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Volume 50, 1918
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Fifteenth Annual Meeting

Wellington, 29th and 30th January, 1918.

The annual meeting of the New Zealand Institute Board of Governors was held in the Dominion Museum Library on Tuesday, the 29th January, 1918, at 10 a.m.

Present: Professor Benham, President (in the chair); Professors Kirk, Marshall, Segar, and A. P. W. Thomas; Drs. Cockayne, Hilgendorf, and Allan Thomson; Messrs. Aston, Birks, Eliott, Bwen, Hill, Hogben, Parr, and G. M. Thomson.

The Secretary called the roll, and the President apologized for the absence of Professor Chilton, who was laid aside by illness.

Presidential Address.—The President then delivered his presidential address (see p. 338).

A hearty vote of thanks to the President for his address was moved by Mr. Hill, seconded by Professor Marshall, and carried. A Committee consisting of the President and Dr. Hilgendorf was, on the motion of Professor Kirk, seconded by Professor Thomas, appointed to consider and report on points in the President's address which call for action, to report to this meeting.

The Incorporated Societies' Annual Reports and Balance-sheets for their last financial years were laid on the table. Received.

The Report of the Standing Committee was considered clause by clause and adopted (Appendices A, B, C to be discussed later).

Report of the Stattding Committee for the Year Ending 31st December, 1917.

Five meetings of the Committee have been held during the year, the attendance being as follows: Dr. Cockayne, 2; Professor Easterfield, 5; Professor Kirk, 5; Dr. Thomson, 5; and Mr. Aston, 5.

Hector Memorial Fund Award.—No details of the presentation to Sir E Rutherford have yet been received, although medal and prize were sent to England over a year ago through the Department of Internal Affairs and the Public Trustee respectively. The 1917 medal was publicly presented to Dr. C. Chilton at a meeting of the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury held on the 1st August, 1917. The Public Trustee has been nstructed to forward a cheque for the amount of the prize to Dr. Chilton.

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Hutton Memorial Medal for 1917.—The medal was publicly presented to Dr. P. Marshall by His Excellency the Governor-General when on a visit to Wanganui in September, but no details have yet been received.

Jubilee of the Institute.—This year the New Zealand Institute completes its fiftieth year of activity. The Standing Committee recommends that, owing to the war, any recognition of the Jubilee be postponed until a more convenient season.

War Roll of Honour.—The Hon. Secretary has collected data from the incorporated societies for the preparation of a Roll of Honour to be published at some future date.

Volume 48, Transactions and Proceedings, N.Z. Institute.—This was issued in bulk to the incorporated societies in October, 1916, but Parliament having adjourned, a copy was not laid on the table of the House of Representatives until the 3rd July, 1917, and on that of the Legislative Council on the 5th July, 1917.

Distribution of Transactions.—The Standing Committee regrets that it was not found possible to distribute the Transactions volume 49 to each member by post from Wellington.

Distribution of Excess of Back Numbers of Transactions.—A few applications from libraries have been received for partial sets, and the following should be added to the list of those who have received them:—

  • Department of Agriculture Library, Wellington.

  • Technical College, Wanganui.

  • Fiji Museum, Suva.

  • Kuaotunu Public Library, Kuaotunu.

Mailing-list.—The following has been added to the mailing-list, and will in future receive the Transactions as published:—

American Journal of Science (Editors), Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.

Resolutions of the Standing Committee—Banking Account: It was resolved that only the following be authorized to operate on the Institute's banking accounts: viz., the Hon. Treasurer, the Hon. Secretary, and Professor Easterfield. This to continue in force until revoked in writing.

Major Broun's Bulletin.—It was resolved that 400 copies of Major Broun's bulletin be printed.

National Efficiency and Research.—A most important feature in the history of the New Zealand Institute was the appeal from the Government National Efficiency Board for advice on the relation of scientific and industrial research to national efficiency. On the 7th June, 1917, a letter from the Chairman of the National Efficiency Board (Mr. William Ferguson) was received by the Standing Committee, asking its advice, and suggesting that the Committee should hold a special meeting to consider the following resolution forwarded by the National Efficiency Board:—“Scientific and Industrial Research: Resolved, That the Standing Committee of the New Zealand Institute be asked to advise the Chairman on the matter, with power to consult other scientific men technologists in the Dominion, and the Committee be requested to hold its first meeting on a date when, if possible, the Senate of the University will be in Wellington, so that those members of that body who are members of the Committee can attend its deliberations.”

The Standing Committee referred the matter to the President of the Institute (Professor Benham, Dunedin), asking for authority to resolve itself into a committee with power to co-opt members outside those already on the Board of Governors, to receive suggestions from the incorporated societies and other bodies and persons interested in any scheme of organization of research and industry, to collect these suggestions received, and to prepare a scheme for submission to the full Board of Governors.

A confidential report on the organization of scientific and industrial research, by Dr. J. Allan Thomson, dated the 20th July, 1916, to the Hon. the Minister of Internal Affairs, was used as a basis of discussion, with the consent of the Hon. the Minister, who supplied a limited number of typed copies for private circulation. At a further meeting on the 5th July the Standing Committee received a letter from the President empowering the Committee to proceed in the direction desired. The Committee therefore co-opted the following: Dr. C. E. Adams, Mr. D. C. Bates, Dr. C. A. Cotton, Mr. William Ferguson, Dr. Frengley, Mr. F. W. Furkert, Mr. W. H. Holmes, Mr. H. H. Jackson, Mr. J. C. Lewis, Dr. J. S. Maclaurin, Mr. W. B. Montgomery, Mr. P. G. Morgan, Mr. W. H. Morton, Mr. Evan Parry, Dr. C. J. Reakes, and Mr. E. Phillips Turner.

Certain bodies were also asked to select someone to represent them on the Committee, and the following were so elected: The Industrial Corporation of New Zealand appointed its president, Mr. F. J. Evans; the Workers' Education Association of

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Wellington appointed Professor T. Hunter; and the Council of Education appointed Mr. George Hogben to represent it on the Committee.

The name of this Committee adopted was the New Zealand Institute's Scientific and Industrial Research Committee. Mr. George Hogben, C.M.G., was unanimously appointed permanent Chairman, and seven meetings were held in September, October, November, and December, the attendance being as follows: Mr. George Hogben, 7; Dr. Adams, 6; Mr. Aston, 6; Mr. Bates, 4; Dr. Cockayne, 6; Dr. Cotton, 6; Professor Easterfield, 4; Mr. Evans, 7; Dr. Frengley, 5; Mr. Furkert, 4; Mr. Ferguson, 4; Professor Hunter, 6; Mr. Holmes, 6; Mr. Lewis, 6; Dr. Maclaurin, 6; Mr. Montgomery, 4; Mr. Morgan, 7; Mr. Morton, 1; Mr. Parry, 2; Dr. Reakes, 4; Dr. Thomson, 6; Mr. Turner, 5; Mr. H. Hill, 1.

