. Zool. iv, 27 (1897); type, inostentata Walk. Paragyrtis Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1905, 222; type, inostentata Walk.

Face obliquely prominent, with small cone of scales. Palpi moderately long, rough-scaled. Antennae in ♂ bipectinated. Forewings: 10 anastomosing with 9 above 7. Hindwings: 6 and 7 approximated, 8 approximated to beyond middle of cell.

The single species is Australian, and has made its way to New Zealand.

164. A. inostentata Walk., Cat. xxiii, 1012; Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1905, 222: insignata Warr., Nov. Zool. iv, 27: griseata Huds., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxxv, 244.

Ohakune, Kaitoke, Invercargill. Also common and widely distributed in Australia.

21. Dichromodes Guen.

Dichromodes Guen., Lep. ix, 320 (1858); type, ainaria Guen. Cacopsodos Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 395; type, nigra Butl.

Face with cone of scales. Palpi moderate to very long, rough-scaled. Antennae in ♂ unipectinated. Forewings: 10 usually anastomosing with 9, but sometimes separate. Hindwings: 6 and 7 approximated, 8 approximated to beyond middle of cell.

A characteristic Australian genus of considerable extent, which has established a small colony of species in New Zealand, forming a homogeneous endemic group.

165. D. ida Huds., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxxvii, 356, pl. xxii, 2; simulans Huds., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xl, 107.

Mount Ida, Old Man Range; 4,000 ft. Larva probably on lichens.

165. D. petrina Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxiv, 216; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 78, pl. viii, 39: ? sphaeriata Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxxi, 14.

Paekakariki, Wellington, Kekerangu, Dunedin.

167. D. cynica Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xliii, 60.

Lyttelton.

168. D. nigra Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 395, pl. xliii, 4; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx, 60; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 78, pl. viii, 40.

Nelson, Otira Gorge; 1,500–2,000 ft.

169. D. gypsotis Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx, 60; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 78: niger Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 94.

Lake Wakatipu; 1,500 ft.

– 266 –

22. Epirrhanthis Hubn.

Epirrhanthis Hübn., Verz. 296 (1816); type, pulverata Thunb. Lyrcea Walk., Cat. xx, 259 (1860); type, alectoraria Walk. Xyridacma Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx, 60 (1888); type, hemipteraria Guen. Xynonia Prout, Gen. Ins. civ, 65 (1910); type, alectoraria Walk.

Face with tolerably appressed scales. Palpi rather short. Antennae in ♂ slightly ciliated. Forewings: 10 anastomosing with 9, 11 anastomosing with 12 and then with 10. Hindwings: 6 and 7 approximated, 8 approximated to cell to about middle, with rudimentary or incomplete connection near base.

The typical species is European. The South American genus Phellinodes is allied to this.

170. E. hemipteraria Guen., Lep. ix, 220, pl. vi, 2; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx, 60; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 80, pl. viii, 48, 49

Auckland, Wellington, Arthur's Pass. Larva on Veronica.

171. E. alectoraria Walk., Cat. xx, 259; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 95; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 80, pl. viii, 42–47: ustaria Walk, Cat. xxvi, 1519: achroiaria Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxiii, 9 varians Butl, Cist. Ent. 2, 496.

North and South Islands. Larva on Pittosporum eugenioides and P. tenuifolium.

4. Selidosemidae.

Hindwings: 5 imperfect (not tubular) or obsolete, 6 and 7 usually separate, 8 usually obsoletely connected with upper margin of cell near base, approximated to near middle.

A very large family in all regions, but quite inadequately represented in New Zealand. It is noticeable that the larvae of many of the New Zealand species feed on ferns.

23. Selidosema Hubn.

Selidosema Hubn., Verz. 299 (1816); type, ericetaria Vill. Chalastra Walk., Cat. xxv, 1429 (1862); type, pelurgata Walk. Pseudo-coremia Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 394; type, productata Walk. Zylobara Butl, Cist Ent. 2, 498 (1879); type, fenerata Feld. Gelonia Meyr., N.Z. Journ. Sei. ii, 234 (1884); type, dejectaria Walk. Meyrickia Butl., Ent. M. Mag. xxi, 133 (1884); type, panagrata Walk

Face with appressed or shortly projecting scales. Antennae in ♂ bipectinated, towards apex simple. Palpi rough-scaled. Thorax sometimes crested posteriorly, hairy beneath. Femora nearly glabrous, posterior tibia in ♂ dilated. Forewings in ♂ with fovea; 10 sometimes connected with 9 11 sometimes out of 10 near base only, or sometimes anastomosing with 12.

