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Volume 51, 1919
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Minutes of the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors.

Wellington, 17th January, 1919.

The annual meeting of the Board of Governors was held in the Dominion Museum on Friday, the 17th January, 1919, at 10 a.m.

Present: Professor Kirk (in the chair), Mr. Aston, Mr. C. A. Ewen, and Mr. E. J. Parr.

Poverty Bay Institute.—An application from the Poverty Bay Institute for incorporation with the New Zealand Institute, dated the 18th December, 1918, was received; and, on the motion of Mr. Ewen, seconded by Professor Kirk, it was resolved, That the Poverty Bay Institute having complied with the requirements of the New Zealand Institute Act and Regulations, and having applied for incorporation with the New Zealand Institute, their application is hereby granted.

Adjournment to Christchurch.—On the motion of Mr. Parr, it was resolved to adjourn the meeting to Christchurch on the 1st February, 1919, at 10 a.m., the place of meeting to be Canterbury College.

Christchurch, 1st and 3rd February, 1919.

The adjourned annual meeting of the Board of Governors was held in Canterbury College, Christchurch, on Saturday, the 1st February, 1919, at 10 a.m.

Present: Dr. L. Cockayne, President (in the chair); Hon. G. W. Russell (Minister of Internal Affairs), Mr. B. C. Aston, Mr. L. Birks, Professor C. Chilton, Professor T. H. Easterfield, Mr. M. A. Eliott, Dr. F. W Hilgendorf, Mr. H. Hill, Professor H. B. Kirk, Professor H. W. Segar, Professor A. P. W. Thomas, Hon. G. M. Thomson, Dr. J. A. Thomson.

Professor C. C. Farr, Dr. C. Chilton, and Mr. L. Birks on behalf of the Canterbury Philosophical Institute welcomed the members of the Board to Christchurch.

Apologies for non-attendance were read from Mr. C. A. Ewen (Hon. Treasurer), Mr. E. J. Parr, and Dr. P. Marshall.

The Secretary announced that the only change in the representation was that Professor T. H. Easterfield replaced Mr. G. Hogben as a representative of the Wellington Philosophical Society, Mr. Hogben having resigned. The Government representatives, Professor Chilton and Mr. Ewen, who retired this year, had been re-elected.

The minutes of the previous meeting, held on the 17th January, 1919, in Wellington, were read.

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Poverty Bay Institute.—The application of the Poverty Bay Institute, dated the 18th December, 1918, for incorporation with the New Zealand Institute being granted, on the motion of Professor Kirk, seconded by Mr. H. Hill, it was resolved, That the certificate of incorporation of the Poverty Bay Institute be signed by the President and the Hon. Secretary. It was then sealed and signed.

The Hon. the Minister of Internal Affairs, Mr. G. W. Russell, then addressed the meeting, and promised to increase the annual grant for the current year to the New Zealand Institute by £500, and bring in legislation to increase the statutory grant to £1,000 per annum. Dr. Cockayne thanked the Hon. the Minister, and, on the motion of Dr. J. A. Thomson, seconded by Mr. H. Hill, it was resolved, That a hearty vote of thanks be accorded to the Hon. Mr. Russell for his speech and for his promise of further financial support to the Institute. In order that the Hon. the Minister might take part in the discussion, Professor Kirk's motion was now taken. Professor Kirk moved, and Professor Easterfield seconded, That the Institute express to the Minister of Internal Affairs its regret that he has, in a recent instance, vetoed its well-considered advice in respect to an allocation from the research grant, giving no reason for the veto; that it requests that the right of veto shall in future not be exercised without stated reason, and, if the Institute desire it, without discussion between the Minister and the representatives of the Institute; and that, if this request of the Institute be not granted, the Institute must reluctantly leave it to the Minister to administer the research grant without its advice, unless in some special matter he wishes it for his guidance.

The Hon. the Minister promised that in future, where the veto was exercised, reasons would be given, and the motion was withdrawn.

The meeting adjourned at 12.30 p.m. until 2 p.m.

Incorporated Societies' Reports and Balance-sheets were laid upon the table. No reports had been received from the Nelson Institute, the Wanganui Philosophical Society, or from the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute.

Standing Committee's Report.—The report of the Standing Committee was read and adopted.

Report of the Standing Committee for 1918.

Nine meetings of the Standing Committee have been held during the year 1918, the attendance being as follows: Dr. Cockayne, 7; Dr. J. A. Thomson, 6; Mr. Ewen, 7; Mr. Hogben, 7; Professor Kirk, 6; Mr. Parr, 3; Hon. G. M. Thomson, 2; Mr. Aston, 9; Messrs. Benham, Hilgendorf, Birks, Eliott, Hill, Marshall, Segar, and Thomas, 1 each.

Hector Memorial Award.—The High Commissioner for New Zealand, under date of 6th August, 1918, notified the Under-Secretary for Internal Affairs that at the request of Sir E. Rutherford, and with the consent of the Standing Committee, the 1916 medal was presented to him privately on the 25th July, 1918.

The 1918 medal, awarded to Mr. T. F. Cheeseman, of Auckland, was presented to him publicly on the 10th June, 1918, by the Mayor of Auckland, Mr. J. H. Gunson, at the opening lecture of the Auckland Institute's session.

Supply of Medals.—A further supply of twelve medals has been received from Messrs. Wyon. These are not quite the same as the old medal, being struck on thicker metal of apparently a different composition.

War Roll of Honour.—The collection of data from the incorporated societies for the preparation of a Roll of Honour has been continued by the Hon. Secretary.

Volume 49, Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, for the year 1916, was laid upon the tables of the House of Representatives and of the Legislative Council on the 15th April, 1918.

Volume 50, Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, for the year 1917, was issued on the 15th July, 1918, and distributed in bulk direct to the incorporated

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societies by the Government Printer. A copy was laid on the table of the House of Representatives on the 29th October, 1918, and on the table of the Legislative Council on the 30th October, 1918.

