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Volume 49, 1916
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Philosophical Institute Of Canterbury.

Special Meeting: 10th April, 1916.

Present: Mr. L. Birks, President, in the chair, and two hundred others. Welcome to Captain Ault and staff of survey ship “Carnegie.”

First Meeting: 3rd May, 1916.

Present: Mr. L. Birks, President, in the chair, and thirty others.

New Member.—Mr. John Waddell.

Ex-Presidential Address.—“Surveys: (1) Pioneer, (2) Land Settlement, (3) Engineering,” by Mr. A. D. Dobson.

Second Meeting: 7th June, 1916.

Present: Mr. L. Birks, President, in the chair, and thirty-five others. New Member.—Mr. G. A. Tapper.

Papers.—1. “The Occurrence in New Zealand of Craterostigmus tas-manicus Pocock,” by Mr. G. E. Archey.

2. “Science in Relation to the Development of Agriculture,” by Mr. L. J. Wild.

Third Meeting: 5th July, 1916.

Present: Mr. L. Birks, President, in the chair, and fifty others.

New Member.—Mr. A. D. Paterson.

Address.—“Education and our National Requirements,” by Mr. G. M. Thomson.

Fourth Meeting: 19th July, 1916.

Present: Mr. A. D. Dobson, Vice-President, in the chair, and fifty others.

Address.—“The Rock Paintings of the South African Bushman, and the Rock Carvings of the Australian Natives,” by Mr. J. L. Elmore.

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Fifth Meeting: 2nd August, 1916.

Present: Mr. A. D. Dobson, Vice-President, in the chair, and twenty-five others.

New Members.—Messrs. R. T. Tosswill and J. B. Laurenson.

Papers.—1. “On the Water-supply, Irrigation, and Drainage of the Canterbury Plains,” by Mr. A. D. Paterson.

2. “On the Fluctuations in the Water-level of some Artesian Wells,” by Mr. A. D. Dobson, Dr. F. W. Hilgendorf, and Mr. L. P. Symes.

Sixth Meeting: 6th September, 1916.

Present: Mr. L. Birks, President, in the chair, and fifty others.

Papers.—1. “An Arrangement for quieting the Flow of a Stream of Disturbed Water,” by Professor R. J. Scott.

2. “Apparatus for the Determination of the Magnitude of Small Forces, especially useful in connection with Hydraulic Experiments,” by Professor R. J. Scott.

Lecture.—“The Electric Smelting of Iron and Steel,” by Mr. E. Parry.

Seventh Meeting: 4th October, 1916.

Present: Mr. L. Birks, President, in the chair, and seventy others.

New Member.—Mr. J. R. Templin.

Lecture.—“The Importance of Scientific Research to Industry and Commerce,” by Professor T. H. Easterfield.

Eighth Meeting: 18th October, 1916.

Present: Mr. L. Birks, President, in the chair, and twenty-seven others.

Papers.—1. “Notes suggested by Mr. Parry's September Paper on ‘Electric Smelting,’ by Professor W. P. Evans.

2. “The Extraction of Potassium Salts from Silicate Rocks,” by Professor W. P. Evans.

3. “The Lithobiomorpha of New Zealand,” by Mr. G. E. Archey.

4. “Notes from the Canterbury College Mountain Biological Station, Cass: No. 5—The Mat and Cushion Plants of the Cass River Bed,” by Mr. C. E. Foweraker.

5. “The New Zealand Sand-hoppers of the Genus Talorchestia,” by Dr. Charles Chilton.

Exhibit.—Australian grass-tree gum, by Professor W. P. Evans.

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Ninth Meeting: 1st November, 1916.

Present: Mr. L. Birks, President, in the chair, and thirty-three others.

New Member.—Mr. G. Henry.

Papers.—1. “On the Origin of a New Species by Isolation,” by Mr. Henry Suter.

2. “An Explanation of the Hardness or otherwise of the World's Timber-trees,” by Mr. R. Nairn.

3. “On certain Tripolar Relations, Part 3,” by Mr. E. G. Hogg.

Exhibits.—1. Dr. F. W. Hilgendorf exhibited a peculiarly malformed beak of a starling.

2. Mr. E. F. Stead exhibited a wineberry sucker which had enveloped and killed a Parsonsia growing on it.

Annual Meeting: 6th December, 1916.

Present. Mr. L. Birks, President, in the chair, and twenty-seven others.

New Members.—Messrs. W. S. Newburgh, James Keir, and George Holford.

Annual Report.—The annual report and balance-sheet were adopted.


The Council has held ten meetings during the year. Two members of the Council, Messis. A. M. Wright and G. E. Archey, have gone on active service.

A special meeting of the Institute was held on the 10th April to welcome Captain Ault and the staff of the Magnetic Survey yacht. “Carnegie” on their return from circumnavigating the South Polar regions.

Ten ordinary meetings (including two additional) were held, at which five addresses were given. Also twenty-four papers were read, which may be classified as follows: Zoology, 6; botany, 2, geology, 5, engineering, 2, chemistry, 6; mathematics, 1; and general, 2.

During the year ten new members were elected and one transferred; nine having lapsed membership, through resignation or other causes, there are now 181 members on the ioll.

