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Volume 51, 1919
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Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute Science Congress, 1919,

A Series of Meetings of the Members of the New Zealand Institute, held in the Canterbury College Buildings, Christchurch, 4th to 8th February, 1919.

Introductory Note.

By section 9 of the New Zealand Institute Act, 1908, the Board of Governors of the Institute is empowered to make arrangements from time to time for the holding of general meetings of the Institute for the reading of scientific papers, the delivery of lectures, and for the general promotion of science in New Zealand by any means that may appear desirable. This section had been inserted in the Act on the suggestion of the late Captain F. W. Hutton.

On more than one occasion the Board of Governors endeavoured to arrange for general meetings of the members of the Institute, but for geographical and other reasons these efforts were not successful.

At the meeting of the Board of Governors at Wellington in January, 1918, the representatives of the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, acting on behalf of that Institute, invited the New Zealand. Institute to hold a series of meetings in Christchurch early in the year 1919. This offer was accepted, and later in the year preliminary arrangements were made and it was decided that, while the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury would be responsible for the local arrangements, the selection of the papers, lectures, and other matters connected with the meeting should be attended to by the New Zealand Institute through its Standing Committee, and a sub-committee of the Standing Committee was appointed for this purpose. Some progress with the arrangements was made, but in November, 1918, owing to the illness of some members of this sub-committee and other causes the Standing Committee requested the Philosophical Institute to take over the whole of the preparations necessary for the meetings, and this the Council agreed to undertake.

At the request of the Council, the Mayor of Christchurch, H. Holland, Esq., had previously convened a public meeting of the citizens of Christchurch to consider what steps should be taken to provide for hospitality to the visiting members and for other local arrangements. At a subsequent meeting a Hospitality Committee, an Excursions Committee, and a Finance Committee were set up, and many offers of assistance were received.

The influenza epidemic during the latter part of the year, and the consequent alteration of the dates of the meeting of the Senate of the New Zealand University and of the Matriculation Examination gave rise to unexpected difficulties, but the meeting was successfully held at the time previously agreed upon, 4th to 8th February, 1919, in the Canterbury College buildings, the use of which had been kindly granted by the Board of Governors and the Professorial Board of the College.

A small handbook containing the provisional programme, the list of officers, and notes for visitors was prepared, and early in January, 1919, was widely distributed among the members of the New Zealand Institute.

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Officers Of The Congress.
President.
Dr. L. Cockayne, F.R.S.
Hon. Secretary.
Mr. William Martin, B.Sc.

Executive Committee.

The Officers and Council of the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, and the Chairman of the Hospitality, Excursions, and Finance Committees—viz.: Officers and Council of Philosophical Institute of Canterbury (President, Professor C. C. Farr, D.Sc., F.P.S.L.; Vice-Presidents, Messrs. W. H. Skinner and L. P. Symes; Hon. Secretary, Mr. William Martin, B.Sc. Hon. Treasurer, Dr. Charles Chilton, F.L.S., C.M.Z.S.; Hon. Librarian, Mr. W. G. Aldridge, M.A.; Hon. Auditor, Mr. G. E. Way; Council, Dr. F. W. Hilgendorf, M.A., Messrs. L. Birks, B.Sc., L. J. Wild, M.A., F.G.S., A. V. Mountford, M. H. Gobby, M.A., B.Sc., James Drummond, F.L.S., F.Z.S.); Chairman Hospitality Committee, Sir John Denniston; Chairman Excursions Committee, Mr. E. F. Stead; Chairman Finance Committee, Mr. A. Kaye.

Hospitality Committee.

Sir John Denniston (Chairman), His Worship the Mayor (Mr. H. Holland), Mrs. Carey Hill, Miss R. Tabart, Miss M. Ferrar, Dr. H. T. J. Thacker, M.P., Messrs. R. C. Bishop, H. D. Acland, R. Scott, G. T. Booth, A. W. Beaven.

Excursions Committee.

