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Volume 50, 1918
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Art. XXVI.—The Succession of Tertiary Beds in the Pareora District, South Canterbury.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 1st December, 1915; received by Editors, 31st December, 1917; issued separately, 24th June, 1918.]

Plates XVI, XVII.

  • Field-work and Acknowledgments.

  • Introduction.

  • General Description of the Stratigraphy.

  • Detailed Descriptions by Localities.

  • Table of Fossil Mollusca.

  • Bibliography.

Field-Work and Acknowledgements.

The field-work on which this paper is based was carried out prior to October, 1914, but illness prevented the completion of the paper for publication at that time. Since then the interesting discoveries made by Messrs. Speight and Thomson in the Castle Hill Basin and by Professor Marshall at Wangaloa have thrown new light on the classification and correlation of the younger rocks of New Zealand, and a more detailed examination of the lower beds in the Pareora district has become desirable. I hope to make additional collections from these beds in 1918.

My thanks are due to Mr. H. Suter for assistance in the identifications of fossils, to Dr. Thomson for the identification of the brachiopods from the limestones and for much help in the arrangement of this paper, and to Mr. R. Speight for the assistance and encouragement so freely given at all times.


Although the Pareora district was one of the earliest to be visited as a locality for fossils, and has given its name to one of the main divisions of the New Zealand Tertiaries in older classifications, no careful examination has hitherto been made of its stratigraphy. Its geology, in addition, presents other features of great interest, in which are included the physiography and structure, the existence of a great sheet of dolerite, and the presence of thick deposits of yellow clay considered to be a loess. The present paper deals only with the stratigraphy of the Tertiary beds, and covers the area between the Otaio and Tengawai Rivers.

The first geologist to visit the district was W. Mantell (1850), who traversed the coastal part on his journey from Christchurch to Dunedin in 1848. He mentions the presence of a vesicular volcanic rock at Timaru, and states that he was informed that a bed of coal, 10 ft. thick, cropped out on the banks of a stream inland of Timaru.

Haast in 1865 examined the country between Mount Horrible and Timaru, and the banks of the Pareora River, with a view to obtaining a water-supply for Timaru. The Tertiary beds are described as consisting of tufaceous limestones, calcareous sandstones, and marly and argillaceous

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beds alternating with each other for many hundred feet, and are correlated with the Curiosity Shop series of Middle Tertiary age. The prominent dolerite sheet which extends from the summit of Mount Horrible to Timaru is compared with that of the Harper Hills, and it is considered as closing the marine deposits of the district. An earlier eruption of dolerite, forming an intercalation in the marine series, is stated to outcrop on the western slopes of Mount Horrible.

In 1873 Hutton, in his Catalogue of the Tertiary Mollusca, & c., introduced the Pareora formation as one of the four chief divisions of the Tertiary, dividing it into an upper and a lower group, but he identified no fossils from Pareora, and was uncertain whether this locality should be referred to the upper or lower group. The reasons for the choice of the name for the formation are quite obscure.

McKay in 1877 visited the Pareora district in the course of an examination of the younger rocks skirting the Canterbury Plains between Waipara and Oamaru. The succession is described in terms of the Cretaceo-Tertiary succession of the Waipara district. From his account, together with a section through the district from north-west to south-east, the following succession may be pieced together: (1) The silts of the Timaru Downs; (2) older gravels, with sands and lignites, resting unconformably on (3) grey sands, with beds of shells, overlying dark-blue sandy beds with concretions (Pareora beds); (4) light-grey marly sandstone (grey marls); (5) calcareous greensands (Weka Pass stone); (6) chalky limestone (Amuri limestone); (7) sharp grey quartzose sands, with occasional beds of pebbles, often containing sharks' teeth (concretionary greensands, saurian beds, & c.). The junction between the Pareora beds and the so-called “grey marls” was not observed, but an unconformity is presumably indicated by the absence of the Mount Brown beds of the Waipara succession.

In 1905 Park, in discussing the relations existing between the Pareora and Oamaru series, referred briefly to the Pareora district: He considered the sections at the lower and upper ends of the Pareora Gorge as too obscure to be of value for the determination of the relations between the beds containing the “Pareora fauna” and the Oamaru stone, and stated that at White Rock River the fossiliferous clays and sandstones there exposed rest on the basement rock of the district. Lists of fossils from the sandstones of the Pareora River at the lower end of the gorge, the bluish-green sandy clays at White Rock, and the limestone on the south bank of the Tengawai River near Cave are given, the latter being correlated with the Mount Brown beds.

Park's general conclusion was that the Pareora series was an integral part of the Oamaru series, which when completely developed includes two limestones separated by the Hutchinson Quarry and Awamos beds, and that the Pareora fauna is only found in beds underlying the Waitaki stone, to which all the limestones in South Canterbury are apparently referred.

In 1908 Hardcastle published a small pamphlet on the geology of South Canterbury, in which the Tertiary rocks are dealt with more from a point of view of climate than of general stratigraphy. The lowest beds, the coal-measures, are comparatively thin, consisting of white or pale-coloured clays, beds of sand (usually white, of all degrees of fineness and coarseness), white grits and gravels of quartz, and seams of coal or lignite. The climate was considered to be mild, without frost, allowing a luxuriant vegetation to flourish, and the above beds were considered as terrestrial, the whiteness

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of the rocks being largely due to the bleaching properties of the humous acids of the soil. Subsidence then ensued, with deposition of marine sandstones which are red in colour, followed by a growth of coral reefs resulting in limestones, the climate still remaining mild. Elevation now occurred, and new terrestrial beds were formed by a rewash of the older marine beds, such rearranged sands with marine fossils being recognized in a bore well at Timaru. The climate now became colder, culminating in a glacial age, during which the older red gravels were accumulated. A warmer period then ensued, during which a soil formed on the older gravels, preserved under the dolerite-flow of Mount Horrible. This was followed by a second glacial age, during which the loess was formed on the surface of the dolerite.

Thomson in 1914 made some observations on the Waihao district which have an intimate bearing on the neighbouring Pareora district. Briefly stated, he concluded that in South Canterbury and Otago there are not two limestones separated by beds with the “Pareora fauna,” as Park in 1905 supposed, but one limestone separating two sets of beds with the “Pareora fauna,” and suggested that these two similar faunas must show some differences when carefully examined.

Marshall in 1916 described a specimen of the lower chalky limestone of the Otaio Gorge, and, arguing from the presence in it of Amphistegina, correlated it with the Amuri limestone. Thomson in 1917 disputed this correlation, on the grounds that the Otaio limestone overlies rocks with an Oamaruian fauna, while the Amuri limestone everywhere overlies rocks with a Cretaceous fauna and contains a lower Oamaruian fauna in its uppermost part in the Castle Hill Basin.

