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Volume 52, 1920

Transactions Of The New Zealand Institute.

Art. I.—Some New Zealand Amphipoda: No. 1.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 1st October, 1919; received by Editor, 31st December, 1919; issued separately, 4th June, 1920.]

During recent years many additional facts have become known with regard to the Amphipoda of New Zealand through the investigation of collections from the various Antarctic and other expeditions. As circumstances are not at present favourable for the publication of a comprehensive review of the group, it is proposed- to issue, under the title given above, a series of notes briefly detailing some of the new facts, and giving references to sources where additional information can be obtained. It will be seen that frequent use has been made of the MS. notes and drawings and of the specimens placed in my hands by the Hon. G. M. Thomson; in several cases these are most useful for elucidating points in connection with some of the earlier records of Amphipoda from New Zealand.

The names of authors followed by a date in parentheses refer to the list on page 8.

Leptamphopus novae-zealandiae (G. M. Thomson). Figs. 1 to 5.

Pherusa novae-zealandiae G. M. Thomson, 1879, p. 239, pl. 10 C, figs. 2, 2 a-c. Pherusa neo-zelanica G. M. Thomson and Chilton, 1886, p. 148. Panoploea debilis G. M. Thomson, 1880, p. 3, pl. 1, fig. 3; G. M. Thomson and Chilton, 1886, p. 150. Acanthozone longimana (part) Della Valle, 1893, pp. 604, 620. Oradarea longimana Walker, 1903, p. 56, pl. 10, figs. 77–89; Stebbing, 1906, p. 727; Chevreux, 1906, p. 54; Walker, 1907, p. 32. Leptamphopus novae-zealandiae Stebbing, 1906, p. 294; Chilton, 1909, p. 621; Chilton, 1912, p. 488; Chevreux, 1913, p. 143.

There has been considerable confusion in connection with this species, and it seems desirable to support the synonymy given above by the following historical account.

In 1879 Mr. G. M. Thomson published his first paper dealing with New Zealand Crustacea. In it he described several new species, including Pherusa novae-zealandiae from Dunedin, of which he gave a brief description and figures of the whole animal, of the gnathopoda, and of the telson (1879, p. 239, pl. 10 C, fig. 2).

The only work of reference on the Amphipoda available to Mr. Thomson at that time was Spence Bate's Catalogue of the Amphipoda in the British Museum. The amount of dissection and minute examination that is necessary to distinguish between allied species was not then realized, and

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it will be seen from what is recorded below that Mr. Thomson's description was a composite one based on specimens belonging to more than one species.

In the next year Mr. Thomson described and figured another new species under the name Panoploea debilis, also from Denedin Harbour, the genus Panoploea being new and including P. debilis and P. spinosa, another new species described at the same time (1880, p. 3).

In 1882 I had identified specimens collected at Lyttelton Harbour as Panoploea debilis G. M. Thomson, and later on was able to compare them with specimens from Dunedin named by Mr. Thomson and to ascertain that they were identical with his species. This species proved to be moderately common in New Zealand seas, and was long known to New Zealand workers under the name Panoploea debilis G. M. Thomson.

In 1893 Della Valle placed the species in the genus Acanthozone as a doubtful synonym of Acanthozone longimana (Boeck), a species which is now placed under the genus Leptamphopus, and remarked that Pherusa novae-zealandiae G. M. Thomson seemed to coincide with Panoploea debilis G. M. Thomson.

In his account of the Amphipoda Gammaridea in Das Tierreich, Stebbing (1906, p. 294) includes both Pherusa novae-zealandiae and Panoploea debilis under the name Leptamphopus novae-zealandiae (G. M. Thomson), but without making any reference to the differences in the descriptions of the two species as given by Thomson. In 1903, before Stebbing's Das Tierreich Amphipoda was published, Mr. A. O. Walker, in his account of the “Southern Cross” Antarctic Expedition, had described and figured a new genus and species, Oradarea longimana (1903, p. 56), and in the appendix of Das Tierreich Amphipoda Stebbing quotes this species and says of it “strangely like Leptamphopus novae-zealandiae” (1906, p. 727).

In 1906 Chevreux recorded Oradarea longimana Walker from Flanders Bay and other localities in Graham Land visited by the French Antarctic Expedition, 1903–5 (1906, p. 54).

In his account of the Amphipoda of the National Antarctic Expedition, Walker in 1907 records Oradarea longimana from Coulman Island and other localities visited by the expedition, and in a footnote referring to Stebbing's remarks points out that his species differs from Thomson's description of Pherusa novae-zealandiae “in having only the first two pleon segments dorsally produced into one tooth, instead of the two posterior segments of the mesosome and two anterior of the pleon produced into two teeth; also in the upper antennae having an appendage” (1907, p. 32).

In 1909, in the account of the Crustacea in the Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand, I followed Stebbing in considering Panoploea debilis to be the same as Pherusa novae-zealandiae, and recorded the species under the name Leptamphopus novae-zealandiae (G. M. Thomson), from Carnley Harbour, in Lord Auckland Islands, and after comparing it with Walker's description came to the conclusion that Oradarea longimana Walker was identical with Leptamphopus novae-zealandiae (G. M. Thomson). as Stebbing had suggested, the differences pointed out by Walker being apparently due to individual variation or to errors in the descriptions (1909, p. 621). In his account of the Amphipoda of the second French Antarctic Expedition, 1908–10, Chevreux adopted this view, referred specimens from Petermann Island to Leptamphopus novae-zealandiae (G. M. Thomson), and gave a few further particulars of the species. This species was collected by the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition at South Orkneys, and, was recorded by me in the account of the Amphipoda of the expedition under the name Leptamphopus novae-zealandiae (G. M. Thomson) (1912, p. 488).

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Though I have all along been convinced that Stebbing was right in combining Panoploea debilis G. M. Thomson with Pherusa novae-zealandiae G. M. Thomson, it has been a little difficult to understand the differences in the descriptions of these species, and how it was that Mr. Thomson came to describe the same form as two different species in two successive years.

In January, 1914, in the collections of the Dunedin Museum, I found a bottle labelled “Pherusa novae-zealandiae G. M. Thomson, Dunedin; Type,” in the handwriting of the late Captain Hutton, who was Curator of the Museum at the time when the species was first described, and through the kindness of Professor Benham I have been able to make an examination of its contents. The bottle contained altogether ten specimens, all more or less imperfect; seven of them are without doubt the species common in New Zealand and long known under the name Panoploea debilis G. M. Thomson. All of these specimens have lost their antennae except the peduncles, but the character of the gnathopoda, of the projection of some of the segments into dorsal teeth, and of the uropoda and telson leaves no doubt as to the identity of the species. Of the other three specimens, two, one of them imperfect, are small examples of Paradexamine pacifica (G. M. Thomson), which have apparently been included by accident, and are of no importance in the present discussion. The remaining specimen, which is the largest of the lot, and of which the head and anterior part of the peraeon are missing, is a specimen of a different species altogether, Panoploea spinosa G. M. Thomson, which is no longer considered congeneric with Panoploea debilis and is placed by Stebbing in a different family.

