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Volume 49, 1916
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Art. XXXVII.—The Wangaloa Beds.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 5th December, 1916; received by Editors, 30th December, 1916, issued separately, 7th December, 1917]


In a paper dealing with the relations that exist between the Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks, published in the last volume of the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, a list was given of the species of mollusca that had been found in the beds at Wangaloa (p. 114). Further collections have lately been made in the same beds, and these have added a few other species, and have also revealed better specimens of some of the species that had been previously found. Since this formation contains species of mollusca that suggest quite different geological ages, it has been thought advisable to write a fuller paper, giving descriptions of the species that are considered new, as well as illustrations of them.

I am indebted to many people for assistance in collecting and classifying the fossils—in particular to Mr. H Suter, whose extensive knowledge of Recent and Tertiary species of New Zealand mollusca was liberally placed at my disposal. Much assistance was also given by the authorities of the National Museum at Melbourne. Mr. C. T. Trechmann also rendered me some aid. I am much indebted to Dr. T. W Stanton, of the United States Geological Survey, for the comparison of some of the species with typical members of the Californian fossil mollusca. Several people have also given me much assistance in collecting.

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The following list represents the results that have been obtained up to the present time, but it is certain that many additions will yet be made as the result of further collecting. It is, however, unfortunately the fact that it is hard to extract the fossils in a satisfactory state of preservation from the resistant matrix in which they are embedded: Nucleopsis major n sp, A semispiralis n. sp, A. subovalis n. sp., Ampullina spiralis n. sp., Architectonica inornata n. sp., Avellana curta Marshall, A. paucistriata Marshall, Chione sp., Cominella sublurida n. sp., Corbula zelandica Q. & G., Cucullaea alta Sowerby, Cylichnella enysi Hutton, Daphnella multicincta n sp., D. ovata n sp., Dentalium mantelli Zittel, D. pareoraense Suter, Dosinia greyi Zittel, Drillia awamoaensis Hutton, Epitonium parvicostata n sp., E. simplex n. sp., Gibbula n. sp. (near G. strangei A. Ad.), Glycymeris convexa n. sp, Haminea cingulata n sp., Heliacus conicus n. sp., Heteroterma zelandica n. sp., Latirus (Mazzalina) longirostris n. sp., Tudicula sulcata n. sp, Limopis aurita Brocchi, Mactra crassa Hutton?, Malletia elongata n. sp., Minolia sp., Natica australis Hutton, Niso neozelanica Suter, Nucula sagittata Suter, Omalaxis planus n. sp., Panopea orbita Hutton, Perissolax obtusa n. sp., Phos conicus n. sp., P. ordinarius n. sp., Polinices gibbosus Hutton, Protocardia pulchella Gray, Pugnellus australis Marshall, Pupa n. sp., Roxania n. sp, Siphonalia compacta Suter?, Struthiolaria frazeri Hutton, S. minor n. sp., S. (Pelicaria) n. sp., Surcula fusiformis Hutton, Teredo heaphyi Zittel, Turris multicincta n. sp., T. striatus n. sp., T. sp. ind., Turritella semiconcava Suter, T. symmetrica Hutton, Venericardia difficilis Desh, V patagonica Sowerby, V. zelandica Desh.?

Scala (Epitonium) parvicostata n. sp. (Plate XXXIV, fig. 3.)

Shell of moderate size, 20 mm. by 7 mm., elongated and turreted. Sculpture consisting of numerous low axial ribs extending from suture to suture in each whorl. About 22 axial ribs in each whorl: these are crossed by about 20 spiral striae: these striae are continued on the base. Spire elongated; 5 whorls only showing in the specimen; whorls convex and suture deeply impressed. Aperture suborbicular. Umbilicus covered with a growth of the peristome.

One specimen only, in a moderate condition of preservation. Type in the Otago Museum.

This specimen was doubtfully classed by Suter as Bittium.

Scala (Epitonium) simplex n. sp. (Plate XXXIV, figs. 1, 2.)

Shell small, 12 mm by 4 mm., turreted. Sculpture consisting of numerous broad rounded axial ribs: these are continuous over the whorls, and there are about 18 on each whorl. Spiral lines about 5 on each whorl, crossing the costae and interstices without interruption; the spiral lines are much more numerous on the body-whorl. Spire of 7 whorls, each whorl strongly convex. Suture deeply impressed. Aperture suborbicular; peristome thick on the inner lip. Protoconch of 3 smooth whorls.