The Council desires to record that the following members are now on active service: Drs. H. Acland and F. G. Gibson, Messrs. G. E. Archey, F. M. Corkill, A. Fairbairn, C. E. Foweraker, G. MacIndoe, P. S. Nelson, F. S. Oliver, A. Taylor, G. T. Weston, F. S. Wilding, and A. M. Wright.

The Council records with regret that during the year four members have died—Mrs. Hutton, Mr. T. H. Jackson, and, in action, Captain L. S. Jennings and Lieutenant H. Lang.

At the request of the Council, the Hon. the High Commissioner has kindly undertaken the distribution of the London stock of the volumes of the Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand and Index Faunae Novae Zealandiae. Letters of appreciation and a number of publications have been received in exchange.

The Council has recognized the importance of furthering the national movement to advance scientific research and extend the application of scientific knowledge. The addresses by Mr. G. M. Thomson and Professor Easterfield were arranged in this direction. The action of the Council, following on Mr. Wild's proposals in connection with agricultural research, promises to bear fruit. In order that matters connected with research and the technical application of science should be constantly watched, the Council set up a special committee, with Dr. C. C. Farr as honorary secretary. The New Zealand Board of Industries having invited the Institute to send delegates to confer with the Board on matters affecting post-war reconstructions, the Council has appointed the President, with Dr. Farr and Dr. Hilgendorf, to act.

The Council has pleasure in reporting that the application by this Institute for part of the £250 granted by the Government for research has been approved by the

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New Zealand Institute. Investigations are now being arranged on the phosphate rocks of Canterbury, the deterioration of apples in cold storage, and the electrical prevention of frosting in orchards.

The Institute's representative on the Board of Trustees of the Riccarton Bush reports that during the year the bush has been carefully attended to, introduced plants removed, and the paths further improved. A cottage for the ranger has been erected at the entrance to the bush by means of funds contributed by the City Council, the Waimairi County Council, and a vote from the Government, and the ranger is now living in the cottage. It is hoped that the ceremony of opening the bush will take place in December, and that His Excellency the Governor will be present.

The library has been maintained in an efficient condition during the past year. The scientific pamphlets which have accumulated during many years have been arranged in cases according to subject, and a card catalogue has been made for the use of members. It is desirable that this branch of the library should be developed, and members are invited to present to the library papers and pamphlets of scientific interest in their possession.

The balance-sheet shows that the receipts, including a balance of £114 9s. 8d. from the previous year, have been £274 12s. 10d. The expenditure has been £101 5s. 2d., leaving a credit balance of £169 7s. 8d., of which £147 7s. 3d. belongs to the Tunnel Investigation Account. In accordance with the new regulation, £22. 7s. 6d. is due to the New Zealand Institute, being the 2s. 6d. levy for vol. 48 of the Transactions. Of the expenditure, £61 0s. 8d. has been spent on periodicals, books, binding, and other work connected with the library. The Life Members' Subscription Account shows a balance of £131 4s. 10d. deposited with the Permanent Investment and Loan Association.

Election of Officers for 1917.President—Mr. L. Birks; Vice-Presidents—Mr. P. H. Powell and Dr. F. J. Botrie; Secretary—Mr. L. P. Symes; Treasurer—Dr. Charles Chilton; Librarian—Mr. E. G. Hogg; Council—Dr. C. Coleridge Farr, Mr. A. D. Dobson, Dr. F. W. Hilgendorf, Mr. H. T. Ferrar, and Mr. W. G. Aldridge., Auditor—Mr. G. E. Way.

Papers.—1. “Some Structural Features of North-east Canterbury, together with Lists of Fossils from the Greta Beds,” by Rev. A. Purchas.

2. “An Ancient Buried Forest near Riccarton: its Bearing on the Mode of Formation of the Canterbury Plains,” by Mr. R. Speight.

3. “An Unrecorded Tertiary Outlier in the Basin of the Rakaia,” by Mr. R. Speight.

4. “The Stratigraphical Relationship of the Tertiary Beds of the Trelissick or Castle Hill Basin,” by Mr. R. Speight.

5. “The Blepharoceridae (Diptera) of New Zealand,” by Mr. David Miller (communicated by Dr. Charles Chilton).

6. “Notes on the Occurrence and Habits of the Fresh-water Crustacean Lepidurus viridis,” by Miss E. M. Herriott, M.A. (communicated by Dr. Charles Chilton).

7. “A Study of the Electrical Deposition of Nickel in the Presence of Nitrate,” by Mr. J. G. Anderson (communicated by Mr. L. J. Wild).

8. “On the Proposed Soil Survey of New Zealand,” by Mr. L. J. Wild.

9. “On the Lime Requirements of Soils,” by Messrs. L. J. Wild and J. G. Anderson.

10. “Contributions to the Soil Survey of New Zealand: No. 2—Southland,” by Mr. L. J. Wild.

11. “Further Observations on the Resistances of Earth Connections,” by Mr. L. Birks.

12. “Notes on the Effects of the 1916 Snowstorm on the Vegetation of Stewart Island,” by Mr. Walter Traill (communicated by Dr. Charles Chilton).

13. “Studies in the New Zealand Species of the Genus Lycopodium: Part II—Methods of Vegetative Propagation,” by the Rev. J. E. Holloway.