Publications.—It has been decided to present as complete a set as possible of the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute to the Cawthron Institute, and to place the library on the mailing-list of the Institute.

A number of observatories, at the New Zealand Government Astronomer's request, have been supplied by the New Zealand Institute with volumes of the Transactions which contain papers by Professor Bickerton.

The following have been placed on the mailing-list and an exchange of publications arranged:—

Société de Chimie Industrielle.
Athenaeum Subject Index to Periodicals.
Commonwealth Advisory Council of Science and Industry.
University of California (certain departments only).
Lloyd Library, Cincinnati.
Department of Agriculture, Wellington.

Partial sets of Transactions have been presented to the Ashburton High School, and to the Department of Agriculture, Wellington.

Resolutions of the Standing Committee not otherwise mentioned in this report are as follows:—

Banking Account: That Dr. J. A. Thomson be authorized to sign cheques in place of Professor Easterfield, who was then no longer a member of the Board.

Carter Bequest: That the Public Trustee be authorized to sell the New Zealand Loan and Mercantile Agency Company's stock.

Science Congress at Christchurch: That it is desirable that the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury should take over the whole management of the Congress.

Date of Annual Meeting: That all Governors be informed that the annual meeting is called for the 17th January, 1919, at Wellington, but that those not living in Wellington need not attend; and that, in accordance with the agreement amongst the Governors at the last annual meeting, the meeting will be adjourned from Wellington to Christchurch on the 1st February, 1919.

Jubilee of the Institute: That owing to the war the Institute postpone any recognition of the Jubilee until a more convenient season.

National Efficiency.—On the 12th March, 1918, the Standing Committee asked the Hon. the Minister of Internal Affairs for information concerning the report of the New Zealand Institute's Scientific and Industrial Research Committee, which that committee had sent to the National Efficiency Board, and asked whether the committee set up by the New Zealand Institute in conjunction with the Director of the Dominion Museum could now proceed with the proposed census of industries in terms of the resolution sent him on the 11th January, 1918, which was as follows: “That the committee, having heard that the Hon. the Minister is prepared to take steps at an early date to inaugurate a Dominion scheme of scientific and industrial research by making a preliminary census of past research, actual problems of industry awaiting solution, and of available laboratories and research workers, advises that the Director of the Dominion Museum should undertake such census, being supplied by the Minister with specially qualified assistance, and that a committee of the New Zealand Institute should co-operate with him.”

The Hon. the Minister, under date 24th April, 1918, replied that Cabinet had considered the report of the National Efficiency Board on the subject, and it had been decided to circulate this report among Ministers for their consideration, and promised to communicate again with the Institute in the matter.

Annual Reports and Balance-sheets of the following incorporated societies have been received and are now laid on the table:—

0th February, 1918.
Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, to 31st October, 1918.
Otago Institute, to 30th November, 1918.
Manawatu Philosophical Society, to 31st October, 1918.
Wellington Philosophical Society, to 30t

Census of Industries.—On the motion of Professor Kirk, seconded by the Hon. G. M. Thomson, it was resolved, That the Hon. the Minister of Internal Affairs be asked whether he can now make the further communication on the matter of the census of industries, referred to in the Standing Committee's report under the heading “National Efficiency.”

On the motion of Professor Kirk, seconded by Mr. Eliott, it was resolved, That the Institute depute the President, Professor Easterfield, and Dr. J. A. Thomson to give evidence before the Parliamentary Committee on Science and Industry.

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Hon. Treasurer's Reports.— In the absence of the Hon. Treasurer, the Hon. Secretary moved, and Professor Kirk seconded, That the Hon. Treasurer's reports, duly audited by the Auditor-General, be adopted. Carried.

The Public Trustee's Reports on the Carter Bequest, the Hutton Memorial Fund, and the Hector Memorial Fund for the year ending 31st December, 1918, were adopted.

New Zealand Institute.—Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for the Year ending 31st December, 1918.
Receipts. £ s. d. Expenditure. £ s. d.
Balance at 31st December, 1917 418 17 10 Government Printer 757 8 6
Post Office Savings - bank interest to 31st December, 1918 3 5 4 Expenses, annual meeting 38 19 1
Government statutory grant Publications sold 500 0 0 Fire-insurance premium on library, £1,500 5 0 0
Affiliated societies' levy, 1917 114 3 0 Bank charges and cheque-book 1 0 0
Affiliated societies' levy, 1918 89 8 3 Secretary's expenses, post-age, stationery, and clerical work 31 16 6
Government grant for research work, 20th December 330 0 0 New Zealand Express Company, Chicago 3 13 6
Endowment Fund deposit in Post Office Savings-bank 4 18 1 Research grant to Professor Evans 200 0 0
Research grant to Professor Malcolm 30 0 0
Research grant to Professor Easterfield 50 0 0
Research grant to Dr. Chilton 50 0 0
1,167 17 7
Balance as under 372 16 4
£1,540 13 11 £1,540 13 11
Balance in— £ s. d.
Bank of New Zealand 330 18 4
Post Office Savings-bank 41 18 0
£372 16 4
New Zealand Institute.—Statement of Liabilities and Assets at 31st December, 1918.
Liabilities. Assets.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
Hector Memorial Fund in hands of Public Trustee and per contra 1,067 19 9 1,067 19 9
Hutton Memorial Fund in hands of Public Trustee and per contra 826 6 11 826 6 11
Carter Bequest in hands of Public Trustee and per contra 4,342 5 4 4,342 5 4
Special grants for research work on hand 75 0 0
Government Printer's account 547 12 6
Balance Endowment Fund Account 4 18 1
Levies for 1918 unpaid 3 7 6
Authors' copies and books sold 4 15 9
Balance at Bank of New Zealand, Wellington 330 18 4
Balance at Post Office Savings-bank, Wellington 41 18 0
Balance 246 11 0
£6,864 2 7 £6,864 2 7
To balance £246 11 0

Against this debit balance the Institute has a large stock of Transactions for sale, and possesses a very-valuable library.