My examination of the district shows that the Tertiary beds of the district are all conformable, and not separable into two unconformable groups as McKay supposed; that the upper beds with a “Pareora fauna” are above the limestone, and not below it as Park supposed; and that there is a similar fauna above and below the limestone, as Thomson suggested. I agree further with Thomson that the lower chalky limestone of the Otaio River is not the correlative of the Amuri limestone, but represents a higher horizon. The differences between the fossils above and below the limestone may be gleaned from the tables appended to this paper, but it is not advisable to draw far-reaching conclusions as to the zonal values of the fossils which have a restricted range in this district, until similar lists from the neighbouring Kakahu, Waihao, Waitaki, and Oamaru districts are available.

General Description of the Stratigraphy.

The complete sequence of Tertiary beds in the Pareora district may be resumed in tabular form as follows:—

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Red sands and sandstones 400 Pareora series.
Blue clay 350
Limestone 80
Crab-beds and marls 100 Oamaru series.
Lower sands and sandstones 100
Coal-measures 300

This really represents the average thickness as seen in the different localities, but it is probably a low estimate. The blue clay may never be more than 350 ft. thick, but the other members are sometimes much

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thicker than shown above. Thus the limestone sometimes reaches 120 ft., and the upper red sands may reach as much as 500 ft. The quartz grits also are frequently thicker than in the table; this is seen in the foothills between White Rock and Squire's Farm.

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Fig. 1.—Stratigraphical map of the Pareora and neighbouring districts. (Scale 4 ½ miles to 1 in., approx.) 1. Trias-Jura rocks, usually greywackes and mudstones. 2. Beds underlying the limestone, including quartz grits, sands and sandstones, crab-beds (greensands), and marls. 3. Limestone, including the white and flaky, “dark,” and ordinary limestones. 4. The Pareora beds, including the blue clay and upper red sands. 5. Dolerite. 6. Gravels (old and new) and loess. The line AB gives the section across the Upper Pareora Basin.
Fig. 2.—Section across Upper Pareora Basin (along the line AB in the map). Distance, 10 ½ miles; direction, E.S.E.—W.N.W. 1. Mesozoic rocks. 2. Grits and sands. 2a. Lower red sands with calcareous limestone. 3. Limestone. 4. Blue clay. 4a. Sandy clays (part of “upper red sands”). 5. Gravels.

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The Coal Series.

Bordering the Hunter's Hills these beds are composed of grits and conglomerates alternating with coal – seams and followed by sands and sandstones. Farther east the lowest members of the series consist of pipeclays, followed by quartz grits, while the coal itself is represented by a narrow band of carbonaceous clay.

Usually the conglomerates are “puddingstone” conglomerates, consisting of quartz pebbles in an iron-stained matrix. The pebbles have a wide range in size, but ordinarily they are slightly larger than peas. They may also vary much in colour. They may be firmly cemented, forming a coarse sandstone, or they may be crumbly masses of quartz grains.

The pipeclay, which is of considerable thickness in some places, contains numerous concretions of iron-pyrites and limonite. Sometimes these concretions are long and narrow, containing a carbonized substance, which probably represents a piece of wood. The pipeclay has probably been formed by the kaolinization of the feldspar, which, with quartz, is the chief constituent of the greywacke and slates of Mesozoic age. These rocks form the backbone of the country, and the Tertiary series has been deposited on the flanks of the old land. By long-continued denudation these rocks gave up their constituents to form the deposits of the Tertiary series. The coal-beds thin out as they are followed eastward, and are replaced by the other members of the series.

There are only two important outcrops of coal in the Pareora district, and there is good reason to believe that they occupy different positions in the series. The coal at Otaio lies at the base of the Oamaru series, while the coal at White Rock seems to lie near the top of the Pareora series. The Otaio coal is a good brown coal when obtained from a dry part of the seam, but wet blocks crumble away and leave only a mass of “slack.” The beds dip at 60°, so that it would be very difficult to follow the seam. It is also probable that the seam is not continuous over any large area, as it is not found at all in the excellent section of the coal series exposed at Craigmore. Like much of the New Zealand coal, it seems to have been formed in an estuary or bay. This theory is supported by the fact that the grits below the coal contain a small amount of carbonaceous matter, while the coal contains much grit, and the overlying clays again contain pieces of wood. The coal does not seem to have been formed by growth in situ.

The Lower Sands and Sandstones.

The grits and clays which alternate with the coal-seams are immediately followed by a succession of sands and sandstones. These vary in colour from grey and green to bright red. Usually the shells in the sands are in poor condition, but those which are found in the sandstones are well preserved. One noteworthy feature of these sands and sandstones is the quantity of carbonaceous matter found in them. In certain layers there are species of simple corals, which are characteristic of this horizon throughout South Canterbury and North Otago. The evidence of the fossils and of the lithological characters of the beds demonstrates that they were formed in comparatively shallow water.

The Crab-beds and Marls.

The crab-beds are dark-coloured marls, which grade upwards into grey marls. They are usually brown, but often they are so glauconitic as to deserve the name of “greensands.” Their character is very uniform

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throughout South Canterbury and North Otago, so that they are easily recognized. A few pectens and oysters are almost the only molluscs to be seen in the marls, but the numerous concretions which these contain enclose several species of molluscs, in addition to sharks' teeth and crabs. These lower marls are rather coarse, suggesting that they were formed not far from the old shore-line. Petrified wood and fossil amber are found in these beds as well as in the lower sands and sandstones. The distinction between these and the lower sands and sandstones is an artificial one, as the one set of beds grades into the other.

The overlying marls are almost unfossiliferous, probably because the sea was becoming too deep for the shell-fish that had existed in the earlier-periods when the beds were laid down in comparatively shallow water. They are transition beds, which were formed before the deep-sea fauna could take possession of its new territory. The first of the new colonists were crinoids, and later came molluscs, such as Atrina and some pectens, together with echinoids and brachiopods. In the western part of the district these marls pass up into a chalky limestone; farther east the marls pass up directly into a dark limestone.

The Limestone.