Messrs. E. F. Stead (Chairman), R. E. Alexander, L. Birks, C. M. Ollivier, N. L. Macbeth, H. G. Ell, M.P., R. Speight, R. M. Laing, C. J. Williams, H. F. Skey, H. J. Marriner.

Finance Committee.

Mr. A. Kaye (Chairman), Professor R. J. Scott, Councillors Howard and Flesher, Messrs. B. Seth-Smith, G. Humphreys, A. W. Jamieson, J. Keir, T. J. McBride, William Reece, and Dr. W. P. Evans.

General Meeting, Tuesday, 4th February, 1919, 11 a.m.

Present: Dr. L. Cockayne, President, in the chair, and a large number of members of the New Zealand Institute.

The President announced the general arrangements of the Science Congress.

On the motion of the President, it was decided that the sections, with their officers, be as follows:—

Section 1.—Biology and Agriculture.

President, Dr. C. J. Reakes, M.R.C.V.S.; Vice-President, Hon. G. M. Thomson, F.L.S.; Hon. Secretaries, Dr. C. Chilton, F.L.S., C.M.Z.S., and Dr. F. W. Hilgendorf, F.G.S.

Section 2.—Geology.

President, Mr. P. G. Morgan, F.G.S.; Vice-President, Dr. C. A. Cotton, F.G.S.; Hon. Secretary, Mr. L. J. Wild, F.G.S.

Section 3.—Chemistry, Physics, and Engineering.

President, Professor T. H. Easterfield, F.I.C., F.C.S.; Vice-President, Professor D. M. Y. Sommerville, F.R.S.E.; Hon. Secretaries, Messrs S. Page, B.Sc., and D. B. McLeod, M.A., B.Sc.

Section 4.—General.

President, Ven. Archdeacon H. W. Williams, M.A.; Vice-President, Dr. J. Allan Thomson, F.G.S.; Hon. Secretary, Mr. W. Martin, B.Sc.

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In view of the recent death of Mr. Hill it was decided not to take advantage of the offer of the Canterbury Aviation School to arrange an exhibition of flying, but to send a letter of appreciation to the directors for their offer and of sympathy with them in the loss of their director.

Dr. Chilton and Dr. Hilgendorf made announcements with regard to the excursions to Arthur's Pass, Riccarton Bush, and Lincoln College respectively.

Several invitations to visit works of scientific or industrial interest round. Christchurch were accepted with thanks, also an invitation from the United Club to place the facilities of their grounds at the disposal of the members.

On the motion of Dr. J. A. Thomson, it was decided to hold another general meeting on Friday, 7th February, at 12 noon.

Civic Reception, Tuesday, 4th February, 1919, 11.30 a.m.

His Worship the Mayor of Christchurch, H. Holland, Esq., gave a civic reception to the officers of the New Zealand Institute and to the visiting members in the City Council Chamber. The meeting was largely attended by members of the City Council and by many prominent citizens.

Addresses of welcome were delivered by the Mayor and Dr. C. Coleridge Farr, President of the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, and were responded to by Dr. L. Cockayne, President of the New Zealand Institute.

Opening Ceremony, Tuesday, 4th February, 1919, 8 p.m.

The chair was taken by the President, Dr. L. Cockayne, F.R.S., and there were present His Excellency the Governor-General, Lady Liverpool, and suite; the Hon. G. W. Russell, Minister of Internal Affairs; His Worship the Mayor of Christchurch (H. Holland, Esq.); the Chairman of the Board of Governors of Canterbury College (H. D. Acland, Esq.); and a large number of members of the Institute and their friends.

The Congress was opened by His Excellency the Governor-General, who in his address called attention to the necessity for scientific research in connection with public health and industries, particularly forestry and fisheries.

The Hon. G. W. Russell, Minister of Internal Affairs, thanked His Excellency for opening the Congress, and said he hoped that the Science Congress would be held annually. He stressed the necessity for the development of the industries, mineral resources, and fisheries of New Zealand, and said that what was required was the creation of a scientific atmosphere throughout the Dominion.