The Honorary Secretary of the New Zealand Institute was elected Honorary Secretary of this Committee. A sub-committee, consisting of Mr. George Hogben and Dr. Thomson, was set up to prepare a synopsis of the various schemes at present adopted by other countries for advancing science and industry. This was drawn up as a report by the sub-committee, submitted to the Hon. the Minister of Internal Affairs on the 2nd October, 1917, and at once published as a parliamentary paper, H.-47, 1917, Organization of Scientific and Industrial Research, and laid before Parliament, then sitting.

The Committee resolved that it was necessary that a research scheme should be prepared. A sub-committee was set up to draw up a list of suitable bodies and persons to circularize throughout the Dominion asking for any suggestions which they had to offer. The replies which were received were summarized by the Chairman.

The Committee took the scheme of the Wellington Philosophical Society (see Parliamentary Paper H.–47, 1917) as a basis for formulating a new scheme, and duly considering (a) the replies which had been received in answer to the Committee's circular, (b) the opinion of certain prominent scientific research workers who happened to be in Wellington at the Board of Studies meeting of the New Zealand University. Certain recommendations were drawn up advising the setting-up of a Board of Science and Industry, and prescribing the method of election or of appointment, and also the functions of the members of this proposed Board. The President of the New Zealand Institute having given his permission for this Committee to send their report in to the Government without consulting the Board of Governors as a whole (who nevertheless were kept informed by circular of the progress of the scheme), the report was sent in to the Chairman of the National Efficiency Board on the 9th November, 1917.

At the request of the Hon. the Minister of Internal Affairs, the Committee waited upon him on the, 12th December, 1917, to hear his views and to give any advice desired as to the advancement of science and industry. The Minister promised to support the scheme drawn up by the Committee.

Mr. Ferguson informed the Hon. the Minister that the recommendations of the Committee would receive consideration at the meeting of the National Efficiency Board to be held on the 8th January, 1918, and were then to be sent on to the Government. (Your Committee is informed that this has now been done.)

At an early stage of the Committee's deliberations a motion was carried urging the Government to place on the supplementary estimates £2,000 for the purpose of promoting scientific research. This motion was forwarded through the National Efficiency Board to the Government.

The Prime Minister has informed the Board that the following sums have been placed on the estimates under the Department of Internal Affairs:—

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(1.) Dominion Laboratory-Scientific research 500
(2.) Miscellaneous Services—Grant to the New Zealand Institute for research work 500
(3.) Dominion Museum—Scientific and industrial research 250

As requested, the Standing Committee has extended the powers of the Scientific and Industrial Research Committee so that it may undertake the preliminary work of collecting data concerning New Zealand's industries and research workers, and facilities for carrying out the work. The Hon. the Minister of Internal Affairs having informed the Committee that he was prepared to take steps at an early date to inaugurate a Dominion scheme of scientific and industrial research by making a preliminary census of past research, actual problems of industry awaiting solution, and of available laboratories and research workers, and that there was a vote of £250 on the Museum estimates available for the purpose, the Committee advises that the Director of the Dominion Museum should undertake such census, and that a Committee of the New Zealand Institute should co-operate with him.

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Annual Reports and Balance-sheets of the following incorporated societies have been received and are now laid on the table. No reports have been received from the Wanganui or the Nelson Societies.

  • Auckland Institute, to 22nd February, 1917.

  • Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, to 31st October, 1917.

  • Otago Institute, to 30th November, 1917.

  • Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, to 1st December, 1917.

  • Manawatu Philosophical Society, to 30th November, 1917.

  • Wellington Philosophical Society, to 30th September, 1917.

Auckland Institute Jubilee.—An illustrated pamphlet entitled The First Fifty Years of the Auckland Institute and Museum, and its Future Aims, a Jubilee Sketch, was published by the Auckland Institute in September, 1917. A copy is now laid on the table.

Public Meeting of the New Zealand Institute.—The desirability of holding a public meeting of the New Zealand Institute to arouse some public interest in scientific affairs, more especially in relation to industry, was discussed by the Committee, and Dr. Hector, Dr. Allan Thomson, Mr. Ewen, and the Hon. Secretary were appointed a sub-committee to make arrangements to hold it on the 30th January, 1917, the night of the last annual meeting, and the Town Hall was engaged for the purpose. It was not found possible, however, to obtain the necessary support at the time, and the matter was allowed to drop.

Honorary Treasurer's Reports.—The financial statements of the Honorary Treasurer, Mr. C. A. Ewen, comprising (a) Receipts and expenditure, (b) assets and liabilities, (c) the Carter Bequest, the Hutton Memorial Fund, and the Hector Memorial Fund, all of which were duly audited and certified by the Auditor-General, were adopted on the motion of Mr. Ewen, seconded by Mr. Birks.

The Public Trustee's reports on his administration of the Carter Bequest, the Hutton and the Hector Funds for the year ending 31st December, 1917, were adopted on the motion of Mr. Hill, seconded by Mr. Ewen.

Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for the Year ending 31st December, 1917.

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Receipts. £ s. d.
Balance at 31st December, 1916 561 11 10
Post Office Savings-bank interest to 31st December, 1917 15 6 1
Government grant (30th June) 500 0 0
Publications sold 47 19 5
City Corporation, refund rent hall not used 2 2 0
Wanganui Philosophical Society levy for year ending 31st December, 1916 6 17 6
Hawke's Bay Philosophical Society levy for year 1916 6 0 6
Nelson Institute levy for 1916 3 10 0
Grant for research refunded by Mr. D. Petrie 20 0 0
Grant from Treasury (1st February) 120 0 0
Grant from Treasury (28th March) 20 0 0
£1,303 7 4

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Expenditure. £ s. d.
Hire Concert Chamber, Town Hall, for 30th January 2 2 0
McKay, custodian, preparing room and packing 3 0 0
Miss Bates, typing 4 10 0
Government Printer, Vol. 48, authors' copies and printing 599 17 0
Governors' travelling-expenses 35 10 6
Grant for research to Philosophical Institute of Canterbury 110 0 0
Grant for research to Wellington Philosophical Society 75 0 0
Grant for research to Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute 20 0 0
Grant for research to D. Petrie 20 0 0
Fire-insurance promium, £1,500 on library 5 0 0
Hon. Editor, petty expenses 4 0 0
Hon. Secretary, petty expenses 5 0 0
Bank charge 0 10 0
Balance in—
£ s. d.
P.O. Savings bank 333 14 7
Bank of N.Z. 85 3 3

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418 17 10
£1.303 7 4
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Statement of Liabilities and Assets at 31st December, 1917.

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Liabilities Assets.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
By Balance in Bank of New Zealand 85 3 3
Balance in Post Office Savings-bank 333 14 7
Hector Memorial Fund and per contra 1,106 13 9 1,106 13 9
Hutton Memorial Fund and per contra 787 11 5 787 11 5
Carter Bequest and per contra 4,138 5 11 4,138 5 11
Institute levies for year 1917 (per list) 124 7 6
Authors' copies and books sold 7 6 1
To Special grants for research purposes 45 0 0
Government Printer's account, authors' copies, & c 88 13 0
Cost 1917 volume, No. 49 577 0 0
New Zealand Express Company 3 13 6
By Balance 163 15 1
£6,746 17 7 £6,746 17 7
To Balance £163 15 1

Against this debit balance the Institute has a large stock of Transactions for sale, and possesses a very valuable library.