A large genus of universal distribution.

172. S. pelurgata Walk., Cat. xxv, 1430; Huds, N.Z. Moths, 88, pl. ix, 33–36. cinerascens Feld, Reis. Nov. pl. cxxxi, 1 streptophora Meyr, Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 106

North and South Islands. Laiva on Todea hymenophylloides

– 267 –

173. S. aristarcha Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxiv, 216; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 85, pl. ix, 17, 18.

Auckland, Thames, Ohakune, Wellington. Larva on Cyathea dealbata.

174. S. scariphota Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvii, 202.

Wellington, Otira. Larva on Carmichaelia.

175. S. monacha Huds., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxxv, 245, pl. xxx, 4.

Mount Ruapehu; Lake Harris, 3,000–4,500 ft.

176. S. cremnopa Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1897, 387.

Auckland.

177. S. pungata Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxxi, 23; Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1905, 223: fascialata Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxxv, 248, pl. xxxii, 7.

Invercargill.

178. S. productata Walk., Cat. xxiv, 1197; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 98; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 84, pl. ix, 6–9, 11–13: fragosata Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxxi, 29.

North, South, and Stewart Islands. Larva on Metrosideros scandens.

179. S. lactiflua Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xliv, 117.

Lake Wakatipu.

180. S. terrena Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvii, 196.

Humboldt Range.

181. S. maculosa Howes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvi, 96.

Queenstown.

182. S. leucelaea Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xli, 6; productata Huds., N.Z. Moths, pl. ix, 10, 14.

Ohakune, Tararua Range, Christchurch, Otira River, Dunedin, Invercargill. Larva on Podocarpus totara.

183. S. albifasciata Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvii, 196 (albafasciata).

Taihape, Feilding.

184. S. melinata Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxix, 9; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst.

xvi, 99; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 85, pl. ix, 15, 16: indistincta Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 394, pl. xliii, 8.

North and South Islands; up to 4,000 ft.

185. S. ochrea Howes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. xliii, 127, pl. i, 1.

Dunedin.

186. S. suavis Butl., Cist. Ent. 2, 497; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxiii, 101; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 83, pl. ix, 3, 4: usitata Butl., Cist. Ent. 2, 501: lupinata Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 98.

North, South, and Stewart Islands. Larva on Metrosideros scandens and Beilschmiedia tawa.

187. S. lutea Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvi, 119.

Humboldt Range.

188. S. lupinata Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxxi, 19; Butl., Cist. Ent. 2, 496; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxiii, 101: humillima Huds., N.Z. Moths, 83, pl. ix, 5.

Wellington, Dunedin, Invercargill.

189. S. rudiata Walk., Cat. xxv, 1420 (rudisata); Huds., N.Z. Moths, 82, pl. ix, 1, 2: astrapia Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst., xxii, 218.

Wellington, Dunedin, Invercargill, Stewart Island. Larva on Olearia Traversii and Brachyglottis repanda.

190. S. argentaria Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlv, 77.

Invercargill, Wallacetown, Tuturau.

– 268 –

191. S. fenerata Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxxi, 7; Butl., Cist. Ent. 2, 498; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 97; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 82, pl. viii, 50, 51.

North Island, Christchurch.

192. S. ombrodes Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1902, 275.

Chatham Islands.

193. S. panagrata Walk., Cat. xxv, 1360; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 100; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 87, pl. ix, 25–30: menanaria Walk., Cat. xxvi, 1500: antipodaria Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxvi, 3: desiccata Butl., Cist. Ent. 2, 495: arenacea ib. 495.

North, South, and Stewart Islands. Larva on Piper excelsum, Aristotelia racemosa, Myrtus ballata.

194. S. dejectaria Walk., Cat. xxi, 394; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 100; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 86, pl. ix, 19–24: attracta Walk., Cat. xxi, 394: exprompta ib. 395: patularia ib. 422; Butl., Cat. N.Z. Lep. pl. iii, 8: scriptaria Walk., Cat. xxi, 422: erebinata ib. xxv, 1358: stigmaticata ib. 1359: lignosata ib. 1361: pannularia Guen., Ent. M. Mag. v, 42: maoriata Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxvi, 4: sulpitiata ib. 7: caprimulgata ib. 12.