The President then delivered his annual address to the New Zealand Institute (see pp. 485–95).

General Meeting, Friday, 7th February, 1919, Noon.

Present: Dr. L. Cockayne, President, in the chair, and a number of members from the sections.

Resolutions from various sections were received and adopted, as follows:—

Pure Seeds.

1. That this Congress urges upon the Government that no time should be lost in placing on the statute-book a Pure Seeds Act on the lines urged by Government officers, farmers, and dealers for over twenty years past.

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Dominion Herbarium.

2. That the Science Congress of the New Zealand Institute considers that a comprehensive herbarium should be established in the Dominion Museum, and that a fully qualified keeper of the herbarium be appointed.

Pronunciation of Scientific Terms.

3. That it is advisable that a Committee of the New Zealand Institute be set up to go into the details and draw up a logical, uniform, scientific system of pronunciation of scientific terms; that the scheme when complete should be adopted by the Institute, and that every possible effort should be made to introduce and explain it in all the University colleges and all institutions where science (even elementary science) is taught, with a view to establishing such uniformity as may be possible.

Uniformity in Biological Language.

4. That a committee be appointed to consider uniformity in biological language, the committee to consist of Professors Johnson, Kirk, Benham, and Chilton (convener).

Soil Survey.

5. That a soil survey be undertaken as soon as possible.

Spray Compounds.

6. That the Government be asked to introduce legislation to provide for the purity and standardization of spray compounds.

Palaeontology.

7. That a Palaeontologist be appointed immediately as a permanent member of the Geological Survey.

Seismology.

8. That seismological instruments of the most modern character be installed in Wellington to replace the present ones.

Astronomy.

9. That the Congress urge on the Government the importance of having systematic tests made of the suitability of sites for astronomical and geophysical observatories, beginning with an investigation of Central Otago.

Meteorology.

10. That the Congress place on record its appreciation of the work of the very numerous voluntary observers in New Zealand who helped meteorological science by daily observations in connection with the Dominion Meteorological Department.

11. That the Congress point out to the Government the desirability of investigation into the climatic winds of the Dominion, and that the assistance of the Meteorological Department be invoked in the matter.

Magnetic Survey.

12. That the desirability of establishing an electrograph at the Christchurch Magnetic Observatory be urged on the Government.

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Longitude.

13. That the Congress urge on the Government the importance of New Zealand acting jointly with the Australian observatories in the determination of longitude by radio-telegraphic methods, during the month of May, 1919.

Bench-marks.

14. That the Congress urge on the Government the importance of establishing permanent bench-marks and tide-gauges, and to connect the bench-marks by lines of precise levelling.

Preservation of Fauna.

15. That the New Zealand Institute combine with acclimatization societies in urging the Government to pass fresh legislation to preserve the native fauna, and that the subject be introduced into the State schools.

Standard Time.

16. That the Government be asked to alter the standard time from eleven and a half to twelve hours in advance of Greenwich time.

The Philosophical Institute of Canterbury was asked to draw up a record of the proceedings of the Congress.

Meetings of Sections.
Section 1.—Biology and Agriculture.

Tuesday, 4th February, 1919.

Members of this section met in the Biology lecture-room at noon. Present: Hon. G. M. Thomson, Vice-President, in the chair, and several members. Papers for the following day's session were arranged for. The two excursions, one to Lincoln Agricultural College, for agriculturists chiefly, and the other to Riccarton Bush, were decided upon for Tuesday afternoon.

Wednesday, 5th February, 1919, 10 a.m.

Present: Hon. G. M. Thomson, Vice-President, in the chair, and over thirty members.

An excursion was arranged to the Dyer's Pass Rest-house for the afternoon.

Papers.—“Yellow Flax Disease of Phormium tenax,” by Dr. L. Cockayne and Mr. A. H. Cockayne

“Seed-testing,” by Mr. E. B. Levy.