Hector Memorial Fund.—Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for the Year Ending 31st December, 1917.

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Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
By Balance brought forward 1,093 18 0
 Public Trust Office— £ s. d.
  Interest, 31st December, 1916, to 31st December, 1917 48 1 4
  Bonus for year ending 31st December, 1917 4 15 11

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To New Zealand Institute— 52 17 3
 Hector Prize, awarded Professor Sir E. Rutherford 40 0 0
 Postages 0 1 6
 Balance in hands of Public Trustee 1,106 13 9
£1,146 15 3 £1,146 15 3
By Balance £1,106 13 9

Hutton Memorial Fund.—Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for the Year Ending 31st December, 1917.

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Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
By Balance brought forward 750 10 5
 Public Trust Office— £ s. d.
  Interest, 31st December, 1916, to 31st December, 1917 33 14 8
  Bonus for year ending 31st March, 1917 3 6 4

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37 1 0
To Balance in hands of Public Trustee 787 11 5
£787 11 5 £787 11 5
By Balance £787 11 5
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Caster Bequest.—Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for the Year Ending 31st December, 1917.

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Dr. Cr
£ s. d. £ s. d.
By Balance brought forward 3,944 3 5
Public Trust Office–
  Interest from 31st December, 1916, to 31st December, 1917 177 5 10
Bonus interest from 31st December, 1916, to 31st December, 1917 17 1 11
To Public Trustee—
Commission 0 5 3
Balance in hands of Public Trustee 4,138 5 11
£4,138 11 2 £4,138 11 2
By Balance £4,138 5 11

Financial Position.—After a general discussion on the financial position of the Institute it was resolved, on the motion of Mr. Ewen, seconded by Dr. Cockayne, That for every copy of Volume 50 of the Transactions received by the incorporated societies a contribution of 2s. 6d. towards the cost of printing shall be made during the current year by such society. On the motion of Professor Thomas, seconded by Mr. Hill, it was resolved, That strong representations be made to the Government by the New Zealand Institute with the view of obtaining an increased grant of £750 for this year for the publication of the Transactions and other scientific work.

Hutton Grant for Research.—Mr. G. M. Thomson, Chairman of the Portobello Fish-hatchery, read a further report of the work carried out during 1917, which had been assisted by a grant from the Hutton Fund in January, 1916.

Hector Award for 1918.—The recommendations of the Committee of Award—Professor Chilton, Dr. Cockayne (convener), Professor Easter-field, and Professor P. Marshall—was received in a sealed envelope by the President, and the recommendation awarding the medal and prize to Mr T. F. Cheeseman, of Auckland, was adopted on the motion of Professor Thomas, seconded by Mr. G. M. Thomson.

Report of the Hector Memorial Award Committee.

The members of the Hector Memorial Award Committee for 1918—Professor C. Chilton, Dr. L. Cockayne, Professor T. H. Easterfield, and Dr. P. Marshall—having carefully considered the claims of all botanists who, in their opinion, might be entitled to receive the Hector Memorial Medal and Prize, have unanimously decided to recommend Mr. T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S., F.Z.S., as the recipient of the award.

This they do on the grounds not only of the great excellence of Mr. Cheeseman's published researches on New Zealand systematic botany, phytogeography and floral biology, which have been carried on without a break since the early “seventies of the last century, but also because of the supreme influence of his work, especially of his admirable Manual of the New Zealand Flora, upon botanical investigation throughout the Dominion.

Leonard Cookayne,

Convener of the Committee.

Publication Committee's Report.—On the motion of Dr. Cockayne, the Publication Committee's report was adopted. On the motion of Dr. Hilgendorf, seconded by Professor Segar, it was resolved, That the question of inserting the date of receipt of papers by the Honorary Editors be lett to the Publication Committee.

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Report of the Publication Committee.

Sixty papers were offered for publication, and of these fifty were accepted by the Committee for publication in Volume 49 of the Transactions. It was decided to deposit the manuscript of another paper in the library of the New Zealand Institute and to publish the title, so that this might be indexed and give information to other workers as to the availability of the work. It is proposed to treat similarly other papers so deposited in the future. The remainder of the papers were withdrawn, held over, or declined.

Volume 49 of the Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute was issued on the 20th December, 1917. It contained xvi + 618 pages (of which 88 are devoted to the Proceedings), 37 plates, and many text-figures.

The late publication of the volume must be accepted as a direct consequence of the war, which has depleted the staff of the Government Printing Office and supplied it with a large amount of extra work of an urgent nature. It must be remembered that the publication of scientific matter is undertaken by the Government Printing Office only in the slack season. When the pressure of urgent work for Government Departments increases, the time available for work on the Institute's publications is reduced. The Committee is of the opinion that the Institute is deeply indebted to the Government Printing Office for maintaining the high standard of typographical work in the Transactions in these trying times, and, while regretting the lateness of the publication of Volume 49, realizes that the lateness resulted from uncontrollable circumstances.

An innovation that has given much satisfaction is the issuing of authors' copies of articles in Volume 49 in advance of publication of the volume. This was authorized by a resolution of the Board of Governors, and has resulted in giving early publication to those papers in particular which appear in the early pages of the Transactions. Each paper bears the date of issue, and, in accordance with the resolution of the Board of Governors, the date of receipt of the manuscript by the Editors. The latter, however, is at present meaningless, since the manuscripts are generally retained by the Secretaries of the incorporated societies until the last week of December. Moreover, the only apparent reason for recording the date of receipt is to insure page priority in the volume, and no resolution to this effect has been passed. If this is the intention of the Board of Governors, it necessitates a revision of the method of transmission of manuscripts from the authors to the Editors, and also involves a departure from the present method of arrangement of papers in the volume according to subjects and authors. If this is not the intention, the insertion of the date of receipt of the manuscript seems useless.

The Committee recommends that the Secretaries of the incorporated societies be requested to send the manuscripts of papers to the Editors as soon as possible after they have been read. If this is done, much earlier publication of the authors' copies than has been usual may be expected. Early receipt of the manuscripts will also allow these to be returned to the authors when extensive alterations are required, and, in some cases, will obviate the necessity of holding over such papers for a year.

Bulletin No. 1, Part V, on the New Zealand Coleoptera, by Major T. Broun, was published on the 26th June, 1917, and contains 128 pages of text. Publication of the other three bulletins mentioned in the 1917 report is still delayed owing to shortage of funds.

The Committee wishes to draw attention to the fact that the majority of manuscripts as received are not well prepared for publication either as regards text or illustrations. The “Memorandum for Authors of Papers” published annually in the Transactions is evidently seldom consulted.

For the Committee.

L. Cockayne, C. A. Cotton,

Hon. Editors.

The Hon. the Minister of Internal Affairs, Mr. G. W. Russell, was at this stage welcomed by the President.

The President thanked the Hon. the Minister of Internal Affairs for addressing the meeting, and for his promise of further assistance to the Institute.