North and South Islands. Larva on Metrosideros, Melicytus, Solanum, Fuchsia, c.

24. Sestra Walk.

Sestra Walk., Cat. xxvi, 1750 (1862); type, flexata Walk.

Face smooth. Antennae in ♂ minutely ciliated. Palpi short, rough-scaled. Thorax hairy beneath. Femora glabrous. Forewings: 10 out of 9, sometimes anastomosing shortly with 9, 11 anastomosing with 10, 12 sometimes anastomosing shortly with 11.

Endemic; probably allied to the preceding genus.

195. S. flexata Walk., Cat. xxv, 1421; fusiplagiata ib. xxvi, 1751; encausta Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 105; humeraria Huds., N.Z. Moths, 89, pl. x, 1, 2.

North, South, and Stewart Islands. Larva on Pteris incisa.

196. S. humeraria Walk., Cat. xxiii, 940; obtusaria ib. 985; obtruncata ib.

xxv, 1421; flexata Huds., N.Z. Moths, 90, pl. ix, 37.

Auckland, Wellington, Lake Wakatipu. Probably also a fern-feeder.

25. Hybernia Latr.

Hybernia Latr., Fam. Nat. 477 (1825); type, defoliaria Clerck.

Zermizinga Walk., Cat. xxvi, 1530 (1862); type, indocilis Walk.

Face with appressed scales. Antennae in ♂ bipectinated, apex simple. Palpi shortly rough-scaled. Thorax with small triangular anterior crest, hairy beneath. Femora glabrous. Forewings: 10 absent (in New Zealand species), 11 separate. Wings of ♂ rudimentary.

A genus of few species, chiefly northern-temperate; the single New Zealand species is probably an immigrant from Australia.

– 269 –

197. H. indocilis Walk., Cat. xxvi, 1530 (indocilisaria), Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 97; Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 1891, 623; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 88, pl. ix, 31, 32: boreophilaria Guen., Ent. M. Mag. v. 61.

Christchurch. Common and widely distributed in Australia. Larva probably on Leptospermum.

26. Gargaphia Walk.

Gargaphia Walk., Cat. xxvi, 1634 (1862); type, muriferata Walk.

Face with cone of scales. Antennae in ♂ simple. Palpi rough-scaled. Forewings with hyaline scar on transverse vein; 10 out of 11, sometimes anastomosing shortly with 9.

Having now plenty of material of Drepanodes Guen. (which I consider synonymous with Oxydia Guen.), I consider the present genus distinct from it by the hyaline scar and neuration of forewings; but I have a species from Venezuela which I should include with the present genus.

198. G. muriferata Walk., Cat. xxvi, 1635; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 107; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 91, pl. x, 7–12: ephyraria Walk., Cat. xxvi, 1761: cookaria Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxiii, 26: haastiaria ib. 32.

North, South, and Stewart Islands.

199. G. neoselena Meyr., Subantarct. Isl. N.Z. 1, 70, pl. ii, 13.

Auckland Island. Apparently attached to Polypodium Billardieri.

27. Azelina Guen.

Azelina Guen., Lep. ix, 156 (1857); type, lustraria Guen. Polygonia Guen., Ent. M. Mag. v, 41 (1868) (praeocc.); type, fortinata Guen. Gonophylla Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xviii, 184 (1886); type, nelsonaria Feld.

Face with projecting hairs. Antennae in ♂ thick, simple. Palpi rather long, rough-scaled. Thorax and femora hairy beneath. Forewings: 10 sometimes shortly anastomosing with 9, 11 separate.

A South American genus of considerable extent, with which (having acquired copious material) I find the New Zealand species entirely concordant; but it may be added that there are also other nearly related South American forms which show considerably diversified structure.

200. A. ophiopa Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1897, 387; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 93, pl. x, 26–28.

Ohakune, Wellington, Motueka. Larva on Dicksonia.

201. A. fortinata Guen., Ent. M. Mag. v, 41; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 106; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 93, pl. x, 24, 25: ziczac Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxxii, 4.

Ohakune, Tararua Range, Wellington, Nelson, Mount Arthur, Castle Hill, Akaroa, Invercargill. Larva on Aspidium aculeatum.

202. A. gallaria Walk., Cat. xx, 185; Butl., Cat. N.Z. Lep. pl. iii, 6, 7; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 105; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 92, pl. x, 13–23: palthidata Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxxii, 21, 22.