“The Vegetation of Banks Peninsula, with a List of Species (Flowering-plants and Ferns),” by Mr. R. M. Laing. (Printed in the Transactions, pp. 355–408.)

Thursday, 6th February, 1919, 10 a.m.

Present: Hon. G. M. Thomson, Vice-President, in the chair, and a number of members.

Papers.—“Control of Animal-disease in New Zealand,” by Dr. C. J. Reakes.

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“The Need of a Comprehensive Dominion Herbarium,” by Mr. D. Petrie. (Printed in the N.Z. Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 260–62, 1919.)

“Polymorphism in the Common New Zealand Limpet, Cellana radians (Gmelin),” by Dr. J. A. Thomson. (Printed in the N.Z. Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 264–67, 1919.)

“A New Discoglossoid Frog from New Zealand (Liopelma hamiltoni),” by A. R. McCulloch. (Printed in the Transactions, pp. 447–49.)

“The Pronunciation of Scientific Terms in New Zealand, with Special Reference to the Terms of Botany,” by Professor A. Wall. (Printed in the Transactions, pp. 409–14.)

“A Plea for Greater Simplicity in Biological Language,” by Dr. C. Chilton.

Friday, 7th February, 1919.

Present: Hon. G. M. Thomson, Vice-President, in the chair, and a number of members.

At this session, in order to cope with the number of papers still to be read, it was found necessary to hold separate meetings for the Biology and Agriculture subsections.

Subsection 1a, Biology.

Papers.—“The Status of Entomology in the Economy of the Dominion,” by Mr. D. Miller. (Printed in the N.Z. Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 269–73, 1919.)

“Descriptions of New Zealand Lepidoptera,” by Mr. E. Meyrick. (Printed in the Transactions, pp. 349–54.)

“Notes on the Autecology of certain Plants of the Peridotite Belt, Nelson,” by Miss M. W. Betts. (Printed in the Transactions, pp. 136–56.)

“A History of Hagley Park, Christchurch, with Special Reference to its Botany,” by Miss E. M. Herriott. (Printed in the Transactions, pp. 427–47.)

“The Seedling Form of Helichrysum coralloides,” by Dr. L. Cockayne. (Printed in the N.Z. Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 274–78, 1919.)

“Some Geological Inferences from the Distribution of Ranunculus paucifolius,” by Professor A. Wall.

“Convergent Evolution in the Crustacea,” by Dr. C. Chilton.

“New Zealand Fisheries and their Future Development,” by the Hon. G. M. Thomson.

Subsection 1b, Agriculture.

Papers.—Plant-breeding Methods and some Results,” by Dr. F. W. Hilgendorf.

“The Control of Succession in Surface-sown Grassland,” by Mr. A. H. Cockayne.

“Compatibility of Spraying-mixtures,” by Mr. W. C. Morris.

“Nitrification in Relation to the Calcium-carbonate Content of Canterbury Soil,” by Mr. L. J. Wild.

Abstract.

The work necessary to the completion of this paper was interrupted at a critical time by an attack of pneumonic influenza. The problem may be

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briefly stated as follows: It is generally accepted that a good supply of calcium carbonate is necessary in the soil for the efficient carrying-on of the process of nitrification, though it is difficult to say in quantitative terms exactly what amount constitutes a sufficiency. Analyses, of which the results are as yet unpublished, show that the quantity of carbonate of lime in Canterbury Plains soils is small—from 0·1 to 0·2 per cent.—and yet nitrification apparently proceeds at a satisfactory rate, since, so far as we know, ordinary crops are not markedly benefited by supplies of nitrogenous fertilizers. This research aims at determining the effect on the rate of nitrification produced by adding varying quantities of carbonate of lime to typical soils.

“Cold Storage of Fruit,” by Messrs. Logan and W. C. Morris.

“Agriculture's Debt to Science,” by Sir James Wilson.

Section 2.—Geology.