This is an arenaceous limestone which passes upwards into clays and downwards into marls. Its colour varies from yellowish to greenish-white, owing to iron-stains and glauconitic sand. In some places near the old shore-line the surface of the limestone is dotted over with black spherules of ferric oxide, and sometimes small quartz pebbles may be found. It is possible that these pebbles were carried out from the shore by clumps of seaweed. The limestone is nearly always divided into hard and soft layers, which in weathering give the rock a characteristic fluted appearance. (See Plate XVI, fig. 1.) Followed eastward the rock becomes less arenaceous, and more compact and siliceous, especially in the upper layers. We find, too, that the thickness of the limestone has increased from 55 ft. to 100 ft. At the bottom of the ordinary stone there is a darker and more arenaceous bed which contains many brachiopods, in addition to large lamellibranchs, such as Pecten huttoni (Park), Lima laevigata Hutt., Lima (Acesta) imitata Sut. Sharks' teeth are common in this layer, but only a few are scattered through the upper part of the limestone. Sometimes the lamellibranchs are so numerous as to define a joint-plane; thus a fallen block may sometimes show hundreds of shells lying in the one plane.

Beneath this dark layer there is sometimes a fine-grained chalky limestone in which there are no traces of fossils. The whole of the main limestone is glauconitic, but this character is best seen in the lower (dark) band. Not only is the limestone thicker in all the areas remote from the old coast-line, but the change from limestone to marl is much more definite. There are numerous caves, which sometimes contain bones of extinct birds, such as Harpagornis, Cnemiornis, and Dinornis. A noteworthy feature of the weathering of the limestone is the tendency of solution to form deep, well-like shafts. In one place I noted as many as thirteen within an area of less than 20 acres. (See Plate XVI, fig. 2.)

The uppermost layer of limestone, passing into the blue clay, when examined microscopically is seen to be of very even texture, with a base of some argillaceous substance. Globigerina tests, and round bodies that are probably the detached chambers of Globigerina, are scattered all through the rock. These are sometimes replaced by an iron compound.

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Small rounded grains of quartz are very common, and there are in addition plates of biotite and muscovite, and grains of glauconite and magnetite.

Marshall (1916) has described a specimen of the Otaio limestone as follows: “A fine-grained type, with many minute quartz grains and a good deal of glauconite. Mainly Globigerina, but one specimen of Amphistegina.”

The Pareora Beds.

These consist of bluish-green clays, which pass gradually up into fine reddish-brown sands and sandstones. Where fully exposed these beds show a total thickness of about 700 ft. Throughout South Canterbury and much of North Otago they are extremely constant in such characters as the bluish-green colour of the clays and the reddish colour of the sands. Again, the lower parts of the red sands always contain concretions, while the middle parts always have many layers of calcareous sandstones crowded with molluscs. Finally, the highest part of the red-coloured beds is practically devoid of fossils, suggesting that the water was so strongly charged with iron as to kill the shell-fish. The change from a blue clay to an iron-stained sand supports the inference that these were the closing members of the series. Thus the great cycle of deposition was completed: conglomerate, grits and coal, sands and sandstones, marl, glauconitic limestone, ordinary limestone, blue clay, red sands. At the Lower Waipara, in North Canterbury, Speight (1914) has shown that the uppermost marine beds are interstratified with gravels.

Detailed Descriptions by Localities.

Otaio Gorge.

Here the whole sequence from the quartz grits to the limestone is exposed in a section where the beds are seen dipping E.N.E. at 60°. The field relations of the beds are shown in fig. 3. The grits contain at least eight coal-seams, of an average thickness of 2 ft. The first of the marine sandstones occur as layers in sandy clays. These clays contain few fossils, but the sandstone is crowded with shells of Cardium waitakiense Sut. and Venericardia zelandica (Desh.) var.

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Fig. 3 —Section along Otaio River, near the Gorge. Distance, slightly over 200 yards; direction, W.S.W.—E N.E.; dip, 60°. 1. Sands and grits with coal. 2. Lowest fossiliferous sands. 3. Sands with calcareous sandstone. 4. Red sands. 5. Crab-beds with concretions (greensands). 6. Grey marls. 7. White flaggy limestone and dark limestone. 7a. Ordinary limestone. 8. Gravels.

In the sandy clays there are layers of corals, chiefly Balanophyllia hectori T.-W. The overlying crab-beds have even fewer fossils than usual, but they are easily recognized by their colour and their numerous concretions, while an occasional crab may be found. Besides the latter, I collected Pecten huttoni (Park) and Panope sp. The marls, as usual, are practically devoid of fossils. The lower sands and sandstones overlying yielded a rich molluscan fauna, tabulated in column 1 of the table on page 259, and in

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Fig 1 —View of the fluted limestone at Otaio Gorge. Almost the whole thickness of the limestone is shown in the photograph.
Fig. 2 —Solution-pits in the limestone on Holme Station, seen from the Gordon's Valley — Little River Road.

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Fig. 1.—Road-cutting on Squire's Farm The columnar structure of the loess is well seen The lower part is a residual clay, passing into coarse gravels which lie on the limestone
Fig. 2—The upper part of Little River Valley, viewed from Square's Farm The rock in the foreground is the uppermost part of the limestone, with soft layers In the middle distance, on the left, the white flaky limestone is seen passing up into the dark and ordinary limestones, which in turn pass up into the blue clay. The wide river-terraces are well shown here

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addition some fish-remains, echinoderm-spines, and the following corals: Flabellum sphenodeum T.-W., Balanophyllia hectori T.-W., and Sphenotrochus huttonianus T.-W.

The chalky limestone has no fossils except Foraminifera and other microscopic forms, while the dark limestone and the ordinary limestone have only a few brachiopods—viz., Pachymagas ellipticus Thomson and Aetheia gualteri (Morris).


Following the Otaio for four miles, we come to a long line of cliffs of blue clay, whence the district takes its name. These beds can be traced all the way from the Otaio Gorge, and are certainly resting on the limestone, though no actual junction is shown. The relation of the two beds, however, is clearly seen at Squire's, Gordon's Valley, Cannington, and Mount Horrible.

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Fig. 4.—Section along Otaio River at Bluecliffs. Distance, about ¾ mile; direction, W.N.W.—E.S.E.; dip, 20°. 1. Blue clays. 2. Lower part of the red sands, with concretions. 3. Middle part of the red sands, with calcareous sandstone. 4. Upper part of the red sands. 5. Gravels.

The blue clays seem to reach their maximum thickness here, for they are at least 350 ft. thick (see fig. 4). The fossils occur very sparingly, but the great exposure of strata enables one to make a good collection. These bluish-green clays yield the molluscs tabulated in column 5 of the table of fossil mollusca, and in addition small nautiloids, annelids, scutes, and Pachymagas parki (Hutt.), Trochocyathus mantelli T.-W., Flabellum circulare T.-W., and F. laticostatum T.-W.

Southburn Cutting.