Report of the Library Committee.—The Hon. Librarian's report was adopted on the motion of Dr. Thomson, seconded by Mr. Hill.

Report of Library Committee.

The incoming exchanges have been received, registered, and placed upon the shelves. As the Institute has not been able to devote any funds to bookbinding

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since 1904, the task of keeping the library in an efficient state yearly becomes more difficult. In the opinion of the Committee the time has come when the Institute should make a strong appeal to the Government for additional funds specifically allotted to the binding of the Institute's library, which has already been offered, under conditions not yet fixed, to the Board of Science and Art.

The compilation of the index cards for 1915 for the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature was referred to the Library Committee, and the cards for many of the subjects have been prepared, but have been withheld until the Board of Governors reconsidered the whole subject.

The only New Zealand journals recognized by the International Catalogue are the Transactions, Proceedings, and Bulletins of the New Zealand Institute, the Journal of Agriculture, the Polynesian Journal, and the Journal of the British Medical Association (N.Z. Branch). The following important serials are omitted from the list: the Bulletins and Palaeontological Bulletins of the New Zealand Geological Survey, the Bulletins of the Dominion Museum, and the Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, which last contain the annual reports of Departments and occasional scientific papers of importance.

It is the duty of the New Zealand Institute, acting as the Regional Bureau for New Zealand, to make representations to the International Council as to what New Zealand journals should be indexed, and your Committee felt that it was inadvisable to send forward the cards already prepared for 1915 until the Board of Governors had considered the whole matter. We are further of opinion that the International Council should be asked to forward their annual report each year, so that affairs of the International Catalogue may come up automatically before the Board of Governors.

J. Allan Thomson

Hon. Librarian.

Binding of Books.—On the motion of Mr. Hill, seconded by Mr. G. M. Thomson, it was resolved, That application be made to the Minister of Internal Affairs for a grant, as soon as circumstances permit, sufficient to provide for binding the large number of unbound publications now in the library of the Institute.

International Catalogue of Scientific Literature.—On the motion of Dr. Thomson, seconded by Mr. Parr, it was resolved, That the following be added to the list of serials to be indexed for the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature, and sent to the International Council:—


Bulletins and Palaeontological Bulletins of the New Zealand Geological Survey.


Bulletins of the Dominion Museum.


Bulletins of the Board of Science and Art.


The New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology.


Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives.


Public Health Reports.

It was resolved, on the motion of Dr. Thomson, seconded by Professor Segar, That the International Council be informed that the New Zealand Institute considered it important that Government publications should be indexed in the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature, and that the Library Committee be instructed to draft a letter explaining the position.

On the motion of Dr. Thomson, seconded by Professor Thomas, it was resolved, That Professor Dendy be appointed to represent the New Zealand Institute on the International Council of the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature.

Bulletins.—The matter of publishing future bulletins was left in the hands of the Publication Committee to deal with at their discretion.

Library Catalogue.—Dr. Thomson explained the system of multiple card-indexing museum exhibits, and suggested that it might be made to apply to a library catalogue.

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The Report of the Research Grant Committee was read, and, on the motion of Mr. Aston, seconded by Dr. Thomson, was adopted. On the motion of Dr. Hilgendorf, seconded by Professor Segar, it was resolved, That the grants already voted but not expended be renewed to the original applicants for the coming year.

On the motion of Dr. Hilgendorf, seconded by Mr. Hogben, it was resolved, That all applications for research grants be made through incorporated societies.

Report of the Research Grant Committee.

(Professor Easterfield, Dr. Allan Thomson, and Mr. B. C. Aston.)

The grantees for 1916–17 (see Trans. and Proc., N.Z. Inst., vol. 49, p. 580) have reported as follows:—

Mr. L. Symes (Canterbury Philosophical Institute) reports (15/12/17) that no portion of the grant has been expended, owing to the difficulty of obtaining the necessary assistance. Some preliminary work has been, done, but little progress can be reported. The grantee asks that the grant be renewed for the coming year. A committee of the Canterbury Philosophical Institute, consisting of Messrs. Hilgendorf, Page, Wild, Martin, and the grantee, has been appointed to carry on the work during the coming season.

Mr. L. Birks (Canterbury Philosophical Institute) reports (28/1/18) that the grant has not been touched, but asks that the same sum be voted for this year.

Messrs. Speight and Wild (Canterbury Philosophical Institute) report (1/12/17) having visited various localities in the South Island and having expended out of the grant of £50 the sum of £21 10s. 9d. in travelling-expenses. The work done they regard as preliminary to the attack on the problem from the commercial standpoint.

Mr. H. Hill (Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute) furnishes (20/11/17) a narrative of his journey across the Taupo Plains, with complete statements of expenditure, showing that the grant has been fully expended.

Professor Kirk (23/12/17) supplies an interim report, with a statement of £12 2s. expended out of £25 voted, and asks that the unexpended balance be allowed to stand over for another year.

Messrs. La Trobe and Adams report (24/1/18) that £64 1s. 6d. has been spent in the construction of apparatus, and make application for a further grant of £75.

Professor Jack (Otago Institute) has not been able to do anything towards the research for which £25 was voted but not paid, and asks (16/1/18) that the grant be renewed for 1918.

Mr. D. Petrie (Auckland Institute), being unable to take up the research for which £20 was granted, has surrendered his grant, and the money has been paid to the Institute.

Hamilton Memorial.—The report of the Hamilton Memorial Committee of the Wellington Philosophical Society, showing photographs of the stone selected and specifications and inscriptions in Maori and English, was read and received.

On the motion of Mr. Birks, it was resolved to thank the Hamilton Memorial Committee for their action.

On the motion of Mr. Hogben, seconded by Mr. Birks, it was resolved, That the Standing Committee be authorized to co-operate with the Wellington Philosophical Society in arranging the terms on which the balance of the Hamilton Memorial Fund should be handed over in trust to the New Zealand Institute.

Report of the Hamilton Memorial Committee of the Wellington Philosophical Society.

The Committee has to report that in response to a circular asking for subscriptions for a memorial to the late Mr. Augustus Hamilton, the sum of £122 2s. 10d. was received.

After consultation with the family of the late Mr. Hamilton, the Committee decided to have a suitable monolith erected over the grave at Russell, Bay of Islands.

A number of designs were considered, and the one prepared by the Government Architect, Mr. J. Campbell, F.R.I.B.A., was adopted. Working drawings and specifications were prepared by Mr. Campbell, and steps were then taken to obtain a suitable

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block of stone. Inquiries were made at a number of quarries, and finally a block of Kairuru marble was selected by the Committee and approved by Mr. H. Hamilton. The block stands on a concrete base faced by four pieces of the same kind of marble, covering an area of 4 ft. 6 in. by 3 ft. 7 in. A bronze tablet is mounted on the main block, and has the following inscription in raised letters:—

Augustus Hamilton 1853–1913

Director of the Dominion Museum Wellington

An Eminent Student of Maori Lore
a Lover of Nature

An Earnest Seeker After Truth

A bronze tablet is mounted in the marble base, and has the following inscription in raised letters:—

Ko Tenei Pakeha Ko Hamutana He Hoa Tuturu
No Te Iwi Maori, A He Tangata Manaaki
Hoki I Nga Rawa O Mua O Te Maori, Me Nga
Kauwhau O Nehe. Kola I Tapaia Ai Tona Ingoa
Ko Tupai Te Ahorangi; Te Whatu O Te Whare
Wananga, Me Te Kai Tiaki O Te Kete Aronui.