Tuesday, 4th February, 1919, Noon.

Present: Dr. C. A. Cotton, Vice-President, in the chair, and a number of members.

Apologies for absence were received from Drs. Marshall and Henderson, Professor Park, and Messrs. Uttley and Bartrum.

The programme of papers for the meeting of the following day was arranged, and the question of excursions by the section was discussed.

Wednesday, 5th February, 1919, 9.30 a.m.

Present: Dr. C. A. Cotton, Vice-President, in the chair, and thirteen others.

Excursion.—Mr. Speight announced that he had made arrangements for an excursion to Quail Island in the afternoon.

Papers.—“The Older Gravels of North Canterbury,” by Mr. R. Speight. (Printed in the Transactions, pp. 269–81.)

“Geological and Palaeontological Notes on the Palliser Bay District,” by Dr. J. Allan Thomson.

Abstract.

The Wairarapa limestone, of Waitotaran age, which McKay describes as present on the eastern side of the Wairarapa depression from Cape Kidnappers south to Martinborough, does not continue to Palliser Bay. The probable explanation is that the Haurangi Mountains, consisting of greywackes and argillites, represent a block uplifted along a nearly north—south fault on their east side, and that the continuation of the limestone will be found in the fault-angle to the east. In the Ruakokopatuna Valley, near McLeod's station, along part of which the fault runs, the western side is formed by greywackes and argillites, but the eastern by Wairarapa limestone separated from the underlying greywacke by a thin bed of greensand. This is the first known glauconitic horizon in the Waitotaran, and, as was expected, it yielded new species of brachiopods—viz., Neothyris sp. and Terebratulina sp.

The mudstones forming the cliffs on the north-west corner of Palliser Bay rest on a thin bed of gritty sandstone containing Terebratella neozelandica and Hemithyris antipodum, and this in turn rests unconformably on greywackes. The lowest layers of the mudstone contain numerous fossil

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mollusca, of Oamaruian and probably Awamoan age, including a form resembling Struthiolaria tuberculata, but distinguished by an enormously swollen inner lip. Mudstones considerably higher up in the succession contain a Waitotaran fauna, with such species as Verconella orbita (Hutt.), Cominella purchasi Suter, and Pecten delicatulus Hutt. The succeeding sandy and gravelly beds at the mouth of the Ruamahunga River yield mostly Recent species, including Pecten delicatulus.

The nature of the beds and the succession of the fossil faunas in the Palliser Bay district show a close parallelism with those of the Awatere series in Marlborough, and evidently belong to the same diastrophic sub-district, characterized by a marine transgression commencing near the close of the Oamaruian and extending throughout the Waitotaran, and affecting areas of pre-Notocene rocks not submerged during the lower Notocene transgressions.

Specimens of Pecten delicatulus showing clearly the ornament of both valves were obtained both from Palliser Bay and from mudstones intercalated in the Wairarapa limestone at Twaite's cutting, near Martinborough. These show that the assumption of Hutton, which was accepted by Suter, that Pecten difluxus is a synonym of Pecten delicatulus cannot be upheld, and the former must therefore be regarded a valid species. There is a Recent specimen in the Dominion Museum, labelled “New Zealand,” which appears to be Pecten delicatulus.

Thursday, 6th February, 1919.

Present: Mr. P. G. Morgan, President, in the chair, and twelve others.

Votes of thanks were passed to Mr. Speight for arranging and conducting the excursion to Quail Island, Lyttelton, and to Dr. C. Coleridge Farr for assistance with the lantern.

Papers.—“The Significant Features of Reef-bordered Coasts,” by Professor W. M. Davis; communicated by Dr. Benson. (Printed in the Transactions, pp. 6–30.)

“Rough Ridge, Otago, and its Splintered Fault-scarp,” by Dr. C. A. Cotton. (Printed in the Transactions, pp. 282–85.)

“Geography: Some Educational Aspects of the Subject,” by Mr. E. K. Lomas. (Printed in the N.Z. Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 282–85, 1919.)