This species was provisionally classed by Suter as Cerithiopsis, but more perfect specimens showing the aperture cause me to place it here.

The genus extends from the Jurassic to the present day.

Struthiolaria minor n. sp. (Plate XXXIV, figs. 12, 13.)

Shell small, 18 mm by 10 mm, oblong in shape with a subtruncate base. Sculpture consisting of vertical costae and spiral grooves. Costae 16 cm each whorl, extending almost from suture to suture, and bent slightly

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backwards into a shallow crescent. Spiral threads sharp, 10 in the penultimate whorl, 8 in the whorl above it; the threads pass over the costae without any interruption. Body-whorl with a large shallow groove in the middle, thus forming two carinae; the costae stop at the upper end of this groove, but the spiral threads are continuous to the end of the canal. Spire of 5 whorls, each shouldered; suture impressed but not canaliculate. Aperture with a thick inner lip, the callosity covering part of the base.

Several specimens, in a moderate state of preservation. Type in the Otago Museum.

In size this species closely resembles S. parva of Hutton, but it is more elongated and the costae and spiral bands are more distinct. The genus Struthiolaria occurs in the Tertiary formations of Chile and Patagonia, but the age of these is uncertain. Wilckens regards them as Miocene. In the Cretaceous of those countries Struthiolariopsis occurs, but this genus is not admitted by Cossmann.

Struthiolaria (Pelicaria) sp.

A large specimen, 52 mm by 45 mm. Shell nodulous and turreted with three carinae on the body-whorl. A very large callosity extends to the top of the spire. Not well enough preserved for a full description.

Ampullina spiralis n. sp. (Plate XXXIV, fig. 17.)

Shell of moderate size, 25 mm. by 20 mm., a larger specimen 25 mm. wide. Shell subglobose, striated Sculpture consisting of somewhat shallow spiral grooves with intervening flat ridges of irregular width; lines of growth numerous and thin, with an occasional thick one; a strong spiral groove just below the suture. Spire low, conoidal, consisting of 4 convex whorls. Body-whorls large in proportion, suture slightly impressed. Aperture nearly vertical, semilunar, outer lip thin; inner lip with some callus. Umbilicus distinct.

Three specemens, in moderate state of preservation. Type in the Otago Museum.

Suter remarks that this genus occurs in the Tertiary.

Architectonica inornata n. sp. (Plate XXXIV, fig. 9.)

Length, 6 mm. width, 13 mm.

Shell subdiscoidal. Whorls spirally unisulcate near the suture. Lines of growth conspicuous. Body-whorl with a prominent carina. One spiral ridge on the base a quarter of the distance from the carina to the umbilicus; 2 small spiral ridges above the carina; 2 others and a large rounded rib near the suture; the intervening distance between the upper and lower ridges with very fine spiral lines. Suture distinct but not strongly marked. Lines of growth numerous and distinct all over the body-whorl. Umbilicus large, its border much crenulated.

One specimen only. Type in the Otago Museum.

Architectonica is said by Suter to occur in the Tertiary. Cossmann, who uses Lamarck's name Solarium for this genus, mentions the occurrence of two doubtful species from the Eocene, one from the Oligocene, and a number from the Pliocene and subsequent periods.*

[Footnote] * Ess. de Conch. comp., 1915, p. 165.

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Figs 1, 2.—Epitonium simplex n. sp.
Fig 3.—Epitonium, parvicostata n. sp.
Figs 4, 5.—Turritella symmetrica Hutton.
Fig 6.—Turritella semiconcava Suter.
Figs 7, 8.—Gibbula n. sp.
Fig 9.—Architectonica inornata n. sp.
Fig 10.—Heliacus conicus n. sp.
Fig 11.—Omalaxis planus n. sp.
Figs 12, 13.—Struthiolaria minor n. sp.
Figs 14, 15.—Natica australis Hutton
Fig 16.—Polinices gibbosus Hutton
Fig 17.—Ampullina spiralis n. sp.
Fig 18.—Latirus (Mazzalina) longirostris n. sp.