At the Southburn Cutting, at the end of the Bluecliff section, the blue clays are seen passing into red sands, with concretions. Higher up in these sands there are bands of calcareous sandstone. These beds are not richly fossiliferous, like the corresponding beds elsewhere, and in the highest part of the series there are no fossils at all.

This exposure shows the sands to be very thick, probably 400 ft. at least, and I think that the uppermost part of them is the youngest marine formation in South Canterbury.

From the sands, concretions, and sandstone layers I collected the molluscs tabulated in column 9 of the table of fossil mollusca, and in addition the brachiopod Pachymagas parki (Hutt.).

Gordon's Valley.

This valley begins near the western end of the exposure of blue clays at Bluecliffs, and passes first of all through the limestone, and then through the blue clays and red sands. The stratigraphy is clear, and shows the relations of the Pareora beds to the limestones. The upper part of the limestone at the head of the valley is more siliceous than usual, and has a fluted appearance due to the alternation of hard and soft layers. There are practically no fossils in the upper part, but in the lower part there are echinoids and crinoids, with a few brachiopods.

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Just below Mr. P. Elworthy's homestead the blue clays are seen overlying the limestone and passing up into the red sands and sandstones. If the road from Gordon's Valley to Little River Valley be followed, first the blue clay and then the limestone will be passed over. In the valley leading down into Little River Valley the limestone is well exposed in cliffs 100 ft. high. The lower parts contain many brachiopods, and a few other fossils, such as Epitonium browni (Zitt.), but the upper parts are very siliceous, and in places there are flint nodules which stand out like pegs from the weathered surfaces.

The red sands have their usual characteristics: thus the lower part has concretions scattered through it, and then come alternating layers of hard sandstones and soft shelly bands. Above this there are the true red sands, with layers of shells, such as species of Venericardia, Polinices, Turritella, Limopsis, and Dentalium. These beds may be traced down to the back of the homestead at Holme Station.

On the road over into Little River Valley, the solution – pits in the limestone can be seen. (Plate XVI, fig. 2.)

From the limestone at this locality I collected Pericosmus compressus McCoy and Pentacrinus stellatus Hutt. The red sands yielded the molluscs tabulated in column 10 of the table of fossil mollusca.

Squire's Farm. (Plate XVII, figs. 1 and 2.)

This locality is very important for showing the relationship between the Pareora beds and the underlying beds. Every member of Marshall's “Oamaru system” as developed in the Pareora district is exposed in the banks of the Little Pareora River where it flows through this farm. The grits of the coal series are very thick here, but the coal itself is not shown in any exposure. Puddingstone conglomerates are interbedded with thegrits. The lowest fossiliferous beds are found near the top of the land-slip facing the road to Otaio Gorge. They are strongly impregnated with iron oxides, which have replaced the fossils, so that only casts can be obtained. The harder bands stand out as reefs and ridges on the hillside. The fossils obtained were Dosinia lambata (Gould), Pecten huttoni (Park), Chione sp., and Polinices sp.

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Fig. 5.—Section along right bank of Little River, in Squire's Farm. Distance, 300 yards; direction, N.E.—S.W.; dip, 40°. 1. Grits and sands of coal series. 2. Lowest fossiliferous sands. 3. Lower red sands, with calcareous sandstones. 4. Red sands. 5. Crab-beds (seen in the bed of the river). 6. Grey marls (seen in the bed of the river). 7. White flaky limestone and dark limestone. 8. Limestone, current-bedded. 9. Gravels.

The crab-beds and marls are not exposed on the hillside, but they appear in the bed of the river near the sharp turn in the river. They may be described as typical greensands with concretions, but usually these beds are rather too brown and marly to be called “greensands.” They yielded Panope worthingtoni Hutt. and Turritella sp.

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The next bed exposed consists of a white limestone, which breaks into small cubes and flakes similar to those found in the Amuri limestone at Weka Pass. This limestone is seen in the bed of the river for more than a quarter of a mile, and is well exposed in a section on the right bank. Its greatest thickness in an exposure is 14 ft., but it may really be as much as 20 ft. Near the top its uniform texture changes, and the rock assumes a speckled appearance, due to the presence of tubes or pipes filled with grey limestone, similar to that found in the overlying stone. There is no erosion surface or other sign of unconformity, so that the change in the character of the rock was due to a change in the conditions of deposit. Some of the tubes appear to be worm-borings, but most of them are too large for such an origin.

The dark limestone is 4 ft. 6 in. thick in one section, but its thickness varies. In places it is indistinguishable in colour from the ordinary limestone, but it is always softer and more arenaceous, and it contains more fossils. In the first exposure seen on Squire's Farm this limestone is crowded with brachiopods, and sharks' teeth are common in “pockets.”

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Fig. 6.—Section across Little River, in Squire's Farm. Distance, about 180 yards; direction, S.S.W. — N.N.E.; dip, 25°. 1. White flaky limestone. 2. Dark limestone. 3. Limestone. 4. Limestone with soft layers, passing into blue clay. 5. Blue clay. 6. Lowest horizon of upper red sands, with large concretions. 7. Gravels.

The uppermost layer, about 1 ft. thick, contains frequent specimens of Lima (Plagiostoma) laevigata Hutt. and Pecten huttoni (Park). In many of the fossils, the carbonate of lime is replaced, wholly or partly, by iron oxides. The complete list of fossils collected is as follows: Epitonium lyratum (Zitt.), E. browni (Zitt.), Lima laevigata Hutt., Pecten huttoni (Park), P. scandula Hutt. (?), Echinus sp., Eupatagus greyi Tate, E. tuberculatus Zitt., Balanus sp., Aetheia gualteri (Morris), Pachymagas ellipticus Thomson, Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutt.), Liothyrella landonensis Thomson, Lamna huttoni Davis, L. incurva Davis, Oxyrhina grandis Davis, and Kekenodon onomata Hector (?).

The ordinary limestone affords a fine example of current-bedding, and this fact, taken in conjunction with the arenaceous nature of the rock and the number of quartz grains seen in a microscopic slide, shows that the deposit was not formed in deep water. The fossils obtained from the ordinary limestone were: Epitonium lyratum (Zitt.), E. browni (Zitt.), Lima laevigata Hutt., L. paleata Hutt. (?), Pecten huttoni (Park), P. williamsoni Zitt., Atrina zelandica Gray, Eupatagus greyi Tate, Pericosmus compressus McCoy, Pentacrinus stellatus Hutt., Cidaris spines, Retepora (?), Graphularia sp., Aetheia gualteri (Morris), Liothyrella landonensis Thomson, Terebratulina suessi Hutt., Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutt.), Pachymagas huttoni Thomson, P. parki (Hutt.), and Hemithyris nigricans (Sow.).