It seems evident that these specimens had been grouped together owing to the fact that in all of them some of the segments are produced posteriorly into dorsal teeth and that a portion of the original description of Pherusa novae-zealandiae had been based on the specimen of Panoploea spinosa: e.g., the statement that “two posterior segments of the pereion and two anterior segments of the pleon produced dorsally into two teeth,” and “three last pairs of pereiopoda much longer than the preceding; their coxae with comb-like teeth on their posterior margins”; also, “third segment of pleon with the sides produced posteriorly, and ending abruptly in a serrated margin.” The characters thus quoted agree well with this specimen of Panoploea spinosa, and some of them are indicated in the figure given by Thomson in describing Pherusa novae-zealandiae. These points do not show clearly in the very small figures accompanying Mr. Thomson's published paper, for “instead of lithographing the plates, the draughtsman traced them on to a large sheet, from whence they were photo-lithographed” (see Stebbing, 1888, p. 500), and in the process they were so much reduced that many of the points shown clearly in the original drawings cannot be made out. Mr. Thomson has, however, given me the tracings of the originals, and in the tracing of the figure of the whole animal of Pherusa novae-zealandiae it is evident that the dorsal teeth, the basal joints of the posterior peraeopoda, and the hind-margin of the third pleon segment have been drawn from the specimen of Panoploea spinosa, and not from the genuine Pherusa novae-zealandiae. The other characters have been based on the specimens really belonging to Pherusa novae-zealandiae, and the description is therefore composite, being based on more than one specimen, as is shown by the statement that the posterior margin of the third segment of the pleon “is almost smooth in young specimens,” the “young specimens” being the genuine Pherusa novae-zealandiae, and quite different from the Panoploea spinosa which was confused with them.

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It is therefore evident that Panoploea debilis (G. M. Thomson) is indeed the same as Pherusa novae-zealandiae G. M. Thomson, but was thought to be different owing to the errors in the original description and figures; and that the differences pointed out by Walker between his Oradarea longimana and the description of Pherusa novae-zealandiae are due to the fact that the original description was based on the examination and confusion of two different species.

The history of this species has perhaps been detailed at tedious length, but it is interesting as another example of the necessity of examining type specimens, whenever they are available, in order to settle disputed points, instead of trusting too greatly to published descriptions and figures and relying too much upon their accuracy.

The exact generic position of this species is a little doubtful, owing to the fact that in the group to which it belongs there are so many genera much alike and distinguished by characters which are perhaps not all of generic importance. It will be seen that the species was first placed under Pherusa, then under Panoploea, next under Acanthozone, then under Oradarea (a genus specially created for it), and finally under Leptamphopus. In Das Tierreich Amphipoda there is only one other species, L. longimana (Boeck), placed in this genus, and that was originally described by Boeck under the genus Amphithopsis.

If we compare the species under consideration with the generic characters of Leptamphopus as given by Stebbing (1906, p. 293) it is found to agree in most points. The first point mentioned, however, “Body not acutely dentate,” requires some modification, for in this species the last segment of the peraeon and the first two of the pleon are dentate; again, in the generic characters it is stated that there is no accessory flagellum, though Walker describes and figures one in the specimens of this species obtained from Cape Adare, and his observation is confirmed by Chevreux, and there is certainly a minute accessory flagellum in a specimen in my collection collected at the South Orkneys by the “Scotia” Expedition. On the other hand, there is none in the New Zealand specimens nor in the northern species L. longimanus (Boeck). In the mouth parts there is nothing that appears to me specially characteristic of the genus, which seems best recognized by the long slender gnathopoda and the entire telson. Most of the characters of Leptamphopus are the same as those of Djerboa Chevreux, but in that genus the telson is deeply cleft.

The following brief description will be sufficient to distinguish L. novae-zealandiae from the northern species, L. longimanus:

Back rounded, peraeon segment 7 and pleon segments 1 and 2 each produced posteriorly into a dorsal tooth. Antennae subequal, slender, about as long as body. Antenna 1 with second joint of peduncle produced on each side into a short subacute lobe, a minute accessory appendage present in Antarctic specimens but not in those from New Zealand. Gnathopod 1 with carpus and propod subequal, narrow-oblong, palm short, oblique. Gnathopod 2 much longer and more slender, carpus and propod elongate, linear, with small tufts of setae on their posterior margins, propod longer than the carpus, palm short, oblique. Uropods 1 and 2 with outer branch much shorter than the inner; uropod 3 with basal joint acutely produced on inner side, outer branch not much shorter than inner, both lanceolate, slightly flattened and broader than in uropods 1 and 2, inner branch with an elevation or ridge on its upper surface near the inner margin. Telson tapering slightly, extremity broadly rounded or truncate, sometimes a little irregular, and with one or two minute setae.

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Length of New Zealand specimens, about 9 mm.; Antarctic specimens, up to 12 mm. or more.

Colour greyish or light-brown, made up of dark dots or stellate markings.

Distribution: New Zealand (Dunedin Harbour, Lyttelton, Akaroa, &c.); Cape Adare; Coulman Island; McMurdo Strait; Petermann Island; Flanders Bay; Port Charcot; Orkney Islands: probably circumaustral.

Picture icon

Leptamphopus novae-zealandiae.
Fig. 1.—First gnathopod.
Fig. 2.—Second gnathopod.
Fig. 3.—First uropod.
Fig. 4.—Second uropod.
Fig. 5.—Third uropod and telson, showing ridge on inner branch of the third uropod.

This species very closely resembles P. longimanus (Boeck), a species found in the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans, the chief difference being that in P. longimana no segment of the body is produced into teeth.

The Antarctic specimens appear to differ constantly from those occurring in New Zealand in the presence of a minute accessory appendage on the upper antenna. Both Walker and Chrevreux remark on the variation in the dorsal teeth of the body-segments in Antarctic specimens of different sizes; all the mature New Zealand specimens seem to agree in having the last peraeon and first two pleon segments produced into teeth.

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As I have previously suggested (1909, p. 621), the small side lobes at the end of the second basal joint of the upper antenna, which were first noticed by Walker, appear to be for the support of the rest of the antenna, allowing it to move freely in a vertical plane but not from side to side. In a similar way there is a slight hollow or depression on the upper surface of the inner branch of uropod 3 formed on the outer side of the ridge mentioned above, and into this the outer branch fits closely when it is not in use (see fig. 5). Analogous structures will probably be found in other Amphipoda of similar habits.

Ampelisca eschrichtii (Kroyer).

Ampelisca eschrichtii Chilton, 1917, p. 75.

In the Index Faunae Zealandiae two species of Ampelisca are put down as found in New Zealand, A. chiltoni and A. acinaces, both described by Stebbing in the report on the “Challenger.” Amphipoda. In the paper quoted above I attempt to show that these are only forms of the species long known in Arctic seas as A. eschrichtii Kröyer, and that A. macrocephala Liljeborg should also be considered as belonging to this species. The species is widely distributed both in Arctic and in Antarctic seas, where it may attain a length of 34 mm. In intermediate seas it is represented by forms of smaller size, in which the distinctive characters of the species are less evident.

Urothoides lachneëssa (Stebbing).

Urothoe lachneëssa Stebbing, 1888, p. 825, pl. 57. Urothoides lachneëssa Stebbing, 1906, p. 132.

This species was described from specimens obtained from Kerguelen Island by the “Challenger” Expedition. I have a specimen, washed on to the shore of Stewart Island and sent to me by Mr. Walter Traill, that I feel confident belongs to the same species. The specimen had been dried and somewhat shrivelled, but by mounting it in dissected form sufficient of the appendages can be made out to render the identification pretty certain. The first and second gnathopods agree closely with Stebbing's figure except that in the first the propod is narrower. The first, second, and third peraeopods are also closely similar. The fourth and fifth cannot be distinctly made out, but appear to agree except in having fewer setae. One of the uropods also can be seen to agree with Stebbing's figure.

This appears to be the first specimen that has been seen since the original ones were taken by the “Challenger.”

Parapherusa crassipes (Haswell).

Harmonia crassipes Haswell, 1879, p. 330, pl. 19, fig. 3. Parapherusa crassipes Stebbing, 1906, p. 383; Chilton, 1916, p. 199, pls. 8–10.

This is a species widely distributed in Australia and New Zealand, and for some time there was an uncertainty as to its systematic position. It seems, however, rightly placed under the genus Parapherusa in the family Gammaridae, to which it was assigned by Stebbing. A full account of its external structure and of the marked sexual differences is given in the last of the references quoted above.

Eurysthens haswelli (G. M. Thomson).