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Hector Memorial Fund.—Statement of Account for the Year ending 31st December, 1918.
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
By Balance brought forward 1,106 13 9
Public Trust Office—
Interest to 31st December, 1918, at £ s. d.
4½ per cent 46 10 1
Bonus interest to 31st March, 1918 4 15 11
51 6 0
To New Zealand Institute Account—
Professor C. Chilton, Hector Prize for 1917 45 0 0
Mr. T. F. Cheeseman, Hector Prize for 1916 45 0 0 90 0 0
To Balance 1,067 19 9
£1,067 19 9 £1,157 19 9
By Balance £1,067 19 9
Hurron Memorial Fund.—Statement of Account for the Year ending 31st December, 1918.
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s d.
By Balance brought forward 787 11 5
Public Trust Office—
Interest to 31st December, 1918, at £ s. d.
4 ½ per cent. 35 8 0
Bonus interest to 31st March, 1918 3 7 6
To Balance 826 6 11 38 15 6
£826 6 11 £826 6 11
By Balance £826 6 11
Carter Bequest.—Statement of Account for the Year ending 31st December, 1918.
Dr. Cr.
Residuary Account. £ s. d. £ s. d.
By Balance brought forward 4,138 5 11
Public Trust Office—
Interest to 31st December, 1918, at £ s. d
4 ½ per cent. 186 0 7
Bonus to 31st March, 1918 17 18 10
To Balance 4,342 5 4 203 19 5
£4,342 5 4 £4,342 5 4
By Balance £4,342 5 4
Assets. £ s. d.
Balance as per account 4,342 5 4
Shares—New Zealand Loan and Mercantile Agency Company (Limited)— £ s. d.
First mortgage debenture stock 10 0 0
Second mortgage debenture stock 4 0 0
Second preference debentures 3 10 0
Second ordinary debentures 1 10 0
19 0 0
Liability. £ s. d.
Legacy—Museum and New Zealand Institute 50 0 0
Balance Trustee's commission At scale rates.
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Financial Position of the Institute.—The President detailed the steps he had taken to bring before the Hon. the Minister the state of the Institute's finances. On the motion of Mr. Hill, seconded by Mr. Eliott, it was resolved, That for every copy of volume 51 of the Transactions received by the incorporated societies a contribution of 2s. 6d. towards the cost of printing shall be made during the current year by such society.

Hutton Fund Grants.—The Hon. G. M. Thomson made a statement concerning the Portobello Fish-hatchery. An account of the work, which was assisted by a grant from the Hutton Fund in 1916, will be published in a pamphlet entitled “A History of the Portobello Fish-hatchery,” to appear shortly.

Research Grant Committee's Reports.—On the motion of Professor Easter-field, seconded by Mr. Aston, the report was received.

Report of the Research Grant Committee.
(Professor Easterfield, Mr. G. Hogben, and Mr. B. C. Aston.)

(For previous reports see Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 49, p. 580, and vol. 50, p. 333.)

Reports from the grantees have been received as follows:—

Mr. L. P. Symes, who was in 1916 granted £50, through the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, for investigating the decay of apples and other fruits in cold storage, reported on the 23rd December, 1918, that little progress had been made and no portion of the vote had yet been expended. Grantee asks that the grant may be continued for another year.

Mr. L. Birks, to whom £10 had been granted in 1916, through the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, for investigating the electrical prevention of frosts in orchards, reported on the 4th February, 1918, that none of the grant had then been expended but suggested that it be increased by £20 from the current year's vote, and subsequently. on the 15th March, he asked for £30 additional. The matter was referred to a referee, and on receiving his report the Standing Committee resolved to ask the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury for further information. This not being forthcoming, the matter is in abeyance. Mr. Birks reported on the 30th December, 1918, that he regretted owing to the shortage of staff it has again been impossible to do anything this year, but hoped to be able to detail an officer for the work next season.

Messrs. R. Speight and L. J. Wild, to whom £50 was granted in 1916, through the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, for investigation of the phosphatic limestones of Canterbury, on the 16th August, 1918. reported fully on the results of their work. Although this is reasonably complete and not likely to be modified by subsequent research, the grantees proposed to continue the investigation later in the year as occasion offers, and they are therefore retaining some £14, unexpended balance of the grant, reporting additional results when obtained.

Professor H. B. Kirk, to whom £25 was granted in 1917, through the Wellington Philosophical Society, for investigating methods of killing mosquitoes and larvae, reported on the 30th December, 1918, that he had continued this work, and gave a progress report of the results so far obtained. These confirmed the conclusions previously reported as to the value of light tar-oil as a larvicide. His statement of expenses showed that £9 11s. 3d. had been expended in travelling-expenses.

Messrs. La Trobe and Adams, to whom £50 was granted in 1917, through the Wellington Philosophical Society, towards the construction of a tide-predicting machine, reported on the 12th December, 1917, having spent £64 1s. 6d., and applied for a further grant of £75. The Standing Committee referred the matter to a sub-committee consisting of Mr. G. Hogben and Professor Sommerville, and they having reported favourably on the work already accomplished towards the construction of the machine, the Standing Committee granted the application. The Hon. the Minister, under the terms controlling the issue of Government research grants (see Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 49, p 326), however, withheld his sanction, and no payment could therefore be made.

Professor Jack, to whom £25 was granted in 1917, through the Otago Institute, for investigating the electric charge on rain, reported on the 23rd December, 1918, that he had not been able, owing to stress of work caused by war conditions, to take over the grant, and asked that it may be paid to him in February next.

