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Volume 51, 1919
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Art. IX.—Contributions to a Fuller Knowledge of the Flora of New Zealand: No. 6.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 20th December, 1918; received by Editor, 30th December, 1918; issued separately, 14th May, 1919.]

I. Ranunculaceae.

The Genus Caltha in the Southern Hemisphere.

A memoir bearing the above title, written by Captain A. W. Hill, Assistant Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew, has recently appeared in the Annals of Botany (No. cxxvii, July, 1918). In this, Captain Hill maintains the subdivision of the genus into the two sections, Psychrophila and Populago, proposed by de Candolle as far back as 1818, and shows that the peculiar development of the leaf-auricles in Psychrophila, which includes the whole of the species found in the Southern Hemisphere, marks off the section much more distinctly than the floral characters proposed by de Candolle. Eleven species are included in the section, three of them being described for the first time. Seven of the eleven are purely American in their distribution, two of them advancing as far north as the Andes of Ecuador or Bolivia; the remaining five extending southwards into southern

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Chile or Fuegia, two of them reaching the Falkland Islands. Four species are Australasian, one being found in Victoria, another in Tasmania, and two others (C. novae-zealandiae Hook. f. and C. obtusa Cheesem.) in New Zealand. Much information is afforded for the first time respecting the degree of development of the leaf-auricles, and woodcuts are given of the chief modifications, the leaves of both the New Zealand species being figured.

It is worth remarking that the section Psychrophila is one of those plant-groups proving an alliance between the floras of Australia, New Zealand, and South America.

XVIII.Rhamnaceae.

Pomaderris elliptica Lab.

Kawhia district, growing luxuriantly on the fern-clad spurs and promontories running down into the harbour; Mr. E. H. Schnackenberg! An extension of the southern range of this fine plant, the northern slopes of Mount Pirongia being the previous known limit.

XXII.Leguminosae.

Chordospartium Stevensorri Cheesem.

Avon Valley, Marlborough; H. F. Hursthouse! This is a most interesting discovery, the plant being previously known only from the original habitat near the Clarence Bridge, South Marlborough, where it was collected by Mr. George Stevenson in the summer of 1909. Mr. Hursthouse informs me that in the Avon Valley it grows side by side with Notospartium Carmichaeliae, and that it is very difficult to distinguish the two in the absence of fruit. He further remarks that when in bloom both are very beautiful and striking plants, certain to attract notice even at a distance of half a mile or more.

Mr. Hursthouse has also favoured me with a large supply of the seeds of Chordospartium. It seems to be difficult of germination, for out of great numbers planted, both inside and outside New Zealand, only three plants have been reared.

XXVIII.Myrtaceae.

Metrosideros Parkinsoni Buchanan.

Abundant at the southern end of the Paparoa Range, near Greymouth. Particularly plentiful on the steep slopes south and south-east of Mount Sewell, and also on a spur running to the west of Mount Davy, alt. 2,000 ft.; P. G. Morgan! The above are the most southern localities yet recorded for this fine plant.

I have also to record its discovery by Mr. W. R. B. Oliver on the summit of Mount Hobson, Great Barrier Island, alt. 2,000 ft. The two specimens kindly given to me by Mr. Oliver have rather narrower leaves than the southern examples, and there are fewer flowers in the cymes, but otherwise they entirely correspond. Its occurrence on the Great Barrier Island, quite 350 miles in a straight line from the nearest of its southern habitats, is a remarkable instance of discontinuous distribution, almost comparable to the case of Pittosporum obcordatum, where the only two localities known — that of Kaitaia, in Mongonui County, and Akaroa, in Banks Peninsula—are separated by 550 miles!

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XXXIII.Umbelliferae.

Aciphylla similis Cheesem.

Griffin Range, western Southern Alps, alt. 4,500–4,900 ft.; P. G. Morgan! The Griffin Range is situated almost immediately to the south of the Otira—Kumara Road, and a little distance below the point of confluence of the Taipo and Taramakau Rivers. It has never been previously visited by a botanist, and I am consequently much indebted to Mr. Morgan for the few specimens he was able to secure during a hasty geological examination of the district.

Aciphylla Kirkii Buchanan.

I am indebted to Mr. James Speden, of Gore, for excellent specimens of this curious plant, collected at an altitude of 6,000 ft. on the Remarkables, near the lower end of Lake Wakatipu. Mr. Buchanan's plate and description, given in Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 19, p. 214, are far from correct; but they were admittedly founded on very imperfect material. In a memoir on Aciphylla, now in course of preparation, I hope to publish an amended description of this and other species of the genus.

Aciphylla simplex Petrie.

I have also to thank Mr. Speden for flowering specimens of this, also gathered at an elevation of 6,000 ft. on the Remarkables, near Lake Wakatipu.

XXXVII.Rubiaceae.

Coprosma tenuicaulis Hook. f.

Tuamarina Swamp, near Blenheim, Marlborough, abundant; J. H. Macmahon! So far as I am aware, this is the first record of the occurrence of this in the South Island.

XXXVIII. Compositae.

Celmisia Walkeri T. Kirk.