Maera haswelli G. M. Thomson, 1897, p. 449, pl. 10, figs. 6–10.

Wyvillea haswelli Stebbing, 1899, p, 350, and 1906, p. 648.

In Mr. Thomson's collection are two imperfect specimens labelled “Maera haswelli G. M. T., Bay of Islands, 8 fathoms,” which are presumably co-types of his species. These are identical with specimens from

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Akaroa and Lyttelton obtained years ago, and provisionally labelled as an undescribed species of Eurystheus. Stebbing in 1899 placed the species under Wyvillea, a genus of doubtful validity, and retained it in the same position in 1906. The species is, however, quite evidently a Eurystheus and comes near to E. dentifer (Haswell); the third side plate in the male is produced anteriorly below that of the second gnathopod in the same way as described for Paranaenia typica Chilton (1884, p. 259), a species which Stebbing considers a synonym of Eurystheus dentifer (Haswell).

In addition to the Bay of Islands specimens I have others of E. haswelli from Lyttelton; Akaroa; Longbeach, near Otago Harbour; Stewart Island; Chatham Islands; and also one from Port Jackson, New South, Wales, sent to me in 1918 by Professor W. A. Haswell.

Eurystheus crassipes (Haswell).

Maera crassipes Haswell, 1880, p. 103, pl. 7, fig. 2. Eurystheus crassipes Stebbing, 1906, p. 612.

I have specimens from Wellington and Auckland Harbours that evidently belong to this species, which was described from Port Jackson and Jervis Bay in Australia by Haswell; it is well characterized by the large size and breadth of the fourth peraeopod, and has rightly been placed in Eurystheus by Stebbing. The species has not hitherto been recorded from New Zealand.

Eurystheus chiltoni (G. M. Thomson).

Maera chiltoni G. M. Thomson, 1897, p. 447, pl. 10, figs. 1–5. Eurystheus chiltoni Stebbing, 1906, p. 617. Eurystheus longicornis Walker, 1907, p. 35, pl. 12, fig. 21.

This species was described by Mr. Thomson from specimens dredged in the Bay of Islands. I have a specimen from Mokohinou, found by Mr. C. R. Gow on seaweed at a depth of 25 fathoms. I think there is no doubt that E. longicornis (Walker) is the same species; the descriptions agree generally, and the drawing given by Walker of the second gnathopod of the male agrees well with my specimen from Mokohinou and also with co-types of Mr. Thomson's species which I have been able to examine. Walker's specimens were collected at the winter quarters of the “Discovery” in McMurdo Strait during the National Antarctic Expedition, 1901–4.

Eurystheus dentatus (Chevreux).

Gammaropsis dentata Chevreux, 1900, p. 93, pl. 12, fig. 1. Eurystheus afer Chilton, 1912, p. 510, pl. ii, figs. 30–34.

I have a few specimens of Eurystheus that I have had some difficulty in identifying. I find, however, in the better-developed specimens that the lower margin of the first side plate is distinctly dentate, as described and figured by Chevreux for the species named above, and the general agreement in other characters shows that they must be referred to that species. In the New Zealand specimens, both in the male and the female, the gnathopoda are more elongated and slender than those figured by Chevreux, but in others from the Kermadec Islands which seem to be otherwise the same the gnathopoda are stouter and like those of Chevreux' specimens. The New Zealand specimens are certainly the same as those from Gough Island collected by the “Scotia” “Expedition that I referred with much hesitation to E. afer Stebbing in 1912, and in two the merus of one or more of the last three pairs of peraeopoda is expanded in the same way as it is in one of the Gough Island specimens, though not quite to the same extent.

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The terminal segments of the pleon are dentate as in E. thomsoni Stebbing, to which I was at first inclined to refer my specimens, and, indeed, the two species may possibly prove to be identical; in the meantime, however, I have not been able to satisfy myself on this point.

Chevreux' specimens were from the Azores. It should be remembered that another, quite different, species from Alaska was described under the same name by Holmes in 1908; for this Stebbing has suggested the name alaskensis (1910, p. 613).

The specimens that I refer to E. dentatus (Chevreux) are from Cook Strait; off Cape Saunders; Stewart Island; and the Kermadec Islands. If I am correct in my identifications, it is also found at Gough Island and at the Azores.

Paracorophium excavatum (G. M. Thomson).

Corophium excavatum G. M. Thomson, 1884, p. 236, pl. 12, figs. 1–8. Paracorophium excavatum Stebbing, 1906, p. 664; Chilton, 1906, p. 704.

This species was described by Mr. Thomson from specimens taken in Brighton Creek, near Dunedin. Since then it has been found in several localities around the New Zealand coast where the water is more or less brackish, and also in the fresh-water lake Rotoiti, in Auckland. In 1918 some amphipods were sent me from brackish water in Brisbane River, Queensland, where they had been collected, along with the destructive wood-boring isopod Sphaeroma terebrans Bate, by Dr. T. Harvey Johnston, and these prove to belong to the same species. The males are distinguished from the females by a lobe on the end of the penultimate joint of the peduncle of the lower antenna, and by a differently shaped second gnathopod. The form originally figured by Thomson is an immature male. I have redescribed the species and given an account of the development of the sexual characters in a paper which will shortly be published in the Queensland Museum Memoirs, vol. vii.

The occurrence of the species in brackish waters in New Zealand and also in northern Australia is of considerable interest.

List of Authors quoted.

Chevreux, E., 1900. Rés. Campagnes scientifiques par Albert 1 de Monaco, Fasc. 16.

—— 1906. Expéd. Antarct. française, 1903–5, Amphipodes.

—— 1913. Deuxième Expéd. Antarct, française, Amphipodes.

Chilton, C., 1884. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 16, p. 259.

—— 1906. P.Z.S., 1906, pp. 702–5.

—— 1909. Subant. Islands N.Z., Crustacea, pp. 601–71.

—— 1912. Amphip. Scottish Nat. Antarct. Exped., Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. 48, pp. 455–519.

—— 1916. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 8, vol. 18, p. 199.

—— 1917. Jour. Zool. Research, vol. 2, p. 75.

Della Valle, A., 1893. Fauna u. Flora Golfes von Neapel, Monogr. 20, Gammarini.

Haswell, W. A., 1879. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vol. 4, pp. 319–50.

—— 1880. Loc. cit., vol. 5, p. 103.

Stebbing, T. R. R., 1888. Rep. “Challenger” Amphipoda.

—— 1899. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. 3, p. 350.

—— 1906. Das Tierreich Amphipoda.

—— 1910. “Thetis” Amphipoda, Mem. Austral. Mus., iv, pp. 567–658.

Thomson, G. M., 1879. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 11, pp. 231–48.

—— 1880. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 5, vol. 6, pp. 1–6.

—— 1897. Loc. cit., ser. 6, vol. 20, pp. 446–51.

Thomson, G. M., and Chilton, C., 1886. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 18, pp. 141–59.

Walker, A. O., 1903. “Southern Cross” Amphipoda, Jour, Linn. Soc., vol. 29, pp. 37–64.

—— 1907. Amphipoda, Nat. Antarct. Exped., 1901–4. vol. 3, pp. 1–39.

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Art. II.—Contributions to a Fuller Knowledge of the Flora of New Zealand. No. 7.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 22nd December, 1919; received by Editor, 31st December, 1919; issued separately, 4th June, 1920.]

Colobanthus Muelleri T. Kirk.

Dry ground near the verge of sea-cliffs, Manaia, Taranaki; Mrs. F. Mason! I am not aware of a more northern locality on the western side of the North Island.

Plagianthus cymosus T. Kirk.

Mr. Phillips Turner informs me that this species occurs in the valley of the McLennan River, a branch of the Tahakopa River, which flows into the sea about twenty miles south of Catlin's River, Otago. The locality is not far from the sea, and it would be interesting to ascertain whether both P. betulinus and P. divaricatus are to be found in the vicinity. In the Illustrations of the New Zealand Flora vol. 1, pl. 21) I have hinted at the probable hybrid origin of the plant.