This may be translated as—

“This European Hamilton was a firm friend of the Maori people, a person who treasured their old-time works and ancient lore. Hence he was named Tupai te Ahorangi —the Core of the House of Learning, the Preserver of Occult Knowledge.”

The thanks of the Committee are tendered to Mr. R. W. Holmes, Engmeer-in-Chief, and Mr. John Wood, District Engineer, Public Works Department; to Mr. Elsdon Best; to Mr. J. Campbell, Government Architect; to Mr. G. Allport, Secretary for Marine; and to Captain Bollons, of the Government steamer “Hmemoa,” for valuable services rendered.

Through the actions of these gentlemen in saving expenses the Committee is enabled to hand over with this report an unexpended balance of £38 2s. 3d. The Committee recommends that this sum be invested by the New Zealand Institute, and that each year one half of the interest be added to the principal, and that the other half of the interest be devoted to a prize to be called the Hamilton Prize. The prize should be awarded from time to time by the New Zealand Institute to the author whose first scientific writings which shall be deemed worthy of the honour of the prize shall have appeared in the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute or other similar publication in New Zealand. The intention of the Committee is that the prize be restricted for competition among beginners in scientific research. The Committee has to report that this proposal is approved by the Hamilton family.

Specifications, working drawings, and photographs of the monument are forwarded herewith.

C. Monro Hector

, Chairman.

T. H. Easterfield


C. E. Adams

, Secretary.
Wellington, 24th October, 1917.

New Zealand Mean Time.—A letter (20/12/17) from the Wellington Philosophical Society enclosing a printed report of a Committee of the Council of the Wellington Philosophical Society entitled “New Zealand Standard Time” was received. On the motion of Mr. Birks, seconded by Dr. J. Allan Thomson, it was resolved by nine votes to five, That the New Zealand Institute endorse the resolution of the Wellington Philosophical Society regarding the alteration of New Zealand mean time.

Bird-protection.—A letter from the Royal Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne (15/10/17), was read and received. On the motion of Professor Kirk, seconded by Professor Thomas, it was resolved, That the Institute is in sympathy with all movements for the protection of

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harmless birds, and is prepared to co-operate with the Forest and Bird Protection Society in this direction.

Kapiti Island Sanctuary.—On the motion of Dr. Thomson, it was resolved, That Professor Kirk and Mr. Eliott, be a committee to visit and report on Kapiti Island at the next meeting, and that their expenses be reimbursed by the Institute.

Other Correspondence.—Letters (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), (i), from the Internal Affairs Department, were read and received:—

  • (d.) Protection of fur seals. (⅔/17.)

  • (e.) Resolutions of the last meeting. (14/6/17.)

  • (f.) Catalogue of New Zealand fishes. (14/3/17.)

  • (g.) Housing library. (⅓/17.)

  • (h.) Increase in grant to New Zealand Institute. (2/2/17.)

  • (i.) Museum library. (½/17.)

Dominion Museum.—It was resolved, on the motion of Professor Kirk, to again draw the attention of the Government to the following resolution passed at last year's annual meeting: “That the attention of the Government be again called to the fact that the Dominion Museum collection, including many valuable records and objects that could by no possibility be replaced, are still housed in an old and highly combustible wooden building.”

Sounds National Park.—On the motion of Mr. Birks, seconded by Mr. Eliott, it was resolved, That the New Zealand Institute respectfully urges that the protection of seals in the Sounds National Park and Cascade Point be not delayed until the end of the war, but be dealt with by a clause in the Legislative Amendment Bill.

Louvain University. — A letter was received from M. P. Delannoy, Librarian of the University of Louvain, intimating that until a public depot for the reception of gift books for the University library restoration has been arranged for it will be better to keep any gifts from New Zealand in this country.

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Science Worthies.—Letters were read from Mr. Henry Suter (8/2/17.) and Major Thomas Broun (12/⅛) thanking the Institute for the congratulatory letters (see p. 542, vol. 49). Dr. Thomson announced that he had visited the late Mr. Alexander McKay, who received the letter of the Institute during his last illness, and it was evident that the resolution of the Board had given him sincere pleasure.

Société d'Études Océaniennes.—The Honorary Librarian mentioned that he had received publications of this society, and on his motion, seconded by Mr. G. M. Thomson, it was resolved, That the congratulations of the New Zealand Institute be accorded to the Société d'Études Océaniennes on its foundation, and on the publication of its bulletin.

Deaths of Honorary Members.—The Honorary Librarian read a postcard announcing the death of Dr. S. Berggren, at Lund, which, in addition to the three mentioned in the President's address—viz., Rev. O. Pickard-Cambridge, Richard Lydekker, and George Massee—makes four vacancies in the roll of honorary members to be filled.

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Amendment of Regulation.—On the motion of Professor Kirk, seconded by Dr. Cockayne, it was resolved, That regulation 5 (a) (1) be amended to read as follows:—

“(a.) The publications of the Institute shall consist of—(1) Such current abstract of the proceedings of the societies for the time being incorporated with the Institute as the Board of Governors deems desirable.”

New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology.—Dr. Thomson laid on the table the first number of this Journal. He promised to communicate with the Secretaries of societies regarding the printing in the Journal of matter suitable suitable for the Journal and not for the Transactions of the Institute.

Proposed Department of Scientific Affairs.—Mr. G. M. Thomson withdrew his motion regarding the establishment of a Department of Scientific Affairs (see Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 49, p. 542).

Election of Officers.—The following officers for the ensuing year were elected: President, Dr. L. Cockayne, F.R.S.; Hon. Editors, Drs. L. Cockayne and C. A. Cotton; Hon. Treasurer, Mr. C. A. Ewen; Hon. Secretary, Mr. B. C. Aston, F.I.C.; Hon. Librarian, Dr. J. Allan Thomson.

Publication Committee.—Professor Kirk, Drs. Cockayne, Cotton, and Thomson, Messrs. Aston and Hogben.

Library Committee.—Drs. Cockayne and Cotton and the Hon. Librarian.

Research Grant Committee.—Professor Easterfield, Messrs. Hogben and Aston.

Hector Award Committee.—Professor Easterfield (convener), Drs. Chilton, Cockayne, and Marshall.

Date and Place of the next Annual Meeting.—It was resolved, That the next annual meeting be held at Wellington on the 17th January, 1919.

Travelling-expenses.—It was resolved, on the motion of Dr. Thomson, That the travelling-expenses of members of the Board to this meeting be paid by the Institute.

Votes of Thanks to the retiring President for the able manner in which he had carried out the duties of his office for the past two years, and to the other officers, were unanimously carried. The Honorary Librarian desired to specially acknowledge the assistance he had received from Mr. McDonald in the library during the year.