Several localities on the Humboldt and Eyre Mountains, Central Otago; J. Speden!

Celmisia ramulosa Hook. f.

Eyre Mountains, Central Otago, alt. 5,000–6,000 ft.; J. Speden!

Celmisia lateralis Buchanan.

Mount Davy, southern end of the Paparoa Range, near Greymouth, alt. 2,500–3,000 ft.; P. G. Morgan! This species has a pre-eminently western distribution, and is seldom seen on the eastern side of the dividing range.

Celmisia prorepens Petrie.

Eyre and Garvie Mountains, Central Otago; J. Speden!

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Celmisia dubia Cheesem.

Abundant on Mount Davy, southern end of the Paparoa Range, near Greymouth, alt. 2,500–3,000 ft.; P. G. Morgan! This locality offers a slight extension of the southern range of this plant.

Helichrysum grandiceps Hook. f.

Griffin Range, western Southern Alps, alt. 4,500–4,900 ft.; P. G. Morgan!

Abrotanella linearis Berggren.

Slopes of Mount Davy, southern end of the Paparoa Range, near Greymouth, alt. 2,500–3,000 ft.; P. G. Morgan!

XLI.Campanulaceae.

Pratia perpusilla Hook. f.

Marlborough—Wairau River bed, near its mouth; J. H. Macmahon! The first specimens I have seen from the South Island; but it is easily overlooked, and probably has a wider range than is generally supposed.

XLIII.Epacridaceae.

Dracophyllum Kirkii Berggren.

Griffin Range, western Southern Alps, alt. 4,500–4,900 ft.; P. G. Morgan!

XLIX.Loganiaceae.

Mitrasacme montana Hook. f. var. Helmsii T. Kirk.

Abundant from a little over 2,000 ft. to the summit (3,410 ft.) of Mount Davy, at the south end of the Paparoa Range, near Greymouth; P. G. Morgan! This is probably the locality where it was originally discovered by Mr. Helms. I have not seen specimens from any locality outside the Paparoa Range.

L. Gentianaceae.

Sebaea ovata R. Br.

Vicinity of Wanganui; A. Allison! An entirely fresh locality for this rare and local plant.

Gentiana patula Cheesem.

Griffin Range, western Southern Alps; alt. 4,500–4,900 ft.; P. G. Morgan!

Gentiana bellidifolia Hook. f.

Griffin Range, western Southern Alps; alt. 4,500–4,900 ft.; P. G. Morgan! (with the preceding species).

LIV. Scrophulariaceae.

Euphrasia Cockayniana Petrie.

Griffin Range, western Southern Alps; alt. 4,500–4,900 ft.; P. G. Morgan!

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LXI.Nyctaginaceae.

Pisonia Brunoniana Endl.

I am informed by Mr. Robert Hastie that a small grove of Pisonia exists on Cape Bream Tail, a little to the north of Mangawai. This locality, however, is not many miles distant from the Taranga Islands (Hen and Chickens), where the plant is abundant.

LXII.Loranthaceae.

Korthalsella salicornioides Van Tiegh.

Queen Charlotte Sound, parasitic on Leptospermum; J. H. Macmahon! This is the first record, so far as I am aware, for the Marlborough Provincial District. (See my list of the known localities, given in Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 43, p. 182.)

LXXIV.Balanophoraceae.

Dactylanthus Taylori Hook. f.

Ranginui Range, near Mangapehi, Main Trunk Railway; J. Corbitt!

LXXVI.Urticaceae.

Urtica ferox Forst.

Bay of Islands County, apparently confined to a wahi-tapu known as Ngamahanga, situated about ten miles to the west of Kawakawa; T. H. Trevor! This is a marked extension of the range of the species, which has not been previously collected northwards of the Marikopa River, Kawhia, quite two hundred miles away. It is (or, rather, was) abundant between the Awakino and Mokau Rivers and Taumarunui, and is known from several localities between the Main Trunk Railway and the Central Volcanic Plateau. A locality near Te Aroha, reported to me many years ago, has so far not been confirmed.

Mr. Trevor states that the Ngamahanga wahi-tapu contains about 29 acres. Up to this year cattle had barely penetrated into it, but they are now working their way steadily towards the centre, and he anticipates that they will soon destroy the major portion of the undergrowth, including the Urtica. So far as he can ascertain, it has never occupied an area much exceeding an acre. Its greatest height is about 6 ft. The specimens forwarded to me have leaves from 4 in. to 6 in. in length, and the stinging-hairs are quite copious.

LXXVIII.Coniferae.

Dacrydium Bidwillii Hook. f.

Open pumice country at Tiroa, to the east of Mangapehi, Main Trunk Railway; A. Wilson and J. C. Rolleston! With the exception of the extreme summit of Moehau (Cape Colville), this is the most northerly locality known. Mr. Rolleston informs me that the Maoris call it “Aotea.”

Phyllocladus glaucus Carr.