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Professor W. P. Evans, to whom £200 was granted in 1918, through the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, for investigating New Zealand brown coals, reported on the 24th December, 1918, that only preliminary work on a very small scale had been possible owing to the difficulty in obtaining apparatus and assistance. An experienced assistant, at £250 per annum for two years from the 1st February, 1919, had now been secured, who would give his whole time to the work. No payments out of the grant had been made, but fractionating apparatus to cost £58 had been ordered and should shortly arrive from London. The Board of Governors of Canterbury College had added £100 to this grant for the year 1919, and had promised additional £150 for 1920. Grantee requested that the grant of £200 might be carried on to 1919.

Professor C. Chilton, to whom £50 was granted in 1918, through the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, for investigating New Zealand flax (phormium), on the 31st December, 1918, reported that although the grant had been made in his name the investigations had been carried out by Mrs. B. D. Jennings, who had made considerable progress, more particularly in the direction of starting observations and experiments to test the cause of diseases affecting the flax, improved methods of cultivation, &c. There had been a serious deterioration in the flax crop in some districts, involving losses of such commercial value that further investigation was more necessary than ever. Only £10 of the grant had been spent, but the grantee asked that the grant might be continued for another year.

A more detailed report has since been submitted (30th December, 1918) by Mrs. Jennings, through Dr. Chilton, intimating that she has been engaged by the Flax-millers' Association to investigate the yellow-leaf disease, on which she submits some information.

Professor John Malcolm, to whom £30 was granted in 1918, through the Otago Institute, reported on the 7th December, 1918, that, largely owing to having had this grant at his disposal, he had been enabled to send for publication in the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute a short paper on tutu fruit and seed, and had made some further progress with work on pukateine. He asked that the subject of his investigations might be extended to include questions referring to the preservation of meat and dairy produce. Grantee had spent £14 12s. on books, chemicals, experimental material, and petty cash.

Professor T. H. Easterfield, to whom £50 was granted in 1918, through the Wellington Philosophical Society, for investigating the wax content of New Zealand brown coals, reported in January, 1919, that, owing to the temporary deprivation of his assistant by illness, and the war, the investigation had not been commenced, neither had any expense been incurred. The grantee asks that the grant may be continued for another year.

It will be noticed that in most cases the sums granted have not been expended. In some cases the amounts have been lodged in a local savings-bank by the grantee to his credit. In future it will be desirable that the sums be retained by the Institute until required, so that any interest may become its property.

One of the grants (for £20) which has been surrendered has been placed to the credit of the New Zealand Institute, and it will be necessary to decide what to do with this sum.

A discussion took place on the final clause of the report, dealing with the disposal of the interest on the unexpended portion of grants. On the motion of Mr. Eliott, seconded by Professor Segar, it was resolved, That in future sums voted be retained by the New Zealand Institute and placed in the Post-office Savings-bank or other approved investment until actually required by the grantee, so that the New Zealand Institute receive the benefit of any interest earned and hold it in trust for future research grants. An amendment by Professor Chilton, seconded by Dr. Hilgendorf, that the grants on allocation should be paid to the Treasurers of the societies through which the applications were made, was lost.

On the motion of Dr. J. A. Thomson, seconded by Professor Thomas, it was resolved, That the Government Research Grant Committee be instructed to amend the regulations for administering the research grant by incorporating resolutions passed by the Board of Governors which affect the administration of the grants.

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On the motion of Mr. Eliott, seconded by Professor Kirk, it was resolved, That the unexpended portions of all Government research grants be continued to the grantees for the coming year.

Hutton Research Grant.—An application from Miss Mestayer for a grant of £10 towards work on New Zealand Mollusca was granted on the motion of the Hon. G. M. Thomson, seconded by Professor Easterfield.

Hector Award Committee's Report.—The President then opened the recommendation of the Hector Award Committee, which was to the effect that the award should be made this year to Dr. P. W. Robertson. Professor Easterfield, in moving the adoption of the report, gave the committee's reasons for the selection of Dr. Robertson. The motion was seconded by Professor Segar and carried.

Publication Committee's Report.—The report of the Publication Committee was adopted on the motion of Dr. Cockayne, seconded by Dr. J. A. Thomson. On the motion of Dr. Chilton, seconded by Dr. J. A. Thomson, it was resolved, That the words “for the year —–” be omitted from the title of the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute.

Report of Publication Committee.

Thirty-two papers were accepted for publication in vol. 50 of the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, and the volume was issued on the 15th July, 1918. It contains xii + 392 pages (of which 68 are devoted to the Proceedings), 35 plates, and numerous text-figures.

No bulletins were issued during the year.

A circular was sent out by the Editors to the Secretaries of the incorporated societies requesting that the manuscripts of papers intended for publication in the Transactions should be sent forward as early as possible. A number of papers for vol. 51, received early as a result of this request, are already in the hands of the Government Printer, and we hope that the publication of the volume will thus be expedited.

As it seems desirable that papers read at the general meeting of the Institute, in February, should be printed in the forthcoming volume (vol. 51), the committee recommends that the volume be described as “for the year 1918-19,” instead of “for the year 1918,” subsequent volumes to be for 1919-20, &c. Apart from the special circumstance of the inclusion of papers read at the general meeting, this description would be correct, as the volume always contains the report of the annual meeting of the Board of Governors. It might help also to stop the practice of misquoting the dates of volumes of the Transactions, which is almost universal in manuscripts submitted for publication.

For the Committee.

Leonard Cockayne
C. A. Cotton

, Hon Editors.

Catalogue of Fishes.—On the motion of the Hon. G. M. Thomson, seconded by Professor Segar, it was resolved, That this meeting of the Board of Governors re-urges upon the Government the necessity of preparing and publishing a catalogue of New Zealand fishes as a work of national importance, and that this work should be undertaken at as early a date as possible.

Library Committee's Report.—On the motion of Dr. J. A. Thomson, seconded by Dr. Chilton, the report of the Library Committee was adopted.

Report of Library Committee.

As no funds have been available for the purpose, little has been done in the library beyond receiving, registering, and placing on the shelves the incoming periodicals. A list of the serial publications received by the library during 1917 was prepared by a member of the Committee, and was printed in the Appendix to the Proceedings, vol 50, pp. 381–85.