Ohakune, Palmerston North, Makatoku, Wellington, Christchurch. Dunedin, Stewart Island.

203. A. nelsonaria Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxiii, 3; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 104; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 90, pl. x, 3–6: felix Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 389, pl. xlii, 10.

Wellington, Nelson, Dunedin.

– 270 –

28. Declana Walk.

Declana Walk., Cat. xv, 1649 (1858); type, floccosa. Walk. Ipana ib. 1661; type, leptomera Walk., Argua ib. xxviii, 448 (1863); type, floccosa Walk. Detunda ib. xxxii, 618 (1845); type, atronivea Walk.

Face rough. Antennae in ♂ usually bipectinated, sometimes simple. Palpi rather long, second joint ascending, with long hairs beneath, terminal joint long, slender, clavate, porrected. Thorax densely hairy above and beneath, with more or less developed median crest. Femora densely hairy. Forewings with raised scales; 10 sometimes out of 9, usually anastomosing with 9, 11 seldom out of 10, sometimes anastomosing with 10.

Endemic. The genus is very well characterized, and differs from all others known to me by the peculiar palpi; it therefore becomes unnecessary and undesirable to subdivide it.

Section A.—Antennae in ♂ simple.

204. D. leptomera Walk., Cat. xv, 1662; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 94, pl. x, 29–31: crassitibia Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cix, 10.

Wellington. Larva on Leptospermum.

205. D. griseata Huds., N.Z. Moths, 98, pl. x, 32.

Wellington, Lake Wakatipu.

206. D. niveata Butl., Cist. Ent. 2, 500; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 104; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 98.

Dunedin.

Section B.—Antennae in ♂ bipectinated.

207. D. floccosa Walk., Cat. xv, 1649; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 102; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 96, pl. x, 39–47: scabra Walk., Cat. xxviii, 448. feredayi Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 398, pl. xliii, 5: nigro-sparsa Butl., Cist. Ent. 2, 500.

Whangarei, Taranaki, Ohakune, Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin. Larva on Leptospermum ericoides and Aristotelia racemosa.

208. D. sinuosa Philp., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xlvii, 197.

Orepuki, Queenstown, Hunter Mountains.

209. D. hermione Huds., N.Z. Moths, 98, pl. x, 36.

Wellington, Orepuki.

210. D. junctilinea Walk., Cat. xxxii, 643; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 98, pl. x, 37, 38: verrucosa Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxxi, 22.

Wellington, Blenheim, Lake Wakatipu.

211. D. glacialis Huds., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxxv, 245, pl. xxx, 2.

Mount Arthur, Arthur's Pass, Mount Cook, Lake Wakatipu.

212. D. atronivea Walk., Cat. xxxii, 619; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 101; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 95, pl. x, 33, 34: manixfera Fer., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xii, 268, pl. ix, 1.

Napier, Otaki, Ohakune, Wellington. Larva on Panax arboreum.

213. D. egregia Feld., Reis. Nov. pl. cxxxi, 24; Fer., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xii, 268, pl. ix, 2; Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvi, 101; Huds. N.Z. Moths, 96, pl. x, 35.

Nelson, Christchurch, Akaroa, Otira Gorge, Orepuki, Stewart Island. Larva on Panax.

– 271 –

5. Sphingidae.

Antennae thickened towards middle or posteriorly, in ♂ ciliated with partial whorls. Thorax and femora densely hairy beneath. Forewings: 6 out of 8, 9 absent. Hindwings: 5 parallel to 4, 6 and 7 connate or stalked, 8 connected by oblique bar with margin of cell before middle, more or less approximated to 7 near beyond cell.

A numerous family of wide distribution, but in New Zealand only represented by two immigrants.

29. Deilephila Ochs.

Deilephila Ochs., Schmett. Eur. iv, 42 (1816); type, lineata Fabr. Choerocampa Dup., Lep. Fr. Suppl. ii, 159 (1835).

Tongue strongly developed. Antennae less than ½, gradually thickened to near apex, then pointed, apex slender, hooked. Abdomen smooth, broad, conical, pointed. Tibiae with appressed scales.

A large nearly cosmopolitan genus, chiefly in warm regions.

214. D. celerio Linn., Syst. Nat. 1, 491 (1758).

Titahi Bay (Wellington), Nelson; several specimens. Throughout Old World; common in Australia, whence it probably immigrated. Larva on grape-vine (Vitis).