Several specimens in a patch of kauri forest near Birkdale, a few miles from Auckland, on the northern side of the Waitemata Harbour; H. B. Matthews! Quite an unexpected discovery. I am acquainted with but

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two other localities in the Auckland District — one near the Waitakare waterfall, where it was plentiful until the construction of the huge dam for the Auckland water-supply destroyed most of the adjacent forest; the other a little to the north of the mouth of the Waitakare River.

Mr. E. Phillips Turner informs me that a few plants of P. glaucus exist in a ravine near the base of Rainbow Mountain, near Waiotapu; and that it is plentiful at Lake Waikare-iti, near Waikaremoana. The latter is the most easterly locality known.

LXXIX.Orchidaceae

Thelymitra pachyphylla Cheesem.

To this species I refer specimens of a Thelymitra collected by Mr. H. B. Matthews between Erua and Makatote, to the west of Ruapehu. It agrees with T. Pachyphylla in the broad and flat erect staminodia, the margins of which are furnished with simple or branched fimbriae; and the size, mode of growth, and foliage are all very similar. But the flowers are smaller, and the middle lobe of the column shorter and crenulate.

XCI.Cyperaceae.

Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb.

Abundant in swamps on the seaward side of the cliffs to the north of the Manukau Harbour; T. F. C. In this locality it is certainly a recent introduction; nor am I aware that it has been previously collected in New Zealand outside the North Cape peninsula. But its nativity in any part of New Zealand must be regarded as exceedingly doubtful.

Carpha alpina R. Br.

Mr. P. G. Morgan sends me a highly depauperated state from the summit of Mount Frederic, north of the Buller Valley; alt. 3,500 ft It forms small dense patches barely more than an inch in height, and the inflorescence is reduced to one or two spikelets.

XCII.Gramineae.

Ehrharta Colensoi Hook. f.

Griffin Range, western Southern Alps; alt. 4,500–4,900 ft.; P. G. Morgan!

Microlaena polynoda Hook. f.

In great abundance on the site of the old Maori pa Te Korekore, near Muriwai, about twenty-five miles north of the Manukau Heads; T. F. C. This is the only locality I am acquainted with in the Auckland District.

XCIII.Felices.

Asplenium japonicum Thunb.

Banks of the Waiaruhia River, a tributary of the Waitangi, Bay of Islands County T. H. Trevor! This locality is some distance to the south of the Okura River, where it was first discovered by Miss Clarke. (See Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 22, p. 448.)

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Naturalized Plants.

Aster subulatus Michx.

This plant was first noticed in the vicinity of Auckland about twelve years ago, and soon became plentiful, especially in moist places on harbour reclamations, by roadsides and ditches, &c. It is a native of the United States, where it is principally found in brackish-water marshes, ranging from New Hampshire to Florida.

Erigeron annuus Linn.

Has appeared in some quantity in freshly sown grass at Otukai, Mongonui, January, 1917; H. Carse! So far as I am aware, this is the first record of the occurrence of this plant in New Zealand. Native of North America, where it has a wide range; and it has also become naturalized in Europe.

Chlora perfoliata Linn.

Manuka scrub at Parengarenga, North Cape district; W. R. B. Oliver! Now recorded for the first time in New Zealand. It is a native of western and central Europe, extending to north Africa and western Asia.

Emex australis Stein.

Near Parkhurst, Kaipara; H. E. McLeod! This species appears to be of uncertain occurrence in New Zealand, and never lingers long in any one locality. It has a wide distribution in South and Western Australia and South Africa.

Tradescantia fluminensis Vell.

A garden escape in many localities in the vicinity of Auckland, where it has received the local name of “wandering-jew.” Has become specially abundant on portions of the Mount Eden lava-fields; T. F. C. Mongonui County—has become plentiful on river-banks near Awanui and Kaitaia, and also covers considerable areas in flat swampy forest; H. Carse! Mr. B. C. Aston also informs me that it is spreading fast in the vicinity of Wellington. Native of South America, from the south of Brazil to Uruguay and Monte Video.

Elodea canadensis Michx.

Clear running streams near Featherston, not common; K. W. Allison! Considering how rapidly this plant increased when first introduced into Britain, it is somewhat remarkable that its spread in New Zealand has been so slow since its first introduction in 1870.

Panicum Lindheimeri Nash.

Vicinity of Kaitaia, Mongonui County; H. B. Matthews! Originally found on the summit of a hill by Kerikeri Pa, near Kaitaia; but it has since been observed in several localities in the district. I am indebted to Dr. Stapf, of the Kew Herbarium, for the identification. Native of North America, where it is said to be a common and widely distributed species, found in dry woods and open grounds from Maine to northern Florida, and westwards to southern California.

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Cynosurus echinatus Linn.

I am indebted to Mr. J. P. Kalaugher for specimens collected by roadsides at Waihi. I believe this is the first record for the Auckland Provincial District.

Selaginella denticulata Link.

Has been known for many years as a garden escape at Pakaraka, Bay of Islands, and has lately appeared in great abundance on the banks of several swampy creeks in the neighbourhood; T. H. Trevor! I am also informed by Mr. B. C. Aston that it is not uncommon in several localities near Wellington. As it is now firmly established in the Bay of Islands locality, its further increase may be anticipated.