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Fig 19.—Tudicula sulcata n. sp.
Fig 20.—Heteroterma zelandica n. sp.
Fig 21.—Heteroterma zelandica n. sp.
Fig 22.—Perissolax obtusa n. sp.
Figs 23.—Perissolax obtusa n. sp.
Figs 24, 25.—Phos ordinarius n. sp.
Figs 26, 27.—Phos conica n. sp.
Figs 28, 29.—Daphnella ovata n. sp.
Fig 30.—Daphnella multicincta n. sp.
Fig 31.—Turris striatus n. sp.
Fig 32.—Turris multicinctus n. sp.

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Heliacus conicus n. sp. (Plate XXXIV, fig. 10.)

Shell small, conical, 7 mm. by 7 mm. Sculpture consisting primarily of 3 prominent cinguli on each whorl: the highest is close to the suture, and is distinctly beaded; the middle cingulus is the widest, but it is less distinctly beaded; there are 4 or 5 other cinguli less marked and less beaded. Base with numerous cinguli cut up by fine oblique radiate sulci. Umbilicus moderate, margined by a stout and crenulate cord. Spire moderate, conical, higher than the aperture. Outline of whorls convex, suture impressed. Whorls 5. Protoconch of 2 small whorls. Aperture not distinct.

One specimen only, in a good state of preservation. Type in the Otago Museum.

Two fossil species of this genus have hitherto been found in New Zealand. They occur in the Target Gully beds, near Oamaru, and the genus is also Recent. Suter states that the genus is of Tertiary occurrence.

Omalaxis planus n. sp. (Plate XXXIV, fig. 11.)

Shell discoid, small, 10 mm. by 3 mm. Spire of 5 whorls, almost flat, but body-whorl slightly concave. Suture much impressed, almost canaliculate. Upper whorls with a smooth surface; body-whorl with 2 moderate carinae round the periphery. A strongly beaded line surrounds the suture. From the beads small elevated lines with a curved form extend across the greater part of the body-whorl. Umbilicus large, surrounded by a prominent crenulated margin.

A single specimen, well preserved. Type in the Otago Museum.

Omalaxis has not previously been obtained in the fossil state in New Zealand. The genus appears to be restricted to the Tertiary period.

Heteroterma zelandica n. sp. (Plate XXXV, figs. 20, 21.)

Small complete specimen, 15 mm. by 8 mm.; larger specimen, nearly complete, 24 mm. by 17 mm.; large specimen, 44 mm. broad. Shell large, shortly fusiform. Spire very short. Each whorl with spiral ridges; those on the whorl next to the body-whorl 7 in number; interspaces about three times as wide as the ridges, with a faint discontinuous median ridge. Body-whorl large, somewhat angulated above the middle, abruptly contracted into the beak below; shape above the middle slightly concave; surface marked by fine lines of growth and with 10 large spiral ridges one-third the width of the interspaces, which have a fine median ridge; middle of body-whorl with 14 short prominent longitudinal plications; base of the shell and the beak marked with spiral lines similar to those on the rest of the body-whorl. Anterior canal long; the curved lines of growth indicate a shallow posterior sinus of the aperture.

In the list of the Wangaloa mollusca published last year this species was classed by Suter as Euthriofusus n. sp. (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 48, p. 115). The great similarity between these specimens and those of Heteroterma gabbi, described and figured by Stanton (17th Ann. Rep. U.S. Geol. Surv., 1895–96, Part I, p. 1046), caused me to forward my specimens to him with the request that he would compare them with the Californian species. This he has kindly done, and he has sent me some critical notes of great value, which it is advisable to quote:—

“After comparing the specimens I agree with you that your fossils are similar to Heteroterma gabbi Stanton, though I think there can be no question that they are specifically distinct. I would comment on them as follows:

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Has almost exactly the same form as H. gabbi, and the same general type of sculpture, but the spiral lines are much more numerous and more nearly of uniform size over the entire surface. While specifically distinct, it seems to me certainly congeneric with H. gabbi and H. trochoidea, the latter being the type of the genus Heteroterma, which Gabb described in Palaeontology of California, vol. 2, p. 151, 1869. This genus seems to me to have escaped mention in the manuals and text-books, and so far as I know has had no authoritative treatment since the time of Gabb, who referred it to the Pleurotomidae.”