Gunnera arenaria Cheesm.

Moist sandy places on the coast near Manaia, Taranaki; Mrs. F. Mason! Not previously recorded between New Plymouth and Patea, but probably always to be found in damp places on sand-dunes of any extent.

Eugenia maire A. Cunn.

So far as I am aware, no one has recorded the presence of pneumatophores in Eugenia maire. They were first brought to my notice by Mr. Colin Stewart, late of Mangatai, Mokau, who supposed that they were connected with the remarkable floating roots of Freycinetia Banksii, mentioned farther on in this paper. The mistake is a very natural one to make in a wooded swamp, where the roots of both species are almost inextricably mixed. As Eugenia is plentiful in swampy gullies at Birkdale, near Auckland, I induced Mr. F. S. Fisher, a resident in the locality, to make a careful search, which resulted in proving that the pneumatophores were abundant in most suitable localities. At a later date I visited the district under Mr. Fisher's guidance, and was able to prepare the following notes.

The pneumatophores of Eugenia maire rise from the ordinary roots of the tree, and reach a height of 9 in. to 18 in. above the level of the ground. They are about ¼ in. in diameter at the surface of the ground, seldom more, and are rigidly erect, and usually fasciculately branched. The ultimate shoots are ⅙–⅛ in. in diameter, cylindric, faintly constricted here and there. They somewhat resemble the branches of Salicornia in

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appearance, but are not jointed, and are much more stiffly erect. They are obtuse and frequently swollen at the tip, spongy or corky, but are always furnished with a hard woody central axis. The young and growing part of the pneumatophore is usually coloured a reddish pink. When old and apparently ceasing to perform its duties as an air-breather the outside layers die, and are thrown off in thin whitish flakes. No pneumatophores were noticed bearing leaves; but many of them give off thin slender shoots which turn downwards at an acute angle and, entering the ground, assume the appearance of true roots. The contrast between the stiffly erect true pneumatophores and the thinner branches all turning sharply downwards is very remarkable. It is much to be desired that some one would work out the anatomical peculiarities of these curious structures.

Aciphylla Cuthbertiana Petrie.

I have to thank Mr. James Speden, of Gore, for an excellent suite of specimens of this distinct species, collected on The Hump, near Lake Hauroko, at an elevation of about 3,000 ft.

Coxella Dieffenbachii Cheesem.

Mr. E. R. Chudleigh informs me that until comparatively recent years Coxella was fairly abundant on the north-east to north-west slopes of Cape Young (Mairangi), on the north side of Chatham Island, and may still linger there. Originally the plant was more or less abundant on the whole of the cliffs of the northern side, but has been destroyed by sheep in all localities to which they can gain access.

Angelica rosaefolia Hook.

Sea-cliffs near Manaia, Taranaki; Mrs. F. Mason! Not previously recorded anywhere on the coast-line south of New Plymouth.

Panax Edgerleyi Hook. f.

I am indebted to Mr. W. Martin, of Christchurch, for a specimen of this, gathered in forest at Akaroa. It is not mentioned in Mr. Laing's valuable paper on the “Vegetation of Banks Peninsula,” nor in the earlier lists of Raoul and Armstrong. At the same time, considering its distribution elsewhere in New Zealand, it is precisely one of those species that might be reasonably expected to occur.

Gnaphalium Lyallii Hook, f.

Damp places on sea-cliffs near Manaia, Taranaki; Mrs. F. Mason! As this handsome plant has been gathered northwards at Opunake by the late Mr. T. Kirk, and to the south at Waingongoro by Dr. Cockayne, we may assume that it is probably abundant on the Taranaki sea-coast to the south of Cape Egmont.

Cotula coronopifolia Linn.

Var. ïntegrifolia T. Kirk is certainly nothing more than a starved diminutive form. On the railway reclamations on the foreshore of Auckland Harbour it has appeared in immense abundance during the last two or three years, chiefly in places where water has stagnated in winter or

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spring. The ordinary form of the species, which is abundant in the same locality, when growing in good soil and plentifully supplied with moisture has numerous branching stems, creeping below but ascending at the tips, and has an average-height of from 5 in. to 10 in. From that it passes imperceptibly into much smaller states, in which the stems are unbranched, the leaves linear and entire, and the flower-heads much smaller and solitary, thus constituting the so-called variety. When seeds are abundantly produced, and the surrounding area is unoccupied, multitudes of seedlings appear, so closely packed and so reduced in size as to resemble patches of moss when seen from a little distance. The individual stems, in such cases, are often not more than ½ in. in height, bearing 2 or 3 minute leaves, and with a solitary flower 1 mm. in diameter. A patch of these seedlings, measuring 2 in. by 1¼ in., contained no fewer than 343 separate plants, the tallest of which was under 1 in. in height, Another piece, cut out of a patch some yards in extent, and measuring 1½ in. by 1 in., contained 213 separate plants. A yard square, if covered in a similar manner—and several such instances were observed—would contain at least half a million plants.

Dracophyllum Townsoni Cheesem.

Mr. James Speden, of Gore, sends me specimens of this, gathered at an elevation of 3,000 ft. on The Hump, near Lake Hauroko. Mr. Speden informs me that he frequently observed leaves over 2 ft. in length, thus equalling those of D. latifolium and D. Traversii. None of the specimens of D. Townsoni sent to me by its discoverer has leaves much over 12 in., but Mr. Townson informs me that possibly small specimens were selected for convenience of carriage. Mr. Speden's plant has the peculiar decurved lateral panicle of D. Townsoni, but he saw no branched specimens.

Solanum aviculare Forst. var. albiflora Cheesem. n. var.

It has long been known that although this species ordinarily produces purplish flowers, yet occasionally white-flowered specimens are seen; but no one seems to have observed that in such cases the colour of the stems and of the veins of the leaves is also affected. As far back as 1880 I noticed that in white-flowered specimens observed by myself at Buckland the aspect of the plant was somewhat different from that of the purple-flowered variety; and at various times since then the same thought has occurred to me, but I failed to carry the inquiry any further. Early in 1915, however, Mr. W. Townson observed that the white-flowered variety was by no means rare near Pukekohe (Auckland District), and was induced to pay a little attention to it. He ascertained that not even one single white flower is ever produced on a purple-flowered plant. He also established the fact that on a white-flowered plant the leaves are pale green, and much thinner and more delicate in texture, so that the whole plant has a more slender and graceful appearance; and the stems and veins of the leaves are pale-greenish or yellowish-green. On the other hand, the plants with purple flowers have coarser leaves, and the veins of the leaves and the stems are purplish or brownish-purple.

Mr. James Graham, of Patumahoe, has also investigated the matter. He informs me that, having noticed several plants with white flowers on the earthworks of the Waiuku railway, he collected a number of seeds and had them sown in the Patumahoe School garden. About thirty plants

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were raised, all of which have the thin leaves and yellowish veins of the white-flowered variety. All the plants that have flowered up to the present time have borne white flowers. The facts thus collected by Mr. Townson and Mr. Graham may be taken as a satisfactory proof that the white-flowered plant constitutes a stable variety, “coming true” from seed, and well worth distinguishing by a varietal name.

Atriplex Billardieri Hook. f.

Sandy shores of Matakana Island, between Tauranga and Katikati; a few plants only; T. F. C. This plant is singularly rare, and is seldom seen in any quantity. I am not aware that it has been gathered in any locality on the western side of either the North or the South Island.

Pimelea Gnidia Willd.

Mr. W. Townson has forwarded specimens gathered on the summit of a lofty hill between the Kauaeranga River and the Hihi Stream, Thames. This is at least 150 miles from the nearest part of the Ruahine Mountains, the most northerly locality previously known.