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Farther down the river the white flaggy limestone appears in the left bank, but most of the dark limestone is covered with shingle. The ordinary limestone is well shown, but it has even fewer fossils than usual. The section is perfectly clear, and shows the limestone passing very gradually into the blue clay. The transition is marked by alternations of hard and of soft layers. There is a small reversed fault here, with an upthrust of 2 ft. and a hade of 5°. In the first interbedded soft band a small nautiloid, Pecten huttoni (Park), Pachymagas parki (Hutt.), and species of Flabellum are almost the only fossils. In the first horizon of the blue clay proper the commonest fossils are species of Flabellum and Trochocyathus, and Limopsis aurita Brocchi. In the creek-bed many small species are found, such as Alectrion socialis (Hutt.) and Corbula canaliculata Hutt. At the foot of the landslip the ordinary fossils of the blue clay appear; of these Pecten zitteli Hutt. is more common than usual. A list of the molluscs obtained is given in column 6 of the table, and in addition the following were found: a small nautiloid, Pachymagas parki (Hutt.), Flabellum circulare T.-W., Trochocyathus mantelli T.-W., a scute (?), and whale-bones.

Near the top of the slip, in the little patch of bush, the blue clays are seen passing into red sands with concretions. These beds are best seen on the right bank a little below the slip, and the middle and upper horizons are seen half a mile down the river on the left bank. The following fossils were collected: Turritella semiconcava Sut., Polinices ovatus (Hutt.), P. gibbosus (Hutt.), Siphonalia costata (Hutt.), Ancilla hebera (Hutt.), Surcula fusiformis (Hutt.), Pecten huttoni (Park), Venericardia pseutes Sut., Nucula sagittata Sut., and Chione meridionalis (Sow.). Owing to the smallness of this collection, it so happens that no Recent species were found here, but the character of the beds, the stratigraphy, and the nature of these fossils all show that these are the ordinary upper red sands.

The loess is well shown in the saddle between the Otaio Gorge and Little River, and in a cutting made for a new road through Squire's Farm. (See Plate XVII, fig. 1.)

White Rock.

Here only the upper beds of the series are exposed, but their rich fauna has made them very important. The beds show the effects of gentle folding, for the dip alters gradually as we go westwards. There is an interesting occurrence of a lignite in these beds. It does not belong to the coal series, but seems to be almost contemporaneous with the marine fauna found in the ordinary layers. The fossils are found in wonderful profusion in a few narrow layers, but they seem to follow exactly the same order as at Sutherland's. Thus the struthiolarias are confined almost wholly to the upper layer, while the flat lamellibranchs, such as Zenatia acinaces (Q. & G.), Chione speighti Sut., & c., are confined to the lower. The molluscs collected are given in column 11 of the table, and in addition Myliobates sp. and Arachnoides placenta were obtained.

Mount Horrible (Pareora River).

At the foot of Mount Horrible the river has exposed the limestone, the blue clay, and the red sands. The limestone clearly underlies the blue clay, which in turn passes up gradually into red sands. The limestone at the kiln is very siliceous, with flint nodules. The blue clays are well exposed in the slip at the Fishermen's Huts, and can be followed down the left bank of the river for about one mile and a half. The red sands are found at the level of the water-race above the slip, and in a gully which runs up

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towards the dolerite. The highest exposure of the red sands occurs about 20 ft. below the dolerite, but, as at Sutherland's and Southburn Cutting, the uppermost beds are devoid of fossils. The intermediate parts of the red sands — namely, those with concretions and layers of shelly sandstones—are not well exposed on the left bank, but they appear on the other side of the valley, in Holme Station.

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Fig. 7.—Section across south-west corner of Mount Horrible. Distance, about 1 ¼ miles; direction, N.W. — S.E.; dip, 15°. 1. Limestone. 2. Blue clays. 3. Red sands. 4. Gravel. 5. Ash. 6. Dolerite. 7. Talus.

From the blue clay I collected the molluscs tabulated in column 7 of the table, and in addition Pachymagas parki (Hutt.), Flabellum circulare T.-W., F. laticostatum T.-W., Trochocyathus mantelli T.-W., and annelid-tubes. From the upper red sands I obtained Ampullina suturalis (Hutt.), Hemiconus trailli (Hutt.), and Chione sp.

Cave and Sutherland's.

The beds exposed in these two localities are—the lower sands and sandstones, the crab-beds and marls, the limestone, the blue clay, and the upper red sands. The sequence is exactly the same as at Squire's Farm, Mount Horrible, and Cannington. The lower red sands are seen in the right bank of the Tengawai, a quarter of a mile above the railway-station. They contain only a few fossils, as they are the uppermost horizon; the lower horizons, with corals, have not yet been cut into by the river. In one exposure these sands show current-bedding.

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Fig. 8.—Section across Tengawai River, at Cave. Distance, ¼ mile; direction, N.—S.; dip, 35°. 1. Greywacke. 2. Sands. 3. Crab-beds (greensands) with concretions. 4. Marls. 5. Dark arenaceous limestone. 6. Ordinary limestone. 7. Gravels.

The crab-beds and marls are well exposed on the left bank, above Cave. They have their usual lithological character, but the concretions contain molluscs, chiefly lamellibranchs, instead of crabs. On the left bank the marls are seen to be overlain by a dark arenaceous limestone, which is thicker than usual. From the surface of contact I collected Lima imitata Sut. and various pectens. The limestone is also seen in the bed of the river and in the right bank at the bridge. Just below the bridge I collected a number of fossils from the limestone. Fine exposures are found

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on the left bank, where the limestone forms cliffs over 80 ft. high. Still farther down there is an exposure of the limestone close in against the greywacke. This would seem to have been faulted down, but the throw of the fault could not have been very great. In the quarry there are two faults, with slickensides, and much of the limestone appears to have been crushed and deformed by pressure.

The blue clay is seen in the river-bed at the new bridge leading to Totara Valley, and in the terrace south of the railway-line, where the road passes over to Tycho Flat. Half a mile farther down the red sands are well exposed beside the railway. The upper portions of the red sands are exposed all along the valley at the back of the school, but the fossiliferous horizons are not well exposed there. Near the railway-line the first beds are brown sands, with calcareous sandstone in layers. These sands change to very red sands, with practically no fossils. Again the beds are brown, with no fossils. The first layer of sandstone in this horizon is crowded with species of Psammobia and other flat shells, and Polinices and Natica. The top layer has many specimens of Turritella cavershamensis Harris, and species of Struthiolaria, Glycymeris, and Dosinia. There are also two soft shelly layers crowded with Turritella cavershamensis Harris, as at White Rock. This is the horizon of Latirus brevirostris (Hutt.) and Hemiconus trailli (Hutt.). Except for the difference in colour, the beds are exactly similar to those of White Rock.