Cossmann remarks on this genus (Essais de Paléoconchologie comparée, 4e livraison, p. 69), “Peut-être est ce dans ce dernier Genre (Tudicula) qu'il y a lieu de placer Heteroterma Gabb qui, ainsi que J'ai indiqué dans le 3e livraison de ces Essais ne paraît pas bien classé dans la famille Pleurotomidae. La coquille a une forme de Tudicula mais l'auteur indique l'existence d'une échrancure à la suture. En definitive cette question demande à être revisée”. Cossmann* also places Pyropsis Conrad in this genus Tudicula Species of Pyropsis are mentioned by Wilckens from the Quiriquina beds of Chile and from south Patagonia. Wilckens lays emphasis on the Cretaceous age of this genus. I am informed by Dr Stanton that Heteroterma gabbi comes from the Martinez beds, which constitute the oldest Eocene formation of California.

Four specimens. Type in the Otago Museum.

Perissolax obtusa n. sp. (Plate XXXV, figs. 22, 23.)

Small complete specimen, 17 mm. by 8 mm, another specimen, nearly complete, 55 mm. by 30 mm. Shell of moderate size, with four rapidly increasing whorls somewhat shouldered. Upper whorls nearly smooth, though the last whorl is ornamented with rounded tubercles, about 12 to the whorl. Body-whorl large, with 3 distinct carinae, each of which bears a row of rounded tubercles—the upper 9, the middle 11, and the lowest 13 in number: those on the anterior carina are smaller than the others. Thus the tubercles do not occur in distinct vertical rows, as they frequently do in this genus. Suture markedly undulating. Spire with no ornamentation other than the tubercles. Body-whorl with a number of spiral lines: 12 of these lie between the suture and the upper row of tubercles, 13 between the first two rows, and 8 lines between the second and third rows of tubercles: these spiral lines are continued on the side of the anterior canal, where they become larger and somewhat more oblique. Canal moderately long and slightly bent inwards in the middle.

Type in the Otago Museum.

In the list of the Wangaloa fauna that was published last year this species was classed under Euthriofusus n sp, but as it was apparent that there was an extremely close relationship between this species and Perissolax brevirostris Gabb a specimen was sent to Dr. Stanton. He has been good enough to examine the specimen, and has sent me the following critical remarks —

“This species is apparently congeneric with Perissolax brevirostris Gabb, which it resembles in general form and style of sculpture, but it is somewhat shorter, and differs in all details of sculpture. The spiral lines are

[Footnote] * In a letter just received Cossmann says, “J'ai examiné Heteroterma qui me semble bien déterminé génériquement.”

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more numerous and more nearly equal, and the tubercles are relatively larger, borne on more widely separated spiral carinae, and are not arranged on definite vertical costae. The canal in both this species and P. brevirostris is shorter than in typical forms of Perissolax. Fischer treats Perissolax as a subgenus under Tudicula.”

Dr. Stanton further says that P. brevirostris is found in the Chico formation, of Cretaceous age, and this is separated by an unconformity from the Martinez formation, of Lowest Eocene age, in which Heteroterma gabbi is found.

Cossmann says of the genus Perissolax (loc. cit., p. 72), “Bien que je sois persuadé que ce sous-genre est bien réalité identique à Pyropsis—c'est a dire, à Tudicula—et que les differences signalées sont due à l'état de conservation de ces fossiles crétaciques, je conserve provisoirement Perissolax, qui ne m'est connu que par des figures, probablement inexactes ou restaurées d'après les moules ou des contre-empreintes.”*

Tudicula sulcata n. sp. (Plate XXXV, fig. 19.)

Shell small, 17 mm by 7 mm. Shell piroidal with a short spire. The whorls of the spire are almost flat, with impressed sutures but without distinct scuplture. Body-whorl large, with a large anterior canal longer than the spire. Carina with a prominent ridge, with a somewhat smaller one on either side. Five smaller spiral ridges between these and the suture. Other similar but smaller ridges on the anterior canal. Outer lip thin. Inner lip with a thin callus.

Several specimens, but only one of them shows the beak complete. Type in the Otago Museum.

This species was first placed by Mr Suter in the genus Latirus (Mazzalina), but a more perfect specimen caused him to classify it with Tudicula.

Latirus (Mazzalina) longirostris n. sp. (Plate XXXIV, fig. 18.)

Shell small, 8 mm. by 5 mm., piroidal with a long anterior canal. Spire short, consisting of 4 whorls, which have a smooth surface. Suture distinct, impressed. Body-whorl large, marked with 10 prominent spiral striae about as broad as the intervening grooves; similar striations extend to the end of the anterior canal, which is long and straight. Outer lip thin. Inner lip covered with a thin callus.