Tupeia antarctica Cham. & Schl.

I am indebted to Mr. B. E. Sixtus, of Umutai, on the western flanks of the Ruahine Range, for specimens of this, parasitic on Olea Cunninghamii, which is quite a new host so far as my own knowledge is concerned.

Dactylanthus Taylori Hook. f.

Mr. W. Townson, so well known from his fruitful botanical exploration of the Westport district, but now resident at the Thames, has been fortunate enough to discover this remarkable plant in great abundance in the elevated forest district lying north-east from the town of Thames. So far as I can judge, this is a continuation of the locality where it was observed by the late Mr. T. Kirk in April, 1869 (see Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 2, pp. 94–95). Mr. Townson informs me that it can be observed for several miles along what is known as “Crosby's Track,” and that he is acquainted with at least six separate stations. In all cases the host was Schefflera digitata, as is usual in the northern portion of the Auckland Provincial District. The rhizome attains a considerable size, the largest seen weighing over 6 lb. As the result of the examination of very numerous specimens Mr. Townson has definitely proved that the mature plant is monoecious, the male and female spadices being produced on the same rhizome, and often side by side. The male spadices, however, are the more numerous. All observers have pronounced the flowers to be highly fragrant, but disagree as to the nature of the perfume. Mr. Townson states that it resembles that of a “ripe rock-melon,” but he also says that “like many perfumes, it may also pass into a bad smell when too concentrated.” He also remarks that on one occasion he “kept a large rhizome for a considerable time in a back room, where it gradually expanded its flowers. The scent was so attractive to flies that all day long it was surrounded by a little crowd of them.” No doubt this points to the fertilization of the plant through insect agency. The flowering season appears to last, at the Thames, from the middle of March to the middle of April.

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Urtica ferox Forst.

Mr. T. H. Trevor has discovered another locality for this species in the Bay of Islands County, a few miles distant from the Ngamahanga wahi-tapu mentioned in my last contribution to this series (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 51, p. 89). This makes it probable that the plant may be observed in other stations north of Auckland. For a new southern locality I am indebted to Mr. A. Allison, who informs me that it is not uncommon at the base of the Paeroa Range, between Waiotapu and Orakei-korako.

Freycinetia Banksii A. Cunn.

I am not aware that any one has recorded the presence of curious floating roots in Freycinetia Banksii. My first acquaintance with them was derived from a fragment forwarded by Mr. B. C. Aston last February, which was collected by Mr. Sidney Fry in the Totara Creek, a small tributary of the Mokau River, junctioning with it about eighteen miles above its mouth. This fragment presented several unusual features, and I was consequently glad to avail myself of the kind assistance of Mr. Colin Stewart, at that time residing in the locality, for obtaining a copious supply of specimens. These consisted of slender roots, often several feet in length, in which the central axis is firm and solid, but the cortical tissue very loose and open. These roots are copiously branched, the ultimate divisions being very numerous and filiform. The outstanding peculiarity of the roots, however, which at once attracts attention, is that they are regularly girdled, as it were; with conspicuous spongy or corky whitish rings. These give the roots a very remarkable appearance, so that Mr. Fry, their original discoverer, describes them as “waving about with the disturbing currents like so many worms, their brown segmented forms, with the whitish sheaths encircling them at intervals, giving them the appearance of ringed worms.”

Mr. Colin Stewart, in endeavouring to find the origin of the roots, considered that he had traced them to a tree which I have identified as Eugenia maire, the branches, leaves, and pneumatophores of which he sent. But this I believe to be a very pardonable mistake. A lengthened search at Birkdale, in a swampy district where both Eugenia and Freycinetia are abundant, and in which I had the assistance of Mr. F. S. Fisher and Mr. John Bishop, resulted in showing that while it was comparatively easy to connect the floating roots with Freycinetia, and the pneumatophores, with Eugenia, all attempts to trace the floating roots to Eugenia failed.

The exact use of these “floating” roots in Freycinetia must remain doubtful until their anatomical structure has been investigated, but in all probability they may be looked upon as “breathing-roots.”

Juncus scheuchzerioides Gaud.

This is one of the species added to the florula of Macquarie Island by Mr. H. Hamilton, during the stay of a portion of the Australasian Antarctic Expedition on that island during the years-1911—13. It is a true circumpolar plant, having been recorded from the Auckland and Campbell Islands, Antipodes Islands, Fuegia, Falkland Islands, South Georgia, the Crozets, and Kerguelen Islands.

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Scirpus aucklandicus Boeck.

This also has been collected on Macquarie Island for the first time by Mr. H. Hamilton. Its existence thereon might have been safely predicted, seeing that it is the most common species of the genus on the islands to the south of New Zealand. It has also been recorded from Tasmania and from the isolated Amsterdam Island, but both these localities require fuller confirmation.

Carex trifida Cav.

Fringing swamp-holes on flats at West Point, Macquarie Island; H. Hamilton ! Apparently not common, for Mr. Hamilton remarks on his labels that it was seen only in the locality quoted above. The geographical distribution of the species is given in the Manual.

Triodia macquariensis Cheesem.

“Apparently perennial, tufted, often forming dense patches, smooth and glabrous. Culms numerous, erect or geniculate at the base, 6—12 cm. long, leafy to the base of the panicle. Leaves equalling the culms or longer than them, rather narrow, 1—2 mm. broad, deeply striate, quite glabrous, flat or involute, margins thickened, tips obtuse, callous; ligules broad ovate, thin and membranous; sheaths unusually long, much broader than the blades, sometimes as much as 5 mm. across, smooth, pale, and membranous. Panicle narrow, glabrous, 2—3 cm. long; branches few, short, erect. Spikelets 6—15, 3—5-flowered, 6—7 mm. long, the lowest flower sessile at the base of the spikelet, the upper usually remote from one another. Empty glumes unequal, the lower half to two-thirds the length of the upper, glabrous, oblong, obtuse, 3-nerved. Flowering-glumes, ovate or broadly ovate-oblong, rounded at the back, not keeled, 5-nerved, glabrous or very faintly pubescent on the nerves, minutely 3-toothed at the tip or irregularly erose. Palea broad, 2-keeled, the keels ciliolate. Lodicules 2, acute.

“Hab.—Macquarie Island, rocks and cliffs near the coast; H. Hamilton! (1912–13).

“Mr. Hamilton remarks that this is a common coastal grass, found in crevices in bare rock or on the cliffs. Some of his specimens are plentifully mixed with Tillaea moschata or Colobanthus muscoides, both plants common in littoral situations. Scraps of Callitriche antarctica are also present. Its discovery adds another species to the list of those endemic in Macquarie Island, of which three species are now known—Deschampsia penicillata, poa Hamiltoni, and Triodia macquariensis. I have found it a puzzling plant to place. It differs from Poa principally, in the flowering-glumes being rounded on the back, and minutely 3-toothed (or irregularly erose) at the tip. It agrees with Atropis in the flowering-glumes being rounded on the back, but differs in habit, and in the 3-toothed tip of the flowering-glumes. Although not a typical Triodia, it must be kept in the vicinity of the New Zealand T. australis.”

The above has appeared in my memoir on “The Vascular Flora of Macquarie Island,” published in the Scientific Reports of the Australasian Antarctic Expedition. I reproduce it here to draw fuller attention to the species, which may occur in the islands to the south of New Zealand.

Festuca erecta D'Urville.

Macquarie Island, not uncommon on rocks near the sea; Dr. Scott, A. Hamilton! H. Hamilton! This is the plant described as a new species

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by Mr. T. Kirk, under the name of F. contracta (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 27, p. 353). Kirk had only two very indifferent specimens to-deal with; but, fortunately, Mr. H. Hamilton secured a fair number of specimens. An examination of these proved that the plant was either very closely allied to the Fuegian and Kerguelen Festuca erecta D'Urville or positively identical with it. There being no authenticated specimens of F.erecta in New Zealand, I applied to Dr. Stapf, of the Kew Herbarium, with the, view of having a comparison made. This he has kindly done, with the result of proving that the Macquarie Island plant is identical with F. erecta. This is practically a circumpolar species, having been recorded from Fuegia, Falkland Islands, South Georgia, and Kerguelen Island.