The meeting adjourned until the following day.

The meeting resumed its sitting on Wednesday, the 30th January, 1918, at 9 a.m.

Present: Professors Benham, President (in the chair), Thomas, Segar, Kirk, Drs. Cockayne, Hilgendorf, Thomson, Messrs. Aston, Birks, Ewen, Eliott, Hill, Hogben, Parr, and G. M. Thomson.

President's Address.—The following motions arising out of the suggestions contained in the President's address were brought forward by Dr. Hilgendorf:—

Compliance of Incorporated Societies with Regulations.—On the motion of Dr. Hilgendorf, seconded by Professor Segar, it was resolved, That in

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accordance with the President's suggestion the Treasurer be asked to examine the balance-sheets of the incorporated societies, and to report annually as to the compliance of incorporated societies with Regulation No. 3.

Publication of the Minutes of the Annual Meeting.—On the motion of Dr. Hilgendorf, seconded by Mr. G. M. Thomson, it was resolved, That it be suggested to the Publication Committee that the report of the annual meeting of the Institute be printed and circulated to the affiliated Institutes as soon as possible after the meeting, as well as being incorporated in the Transactions in due course.

Establishment of an Endowment Fund.—Dr. Thomson, who previously at the meeting had given notice of his intention, now moved that an Endowment Fund be set up, the interest of which may be spent in any year for any purposes of the Institute, but the principal may not be spent. The motion was seconded by Professor Kirk, and carried.

Reform of the Institute.—The replies from the incorporated societies which had been received in answer to Dr. Thomson's proposals were laid on the table. On the motion of Dr. Cockayne, seconded by Mr. Hill, it was resolved, That a Committee be set up to report at next meeting on the matter of Fellowship of the Institute; and on the motion of Mr. Parr, seconded by Mr. Eliott, it was resolved, That Mr. Hogben, Dr. Thomson, and Dr. Cockayne (convener) be appointed a Committee to draw up a scheme and refer it to the incorporated societies. On the motion of Mr. Birks, seconded by Mr. Hill, it was resolved, That this Board express its appreciation to Dr. J. Allan Thomson of his action in bringing forward the proposals dealing with the constitution of the Institute.

Public Meeting of the Institute.—On the motion of Dr. J. Allan Thomson, seconded by Mr. G. M. Thomson, it was resolved, That the Institute accept the invitation of the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury to hold a week of meetings in Christchurch in the autumn of 1919.

Co-ordination of Science and Industry.—Further reports were received from the incorporated societies, and were laid on the table.

Board of Science and Industry.—On the motion of Professor Kirk, seconded by Mr. Birks, it was resolved, That this meeting of the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute considers it an essential part of the scheme for scientific and industrial research that the Board should be a trust to administer public and other funds given for the purpose for which it is constituted, and that for the first five years its finance should not be subjected to any amendment by Parliament, although duly audited; and that Mr. Hogben and Dr. Thomson be a committee to transmit this resolution to the Government, after consultation with the National Efficiency Board.

Vote of Thanks to the New Zealand Institute's Scientific and Industrial Research Committee.—It was resolved, on the motion of Professor Thomas, seconded by Dr. Hilgendorf, That this meeting expresses its appreciation of the work of the New Zealand Institute's Scientific and Industrial Research Committee, under the chairmanship of Mr. George Hogben, and is indebted to it for its successful efforts to embody the opinion of the Committees in the respective centres of New Zealand.

Census of Industries.—On the motion of Mr. Hogben, seconded by Mr. G. M. Thomson, it was resolved, That a Committee be set up to co-operate

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with the Director of the Dominion Museum in making a preliminary census of matters connected with scientific and industrial research. It was resolved that the following be the Committee, with the power to add to their number: Dr. Cockayne, Messrs. Hogben, Aston, Kirk, and Parry. It was resolved to leave the arrangements for carrying on propaganda in connection with science and industry to the same Committee.

Confirmation of Minutes.—It was left to the Publication Committee, on Friday, the 1st February, 1918, to confirm the minutes of the annual meeting and to decide whether it was desirable to publish Appendices A, B, and C to the annual report.

Address of the President.

The following is the presidential address delivered at the annual meeting of the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute, at Wellington, on the 29th January, 1918, by Professor W. B. Benham, F.R.S.:—

Gentlemen,—My thanks are due to you for doing me the honour of re-electing me to the Presidency of the Institute for a second year—a year that has been marked by the great activity of the Standing Committee in relation to the important work of endeavouring to draw up a scheme for the correlation of science and industry, to which I will refer later.

Too little attention, I think, has been paid in past times to those of our own men of science who have passed away. Recently my attention was called to the fact that no memoir, no obituary notice even, is to be found in our Transactions f some who have done good service, especially to natural science, in New Zealand. Thus the work of Colenso and of Parker, to mention but two, is not recorded in our volumes. I think this should be rectified in the future, and that one of our officers, or some one else, should, while it is yet time, get together the salient facts of the life-history of those who are at present working, so that their contributions to the progress of science in New Zealand may receive due recognition.

It would be a very laborious task to write a history of the gradual building-up of science in New Zealand at the present time, and I am glad to see that Mr. G. M. Thomson is at present engaged in writing a series of articles on our naturalists in the Otago Witness. These will form a very valuable contribution to our history. It is, I think, a wise thing to recall to our minds from time to time the gradual steps by which each of our sciences has been built up, and the names of the men who have thus helped us: we are too much interested in the present-day problems to consider their history, and yet much of our present work is merely adding a brick or two to the edifice whose foundations have been laid in the past. Let us not think too greatly of the importance of that single brick, but rather think humbly of our own small contributions.

I had intended to refer to some of the distinguished men of science who have passed away during the year, but I find my address already too long. Two of our honorary members are included in this list, while Lydekker, who died in 1916, should have been referred to in my last address

The Rev. Octavius Pickard-Cambridge, F.R.S., who was for fifty years vicar of Bloxworth, in Dorset, died in March, 1917, at the age of eighty-eight, and was one of the world's authorities on trap-door spiders, on which he contributed two papers to our Transactions describing some of our native species. Few naturalists of equal calibre are less revealed by their published work. He was a systematist, a describer and identifier of species, and though in this line of work no particularly brilliant discoveries are associated with his name, it is work requiring rather special gifts of careful observation, an absolutely necessary work on which biologists can build.

George Massee, F.L.S., was aged sixty-seven when he died, in 1917. For twenty years he was head of the Crypytogamic Department at Kew, where he specialized on fungi. He published several systematic works on the group, and later turned his attention to those which produce disease in plants, on which he published several descriptive works, useful alike to the botanist and the agriculturist. He contributed two papers to our Transactions on the fungus flora of New Zealand. He combined the skill of the artist with the accuracy of observation of the scientist, many of his drawings which illustrate his work's being of great beauty.

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It seems that the death of these two honorary members has been overlooked, as the affiliated societies were not notified of any vacancies in the list, of which there are now three.*

It is unfortunate that the New Zealand Institute as a scientific body has no funds from which a contribution can be made to the memorial to the late Sir William Ramsay, F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry, and that we have to leave this and similar matters to the affiliated societies. It would certainly bring kudos to the Institute if its name figured amongst the subscribers to such a memorial as this.