“Report of a Committee on the Natural Features of the Arthur's Pass Tunnel,” by Dr. F. W. Hilgendorf. (Printed in the Transactions, pp. 422–26.)

“Range of Tertiary Mollusca in the Oamaruian of North Otago and South Canterbury,” by Dr. J. A. Thomson.

Abstract.

The Oamaruian is divided into five stages, four of which are marine at Oamaru and contain fossil molluscs. A very large number of fossils have been collected from the Oamaru, Waitaki, Waihao, Pareora, and Kakahu districts by officers of the Geological Survey and others, and have been determined by the late Mr. H. Suter. The plotted lists exhibited show the range of each species for each of these several localities. The majority of species found in the lowest, or Waiarekan, stage are also present in the highest, or Awamoan, stage, but there is a small proportion confined to single stages. This is particularly so in the case of the Awamoan stage, but

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the collecting, especially by Marshall in the Oamaru district, has been much more exhaustive for this stage than for any of the others. The difference in station of the species found in the Ototaran and Hutchinsonian probably accounts for the absence in these stages of many species common to the Waiarekan and Awamoan, and also for the presence of other species absent from the two last-named stages. The general result of the analysis is to show that the molluscan fauna did not change greatly during the Oamaruian, and hence distant correlations with individual stages based solely on mollusca are difficult to establish. A closer study of the fossils on evolutionary lines might lead to the discrimination of species now lumped together which might prove to have a zonal value.

“The Geology of the Middle Clarence and Ure Valleys, East Marlborough, New Zealand,” by Dr. J. A. Thomson. (Printed in the Transactions, pp. 289–349.)

Friday, 7th February, 1919.

Present: Mr. P. G. Morgan, President, in the chair, and a number of others.

Papers.—“A Quantitative Study of the Silica-saturation of Igneous Rocks,” by Dr. J. A. Thomson.

Abstract.

Variation curves for chemical constituents (mainly oxides) plotted against silica have been given by Harker for Pacific and Atlantic rocks, but trial plottings of a large number of analyses show that the points representing given rocks group themselves together into curved belts (a sort of Milky Way) and do not tend to lie on lines, as Harker's diagrams might suggest. If these belts could be sufficiently defined by the plotting of all reliable analyses, each rock could be then classified as abnormally high, normal, or abnormally low for each chemical constituent compared to silica, and a valuable means of comparing rock-analyses would result. The combination of all such classifications for each important constituent, however, would yield more classes of analyses than there are superior analyses, and would be cumbersome. The attempt has therefore been made to obtain a small number of functions of the analyses combining relationships between various oxide molecules such as exist in minerals. A norm somewhat similar to that of the American classification has been adopted, but in order to avoid the difficulty of attempting comparisons of such related molecules as orthoclase and leucite, albite and nepheline, hypersthene and olivine, in which the second mineral in each of the groups named is under-saturated in silica, it has been assumed in calculation that unlimited silica is available. The amount of silica actually used in satisfying the various bases on the assumption of complete silica-saturation is then compared with the amount shown to be actually present by the analysis, and a percentage figure is obtained expressing when positive the amount of free quartz present in the norm, and when negative the degree of undersaturation of silica. A further difference from the American norm is also the calculation of excess Al2O3 and Fe2O3 to hydrous silicates Al2O3.S1O2.2H2O and Fe2O3.SiO2.2H2O, since alumina and ferric iron control at least an equivalent of silica in the alferric minerals after possible feldspars and metasilicates have been calculated. By this means a quantitative estimate of silica-saturation for any rock-analysis is obtained. This in turn is plotted against total silica, and a variation belt obtained as in the case

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of the oxides. Other functions used are the total feldspars (calculated on the assumption of unlimited silica), the total metasilicates, and the iron-ores and minor accessories. A trial plotting of the feldspars has not shown very definite grouping into a belt, and if a further series of analyses does not remedy this defect it will be necessary to seek for other functions of the analyses which do satisfactorily group themselves.