Cyathea medullaris Swartz.

I am not aware that any actual measurements of the height of this species have been published. In books it is usually given as “from 10 ft. to 40 ft. high,” but it certainly attains a much greater height. With the view of putting some definite information on record, I induced Mr. E. Le Roy to measure the height of two fine specimens growing in a ravine on his property at Birkenhead. He informs me that the smaller of the two is 39 ft. to the crown; the other one being 46 ft. to the crown, and 50 ft. to the top of the fronds. As I have seen taller specimens, we can safely conclude that it occasionally reaches between 60 ft. and 65 ft. in height.

Dicksonia squarrosa Swartz

Mr. Le Roy has also been kind enough to measure the height of two specimens of Dicksonia squarrosa. The higher one measured 23 ft. 8 in. to the crown, and 27 ft. to the top of the fronds; the other proved to be 19 ft. 6 in. to the crown and 21 ft. to the top of the fronds.

Nothochlaena distans R. Br.

The late Mr. H C. Field, in his book, Ferns of New Zealand (p. 88, and pl. xxviii, fig. 4), alludes to a supposed new Cheilanthes collected by Mr. A. C. Purdie near Dunedin. The description given is inconclusive, and the figure does not show sufficient detail to enable the generic position of the plant to be made out. In default of any specimens I consequently did not allude to it in the Manual.

Rather more than a year ago, however, Professor A. Wall forwarded a specimen of a fern collected in clefts in basaltic rocks at Diamond Harbour, a bay of Port Lyttelton, suggesting that it might prove to be Mr. Field's plant. In this view I concurred, but as the specimen showed no signs of sori it was impossible to fix its systematic position. Professor Wall has now forwarded an ample series of specimens in all stages, proving, as he says, that the plant is only a shade form of Nothochlaena distans. It usually occurred in deep crevices entirely shaded from the sun, and is consequently not so rigid nor so well covered with linear scales as the typical state, which is frequently seen in dry situations in the Auckland lava-fields. In the ramification of the frond, and in the position and character of the sori, the two plants are practically identical.

Naturalized Plants.

Eschscholtzia californica Cham.

This plant, which is sparingly naturalized as a garden escape, appears to be poisonous to stock, judging from the following particulars supplied to me by Mr. T. H. Trevor, of Pakaraka, Bay of Islands. He

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removed the fence from, an abandoned garden, exposing a few plants of the Eschscholtzia. A bull running in the paddock ate a few leaves and was seriously affected, but ultimately recovered. The plants were then grubbed up and destroyed, and no further symptoms were noticed among the cattle. Unfortunately, it was not observed that a large number of seedlings had appeared in the neighbourhood of the old plants, so that when a number of lambs were placed in the paddock they were at once affected, half a dozen dying within an hour. At first they appeared to be silly, then lost the use of their limbs, and died frothing at the mouth.

Psoralea pinnata Linn.

Mr. R. Waters sends me specimens of this from the neighbourhood of Dargaville, where it is said to be spreading fast. I have also observed it by roadsides at Birkdale, near Auckland. The only previous record is Waipu (see Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 46, p. 8).

Chrysanthemum coronarium Linn.

This well-known garden-plant has appeared as an escape from cultivation in several localities near Auckland. It has also established itself on the railway reclamations along the side of Auckland Harbour. It is a common plant in the Mediterranean region, extending southwards to the Azores, and has often appeared as a naturalized plant in Britain.

Senecio spathulatus A. Rich.

This species, which is allied to the New Zealand S. lautus Forst, has appeared in great quantities on the Harbour Board and railway reclamations fringing Auckland Harbour, and is fast making its way into waste places within the City of Auckland itself. It has probably been accidentally introduced from Australia, where it is known from several localities, and particularly from “sandy shores in Port Jackson” (Sydney Harbour). I am indebted to Dr. Maiden, of the Sydney Botanical Gardens, for asking his assistant, Mr. Cheel, to make a special report on my specimens of the plant, with which I have been somewhat puzzled. He informs me that, although it comes under the circumscription of S. spathulatus as defined by Mr. Bentham in the Flora Australiensis, all the New South Wales specimens, as well as all my own, have pubescent achenes and 2-nerved involucral bracts, thus agreeing with the description of S. anacampserotis DC, and differing from the type description of S. spathulatus, which is said to have the fruit “linearis striatus glaber.” Mr. Cheel considers it to be an open question whether S. anacampserotis should not be reestablished as a species.

Juncus acutiflorus Ehr.

Moist gullies at Pukeatua, West Taupo County; D. Retrie! I am indebted to Mr. Petrie for specimens of this species, which has not been previously noticed as introduced into New Zealand. I understand that the specimens were identified by Dr. Stapf, of the Kew Herbarium.

Festuca fallax Thuill. and F. dura Host.

I have also to thank Mr. Petrie for specimens of these two plants, which have been identified by Dr. Stapf under the names given above—in the case of the second one with some little doubt. In a broad sense they would doubtless be treated as forms of the widespread F. rubra Linn.

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Art. III—Descriptions of New Native Flowering-plants.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 22nd December, 1919; received by Editor, 31st December, 1919; issued separately, 4th June, 1920.]

Pittosporum Matthewsii sp. nov.

Planta P. virgatae T. Kirk affinis; differt foliis confertis, maturis linearioblongis subacutis glabris a marginibus undulatis; capsulis longioribus subacute obovatis, ± 1.8 cm. longis, circa 1 cm. latis, valvis duabus nec canaliculatis nec latere depressis atris undique lacunosis.

A small compactly branched tree, 20–25 ft. high, with black bark.

Juvenile state: Branches and twigs slender, the latter closely covered with greyish-white pubescence; leaves rather closely placed, patent, narrow-linear, ± 2 cm. long, ± 2 mm. wide, subacute entire or slightly waved at the margins, glabrous or nearly so, little coriaceous, somewhat recurved at the edges when dried, midrib evident below, rather obscure above, the upper surface dark green and polished, paler below; very young leaves brownish-green and more or less closely clothed with white semipubescent hairs; petioles very short and slender.

Mature state: Twigs more or less closely scarred by the bases of the fallen leaves; leaves rather closely placed, linear-oblong or narrow obovate-oblong, ± 4 cm. long, 5–8 mm. wide, subacute, glabrous except the sub-floral which are closely covered with brownish-yellow tomentum, moderately coriaceous, entire, flat or more or less wavy at the margins (rarely obscurely sinuate-dentate near the tips), the lower surface paler with conspicuous dark-red midrib and veins, above more or less polished with midrib obscure and veins obsolete, edges slightly recurved when dried; petioles very short and slender.

Flowers terminal, solitary or in compact umbels of 6 or fewer, rather small, ± 7 mm. long; peduncles not longer than the flowers, densely clothed, as are also the sepals, with brownish-yellow tomentum; sepals linear-lanceolate, acute; petals dark red, narrow-cuneate, obtuse, sharply recurved over the tips of the sepals; pistil as long as the flower, pilosely pubescent below the style. Mature capsules subacutely obovate or sub-pyriform, ± 1.8 cm. long, about 1 cm. broad above the middle, obtuse or broadly subacute, shortly apiculate, glabrous, 2-valved, the valves nearly semicircular in cross-section and neither grooved nor ribbed, black-pitted all over.

Hab.—-Kennedy Bay, Coromandel Peninsula: H. B. Matthews !