There will be presented to you a summary of the steps taken by the Standing Committee, with which was associated a number of gentlemen interested in industrial matters, to elaborate a scheme for the co-ordination of scientific and industrial research; so that I need do little more than allude to it. There has been issued by the Government a report, signed by Mr. Hogben and Dr. Thomson, of the steps that have been taken in other parts of the Empire, and of certain schemes proposed by various bodies in New Zealand, with this object in view. Moreover, the final report of the above Committee has, I believe, been circulated.

I trust that this important matter will not be allowed to rest, but that steps will be taken to persuade, the Government of the very serious need for encouraging in every way, and especially by generous financial support, the prosecution of scientific research—not merely of research as applied to industry, but also, and primarily, of research in pure science, which, as we all know, is the foundation of the former. It has taken the scientific men of Britain over forty years to convince the British Government of the value of scientific research, for as long ago as 1870 a Royal Commission recommended the establishment of a State Council of Science presided over by a Minister of Science.

As Professor Pope pointed out in an address delivered in October last, “If suitable provision had been made by the State for the pursuit of scientific research even twenty years ago, we should have been spared the horrors of the present conflict.” It is only now, as the result of the urgent appeals of scientific men in Britain since the commencement of the war, that the British Government have established a Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, with an endowment of £1,000,000. Since the war began the public have awakened to the fact that all our present needs and comforts in ordinary life are the outcome of discoveries made by scientific men in their laboratories, and several books (such as Gregory's Discovery. The Spirit and Service of Science, and, under Seward's editorship, the series of articles by Cambridge men of science issued under the title Science and the Nation) have been published putting the facts plainly before us, and impressing upon the public that much of our backwardness in the British Empire is due to inadequate recognition, financial and social, of scientific research We may hope that the British Government, at least, may thus become acquainted with the value of scientific discovery.

Here in New Zealand there is need for a constant reminder of these facts: the Councils of our University colleges must be urged again and again to make proper provision for carrying on researches in pure science, for no one can foresee what use may ultimately be made of some apparently trivial discovery in the laboratory; and the more intimate association of industrialists with scientific men is needed so that they may be kept in touch with the progress of science. It is not enough, however, to draw up a scheme for the purpose of bringing this about: provision must be made for obtaining men to do research. At the recent meeting of the University Senate a letter was received from one of the Professors of Chemistry pointing out that it is better to provide adequate trained assistance to a professor, who would thus be relieved of some of the routine work of his chair and might then be able to devote time to research, than to award scholarships to graduates. This is certainly true; and it is also necessary that greater encouragement should be given to our graduates to continue their studies in the University colleges, and to learn how to carry out research work. At present the only inducement held out to them is a National Research Scholarship, one of which is available each year at each of the four colleges. But the Professorial Boards have repeatedly pointed out to the Education Department that the sum of £100 annually for two years is not sufficient to attract students unless they have independent means, for after spending four or five years in taking their Honours degree they naturally wish to begin earning a livelihood, and are therefore more readily attracted to the teaching profession, where a capable man or woman may obtain a salary of £150 to £180 as a teacher of science in a high school. These Research Scholarships should be made more valuable and increased in number; and other inducements should be held out to our graduates, so that we may encourage those of our students who are capable of research to con-

[Footnote] * The death of Dr. Berggren was also announced at the annual meeting.

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tinue with us. If the colleges had the funds wherewith to provide adequate payment to trained assistants and demonstrators so that they would remain more than a year or two at the college and be trained in research as well as in teaching, this would relieve the professors, and the college would be able to provide men and women capable of aiding our industrialists in solving their problems.

But without a supply of such men any scheme for scientific and industrial research loses much of its point and value. And in the present scheme, although reference is made to increasing the number and value of these Research Scholarships, it does not seem to me that the Committee have sufficiently considered the mode of supply of requisite students. This is precisely what is being felt in Britain, where unfortunately many of the younger men of science have suffered death in this war instead of having been retained for the vastly important work of the future peace.

Moreover, one reason why so many capable research students enter the teaching profession in Britain, as here, is that manufacturers have not seen fit, in most cases, to offer to trained researchers sufficient remuneration.

Unless the professors are relieved of much of their routine work, and until it is recognized that the first duty of a professor is the promotion of research rather than teaching, the award of scholarships will be in vain, and the introduction of graduates into industry will not lead to the developments necessary to carry out the ideal set out in the scheme for improving our industrial position in the world.

In the covering letter signed by Mr. Hogben, Chairman of Committee, to the Chairman of the National Efficiency Board I notice an important proposal—viz., that some system of propaganda should be started. This is necessary, as the industrialists are no doubt in ignorance of what has been taking place, what steps are proposed, and, indeed, of the importance of the whole scheme. Almost too much stress seems to be laid in this report on research, and too little on the utilization of the scientific knowledge which has been accumulated by investigators in other countries. Hence the great importance of the propaganda hinted at by Mr. Hogben. What is so pre-eminently needed here, as in Britain, is a campaign to disseminate the scientific spirit throughout the community; for unless we educate the entire people as to the value of the scientific method the object of this scheme will, I fear, be but temporarily and partially attained, and the movement so carefully elaborated by the Committee will soon collapse owing to the absence of any firm foundation in education.

I do not know whether I ought to criticize the report of the Committee, but it seems to me that the method of election of the four members the Board is very elaborate, and the constitution of the local Advisory Boards too large, and there is no indication of where researches are to be conducted.

That it does not require a great amount of organization to produce useful research in regard to industry is seen by what has been done in South Australia. The South Australian Government Department of Chemistry, under Dr. Hargreaves, has issued nine bulletins dealing with possible new industries, and with industrial research on such matters as—Bonedust, its adulteration with phosphate rock; alcohol as a source of power; foaming of boiler waters; grass-trees (Xanthorrhoea), their economic products; potash, its economic sources; wool-fat, its recovery and purification; cream of tartar, its manufacture; marine fibre, attempts to utilize.

Another matter that will come before us is a report as to the proposed reform of the New Zealand Institute, which originated with Dr. J. Allan Thomson and the Wellington Philosophical Society. The proposals have been criticized by the affiliated societies chiefly in regard to the proposed new kind of membership and the change in name of the existing members to that of “associates.” All the societies seem in favour of the establishment of Fellows, but if this be carried out we must guard the privilege of fellowship very jealously and put a definite limit on the number of Fellows to be elected annually, for there are not very many workers in science who are doing or have done work of such a high-class character as to entitle them to this distinction, and the number will soon become exhausted, so that unless a limit is placed on the number of Fellows it will become almost a matter of course that any worker would be nominated and the title would soon cease to have any honour attached to it. But the proposals have another aim, that of increasing the funds of the Institute, and I do not see that in this respect much is to be hoped for from the reform proposed.