About a thousand analyses have been calculated and plotted, but some years ago the research was laid aside in view of the anticipated early publication of the second edition of Washington's Superior Analyses of Igneous Rocks, which would render unnecessary the individual collation of analyses from original papers. This publication was, however, delayed by the war, and has not yet reached New Zealand. It is hoped to resume and complete the research by the aid of a Government research grant. Meanwhile it is of interest, in view of recent discussion of silica-saturation from the qualitative point of view, to point out that a quantitative study could easily be made.

“The Tectonic Conditions accompanying the Intrusion of Basic and Ultra-basic Igneous Rocks,” by Professor W. N. Benson.

“Notes on the Mechanical Composition of the so-called Loess at Timaru,” by Mr. L. J. Wild. (Printed in the Transactions, pp. 286–88.)

“The Organization and Functions of a State Geological Survey,” by Mr. P. G. Morgan. (Printed in the N.Z. Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 289–99, 1919.)

Resolutions.—The following resolutions were adopted:—

1. “That the Government be urged to appoint a Palaeontologist as a permanent member of the Geological Survey at the earliest possible opportunity, such an officer being essential for the proper carrying-on of any geological survey.” (Proposer, Mr. R. Speight; seconder, Dr. C. A. Cotton)

2. “That this meeting urges upon the Government the importance of instituting a seismographic installation of the most modern type, as the instruments used in New Zealand at present, though giving very useful information, are not capable of work of the highest character.” (Proposer, Professor W. N. Benson; seconder, Dr. C. A. Cotton)

Section 3.—Chemistry, Physics, and Engineering.

Wednesday, 5th February, 1919, 10 a.m.

Present: Professor T. H. Easterfield, President, in the chair, and a number of others.

Papers.—“An Improved Planisphere,” by Professor D. M. Y. Sommer-ville. (Printed in the N Z. Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 193–95, 1919.)

“Tables of Mathematical Functions,” by Dr. C. E. Adams.

“The Leather Industry,” by Mr. A. V. Mountford.

Thursday, 6th February, 1919, 10 a.m.

Present: Professor T. H. Easterfield, President, in the chair, and many others.

Papers.—“The New Zealand Climate,” by Mr. F. L. Wooles.

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“The North-west Winds of Canterbury,” by Mr. H. F. Skey. (Printed in the N.Z. Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 300–1, 1919.)

“The Harmonic Analysis of Tidal Observations and the Prediction of Tides,” by Dr. C. E. Adams.

Abstract.

Practically all existing methods used for the harmonic analysis of tidal observations have many numerical approximations employed in their practical applications. It therefore becomes difficult to determine whether the method of harmonic analysis gives the best representation of the tide curve.

In the method here described no arithmetical approximations are used, so that a criterion is obtained to test the application of Fourier's series to tidal observations.

A description is given of the method of prediction of tides used in New Zealand. An illustrated description of this process appeared in the Survey Reports of the Lands and Survey Department for the years 1910–14, and to these reports reference should be made for the details. The process is a graphic one, controlled by calculation. The results of the predictions for Wellington and Auckland are published in the New Zealand Nautical Almanac by the Marine Department.

“A Slide-rule for solving the Quadratic Equation,” by Professor D. M. Y. Sommerville.

“Porosity of Porcelam Insulators,” by Dr. C C. Farr. (Printed in the N.Z. Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 302–7, 1919.)

“Interference of Power Circuits with Telephone Circuits,” by Mr. E. Parry. (Printed in the N.Z. Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 308–14, 1919.)

“The Effect of Low Power-factor from the Standpoint of Electric-power-station Operators,” by Mr. E. E. Stark. (Printed in the N.Z. Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 314–17, 1919.)

Friday, 7th February, 1919, 10 a.m.

Present: Professor T. H. Easterfield, President, in the chair, and a number of others

Papers.—“National Hydro-electric Schemes for New Zealand,” by Mr. H. Hill.