The close placing of the leaves, their linear-oblong outline, and the distinctive size and shape of the mature capsule clearly distinguish this species from P. virgatum. I have seen nothing to indicate any variation in the form of the juvenile leaves, but as I have not seen the plants growing I cannot be certain that such variation does not occur.

Uncinia longifructus (Kük.) Petrie sp. nov.

U. laxe caespitosa v. ± diffusa; culmi 12–20 cm. longi filiformes teretes stricti glabri leviter canaliculati. Folia peranguste linearia plana v. ± complicata tenuia flaccida longe vaginantia vix canaliculata, carina subtus conspicua. Spiculae breves pauciflorae ± 1 cm. longae ± 5 mm. latae;

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pars mascula brevissima; glumae anguste lanceolatae acutae tenues pallide virides, leviter 3-nerviae, a marginibus late scariosae, mox deciduae. Utriculi 5–6 mm. longi plano-convexi peranguste elliptici aenei politi, nervis duobus haud conspicuis distantibus a latere convexo percursi; rhacheola utriculum dimidio superans; nux oblonga triquetra apice leviter annulata.

Laxly tufted or spreading more or less freely by slender stolons. Culms 12–20 cm. long, filiform, terete, strict, smooth, slightly grooved, clothed for one-third their length by the sheathing leaf-bases, equalling or exceeding the leaves. Leaves very narrow linear, flat or slightly folded, thin and flaccid, smooth (the edges towards the tips only slightly scabrid), long-sheathing hardly grooved, midrib evident below. Spikelets short and few-flowered, ± 1 cm. long including the bristles, and about half as wide; female flowers 3–4 (rarely more); male part very short, of 2–3 flowers; stamens 3, long. Glumes narrow-lanceolate, acute, thin, pale green, rather faintly 3-nerved along the middle of the back, with broad scarious edges, the lateral nerves vanishing below the apex, soon falling away from the broad cupular expansions of the rhachis on which they are seated. Utricles 5–6 mm. long, very narrow elliptic, more or less plano-convex, greenish-brown, polished, with two rather faint distant nerves near the edges of the convex face, broadly stipitate below, very gradually narrowed above into a long acute beak; bristle 1½ times as long as the utricle. Nut oblong, triquetrous, slightly annulate at the base of the style.

Hab.—-Open beech forest, Routeburn Valley, Lake County, at 2,300 ft.; End Peak, Lake Hauroto, J. Crosby Smith! Clinton Valley, Lake Te Anau, in open bush.

Kükenthal has made this plant a variety of U. tenella R. Br. It is easily distinguished from the latter by the following characters: the thin flat flaccid long-sheathing leaves, the much longer culms, and the greatly longer and narrower plano-convex greenish-brown polished utricles. The length of the utricle of U. tenella is given as 1½ lines by Bentham and as 3 mm. by C. B. Clarke, and its shape is altogether different from that of the plant here described. Kükenthal gives the length of the utricles of U. tenella as 3½ mm., and those of his variety longifructus as 6 mm. He also states (incorrectly) that C. B. Clarke always found only two stamens in the male flowers of U. tenella.

Note on Uncinia tenella R. Br.

Specimens of an Uncinia collected by Dr. Cockayne and myself at an elevation of about 4,000 ft. on Kelly's Hill (Taramakau River), Westland, belong, so far as I can judge, to this species, the typical form of which has not so far been recorded from New Zealand. These closely match specimens of Brown's plant from (1) Southport (Tasmania), (2) Upper Yarra (Victoria), and (3) the Dandenong Ranges (Victoria), given me by the late Sir Ferdinand Mueller. In the Kelly's Hill plant the stamens were 3 in the few male flowers I could spare for dissection. In one of the Southport plants there were 2 stamens in three of the male flowers, and 3 in two other flowers. Bentham found only 2 stamens in the flowers he examined. Mr. C. B. Clarke says the stamens in the specimens seen were 2, at least most frequently—” saltem saepissime.” The utricles of the Kelly's Hill plant differ in no respect from those of typical U. tenella. Mr. Cheeseman (Manual, p. 800) considers the Kelly's Hill plant intermediate between U. tenella R. Br. and U. nervosa Boott. What U. nervosa may be no one knows definitely. Bentham remarks that

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it was founded on a single specimen, and refers it to U. compacta R. Br. Mr. C. B. Clarke ranks it as a variety of the latter. The U. nervosa in Cheeseman's Manual seems to me in no way closely related to the Kelly's Hill plant. The figure of Boott's species in Flora Tasmanica is a poor one, and affords little help in identifying it.

Uncinia caespitosa Col. var. collina var. nov.

Rhizoma late stolonifera culmos plurifoliosos plerumque diffusos edens. Culmi foliaque quam in typo breviores. Folia culmis breviora vel eos aequantia, 10–20 cm. alta 4–6 mm. lata, plana suberecta coriacea, in apices incrassatos longe productos abeuntia. Spiculae 4–8 cm. longae ± 8 mm. latae, subclavatae, supra densiflorae, infra floribus laxioribus; glumae femineae utriculis nonnihil longiores; nux elliptico-oblonga.

Hab.—Mount Hikurangi (East Coast), at 4,800 ft.; Ruahine Mountains, at 3,500 ft.: B. C. Aston! Tararua Mountains (Mount Holdsworth), 3,200 ft.

This is a very distinct-looking form, and has considerable claim to specific rank. It forms large open somewhat sward-like patches, and never grows in distinct tufts, as the typical form usually does.

Carex secta Boott var. tenuiculmis var. nov.

Var. C. virgatae Sol. habitu subsimilis; a planta typica differt, culmis gracillimis haud raro filiformibus, foliis tenuibus perangustis flaccidis complanatis vel apicem versus concavis (costa media parum conspicua) 40–60 cm. longis culmos aequantibus vel excedentibus; inflorescentia 6–15 cm. longa simplici ± pendula spiculis plerumque remotis parvis pauci-floris sessilibus praedita vel a parte inferiore breviter ramosa (ramis paucis brevibus indivisis); rhachide pergracili vel filiformi; utridulis breviter stipitatis vel paene astipitatis.

Hab.—Damp localities in eastern and southern Otago: D. P. Damp localities in the Hammer and Castle Hill districts, North Canterbury: Arnold Wall! Damp localities in Chatham Islands: L. Cockayne! W. R. B. Oliver !

I am indebted to Professor Wall for drawing my attention to this interesting plant, which I had unwittingly placed in the same species-wrapper as C. virgata. From this it differs entirely in the structure of the utricles. A hand-and-eye examination will hardly disclose its true position. The Chatham Island specimens show only immature utricles, but I think their identity with the mainland plant cannot be doubted. They also show remarkably long leaves that greatly exceed the culms.

Poa novae-zelandiae Hackel var. Wallii var. nov.

A forma typica differt foliis coriaceis ± complanatis et a marginibus mvolutis incrassatisque muticis; panicula breviore folia haud vel vix excedente, a parte inferiore foliis ± abscondita; spiculis majoribus haud compressis; glumis florigeris latioribus trinerviis acutis haud incurvatis subcoriaceis; palea breviore ac latiore.

Hab.—Mount Miromiro (Amuri County): A. Wall ! Top of Mount Kyeburn (Maniototo County): H. J. Matthews! Mount Pisa (Vincent County).

The present plant appears to be confined to wet shingly stations, and ranges in altitude from about 3,500 ft. to 5,000 ft. or 6,000 ft. At the higher altitudes the plants are very dwarf.

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Art. IV.—The Food Values of New Zealand Fish: Part I.

Communicated by Professor J. Malcolm.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 9th December, 1919; received by Editor, 31st December, 1919; issued separately, 4th June, 1920.]

In all countries where procurable, fish should be made an easily accessible article of diet—i.e., it should be both plentiful in quantity and reasonable in cost; but, so far, the greatest possible use has not been made of the bountiful supply in New Zealand waters. Beyond the investigation of the composition of frost-fish and oysters by Malcolm * no attempt has been made to estimate the food values of New Zealand fish.