In my address at the last annual meeting of the Governors I referred to the Cawthron Institute. The report of the Commission appointed by the Trustees to draw up a scheme for the proper working of this Institute of research has now been presented to the Trustees, who are acting on the lines therein recommended. As the matter is one of very great importance for the future development of scientific work, it may be desirable to put the gist of the report on record here. The Institute will be erected, when the war

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is ended, close to the city of Nelson. The work will be scientific research into the problems of agriculture, particularly as affecting the growing of fruit, as this is the leading feature of the provincial district. It is hoped that agricultural problems of all kinds will in the future be studied—diseases of trees, improvement in culture, the chemistry and physics of the soil, the development of forest land, & c.; and in time the work may be extended in other directions. Hitherto, as we are aware, no institution in New Zealand has been wholly or even mainly given up to scientific research, but the Cawthron Institute will be equipped, financed, and organized for this purpose alone. The sum of money at the disposal of the Trustees is about £200,000, and the Trustees, who are for the most part business men, are determined that the annual expenses shall not exceed the income from the principal. Interest is accumulating, and from this it is proposed to erect the necessary buildings after the Director has been appointed and in consultation with him. The site has already been purchased and surveyed; a caretaker has been appointed and is now looking after the orchard on the property. The Institute will be governed, under the Trustees, by an Advisory Board acting with the Director. On the Advisory Board the following bodies will be represented: the Cawthron Trustees, the Board of Agriculture, the Nelson Institute, the Board of Studies of the New Zealand University, and the Governors of the New Zealand Institute. Whether any formal intimation* to this effect has been received by our Secretary I do not know, but according to the report of the Commission we ought to nominate our representatives at this meeting. As a Director it is hoped to obtain a first-class chemist from England who has had experience of agricultural problems, but is not likely that he will be appointed until the war is over. When fully staffed it is intended that plant-physiology and plant-pathology, economic zoology and geology will be represented—but that will be in the future; at the outset the Director will be assisted by a plant-pathologist and an orchardist, to whom adequate salaries will be paid.

Provision will be made for the award of scholarships as follows: (a) A Nelson Scholarship to allow boys and girls to equip themselves at a University college to become students of the Institute; (b) a Cawthron Scholarship to encourage brilliant scientific graduates to continue their work at the Institute; (c) a Cawthron Fellowship of sufficient value to retain the services of such scholars and other students; (d) an Industrial Fellowship which may be established by any body of industrialists who desires any special researches undertaken and who will pay the salary of this Fellow; (e) an annual Cawthron Lectureship, the first holder of which is Professor Easterfield, who has already given the lecture. Of these scholarships it was suggested that the first should be awarded at once, but no proposal reached the Senate at its recent meeting; the others not till the Institute is in full working-order. Every encouragement will be given to students properly qualified to pursue research in agricultural matters, and it is hoped that in the future a constant stream of graduates who have received training in the fundamental sciences will be attracted by these scholarships and fellowships, and that from them will eventually be supplied expert teachers in agricultural subjects. It is important to notice that the Institute is quite independent of Government control.

Some time during the year I noted a suggestion, made either in Parliament or in the Press, that all topographical features that have at present Austrian or German names should have these names changed. To me, and I suppose to most other scientific men and intelligent men generally, this appears to be not only a ridiculous proposal but one that is highly undesirable. The names of many mountains in the Alps and those of some of the glaciers would thus be altered, and, if this were done, books of travel in New Zealand, of mountain-climbing, maps, and other documents, would in the future be unintelligible. The Franz-Josef Glacier, for instance, is mentioned in books on geography and geology for certain peculiar features, and to alter its name on the ground that at present we are at war with Austria would render all such references meaningless. If there is any proposal of the kind on foot I think that this Institute should enter a strong protest against it, and obtain the support not only of the affiliated societies, but of associations of all kinds, such as the University colleges, professors, the Alpine Club, tourists, & c.

In my last address I referred to the need of taking steps to protect the interesting rock shelters in Otago and Canterbury on the walls of which are paintings executed by the early inhabitants of New Zealand. I suggested that a committee should be set up, but I do not know that anything further was done. I understand that the matter is to be brought forward at the meeting of the Board of Science and Art; but it seems to me distinctly the province of this Institute to persuade the Government to take some action to protect these interesting records.

[Footnote] * Note by Hon. Secretary.—No intimation has been received.

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There remain one or two suggestions that have occurred to me in regard to the annual volume. One is that the report of our annual meeting should be published as soon as possible after it has been held. In the case of the affiliated societies the report of their annual meeting is issued to members very shortly after that meeting, but in the case of the meeting of the Governors it is, as you are aware, delayed till the volume of Transactions is issued, and it happened that this year I did not see the volume till early in January. I do not see why the report should not be published (with a separate paging, if necessary in roman numerals) within a month of our meeting, and circulated to every member of the Institute. I believe more interest would be taken in this meeting if this were done. At present the pagination of this report is continuous with that of the scientific transactions, but if roman numerals were used for this report and all that succeeds it in the volume there would be no difficulty in binding up this report with the rest of the volume.

Why should the proceedings of the various societies be printed in the volume at all? Nowadays they consist almost wholly of a list of the new members elected at each meeting, with the title of the addresses delivered or papers read. Formerly some epitome was given of what took place at these meetings, and that had its interest; but the present bare record can have no interest for any one. It is true that an abstract of the annual report is given, and this is the only part of the Proceedings that has any interest whatever to members of the Institute at large.

Professor Kirk at the last meeting gave a notice of motion allowing the Board of Governors some discretion in this direction, and I hope he will move this motion to-day.

I would suggest that the Publication Committee consider these two matters.

A third matter has occurred to me—viz., whether the Treasurer of the New Zealand Institute examines the balance-sheets of the affiliated societies and ascertains whether they comply with the regulations under the Act of 1903—as to the number of members, and the subscription annually paid towards the promotion of art, science, or other branch of knowledge; and as to the expenditure in support of a library or museum.

At our last meeting it was resolved to urge the Government to take immediate steps to form a scientific and technological library. Has anything been done in this direction? No mention of the need of such a library occurs in the report of the Committee on scientific and industrial research, yet surely before any work of value can be carried out it is necessary that the researchers should have access to what has already been done.

By “library” I do not mean a building; but there ought to be undertaken the making and printing of a catalogue of all books on science and technology—and the latter should perhaps be listed first—which are in the various Government Departments, in the General Assembly library, in all University colleges, the Institutes, and Museums. No such comprehensive catalogue exists here as there is, for instance, in Victoria. Though it is true that a printed catalogue soon gets out of date, yet it does serve a very useful purpose, and additional leaflets could be added annually. For we must not overlook the fact that many, perhaps most, of the problems that may present themselves to the manufacturers in the Dominion, such as the utilization of by-products, the improvement in methods of manufacture, and so forth, have already been met in other parts of the world as a result of research: there is a store of scientific knowledge which is no doubt unknown to most of our industrialists, but which would be of great service to them, for it is only in a few cases that the problems are of such a peculiar character in New Zealand that special research is needed.

I trust, therefore, that the Institute will take steps to carry into effect that resolution at an early date.

It seems to me that at our annual meeting many resolutions are proposed and carried which are mere pious resolutions, such as are supposed to be made on New Year's Day, and nothing comes of them.