30. Sphinx Linn.

Sphinx Linn., Syst. Nat. 1, 489 (1758).

Characters of Deilephila, but thorax with low double posterior crest. A moderate cosmopolitan genus.

215. S. convolvuli Linn., Syst. Nat. 1, 490; Huds., N.Z. Moths, 99, pl. xiii, 1: roseofasciata Koch, Ind. Austr. Lep. 54: distans Butl., Cat. N.Z. Lep. 4, pl. ii, 11.

Rather common north of Napier, rare southwards; a cosmopolitan species. Larva on Convolvulus.

Index Of Genera.
Adeixis Wari. 20
Anachloris Meyr. 7
Arctesthes Meyr. 16
Argua Walk. 28
Asaphodes Meyr. 11
Asthena Hubn. 8
Aulopola Meyr. 10
Azelina Guen. 27
Cacopsodos Butl. 21
Cephalissa Meyr. 7
Chalastia Walk. 23
Chloroclystis Hubn. 5
Choerocampa Dup. 29
Dasyuris Guen. 15
Declana Walk. 28
Deilephila Ochs. 29
Detunda Walk. 28
Dichromodes Guen. 21
Elvia Walk. 2
Epicyme Meyr. 9
Epiphryne Meyr. 10
Epirrhanthis Hubn. 22
Epyaxa Meyr. 13
Euchoeca Hubn. 9
Eucymatoge Hubn. 6
Gargaphia Walk. 26
Gelonia Meyr. 23
Gonophylla Meyr. 27
Helastia Guen. 13
Homodotis Meyr. 11
Hybernia Latr. 25
Hydriomena Hubn. 7
Ipana Walk. 28
Leptomeris Hubn. 17
Lyrcea Walk. 22
Lythria Hubn. 16
Meyrickia Butl. 23
Microdes Guen. 3
Notoreas Meyr. 14
Pancyma Meyr. 10
Paradetis Meyr. 12
Paragyrtis Meyr. 20
Pasiphila Meyr. 5
Phrissogonus Butl. 4
Polygonia Guen. 27
Probolaea Meyr. 11
Pseudocoremia Butl. 23
Samana Walk. 18
Selidosema Hübn. 23
Sestra Walk. 24
Sphinx Linn. 30
Stathmonyma Meyr. 15
Tatosoma Butl. 1
Theoxena Meyr. 19
Venusia Curt. 10
Xanthorhoe Hübn. 13
Xynonia Prout. 22
Xyridacma Meyr. 22
Surmising Walk. 25
Zylobara Butl. 23
– 272 –
Index Of Species.
abrogata Walk. 67
absconditaria Walk. 125
achroiaria Feld. 171
acidaliaria Walk. 160
acutata Butl. 161
adonata Feld. 86
adonis Huds. 103
aegrota Butl. 117
aggregata Walk. 54
agrionata Huds. 2
agrionata Meyr. 7
agrionata Walk. 3
albifasciata Philp. 183
albilineata Philp. 118
alectoraria Walk. 171
alta Philp. 4
anceps Butl. 147
anguligera Butl. 43
antarctica Huds. 23
anthracias Meyr. 133
antipodaria Feld. 193
apicipallida Prout. 4
aquosata Feld. 19
ardularia Guen. 77
arenacea Butl. 193
arenosa Howes 41
argentaria Philp. 190
arida Butl. 50
aristarcha Meyr. 173
aristias Meyr. 28
assata Feld. 68
astrapia Meyr. 189
atmogramma Meyr. 134
atronivea Walk. 212
attracta Walk. 194
attributa Walk. 160
beata Butl. 102
benedicta Meyr. 101
bilineolata Huds. 19
bilineolata Walk. 23
bisignata Walk. 54
boreophilaria Guen. 197
brephos Walk. 143
bryopis Meyr. 98
bulbulata Guen. 79
calida Butl. 26
callichlora Butl. 49
callicrena Meyr. 152
camelias Meyr. 92
canata Walk. 12
caprimulgata Feld. 194
casta Butl. 53
cataphracta Meyr. 110
catapyrrha Butl. 157
catocalaria Guen. 143
cedrinodes Meyr. 94
celerio Linn. 214
chaotica Meyr. 50
charidema Meyr. 63
charybdis Butl. 26
chionogramma Meyr. 93
chlamydota Meyr. 72
chlorias Meyr. 112
chorica Meyr. 104
chrysopeda Meyr. 159
cidariaria Guen. 19
cinerascens Feld. 172
cinerearia Doubl. 86