“Exhibit of Photographs on Glass of Solar Corona, taken by Lick Observatory, 8th June, 1918, at Goldendale, Washington, U.S.A.,” by Dr. C. E. Adams. (Printed in the N.Z. Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 317–19, 1919.)

“Determination of the Position of the Moon by Photography, and Exhibit of Photographs of the Moon and Surrounding Stars,” by Dr. C. E. Adams.

Abstract.

An exhibit was made of photographs, taken at the Lick Observatory, of the moon and surrounding stars, to determine with great accuracy the position of the moon. This work was undertaken to enable Professor E. W. Brown, the eminent mathematical astronomer at Yale, to check his new tables of the moon. On the original plates stars as faint as the tenth

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magnitude were successfully photographed at full moon. The exposures were usually 4 minutes on the stars, then 1/3 second on the moon, and then another 4 minutes on the stars. The excellent star-images secured speak well of the Crossley reflector telescope, which was driven without any guiding, and the photographs prove that the position of the moon and terrestrial longitude can be determined with high precision.

“The Almucantar Method of Observation for the Determination of Time and Latitude,” by Dr. C. E. Adams.

“A Nomogram for Transit Instrument Star Factors,” by Dr. C. E. Adams.

Section 4.—General.

Wednesday, 5th February, 1919, 10 a.m.

Present: Archdeacon H. W. Williams, President, in the chair, and many others.

Papers.—“Moriori Art,” by Mr. H. D. Skinner.

“Some Notes on the Language of the Chatham Islands,” by Archdeacon H. W. Williams. (Printed in the Transactions, pp. 415–22.)

“The Natural Laws of Poetry,” by Mr. J. C. Andersen. (Printed in the N.Z. Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 320–39, 1919.)

Friday, 7th February, 1919, 9.30 a.m.

Present: Archdeacon H. W. Williams, President, in the chair, and many others.

Papers.—“Afforestation in New Zealand,” by Mr. W. H. Skinner.

“Some Proposals with regard to Natural Afforestation in a New Zealand Mountain Area,” by Mr. W. G. Morrison. (Printed in the N.Z. Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 339–49, 1919.)

“Preservation of New Zealand Fauna,” by Mr. E. G. Stead.

Discussion.—“Daylight-saving,” by Dr. C. E. Adams.

Public Evening Lectures.

Wednesday, 5th February.

“Vestiges of the Primeval Plant World,” by the Rev. Dr. J. E. Holloway.

Thursday, 6th February.

“Mountain Sculpture,” by Dr. C. A. Cotton.

“Mountain Structure,” by Professor W. N. Benson.

Friday, 7th February.

“The Influenza Epidemic,” by Dr. A. B. Pearson.

Garden Party.

On Thursday afternoon, 6th February, 1919, Mr. and Mrs. E. F. Stead gave a garden party to the members of the Institute at their residence at Ilam, Riccarton. There were present His Excellency the Governor-General,

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Lady Liverpool, and suite, the President of the Congress (Dr. L. Cockayne, F.R.S.), His Honour Sir John Denniston; the Mayor of Christchurch (H. Holland, Esq.), Mrs. Luke (Mayoress of Wellington) and other visiting Red Cross Council delegates, many officers and members of the Institute, and a large number of citizens of Christchurch. The beautiful lawns and garden, with its fine representation of native plants and its winding paths exhibiting glorious hydrangeas growing on the river-banks, were much enjoyed by the visitors, and combined with the brilliant sunshine, music, and the social intercourse to make the occasion memorable.

Excursions.

During the Congress excursions were made to the hydro-electric power-station at Lake Coleridge, to the Agricultural College, Lincoln, to Riccarton Bush, and to Dyer's Pass on the Port Hills.

Geological excursions were made to Quail Island, Lyttelton Harbour, and to Grey River.

Other excursions were made by different members to various places of scientific and industrial interest in the vicinity of Christchurch.