For the Committee.

C. A. Cotton.

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Correspondence.—The President read a letter from Mr. T. F. Cheeseman wishing the Congress success. It was resolved that the President be requested to write to Mr. T. F. Cheeseman congratulating him on his long service with the Institute.

Indexing the Transactions.—A letter from the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, dated 30th August, 1918, concerning the indexing of the Transactions was read, and, on the motion of Professor Easterfield, seconded by Dr. Chilton, it was resolved, That the Standing Committee be instructed to take steps to index the volumes 41 to 50 when funds permit.

British Science Guild.—A letter was read from the British Science Guild (2/3/18) desiring that its objects should be brought under the notice of the Institute. Received.

Resolutions passed at the Last Annual Meeting.—A letter from the Under-Secretary, Internal Affairs Department (7/2/18), acknowledging the resolutions concerning the Government passed at the last annual meeting, and promising that they would receive attention, was received.

Hamilton Prize.—A letter from Mr. C. J. Tunks (30/8/18), making certain suggestions regarding the Hamilton Prize, was, on the motion of Professor Easterfield, seconded by Professor Thomas, referred to the Wellington Philosophical Society.

Method of sending Papers to Editor for Publication.—A letter received from the Canterbury Philosophical Institute (2/10/18), regarding the proper procedure in dealing with papers for publication, was deferred until Dr. Hilgendorf's motion was dealt with.

Fellows of the Institute.—The report of the Committee appointed to consider the question of the proposed Fellowship of the New Zealand Institute was, on the motion of Dr. Thomson, seconded by Dr. Cockayne, received, and was considered clause by clause.

Report of the Committee appointed to report on the Proposed Fellowship of the Institute.

(Dr. Cockayne (convener), Dr. J. A. Thomson, and Mr. Hogben.)

  • 1. The Fellowship of the New Zealand Institute shall be an honorary distinction for the life of the holder.

  • 2. The Original Fellows shall be twenty in number, and shall include the past Presidents and the Hutton and Hector Medallists. The remaining Original Fellows shall be nominated as provided for in Rule 7 (a), and shall be elected by the said past Presidents and Hector and Hutton Medallists.

  • 3. The total number of Fellows at any time shall not be more than forty.

  • 4. After the appointment and election of the Original Fellows, as provided in Rule 2, not more than four Fellows shall be elected in any one year.

  • 5. The Fellowship shall be given in general for research or distinction in science, or for eminent service to the nation in any capacity, provided that the total number of Fellows elected under the last-named head shall not exceed one-tenth of the total number of Fellows.

  • 6. No person shall be elected as Fellow unless he is a British subject and has been a member of one of the incorporated societies for three years immediately preceding his election.

  • 7. After the appointment and election of the Original Fellows, as provided in Rule 2, there shall be held an annual election of Fellows at such time as the Board of Governors shall appoint. Such election shall be determined as follows:—
    • (a.) Each of the incorporated societies at Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin may nominate not more than twice the number of persons as there are vacancies to be filled. Each nomination must be accompanied by a full statement of the qualifications of the candidate for Fellowship.

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    • (b.) Out of the persons so nominated the Fellows resident in New Zealand shall select twice as many persons as there are vacancies, if so many be nominated.

    • (c.) The election shall be made by the Board of Governors at the annual meeting.

    • (d.) The methods of election in clause (b) and of election in clause (c) shall be determined by the Board of Governors.

Clause 1: “The Fellowship of the New Zealand Institute shall be an honorary distinction for the life of the holder.” Adopted.

Clause 2: “The Original Fellows shall be twenty in number, and shall include the past Presidents and the Hutton and Hector Medallists. The remaining Original Fellows shall be nominated as provided for in Rule 7 (a), and shall be elected by the said past Presidents and Hector and Hutton Medallists.” A motion by Professor Thomas, seconded by Professor Segar, that the number of Original Fellows be thirty in number, instead of twenty as proposed, was lost. After the word “Medallists” where it first occurs, it was resolved, on the motion of Professor Segar, seconded by Mr. Eliott, to insert the words “who have held their distinctions and positions prior to the 3rd February, 1919, and who at that date are members of the New Zealand Institute.” The clause as amended was adopted.

Clause 3: “The total number of Fellows at any time shall not be more than forty.” Adopted.

Clause 4: “After the appointment and election of the Original Fellows, as provided in Rule 2, not more than four Fellows shall be elected in any one year.” Adopted.

Clause 5: “The Fellowship shall be given in general for research or distinction in science, or for eminent service to the nation in any capacity, provided that the total number of Fellows elected under the last-named head shall not exceed one-tenth of the total number of Fellows.” A motion by the Hon. G. M. Thomson, seconded by Professor Thomas, that the words “in general” and all words after the words “distinction in science” be delected, was carried; an amendment by Mr. L. Birks, seconded by Professor Segar, of the addition thereafter of the words “or of eminent services to the nation in the application of scientific principle” being lost. Adopted as amended.

Clause 6: “No person shall be elected as Fellow unless he is a British subject and has been a member of one of the incorporated societies for three years immediately preceding his election.” Adopted.

Clause 7: “After the appointment and election of the original Fellows, as provided in Rule 2, there shall be held an annual election of Fellows at such time as the Board of Governors shall appoint. Such election shall be determined as follows:—

“(a.) Each of the incorporated societies at Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin may nominate not more than twice the number of persons as there as vacancies to be filled. Each nomination must be accompanied by a full statement of the qualifications of the candidate for Fellowship.”

It was explained by the President that by an oversight in drafting the report the representation of the smaller societies had been omitted, and therefore he accepted the addition, after the words “twice,” of the words “as many persons as there are vacancies, and each of the other incorporated societies may nominate as many persons as there are vacancies.” With this addition the clause was adopted

At this stage the meeting adjourned until Monday morning at 10 a.m.