cinerearia Huds. 89
cinnabaris Howes 78
citrinata Warr. 64
clarata Walk. 108
collectaria Walk. 2
congregata Walk. 54
congressata Walk. 54
conversata Walk. 54
convolvuli Linn. 215
cookaria Feld. 198
corcularia Guen. 89
cosmodora Meyr. 97
cotinaea Meyr. 25
crassitibia Feld. 204
cremnopa Meyr. 176
cymosema Meyr. 70
cymozeucta Meyr. 105
cynica Meyr. 167
declarata Prout 109
dejectaria Walk. 194
delicatulata Guen. 76
deltoidata Walk. 54
denotatus Walk. 13
descriptata Walk. 54
desiccata Butl. 193
diffusaria Walk. 86
dionysias Meyr. 116
dissimilis Philp. 61
dissociata Walk. 89
distans Butl. 215
donovani Feld. 9
dryas Meyr. 27
egregia Feld. 213
encausta Meyr. 195
enysii Butl. 148
ephyraria Walk. 198
epicryptis Meyr. 10
erebinata Walk. 194
erratica Philp. 31
euboliaria Walk. 56
euclidiata Huds. 157
eupitheciaria Guen. 86
exoriens Prout 119
exprompta Walk. 194
falcata Butl. 91
falcatella Walk. 162
farinata Warr. 87
fascialata Philp. 177
fasciata Philp. 6
felix Butl. 203
fenerata Feld. 191
feredayi Butl. 207
ferox Butl. 142
figilinaria Guen. 160
flexata Huds. 196
flexata Walk. 195
floccosa Walk. 207
fortinata Guen. 201
fragosata Feld. 178
frivola Meyr. 113
fulminea Philp. 150
fulva Huds 156
furva Philp. 29
fuscinata Guen. 56
fusiplagiata Walk. 195
gallaria Walk. 202
glacialis Huds. 211
glaucata Walk. 9
gobiata Feld. 42
gobiata Huds. 43
griseata Huds. 205
griseata Huds. 164
gypsotis Meyr. 169
haastiaria Feld. 198
halianthes Meyr. 33
hectori Butl. 146
helias Meyr. 114
hemipteraria Guen. 170
hemizona Meyr. 51
hermione Huds. 209
hexaleuca Meyr. 153
homalocyma Meyr. 83
homomorpha Meyr. 148
humeraria Huds. 195
humeraria Meyr. 69
humeraria Walk. 196
humillima Huds. 188
ida Huds. 165
imperfecta Philp. 120
inamoenaria Guen. 77
inclarata Walk. 54
inclinataria Walk. 3
indicataria Walk. 15
indistincta Butl. 184
indocilis Walk. 197
inductata Walk. 14
infantaria Guen. 86
infusata Walk. 86
inoperata Walk. 86
inopiata Feld. 54
inostentata Walk. 164
insignata Warr. 164
insignis Butl. 130
interclusa Walk. 11
invexata Walk. 86
ischnocyma Meyr. 138
isoleuca Huds. 138
isoleuca Meyr. 136
junctilinea Walk. 210
lactiflua Meyr. 179
lacustris Meyr. 22
laticostatus Walk. 12
leptomera Walk. 204
lestevata Walk. 1
leucelaea Meyr. 182
leucobathra Meyr. 155
lichenodes Purd. 36
lignosata Walk. 194
limonodes Meyr. 100
lithuiga Meyr. 57
lophogramma Meyr. 73
lucidata Huds. 82
lucidata Walk. 81
luminosa Philp. 35
lunata Philp. 24
lupinata Feld. 188
lupinata Meyr. 186
– 273 –
lutea Philp. 187
maculata Huds. 37
maculosa Howes 181
magnimaculata Philp. 34
malachita Meyr. 35
manxifera Fer. 212
maoriata Feld. 194
mechanitis Meyr. 135
megaspilata Walk. 68
melinata Feld. 184
melochlora Meyr. 18
menanaria Walk. 193
minima Huds 39
mistata Walk. 3
mixtaria Walk. 11
mnesichola Meyr. 126
modesta Philp. 32
monacha Huds. 175
monoliata Feld. 54
mullata Guen. 60
muriferata Walk. 198
muscosata Walk. 19
nehata Feld. 68