Several specimens, in moderate condition. Type in the Otago Museum.

The genus extends from the Cretaceous to the present day. I am indebted to Mr. Suter for the reference of this species to the genus. Better specimens, however, make it probable that a change will have to be made.

Cominella sublurida n. sp. (Plate XXXVI, fig. 33.)

Shell moderate size, 26 mm. high and 13 mm. wide. Shape ovate, spirally lirate and axially costate. Sculpture consisting of flat spiral lirae of unequal size with linear interspaces. Axial costae present on all the whorls, extending from the angle of the shoulder to the suture-line in front, but

[Footnote] * Cossmann in a letter makes the same remark on this species as on Heteroterma zelandica. In a recent publication Roy E Dickerson records species of Perissolax from the Martinez (Lower Eocene) and from the Tejon (Upper Eocene) of California. (R. E. Dickerson, Fauna of the Martinez Eocene of California, Bull. Dep. Geol. Univ. Cal., vol. 8, No. 6, 1914, p. 110; Stratigraphy and Fauna of the Tejon Eocene of California, Bull. Dep Geol Univ. Cal., vol 9, No. 17, 1916, p. 451.)

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nearly effaced on the upper part of each whorl. Spire elevated, conical, about equal in height to the length of the aperture Whorls 5; outlines slightly convex, but slightly concave above the angle of each whorl. Suture distinct. Aperture subvertical, oval.

One specimen. Type in the Otago Museum.

This species closely resembles the Recent species C. lurida, but its costae continue farther forward and are less numerous—9 in a whorl in place of 12.

Cossmann records no species from any horizon below the Palaeocene, but Wilckens describes a species from the Upper Cretaceous of south Patagonia.

Phos ordinarius n. sp. (Plate XXXV, figs. 24, 25.)

Shell of moderate size, 17 mm. by 7 mm, turriculate, axially costate and spirally striate. Spire of 4 whorls, each strongly convex, and show costae and striae. The costae are continuous from suture to suture, but they are far more pronounced near the middle of each whorl than near either septum. Eighteen costae on the body-whorl; costae crossed by numerous spiral threads about as wide as the intervals between them. Spire longer than aperture. Suture not deep. Aperture slightly oblique, with a short broad canal which is turned slightly to the left Columella with a slight anterior fold.

Suter remarks that this species closely resembles P. tenuicostatus Ten.-Woods, which is a Recent species.

The genus Phos has a wide distribution. It appears to be restricted to the Tertiary. Cossmann mentions a Tasmanian species from the Eocene, but according to the latest researches the actual horizon seems to correspond with the Oligocene. In Europe the genus makes its first appearance in the Eocene.

Several specimens. Type in the Otago Museum.

Phos conica n. sp. (Plate XXXV, figs. 26, 27.)

Shell small, 10 mm. by 5 mm., oval, vertically costate and spirally lirate Costae not prominent; about 17 on each whorl, extending from the anterior suture of each whorl almost to the posterior one. Spiral ribs rather wider than the grooves and moderately sharp. Seven of the spiral lirae on the penultimate and 18 on the body-whorl. Spire composed of 4 whorls, rather short, conical, but whorls rather convex. Suture impressed. Aperture oval; anterior canal slightly bent to the left.

Several specimens, in a moderately good state of preservation. Type in the Otago Museum.

Turris multicinctus, n. sp. (Plate XXXV, fig 32.)

Shell small, turriculate, nodulous Spire long. Sculpture: a large number of spiral cinguli, amounting to 15 or 20, in the lower whorls; the cinguli are rounded, and about equal in size to the intervening grooves. Nodulous costae 10 in number on each whorl; the size of the costae diminishes at a point about a quarter of the length of the whorl below the upper suture, then greatly increases to the middle of the whorl, and diminishes again to the lower suture. Growth-lines distinct on the body-whorl; they are bent backwards, with the apex of the bend on the nodulous projection of the costae Canal not complete.

One specimen. Type in the Otago Museum.

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Turris striatus n. sp. (Plate XXXV, fig. 31.)