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The Board resumed on Monday, the 3rd February, at 10 a.m., there being present Dr. Cockayne (President), Mr. Aston, Mr. Birks, Professor Chilton, Mr. Eliott, Mr. Hill, Dr. Hilgendorf, Professor Kirk, Professor Segar, Hon. G. M. Thomson, Dr. J. A. Thomson, and Professor Thomas.

Clause 7, subclause (b): “Out of the persons so nominated the Fellows resident in New Zealand shall select twice as many persons as there are vacancies, if so many be nominated.” Adopted.

Subclause (c): “The election shall be made by the Board of Governors at the annual meeting.” On the motion of Professor Segar, seconded by Professor Thomas, the words “from the persons selected by the Fellows” was added to the end of subclause (c). Adopted as amended.

Subclause (d): “The methods of election in clause (b) and of election in clause (c) shall be determined by the Board of Governors.” The word “selection” was on the voices inserted in placed of “election” where it first occurs. Adopted as amended.

New subclause 7 (e): On the motion of Dr. Hilgendorf, seconded by Mr. Eliott, it was resolved, That the names of the nominees shall be submitted to the Fellows at least six months, and the names selected by them shall be submitted to the Governors at least three months, before the date fixed for the annual meeting of the Board of Governors at which the election is to take place. Adopted.

New clause 8: On the motion of Professor Chilton, seconded by Professor Easterfield, it was resolved, That the official abbreviation of the title “Fellow of the New Zealand Institute” be “F.N.Z.Inst.” Adopted.

The President then put the motion, That the regulations governing the institution of the Fellowship of the Institute as amended be adopted. The motion was carried, Mr. Hill dissenting.

The following are the regulations as adopted:—

Regulations governing the Fellowship of the Institute.

  • 1. The Fellowship of the New Zealand Institute shall be an honorary distinction for the life of the holder.

  • 2. The Original Fellows shall be twenty in number, and shall include the past Presidents and the Hutton and Hector Medallists who have held their distinctions and positions prior to the 3rd February, 1919, and who at that date are members of the Institute. The remaining Original Fellows shall be nominated as provided for in regulation 7 (a), and shall be elected by the said past Presidents and Hector and Hutton Medallists.

  • 3. The total number of Fellows at any time shall not be more than forty.

  • 4. After the appointment and election of the Original Fellows, as provided in Regulation 2, not more than four Fellows shall be elected in any one year.

  • 5. The Fellowship shall be given for research or distinction in science.

  • 6. No person shall be elected as Fellow unless he is a British subject and has been a member of one of the incorporated societies for three years immediately preceeding his election.

  • 7. After the appointment and election of the Original Fellows, as provided in Regulation 2, there shall be held an annual election of Fellows at such time as the Board of Governors shall appoint. Such election shall be determined as follows:—
    • (a.) Each of the incorporated societies at Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin may nominate not more than twice as many persons as there are vacancies, and each of the other incorporated societies may nominate as many persons as there are vacancies. Each nomination must be accompanied by a statement of the qualifications of the candidate for fellowship.

    • (b.) Out of the persons so nominated the Fellows resident in New Zealand shall select twice as many persons as there are vacancies, if so many be nominated.

    • (c.) The names of the nominees shall be submitted to the Fellows at least six months, and the names selected by them submitted to the Governors at least three months, before the date fixed for the annual meeting of the Board of Governors at which the election is to take place.

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    • (d.) The election shall be made by the Board of Governors at the annual meeting from the persons selected by the Fellows.

    • (e.) The methods of selection in subclause (b) and of election in subclause (d) shall be determined by the Board of Governors.

  • 8. The official abbreviation of the title “Fellow of the New Zealand Institute” shall be “F.N.Z.Inst.”

Dr. J. A. Thomson moved, Mr. Eliott seconded, and it was carried, That Dr. L. Cockayne, Professor T. H. Easterfield, Professor C. Chilton, and the Hon. G. M. Thomson, be a committee, with power to act, to determine the method of election of the remaining Original Fellows and to carry out the election.

On the motion of Mr. Eliott, seconded by Professor Thomas, it was resolved, That the matter of bringing into operation the sections in clause 7 as adopted by the Board be left in the hands of the Standing Committee.

Report on Kapiti Island.

—Professor Kirk read the joint report of Mr. Bendall and himself on Kapiti Island, which had been received by the Hon. Secretary too late to circulate. He reported that the work had been done by himself and Mr. Bendall, a member of the Council of the Manawatu Philosophical Society, instead of Mr. Eliott, who was unable to visit the island On the motion of Mr. Eliott, seconded by Mr. Hill, it was resolved, That the report of Professor Kirk and Mr. W. E. Bendall be adopted, and printed in the Transactions and Proceedings, and that the authors be thanked for their services in the matter.

Report on Kapiti Island as a Plant and Animal Sanctuary.

This report takes as a starting-point Dr Cockayne's “Report on a Botanical Survey of Kapiti Island,” presented to Parliament in 1907 by the late Hon. Dr. McNab, Minister of Lands, and it deals especially with the extent to which the recommendations of that report have been given effect to or have apparently been ignored.