From the lower red sands (Waihao beds) I obtained the following: Turritella cavershamensis Harris, T. symmetrica Hutt., Struthiolaria sp., Polinices gibbosus (Hutt.), Ancilla hebera (Hutt.), Cardium waitakiense Sut., and Glycymeris laticostata (Q. & G.).

The crab-beds at Cave yielded Cucullaea alta Sow., Chione meridionalis (Sow.), and Limopsis aurita (Brocchi).

I collected from the limestone at Cave Ampullina sp., Pecten williamsoni Zitt., P. burnetti Zitt., P. huttoni (Park), Lima (Acesta) imitata Sut., Ostrea sp., Pachymagas parki (Hutt.), P. huttoni Thomson, Liothyrella gravida (Suess), Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutt.), Terebratulina suessi Hutt., Balanus sp., Pentacrinus stellatus Hutt., Pericosmus compressus McCoy, and Eupatagus tuberculatus Zitt.

The upper red sands at Sutherland's yielded the sixty-four species of molluscs tabulated in column 12 of the table.

Little River and the South-west End of Craigmore.

On the banks of the Little River and its chief tributary there are fine exposures of all the beds from the quartz grits up to the limestone. The grits and sands of the coal series are typically developed above the junction of the two streams, but the coal is represented by a narrow band of carbonaceous clay. The lowest Tertiary bed consists of pipeclay which was laid down on the eroded surface of the Mesozoic rocks. The grits are snow-white in most of this locality.

The lower sands and sandstones are seen lying on top of the grits, but they are not so fossiliferous as at Otaio Gorge. Below the junction these beds are found in the river-bed, and consist of sands with bands of concretionary sandstone and layers of soft crumbly shells. The commonest fossils in this exposure are Venericardia zelandica (Desh.) var. and Turritella symmetrica Hutt., and a few specimens of Ostrea gudexi Sut. may be found. The lower sands and sandstones are exposed all along the left bank until the end of the valley is reached, and they appear in the cuttings on the road that passes above the Pareora dam.

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The crab-beds are well seen half-way up the hill on the left bank of the tributary, and have their usual character. The concretions contain a few crabs, while specimens of Cucullaea alta Sow., partly replaced by iron compounds, are found scattered through the beds. The crab-beds may be followed all along the Little River Valley, first on the left bank, then in the bed of the river, and then along the right bank until the lime-kiln is approached. One mile above the kiln the crab-beds are seen passing up into marls of a greenish-grey colour. These are the “grey marls” described by McKay. The same beds are seen in the left bank, above the bridge.

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Fig. 9.—Section along left bank of main tributary of Little River, above the junction Distance, ¾ mile; direction, N.W.—S.E.; dip, 10°. 1. Trias-Jura. 2. Pipeclay. 3. White quartz grits, with carbonaceous shales. 4. Sands with calcareous sandstone. 5. Crab-beds (greensands) with small concretions. 6. Marls, grey at the top. 7. Limestone.

The limestone forms the crown of the Craigmore Block, and appears on Holme Station at a lower level. It exhibits folding at both ends of Craigmore, where an anticlinal structure appears. At the north end, in a section S.S.W.—N.N.E., the dip is 10° to the south-south-west; and still farther on, in a section W.—E., the dip is 40° to the west; while in a section at the crest, running west and east, the dip is 0°. The eastern limb has been almost completely shorn away by the action of Little River, but the limestone on Holme Station and in Mount Horrible enables us to reconstruct the anticline. At the south-west end of Craigmore the structure is not quite so clear, chiefly because the anticline dies away in the next mile or two, and is followed by an unsymmetrical syncline in the direction of Squire's Farm.

There is a small, superficial fresh-water deposit on the left bank of Little River, about two miles above the bridge, and from it I collected specimens of a fresh-water gasteropod which Mr. Suter says is new.

The lower red sands and sandstones yielded Polinices suturalis (Hutt.), Typhis maccoyi T.-W., Volutospina sp., Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.), and Astarte? sp.

From the crab-beds on the left bank I collected Struthiolaria tuberculata Hutt., Ancilla hebera (Hutt.), Surcula fusiformis (Hutt.), Cucullaea alta Sow., C. attenuata Hutt., Atrina zelandica (Gray), Ostrea sp., and Macro-callista assimilis (Hutt.).

From the upper crab-beds, one mile above the lime-kiln, I obtained Turritella symmetrica Hutt., Polinices gibbosus (Hutt.), Ancilla sp. nov., Dentalium solidum Hutt., Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.), Ostrea nelsoniana Zitt., Gryphaea tarda Hutt., Pecten (Chlamys) williamsoni Zitt., P. hilli Hutt., P. huttoni (Park), P. delicatulus Hutt., Pecten sp. nov. between triphooki and zelandiae, Macrocallista assimilis (Hutt.), Teredo directa Hutt., Holaster sp., and Cidaris spines.

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At the north end of Craigmore there is an exposure of the whole series of Tertiaries from the quartz grits to the limestone. The grits are resting on the Mesozoic rocks, which have been cut down to a depth of about 300 ft. by the Pareora River. The marine sandstones, as usual, contain layers of Cardium waitakiense Sut. and Venericardia zelandica (Desh.) var. The limestone which forms the crest of Craigmore occupies the summit of an anticline, which pitches west to form the Upper Pareora basin. From the limestone I collected Epitonium lyratum (Zitt.), E. browni (Zitt.), Pecten huttoni (Park), Lima laevigata Hutt., Aetheia gualteri (Morris), Terebratulina suessi Hutt., Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutt.), Liothyrella landonensis Thomson, Pachymagas parki (Hutt.), Flabellum radians T.-W., F. circulare T.-W., Retepora sp., Graphularia sp., Eupatagus tuberculatus Zitt., E. greyi Hutt., Pericosmus lyoni Tate, P. compressus McCoy, Pentacrinus stellatus Hutt., Oxyrhina grandis Davis, Lamna huttoni Davis, L. incurva Davis, and Kekenodon (?).

Tycho Valley.

Along the right bank of this valley there is a steep limestone slope, and in one place this is overlain by a deposit of blue clay, which is the only evidence that all this limestone was once covered by the blue clay. From the clay I collected Chione meridionalis (Sow.), Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.), and Limopsis aurita (Brocchi).

Holme Station.