nelsonaria Feld. 203
neoselena Meyr. 199
nephelias Meyr. 123
nereis Meyr. 40
niger Meyr. 169
nigra Butl. 168
nigrosparsa Butl. 207
niphocrena Meyr. 140
niveata Butl. 206
obarata Feld. 106
obtruncata Walk. 196
obtusaria Walk. 196
occulta Philp. 127
ochrea Howes 185
officiosa Meyr. 52
ombrodes Meyr. 192
omichlias Meyr. 145
ondinata Guen. 59
ophiopa Meyr. 200
opipara Philp. 132
oraria Philp. 121
orophyla Meyr. 75
orophyloides Huds. 74
orphnaea Meyr. 131
oxyptera Huds. 124
palthidata Feld. 202
panagrata Walk. 193
pannularia Guen. 194
paradelpha Meyr. 137
paralodes Meyr. 20
parora Meyr. 69
partheniata Guen. 149
parvulata Walk. 13
pastinaria Guen. 54
patularia Walk. 194
pelurgata Walk. 172
perductata Walk. 54
periphaea Meyr. 90
perornata Walk. 139
perversata Feld. 54
petrina Meyr. 166
petropola Meyr. 96
plagifuscata Walk. 54
plinthina Huds. 16
plinthina Meyr. 17
plumbea Philp. 88
plurilineata Walk. 59
plurimata Walk. 81
porphyrias Meyr. 71
practica Meyr. 80
praefectata Walk. 125
prasinias Meyr. 99
princeps Huds. 112
prionota Meyr. 55
productata Huds. 182
productata Walk. 178
prymnaea Meyr. 107
psamathodes Meyr. 82
pulchraria Doubl. 59
pulchraria Walk. 60
punctilineata Walk. 89
pungata Feld. 177
purpurifera Fer. 46
pyramaria Guen. 108
quadristrigata Walk. 11
ranata Feld. 1
recta Philp. 115
rectilineata Huds. 11
repletaria Walk. 160
responsata Walk. 53
risata Guen. 60
rivularis Butl. 42
rixata Feld. 47
rosearia Doubl. 77
roseofasciata Koch. 215
rubella Philp. 30
rubraria Doubl. 160
rubropunctaria Doubl. 60
rudiata Walk. 189
rufescens Butl. 70
rufulitincta Prout. 33
sandycias Meyr. 16
scabra Walk. 207
scariphota Meyr. 174
schistaria Walk. 58
scissaria Guen. 163
scriptaria Walk. 194
semialbata Walk. 15
semifissata Walk. 76
semisignata Walk. 89
sericodes Meyr. 122
servularia Guen. 67
similata Walk. 48
similisata Walk. 89
simplex Huds. 141
simulans Butl. 42
simulans Huds. 165
sinuosa Philp. 208
siria Meyr. 44
siris Hawth. 45
siris Huds. 158
sphaeriata Feld. 166
sphragitis Meyr. 38
squalida Butl. 47
stephanitis Meyr. 66
stigmaticata Walk. 194
stinaria Guen. 128
strangulata Guen. 56
strategica Meyr. 151
streptophora Meyr. 172
stricta Philp. 111
suavis Butl. 186
subductata Walk. 84
subitata Walk. 14
subobscurata Walk. 96
subochraria Doubl. 56
subpurpureata Walk. 58
subrectaria Guen. 53
subtentaria Walk. 125
sulpitiata Feld. 194
suppressaria Walk. 85
synclinalis Huds. 129
terrena Philp. 180
timarata Feld. 48
timora Meyr. 7
tipulata Walk. 2
topia Philp. 8
toriata Feld. 11
transaurea Howes. 154
transitaria Walk. 5
triphragma Meyr. 45
tuhuata Feld. 58
umbrosa Philp. 95
undosata Feld. 64
undulata Philp. 74
unduligera Butl. 42
usitata Butl. 186
ustaria Walk. 171
varians Butl. 171
venipunctata Walk. 82
verriculata Feld. 62
verrucosa Feld. 210
villosata Guen. 11
vulcanica Meyr. 144
xanthaspis Meyr. 65
ypsilonaria Guen. 76
zatricha Meyr. 21
ziczac Feld. 201
zopyra Meyr. 143