Wild Sheep.—By far the most important and far-reaching of the recommendations referred to is that the whole island should be acquired by the Government, that being the only means by which it can be hoped effectively to put a stop to the damage being done by sheep belonging to Native owners. We do not find in Dr. Cockayne's report a statement of the extent of the Native holdings in 1907. At present the Natives hold about 644 acres But they have far more sheep than their own holdings could support, and the greater number of these are running wild over the island. It is safe to say that not less than eight hundred of these sheep are running on the lands of the Crown. It does not, perhaps, concern the Institute more than it does the community at large that no rent is charged for this privilege, but so far as we can learn that is the fact. Although the Natives have the right to muster over the whole island, the difficulties of mustering on Kapiti are so great that very many of these sheep have never been docked or dagged, and it may be taken for granted that they have never been dipped. Nearly all are carrying long, filthy dags; very many have the wool torn more or less completely from the back by the bushes. It would be hard to find anywhere else in New Zealand sheep that present the marks of neglect more obviously. The point that especially concerns the Institute is that these sheep, with the wild goats, are setting a limit to the life of the forest. Not only do they prevent to a very large extent the growth of young trees, but they open up the forest to the sweep of the wind. They prepare it for invasion by grass, tauhinu, manuka, and other hardy plants. Although the manuka is one of the least objectionable of these invaders, yet in dry situations, such as some of the spurs, where it harbours no moss or liverworts, very little humus is formed, and that little is quickly washed away by rain. On some spurs—for example, on one just south of Waterfall—where manuka has replaced the forest, much soil has been removed, and in no great time the manuka itself will be unable to retain its footing. In such cases the manuka marks a phase in the passage to utter barrenness.

Wild Goats.—As already intimated, wild goats share with the sheep the work of destroying the original plant-covering. The caretaker, Mr. Bennett, has shot great numbers of them, and their remains are to be found all over the Crown lands. The thoroughness with which this work is being done impressed us very much. The

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extinction of goats on Kapiti will involve still a great deal of work. We estimate that there cannot be less than three hundred of them at the present time, and there may be many more.

Australian Opossums.—In many parts of the bush the damage done by opossums is noticeable. Kohekohe, mahoe, and passion-flower are among the plants that most frequently show the marks of having been attacked. There are several groups of dead Fuchsia trees, and these the caretaker is satisfied have been killed by opossums. Systematic trapping has been carried out, and the numbers have evidently been very much reduced; but they are still quite common. The only safe aim is their absolute extinction so far as Kapiti is concerned.

Wild Cats.—We understand that most, perhaps all, of the wild cats have been killed. We neither saw nor heard any. The caretaker exercises unceasing vigilance in the matter.

Deer and Wild Cattle.—All have been killed.

It will be seen that, except in the all-important matter of the wild sheep, there is little cause for disappointment and much cause for satisfaction with what has been done. The achievement is due to the fact that the caretaker is very vigilant and highly capable. Having selected a man with those qualifications, the Government has failed to take the vitally important action that would have resulted in complete success.

Government's Intentions.—In the last estimates there appeared a sum of £1,000 for the purpose of stocking Kapiti Island with sheep. The intention is to fence off the clearing at Rangatira Point and the Taipiro clearing in the middle of the island, and to run two fences across the island, cutting off the open lands at the northern and southern ends. It is intended to make a track from Rangatira to the Taipiro clearing and on to the southern clearing, to enable fences to be erected and to serve as driving-tracks in mustering. Sheep could then be run on the open lands with no damage to the bush. Presumably, all the Native sheep would first have been disposed of. The advantages to be gained, in addition to revenue, would be that danger from fires in long dry grass would be avoided, and that there would be a sufficient staff, maintained without loss, to care properly for the parts of the island that would remain a sanctuary.

The Institute will probably consider whether it should make any representations to the Government with regard to the scheme just referred to. There is, we think, no denying that if sheep are on the island there will always be some danger of the bush being invaded by them, a danger that will be very slight under efficient management, but that if at any time the island passes under careless or otherwise inefficient management will be very serious indeed. In such a case the position of the island as a sanctuary might be worse than at present. If the island is kept as a sanctuary pure and simple, as we suppose it was the first intention of the Government that it should, then New Zealand will best have expressed a sense of its duty to care for a portion of a flora and fauna that are unique, the needless destruction of which could never be excused, and could only be explained on the ground of sordid ignorance. On the other hand, it is to be borne in mind that the danger of fire, already referred to, is a real one, although one that may easily be exaggerated. The danger could be minimized by planting the open lands with such Native trees and shrubs as would not readily carry fire. Such planting would, of course, involve considerable expense. If the attitude of the Governments of the future is such as we have known in the past, the proposal to make revenue by utilizing the open sheep-lands of the island will, sooner or later, prove irresistible, although now these Crown lands are allowed to be used by private individuals and to the great detriment of the property of the State. If the Government runs sheep on Kapiti, it is of vital importance that no sheep should be placed on land that is not properly fenced.

We wish to express our appreciation of the courtesy and help extended to us, as representatives of the Institute, by Mr. T. W. Broderick, Under-Secretary to the Crown Lands Department, by Mr. Phillips Turner, of that Department, and by Mr. J. L. Bennett, the caretaker of the island.

16th January, 1919.

On the motion of Mr. Eliott, seconded by Mr. Hill, it was resolved, That the Minister of Lands be urged to acquire the remaining portion of the Island of Kapiti from the private owners, in order to prevent the damage and destruction to the flora and fauna which is now taking place.

On the motion of Professor Kirk, seconded by Mr. Eliott, it was resolved, That the Government be asked to formally recognize the New

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Zealand Institute as an advising body in connection with the administration of Kapiti Island and other plant and animal sanctuaries; that the Standing Committee constitute a deputation to wait upon the Hon. the Minister of Lands to give reasons for recognizing the Institute-as an advising body in connection with the administration of Kapiti Island and other plant and animal sanctuaries.

Amendment of Regulation 3.—A letter from the Wellington Philosophical Society forwarding a resolution recommending the amendment of Regulation 3 was ruled out of order in not complying with the regulations.

Protection of Birds and Seals.—A letter from the Otago Institute (17/12/18), which was supported by one from the Canterbury Philosophical Institute (3/1/19), was read. On the motion of Professor Chilton, seconded by Professor Thomas, it was resolved, That the Institute again urge upon the Government the necessity of strictly enforcing the regulations for the protection of the seals and native birds of New Zealand.

On the motion of the Hon. G. M. Thomson, seconded by Mr. L. Birks, it was resolved, That the New Zealand Institute urge upon the Government of Tasmania that seals and birds upon Macquarie Island should be protected, and that a copy of this resolution be forwarded to the Royal Society of Tasmania.