In this locality the upper red sands and sandstones are seen dipping south-east at 15°. The lowest beds have few fossils, but the upper beds contain concretions and hard calcareous layers, as at Southburn Cutting and Gordon's Valley. They contain a rich fauna, and it is noteworthy that this is the exposure from which the first “Pareora” fossils were collected. I collected here the sixty-nine species of molluscs tabulated in column 13 of the table.


The only Tertiary beds exposed here are the limestone, the blue clay, and the upper red sands. The section is noteworthy, as the beds dip into instead of away from the Trias-Jura rocks. The limestone is well seen on the right bank, where it dips in one section to the north-north-east at 40°, and in another section to the north-north-west at 10°.

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Fig. 10.—Section along left bank of Pareora River, near the upper gorge (Cannington). Distance, about ¾ mile; direction, S.S.E. — N.N.W.; dip, 10°. 1. Greywacke. 2. Limestone. 3. Blue clay. 4. Gravel. (The westerly part of the section is obscured by gravels.)

On the left bank the limestone is followed conformably by blue clays, as at Squire's Farm, but heavy deposits of gravel have obscured the upper

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parts of the section. About a mile farther down, however, the red sands are seen in the cuttings made for the road that passes over the steep hill on the left bank.

The limestone yielded Epitonium lyratum (Zitt.), E. browni (Zitt.), Pachymagas sp., echinoderm spines and plates, and Pentacrinus stellatus Hutt.

From the blue clay lying only a few feet above the limestone I collected Turritella concava Hutt., Crepidula gregaria Sow., Polinices sp., Surcula fusiformis (Hutt.), Dentalium mantelli Zitt., D. ecostatum T. W. Kirk, Malletia australis (Q. & G.), Pecten huttoni (Park), P. zitteli Hutt., Chione meridionalis (Sow.), Chione chiloensis truncata Sut., Limopsis aurita (Brocchi), Corbula canaliculata Hutt., Cochlodesma angasi (C. & F.) (?), and Pachymagas parki (Hutt.).

Ford's, Fenn's, and Pringle's.

If we follow the road along the foothills, from Squire's Farm to White Rock, we find that almost the only Tertiary beds exposed are the grits of the coal series. Between Squire's Farm and the first tributary of Little River, however, a marine sandstone is found in one of the road-cuttings, and farther on there is a small outcrop of limestone on the left of the road. This limestone lies close in against the greywacke, and its position is hard to account for, unless it has been faulted down.

From the sandstone I collected the following fossils: Turritella symmetrica Hutt., Ancilla australis (Sow.), Psammobia lineolata Gray, P. zelandica Desh., Venericardia pseutes Sut., V. zelandica (Desh.) var., Macrocallista assimilis (Hutt.), Modiolus dolichus Sut., and Cardium waitakiense Sut.

Table of Fossil Mollusca.

(Recent species are marked with an asterisk before the name; complete faunas of formations throughout the district are followed by a double rule.)

Column 1. Lower sands and sandstones, Otaio Gorge.

Column 2. Complete fauna of lower sands and sandstones (Waihao beds) throughout the district.

Column 3. Complete fauna of crab-beds and marls throughout the district.

Column 4. Complete fauna of the limestones throughout the district.

Column 5. Bluish-green clays, Bluecliffs, Otaio River.

Column 6. Blue clays, Squire's Farm.

Column 7. Blue clays, Pareora River, foot of Mount Horrible.

Column 8. Complete fauna of blue clays throughout the district.

Column 9. Upper red sands with concretions, Southburn Cutting.

Column 10. Upper red sands, Gordon's Valley.

Column 11. Upper beds of the series, White Rock River.

Column 12. Upper red sands, Sutherland's.

Column 13. Upper red sands, Holme Station.

Column 14. Complete fauna of upper red sands throughout the district.

Column 15. Complete fauna of the Pareora series (columns 8 and 14).