Shell of moderate size, 20 mm. high, 11 mm. wide. Spire with 4 whorls, each with a prominent carina near the posterior border, giving the shell a turreted appearance. Each whorl with strong spiral ridges; on the penultimate whorl there are 7 of these behind the carina, and 3 small ones in front of it. The number of spiral lines is less on the upper whorls, and the highest whorl is almost smooth. The strong development of the growth-lines makes these spiral lines appear somewhat tuberculate. Body-whorl with prominent carina and spiral lines make this species quite distinct from other New Zealand Turritidae.

The only Eocene species mentioned by Cossmann comes from South Australia, and this horizon is now generally considered to be of later age. Dickerson has recently reported several species from the Eocene of California.

One specimen. Type in the Otago Museum.

Daphnella multicincta n. sp. (Plate XXXV, fig. 30.)

Shell small, 14 mm. by 5 mm., oval, biconical, distinctly spiralled. Sculpture consisting of blunted spiral ribs rather narrower than the intervening grooves, of which there are 25 on the body-whorl: these are crossed by numerous growth-lines. Whorls 5, gradually decreasing, slightly concave above. On the concave portion the spiral lines are much less distinct than elsewhere. Growth-lines bent backward on the concave portion. Suture well marked.

Several specimens, in good condition. Type in the Otago Museum.

Cossmann records one species from the Loire inférieure, of Eocene age. All other species are recorded from later horizons.

Daphnella ovata n. sp. (Plate XXXV, figs. 28, 29.)

Shell small, 8 mm. by 5 mm., but the majority of specimens are much smaller than this. Form ovate; vertically costate and spirally striate. Costae about 15 on a whorl, extending from suture to suture; the costae on the body-whorl extend to rather below the middle. Spiral striae rather flattened, about as wide as the grooves. There are 5 of these striae on the penultimate whorl, and about 20 on the body-whorl. Growth-lines are not noticeable. The posterior part of each whorl almost destitute of spiral lines. Spire consisting of 5 whorls, each convex, though the backward slope to the suture is slightly concave. Suture very distinct. Aperture oval; canal very short.

Three specimens, well preserved. Type in the Otago Museum.

Acteon semispiralis n. sp. (Plate XXXVI, figs. 35, 36.)

Shell oval, small, 10 mm. by 5 mm. Sculpture of well-formed spiral bands, 3 in number on the lower part of each whorl; on the body-whorl these are 17 in number, but they are absent from the portion between the suture and the rounded shoulder of the whorl. Interstices about the same width as the bands; no axial threads can be distinguished in the interstices. Spire conical, less than half the height of the shell. Whorls 5, each whorl distinctly angled above. Suture deep, canaliculate. Aperture narrowly oval. Columella with a large fold near the top.

Several specimens, fairly well preserved. Type in the Otago Museum.

The genus Acteon extends from the middle Cretaceous to the present day.

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Acteon subovalis n. sp. (Plate XXXVI, fig. 37.)

Shell small, 9 mm by 4 mm, narrowly oval. Sculpture consisting of several rounded spiral bands; interstices narrow except on the body-whorl, where they are as broad as the bands; 5 bands on the penultimate and 20 on the body whorl. The interstices between the spiral bands on the body-whorl are marked by exceedingly small cross-lines: these are somewhat oblique above, but are rectangular to the spiral bands in the middle of the whorl. Spire with 5 whorls. Suture deeply impressed or canaliculated. Columella with a prominent fold near the top.

Three specimens, in an indifferent state of preservation Type in the Otago Museum.

Nucleopsis major n. sp. (Plate XXXVI, fig. 38.)

Shell small, 10 mm. by 7 mm., shortly oval or subturbinate. Sculpture, flat spiral bands with narrow interstices: there are 9 of these on the penultimate and 28 on the body whorl. No transverse striae can be seen in the narrow grooves. Spire short, turriculate, consisting of 5 whorls, each strongly shouldered. Suture canaliculate. Aperture oval; inner lip somewhat thickened, but no fold on the columella. Umbilicus large.

One specimen, in a good state of preservation. Type in the Otago Museum.

This genus has few representatives. This species is placed in it because there are no folds on the columella and the umbilicus is distinct. The genus appears to be restricted to the Eocene. Another shell recently found in this bed belonged to Tornatellaea.

Haminea cingulata n. sp. (Plate XXXVI, fig. 39.)