Proposed New Regulations.—A letter from Dr. Hilgendorf (27/11/18), suggesting new regulations dealing with the transmission of papers from the authors to the Editor of the Transactions was considered.

Proposed Regulation 1: That in the Regulations under the New Zealand Institute Act, clause 5, (a), (2) (see Transactions, vol. 49, p. 573), be amended by the insertion, after the word “societies” in line 2, of the words “or any general meeting of the New Zealand Institute.” Adopted.

2. That the same subclause be further amended by the insertion, after the second occurrence of the word “time” in line 4, of the words “by special resolution in each case.” This was amended by the insertion of the words “for special reasons” in place of the words “by special resolution,” and was carried.

3. That the same subclause be amended by the insertion, after sub-clause (b), of a new subclause as follows: “(c) No paper written by a person that is not a member of the New Zealand Institute shall be considered for publication unless the Council of the incorporated society before which the paper was read shall certify that it is in possession of satisfactory reasons why the author is not a member of the New Zealand Institute.” On being put to the meeting this was lost.

4. That after the above there be inserted another new subclause as follows: “(d.) In the case of a paper read before a general meeting of the New Zealand Institute by a person that is not a member of the New Zealand Institute the paper may be accepted for publication on the statement of the Standing Committee that it considers that there are satisfactory reasons why the author is not a member of the New Zealand Institute.” Withdrawn.

5. That in the same subclauses (c), (d), (e), (f) be lettered (e), (f), (g), (h), respectively. Withdrawn.

6. That the whole clause as amended be printed in the next volume of the Transactions and Proceedings. This was adopted with the deletion of the word “whole.”

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Clause 5 (a) of the Regulations as amended is as follows:—

The publications of the Institute shall consist of—

  • (1.) Such current abstract of the proceedings of the societies for the time being incorporated with the Institute as the Board of Governors deems desirable;

  • (2.) And of transactions comprising papers read before the incorporated societies or any general meeting of the New Zealand Institute (subject, however, to selection as hereinafter mentioned), and of such other matter as the Board of Governors shall from time to time for special reasons in each case determine to publish, to be intituled Transactions of the New Zealand Institute.

7. That it be a recommendation to the Publication Committee to alter the “Memorandum for Authors of Papers” (see p. iii, vol. 49 or 50) by the deletion of the words “Secretary of the society before which it was read,” and the insertion therefor of the words “Editor of the Transactions.” Adopted.

Metric System.—On the motion of Professor Kirk, seconded by the Hon. G. M. Thomson, it was resolved, That it be a recommendation to authors of papers to adhere as nearly as possible to the metric system in the statements of any weights or measures.

Election of Honorary Members.—A letter to the President from Professor Benham (28/1/19), endorsed by Professors Malcolm and Jack, was received. The Hon. Secretary pointed out that the regulations had been complied with. On the motion of Professor Easterfield, seconded by Mr. Hill, it was resolved, That the President be requested to reply to the letter from Dr. Benham, pointing out that the Hon. Secretary has acted strictly in accordance with the rules laid down by the Board of Governors.

A motion by Professor Chilton, seconded by Mr. Hill, That when vacancies are known to exist in the list of honorary members of the Institute notification of the number of vacancies be sent to the Secretaries of the local societies before the 30th September, was lost.

A motion by Dr. J. A. Thomson, seconded by the Hon. G. M. Thomson, That the Standing Committee prepare a list of vacancies of honorary members and call for nominations from the incorporated societies before the 1st June in each year, and communicate the complete list of nominations to each incorporated society before the 1st September, was lost.

On the motion of Mr. L. Birks, seconded by Professor Thomas, it was resolved, That vacancies in the list of honorary members be announced at each annual meeting of the Board of Governors, and such announcement be communicated as early as possible to each incorporated society, and that each such society nominate on or before the 1st December one person for each vacancy as honorary member, and that the election take place at the next annual meeting of the Board of Governors, notification of the vacancies now on the roll of honorary members to be sent to the incorporated societies at once.

On the motion of Professor Easterfield, seconded by the Hon. G. M. Thomson, Dr. J. W. Mellor was unanimously elected an honorary member of the New Zealand Institute. It was also resolved that Professor Easter-field and the Hon. G. M. Thomson prepare for the Press an account of the life and work of Dr. Mellor.

Election of Officers.—The officers for the year 1919 were unanimously elected as follows: President, Dr. L. Cockayne, F.R.S.; Hon. Editor, Dr. C. A. Cotton; Hon. Treasurer, Mr. C. A. Ewen; Hon. Librarian, Dr. J. A. Thomson; Hon. Secretary, Mr. B. C. Aston.

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Election of Committees.—Publication Committee: Professor Kirk, Professor Easterfield, Dr. Cotton, Dr. J. A. Thomson, and Mr. Aston.

Library Committee: Professor Sommerville, Dr. J. A. Thomson, and Dr. Cotton.

Research Grants Committee: Professor Easterfield, Mr. Furkert, and Mr. Aston.

Hector Award Committee: Mr. Elsdon Best (convener), Sir E. Baldwin Spencer, Mr. T. F. Cheeseman, and Dr. J. A. Thomson.

Date and Place of the Next Annual Meeting.—On the motion of the Hon. G. M. Thomson, seconded by Professor Kirk, it was resolved, That the next annual meeting be held in Wellington, it being left with the Standing Committee to fix the exact date.

Expenses of Governors and Hon. Secretary.—It was resolved to pay the expenses of Governors attending the present meeting, as usual, and the Standing Committee were instructed to provide such clerical assistance for the Hon. Secretary as may be necessary

Hearty Votes of Thanks were accorded to the officers of the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury for their efforts in direction of the Congress, and for the arrangements for holding the annual meeting; to the Chairman of the Canterbury College Board of Governors for the use of the Board room; and to the honorary officers of the Institute for their services during the past year.