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

—— 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
Alectrion socialis (Hutt.) X X X X X X X X X X
Ampullina sutralis (Hutt.) X X X X X X X X X X X
Amusium zitteli (Hutt.) X X X
*Ancilla australis (Sow.) X X X X X X X X
*" depressa (Sow.) X X X X X " hebera (Hutt.)
Cf. X X X X X X X X X X X
*" novae-zelandiae (Sow.) X X X X X X " papillata (Tate) X X X X X X " waikopiroensis Sut. X X X
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
*Anomia huttoni Sut. X X X " trigonopsis Hutt. X X X
*" undata Hutt. X X X X
*" walteri Hect. X X X X X
Architectonica cf. ngaparaensis Sut. X X
Astarte australis Hutt. (?) X X
*Atrina zelandica (Gray) X X X X X X
Bathytoma haasti (Hutt.) X X X X X X X " " sulcata (Hutt.) X X X X X X X X X X " " excavata Sut. X X X X X
Borsonia cincta (Hutt.) X X X X X
Bulla sp.(?) X X
*Calyptraea alta (Hutt.) X X X
*" maculata (Q. & G.) X X X X X X X X X X X X
*" " inflata (Hutt.) X X X X X X
Cardium greyi Hutt. X X X X " waitakiense Sut. X X
Cerithium hectori Harris X X X
Chione acuminata Hutt. X X X " chiloensis truncata Sut. X X X X X X X " meridionalis (Sow.) X X X X X X X X X X " speighti Sut. X X X X X X
*Cochlodesma angasi (C. & F.) (?) X X X Cominella carinata (Hutt.) X X X " pulchra Sut. X X X
Corbula canaliculata Hutt. X X X X X X X X X X X Crassatellites amplus (Zitt.) ? ? X X X
*" obesus (A. Ad.) X X X X X X X X X X X X X
*Crepidula costata (Sow.) X X X X " gregaria Sow. X X X X X X
*" monoxyla (Less.) X X X X X X X " striata (Hutt.) X X X X X Cucullaea alta Sow. X X X X X X X " attenuata Hutt. X X X X X X " australis (Hutt.) X X X
Cylichnella enysi (Hutt.) X X X
Cymatium minimum (Hutt.) X X X X X X X
Cytherea enysi Hutt. X X X
Daphnella neozelanica Sut. X X X X X
*Dentalium ecostatum T. W. Kirk X X X X X X X " mantelli Zitt. X X X X X X X X X X
*" nanum Hutt. X X X X " solidum Hutt. X X X X X X X X X X X
*Divaricella cumingi (Ad. & Ang.) X X X
*Dosinia greyi Zitt. X X X X X X X X X
*" lambata (Gould) X X X X X X " magna Hutt. X X X X X Drillia awamoaensis (Hutt.) X X X X X X X X X " buchanani (Hutt.) X X X Epitonium browni (Zitt.) X X X X X X " elatum Sut. X X X " lyratum (Zitt.) X X X X X X X X X
*" zelebori (Dkr.) X X X
Euthria media (Hutt.) X X X
Exilia dalli Sut. X X X X
Ficus transennus Sut. ? ? Fulgoraria aculeata (Hutt.) X X X
*" arabica (Mart.) X X X X X X X X " " elongata (Swains). X X X X X X " " turrita Sut. X X X " gracilis (Swains.) X X X
*Fusinus spiralis (A. Ad.) X X X X X X X X
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
Galeodea senex (Hutt.) X X X X X X X X
Genota robusta (Hutt.) X X X X Glycymeris cordata (Hutt.) X X X X " globosa (Hutt.) X X X
*" laticostata (Q. & G.) X X X X X X X X
Gryphaea tarda Hutt. X Heliacus imperfectus Sut. X X Hemiconus ornatus (Hutt.) X X X X
Latirus brevirostris (Hutt.) X X X X X
Leucosyrinx alta (Harris) X X X X Lima colorata Hutt. X X X X X X X " imitata Sut. X " laevigata Hutt. X " paleata Hutt. (?) X *Limopsis aurita (Brocchi) X X X X X X X X X X X " catenata Sut. X X X X " zitteli Iher. X X X X X X X
Loripes laminata Hutt. X X X
Macrocallista assimilis (Hutt.) X X Mactra chrydea Sut. X X X
*" discors Gray X X X X X
*" scalpellum. Reeve X X X X X X X
*Malletia australis (Q. & G.) X X X X X X X
*Mangilia protensa (Hutt.) X X X
Marginella conica Harris X X X X
Mesalia striolata (Hutt.) X X X X X
Miomelon corrugata (Hutt.) X X X X X X X X
Mitra armorica Sut. X X X
Modiolus dolichus Sut. X X X X
Murex zelandicus Q. & G. X X X X
*Natica australis (Hutt.) X X X
*" zelandica Q. & G. X X X X X X X X X
*Nucula nitidula A. Ad. X X
Olivella neozelanica (Hutt.) X X X Ostrea gudexi Sut. X " nelsoniana Zitt. X Panope orbita (Hutt.) X X X X " worthingtoni (Hutt.) X X X X X
*" zelandica (Q. & G.) X X X
Paphia curta (Hutt.) X X X X X Pecten burnetti Zitt. X " delicatulus Hutt. X " hilli Hutt. X " huttoni (Park) X X X X X X X X X X X X X " scandula Hutt. (?) X " cf. triphooki Zitt. X " williamsoni Zitt. X X X Placunanomia incisura Hutt. X X X
*" zelandica (Gray) X X X X X X
*Polinices amphialus (Wats.) X X X X X X " gibbosus (Hutt.) X X X X X X X X X " huttoni Iher. X X X X X X X X " ovatus (Hutt.) X X X X X X X X X " planispirus Sut. X X X
*Psammobia lineolata Gray X X X X X X X " cf. stangeri Gray X X *" zelandica Desh. X X X X X X X
Ptychatractus nodosoliratus Sut. X X X
*Pupa alba Hutt. X X X X X Sinum cinctum (Hutt.) X X X X " miocoenicum (Sut.) X X X X X " undulatum (Sut.) X X X X X
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Siphonalia conoidea (Zitt.) X X X " costata (Hutt.) X X X X X X X X X X X
*" dilatata (Q. & G.) X X X X X X X X
*" nodosa (Mart.) X X X X X X X X " subnodosa (Hutt.) X X X Struthiolaria cincta Hutt. X X X X X X " papulosa (Mart.) X X X X X " spinosa Hect. X X X " tuberculata Hutt. X X X X X X X Surcula fusiformis (Hutt.) X X X X X X X X X X X
*Tellina glabrella Desh. X X Terebra orycta Sut. X X X X X X X " pareoraensis Sut. X X X X X X X X
*" tristis Desh. X X X X X Teredo heaphyi Zitt. X X X X X " directa Hutt. X Turbonilla prisca Sut. X X X
*Turritella carlottae Wats. X X X X X X " cavershamensis Harris X X X X X X X X X X X " concava Hutt. X X X X X X X " patagonica Sow. X X X X X
*" rosea Q. & G. X X X X X X " semiconcava Sut. X X X X X X X X
*" symmetrica Hutt. X X X X X X X X
Typhis maccoyi T.-W. X X X X X X X Venericardia pseutes Sut. X X X X X X X
*" purpurata (Desh.) X X X X X X " zelandica (Desh.) var. X X Vexillum apicale (Hutt.) X X X " rutidolomum Sut. X X X X X X X
*Zenatia acinaces Q. & G. X X X X X

Haast, J., 1865. Report on the Geological Formation of the Timaru District, in reference to obtaining a Supply of Water, 13 pp., and sections, Christchurch.

Hardcastle, J., 1890. Origin of the Loess Deposit of the Timaru Plateau, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 22, pp. 406–14.

——, 1891. On the Drift in South Canterbury, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 23, pp. 311–24.

——, 1891A. On the Timaru Loess as a Climate Register, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 23, pp. 324–32.

——, 1908. Notes on the Geology of South Canterbury, 62 pp., Timaru.

Hutton, F. W., 1873. Catalogue of the Tertiary Mollusca and Echinodermata of New Zealand in the Collection of the Colonial Museum (ref. to pp. vii, viii).

Mantell, G. A., 1850. Notice of the Remains of the Dinornis and other Birds, and of Fossils and Rock-specimens, recently collected by Mr. Walter Mantell in the Middle Island of New Zealand, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. 6, pp. 319–42 (ref. to pp. 322–23).

Marshall, P., 1916. The Younger Limestones of New Zealand, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 48, pp. 87–99.

McKay, A., 1877. Oamaru and Waitaki Districts, Rep. Geol. Explor. dur. 1876–77, pp. 41–66.

Park, J., 1905. On the Marine Tertiaries of Otago and Canterbury, with Special Reference to the Relations existing between the Pareora and Oamaru Series, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 37, pp. 489–551.

Speight, R., 1914. Additions to the List of Fossils from the Lower Waipara, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 46, p. 300.

Thomson, J. A., 1914. Classification and Correlation of the Tertiary Rocks, 8th Ann. Rep. (n.s.) N.Z. Geol. Surv., pp. 123–24.

——— 1917. Diastrophic and other Considerations in Classification and Correlation, and the Existence of Minor Diastrophic Districts in the Notocene, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 49, pp. 397–413.