Shell of moderate size, nearly oval, 18 mm. high, 7 mm. wide. Sculpture consisting of flat grooves, spiral grooves about one-quarter of the width of the intervening flat ridges; the ridges are arranged spirally, about 30 to 35 in number, and are crossed by numerous growth-lines; the grooves become narrower towards the base; there are minor narrow grooves on the flat ridges—3 on the anterior, but decreasing to 1 only on the posterior ridges. Vertex imperforate; lip reflexed. Body-whorl oval, broadly rounded above, convex in the middle, and narrowly rounded below. Aperture as high as the shell, broad above and produced considerably above the vertex, but narrowed somewhat below. Outer lip thin, but thickened near the vertex. Middle nearly straight, slightly convex below.

The genus does not occur in strata below the Miocene.

The genus was kindly identified for me by Mr Suter. The shell is certainly very similar to that of Bulla, and I am by no means satisfied that it is correctly placed.

Several specimens. Type in the Otago Museum.

Malletia elongata n. sp. (Plate XXXVI, fig. 41.)

Shell of moderate size, 28 mm by 13 mm. Form elongated oval with a posterior extension; anterior end shorter than the posterior, dorsal surface slowly descending, then regularly rounded; basal margin rounded; posterior and anterior and dorsal margins of the valvea form a moderate keel. Sculpture consisting of about 40 equidistant rounded concentric ribs, the ribs are close together near the umbones, but farther down they become narrower than the intervening grooves.

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Fig 33.—Cominella sublurida n. sp.
Fig 34.—Surcula fusiformis Hutton
Figs 35, 36.—Acteon semispiralis n. sp.
Fig 37.—Acteon subovalis n. sp.
Fig 38.—Nucleopsis major n. sp.
Fig 39.—Haminea cingulata n. sp.
Fig 40.—Dentalium pareoraense Suter.
Fig 41.—Malletia elongata n. sp.
Fig 42.—Glycymeris concava n. sp.
Figs 43, 44.—Limopsis aurita (juv.) Brocchi.
Fig 45.—Venericardia zelandica Desh.
Fig 46.—Dosinia greyi Zittel.
Fig 47.—Protocardia pulchella Gray.

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Fig 48.—Venericardia patogonica Sowerby. Nat. size.
Fig 49.—Mactra crassa Hutton? Nat. size.
Fig 50.—Panopea orbita Zittel. Nat. size.

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Malletia is commonly regarded as a Tertiary genus, but Wilckens records species from the Cretaceous of Quiriquina, Patagonia, and Seymour Island. Suter quotes von Ihering to the effect that the genus originated in South America in the Cretaceous and migrated to New Zealand in the Miocene.

The specimens are not in very good condition. The species is evidently closely related to M. pencana Wilckens, Phil. of Quiriquina.

Type in the Otago Museum.

Glycymeris concava n. sp. (Plate XXXVI, fig. 42.)

Shell attaining a large size: the largest measures 65 mm. by 65 mm. Shell thick and solid, strongly convex, almost equilateral, convex at both ends; beaks distant, strongly incurved; dorsal margin straight. Sculpture consists of rather sharply rounded radiating ribs, about 40 in number; they are continuous to the margin, but become rounder towards the ventral margin. Teeth somewhat oblique, apparently 10 on each side, 11 in large specimens. Ligamental area moderate, with few grooves. Growth-lines not well marked except near the margin.

Several specimens fairly complete. Type in the Otago Museum.

This species is very similar to an undescribed form from the Selwyn Rapids.

As thus classified the collection is obviously one of great interest. The species of Pugnellus* and of Perissolax suggest that the age of the strata is Senonian, at the latest. Heteroterma, Gilbertia, and Nucleopsis are apparently restricted to the Lowest Eocene. The following genera are entirely of post-Eocene age: Struthiolaria, Ampullina, Architectonica, Heliacus, Omalaxis, Phos, Daphnella, Drilha, Haminea. In addition, Cominella has a single Cretaceous species in South America.

Struthiolaria and Malletia are of special interest, for both are supposed to have originated in South America in late Senonian or early Tertiary time, and to have subsequently migrated to New Zealand. It is now, however, clearly seen that they were in existence in New Zealand before some characteristic Cretaceous species had become extinct. The Cretaceous complexion of these beds is still more strongly maintained by the occurrence of belemnites at Brighton in beds that are admittedly of the same age as those at Wangaloa. Some years ago I sent some specimens of this belemnite to Wilckens for identification. He replied as follows: “I sent the fossils to Professor Stolley, of Brunswick, who has worked much on the belemnites. After examination he says as follows: ‘The little belemnites from New Zealand do not allow of palaeontological nor stratigraphical determination. They belong to Hibolites, and can be from Upper Jurassic or Lower Cretaceous beds. It seems that older and younger beds are excluded.’ Further, I had an opportunity of showing the belemnites to Professor Steinmann, of Bonn, and Professor Holzapfel, of Strassburg, who both said that an exact determination was impossible because of the bad preservation. They regarded it as a similar form to Belemnites minimus of the Chalk” Park had much the same experience with a specimen sent to Bather. Recently further specrmens have been sent to Cossmann, who

[Footnote] * Cossmann now states, “Or, en examinant bien les figures assez fidèles et en aidant des spécimens que leur auteur a bien voulu m'envoyer, je constate que Pugnellus australis appartment très probablement au genre Struthiolaria.” (Rev. Crit. de Palozool., No. 2, 1917, p. 64.)

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kindly informs me that he sent the specimens to the specialist M. Lissajous, who reports, “Les bêlemnites appartiennent au genre Neohibolites Stolley; elles sont assez voisines de N. ewaldi Straubeck, de l'Aptien, et appartiennent probablement au même niveau (c'est à dire, crétacé inférieure).”

Still further support for the Cretaceous age of these lower beds is found at Chatton, where Mr. R. A. Sutherland, M.Sc., has found a species of Nerinaea in a sandstone associated with the coal-beds. In that locality, as at Wangaloa, the Cretaceous genus is associated with a high proportion of well-known New Zealand Miocene species, some of which extend to the Recent fauna. Further, as stated elsewhere in this volume, at Hampden, eighty miles farther north, in beds rather higher in this series, there are again the Cretaceous genera Trigonia, Avellana, Dicroloma, or some other apporhaid, and Volutoderma.

This belemnite was first classed by Hector as Belemnites lindsayi (N.Z Geol. Sur. Rep. 1873–74, p. xiii). Afterwards this name was treated by him as a synonym of B. australis Phillips (Trans. N.Z Inst., vol. 10, 1879, p. 487). Thus in closely associated strata of this region we have the following species belonging to typical Cretaceous genera: Belemnites lindsayi Hector, Pugnellus australis Marshall, Nerinaea sp., Dicroloma sp., Volutoderma, sp., Trigonia neozelanica Suter, Trigonia n. sp., Perissolax obtusa Marshall. In addition, the following species are distinctly of Lower Eocene age—viz., Gilbertia curta Marshall, G. paucistriata Marshall, G. tertiaria Marshall, Heteroterma zealandica Marshall, Nucleopsis major Marshall, and Belophos n. sp.

M. Cossmann, the distinguished author of the Essais de Paléochonchologie comparée, has been good enough to examine specimens of Pugnellus and Avellana. He writes as follows: “Vos deux Avellana, de Wangaloa et Hampden, sont à la base du Tertiaire d'après mon opinion. Ce ne sont d'ailleurs pas des Avellana mais des Gilbertia, genre representé en Europe par une espèce paléocenique du bassin de Paris et peut-être auss a Aix la Chapelle dans le Maistrichtien supérieur. Quant a Pugnellus australis, la couche dont il provient doit être au dessous de celle à Gilbertia—c'est à dire, dans le crétacé très supérieur.”

In the three localities here mentioned—Wangaloa, Chatton, and Hampden—the well-known Tertiary species Cucullaea alta and Bullinella enysi occur, and in each of the localities there are a large number of other Tertiary species that have a wide occurrence in New Zealand, such as Dentalium solidum, Siphonalia nodosa, Bathytoma sulcata, Fulgoraria corrugata, and Epitonium rugulosum lyratum. The occurrence of such species as these forbids us from placing these beds in a different geological system from others that contain the same forms but have no Cretaceous species. Such a separation is particularly inadvisable when the stratigraphical evidence is strongly against such separation, as has already been shown to be the case in connection with the younger rocks of New Zealand.

The age of the Wangaloa beds must obviously be very old Tertiary—perhaps even older. Mr. C. T. Trechmann, who collected them with me, thinks that the age should be regarded as Maestrichtian, or even Daman, but certainly higher than the Selwyn Rapids beds, which are of Senonian age. Further collecting and more complete identification of the fossils are necessary to finally settle this point.