Recognizing the necessity for the prosecution of research in the Dominion, the New Zealand Government placed funds at the disposal of the New Zealand Institute, which enabled that body to make a grant to Professor J. Malcolm for the investigation of the chemistry and food values of the New Zealand fish. This paper outlines the work done in that connection. The aim has been to ascertain—


The percentage composition of the edible portion of the fish investigated.


The caloric value of the fish (by calculation).


The percentage of waste in the fish as bought.


From the point of view of cost, to arrive at some conclusion as to the comparative values of the fish as an article of diet.


The fish were obtained from Dunedin retail fish-dealers, with the exception of one “baby” groper, which was sent from the Portobello Fish-hatcheries, and a sample each of mullet and snapper, which were sent from Auckland by boat. With the larger fish, from ½ lb. to 1 lb. was purchased, as would be done for home consumption. Wherever possible three samples, bought at different times, were analysed, but this was not always possible.

In a few instances there is some doubt as to the exact variety of fish bearing a commonly known name: e.g., “sea-bream” is applied to two or three different varieties of fish, and exact identification would have been difficult owing to the fish being for the most part obtained in slices. It is likely, however, that in such instances the differences in composition would not be very marked—probably less than the difference between individuals of the same variety.

(I.) Percentage of Edible Material and Percentage of Waste.

Skin, bones, &c., were separated from the muscle, and the two portions, edible and non-edible, weighed. The flesh was finely minced and well

[Footnote] * Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 44, pp. 265–69, 1912.

[Footnote] † Private information from the Hon. G. M. Thomson.

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mixed. Then, after a portion had been set aside for the estimation of the water and protein percentage, the rest was spread in thin layers on glass plates and dried, either over a low-temperature water-bath or in an oven maintained at 52° C. Some oxidation of the fat was unavoidable in this process. The dried material was minced again, passed through a fine sieve, and the larger pieces ground in a coffee-mill. The whole powder was carefully sifted and stored in a bottle. In the case of tarakihi 1 and mullet 1 further oxidation of the fat was noticeable in that part exposed to the light.

(II.) Percentage of Water and Solids.

This was carried out in a hot-air oven at 65°–70° C., the average of three estimations per sample being taken.

(III.) Percentage of Protein.

The total nitrogen was estimated on fresh material by the Kjeldahl method, 0.2 N solutions of acid and alkali being used. The protein was calculated as total nitrogen multiplied by 6.25, and the average of two estimations per sample taken.*

(IV.) Percentage of Fat.

The dried powder from (I) was extracted with sulphuric ether in a Soxhlet extractor. After twelve hours' extraction the solvent was evaporated somewhat, the mixture filtered, the remainder of the ether carefully evaporated, and the oil finally dried for three hours or more at 52° C. The figure in the tables is the average of two estimations. (The water percentage of the powder was estimated, to obtain the amount of fresh material represented.)

(V.) Percentage of Ash.

This was carried out in the usual way with the dried material from (II) in a Davy's crucible furnace. The longer method of extracting the chlorides with distilled water after the first charring, and adding the residue after evaporation to the ash, was used at first but discontinued, as the results from the shorter method were found to vary but little from those of the longer method, and the greater accuracy seemed unnecessary, as the protein and fat estimations could only be approximate.

(VI.) Calculations.

From these results the following figures were calculated:—


Calories per cent., using the factors 4.1 large calories per gramme of protein and 9.3 large calories per gramme of fat.


The cost of 1,000 calories, and of 100 grammes of protein.


For purposes of comparison the composition of milk, meat, and eggs was taken as given in Hutchison's Food and Dietetics


The results are shown in the following tables (I-VI).

[Footnote] * The use of this figure (6.25) is not quite satisfactory, as the proper factor to use with fish proteins requires investigation.

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Table L—General Table showing Percentage Composition of Fish analysed.
Common Name of Fish. Specimen. Scientific Name. Date received. Water. Solids, by difference. Fat. Protein. Ash. Total.
Groper (hapuku) 1 Oligorus gigas 16/7/19 70.50 29.50 20.50 1.12
" 2 " 30/7/19 76.00 24.00 1.90 19.20 1.27 98.40
" 3 " 11/8/19 76.10 23.90 3.40 19.34 1.08 99.90
Baby groper (hapuku) 1 " 28/8/19 77.03 22.97 2.93 18.42 1.08 99.50
" 2 " 11/9/19 76.41 23.59 2.32 19.75 1.10 99.58
Sea-bream (warehou) 1 (?) 26/8/19 73.37 26.63 4.25 19.51 1.18 98.30
Crayfish 1* 5/9/19 73.13* 26.87 0.72 22.90 1.54 98.30
" 2 8/9/19 77.45 22.55 0.52 19.78 1.55 99.30
" 3* 13/10/19 74.23* 25.77 1.30 22.35 1.40 99.28
Snapper (tamure) 1 Pagrus unicolor 8/10/19 76.92 23.08 0.60 20.68 1.23 99.43
" 2 " 27/11/19 78.67 21.33 0.42 18.93
Mullet (kanae) 1 Mugil perusii 8/10/19 69.43 30.57 10.09 19.29 1.04 99.85
Tarakihi 1 Chilodactylus macropterus 13/10/19 69.23 30.77 10.30 19.71 1.07 100.31
" 2 " 22/11/19 76.00 24.00 3.05 20.31
Blue cod (pakirikiri) 1 Percis colias 16/10/19 79.70 20.30 0.90 18.79 1.05 100.44
Kingfish (haku) 1 Seriola lalandii 3/11/19 75.65 24.35 4.32 18.72 0.93 99.62
" 2 " 11/11/19 74.37 25.63 4.10 19.84 1.14 99.45
Trumpeter (kohikohi) 1 Lafris hecateia 28/10/19 75.86 24.14 3.31 19.37 1.01 99.55
Moki 1 Latris ciliaris 28/10/19 78.00 22.00 1.63 19.12 0.93 99.69
" 2 10/11/19 76.41 23.59 3.21 18.32 1.09 99.03

[Footnote] * Boiled specimen.

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Table II.
Name of Fish, &c. Kind of Sample. Price.(Pence.) Weight. (Grammes.) Edible. (Percentage.) Waste. (Percentage.)
Groper 1 Slice 4 322 82 92 17.08
" 2 " 6 316 94 62 5 38
" 3 " 6 271 97 05 2.95
Baby groper 1 " 9 283 5 87 32 12.68
" 2 Whole 3,742 39 31 60 69
Sea-bream 1 Slice 15 553 87 05 12 95
Crayfish 1 Tail 2 228.5 33.20 66.80
" 2 " 3 83 79 50 20.50
" 3 Whole 6 680 31.18 68 82
Snapper 1 " 17.5 1,544 44.37 55.63
" 2 " 30 2,735 39.56 60 44
Mullet 1 " 18 1,240 63.31 36 69
Tarakihi 1 " 30 1,895 51.44 48 56
" 2 " 9 520 53 46 46.54
Blue cod 1 Slice 21 744 47.44 52 56
Kingfish 1 " 12 498 73.30 26.70
" 2 " 15 561 78 25 21.75
Trumpeter 1 Whole 18 909 50 82 49.18
Moki 1 " 18 1,159 50.12 49.88
" 2 Slice 15 572 78 32 21 68
Egg One 2 50 88 00 12 00
Beef Steak 12 454 100 00
Milk Pint 3 586 100 00

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Table III.
Name of Fish. Calories per 100 Grammes of Undried Edible Material. Cost of 100 Grammes Protein (Pence.) Cost of 1,000 Calories. (Pence.)
Groper 1 7.3
" 2 96 39 10.5 20.8
" 3 110 92 11.8 20 6
Baby groper 1 102.78 19.8 34.4
" 2 102.56
Sea bream 1 119.51 160 25 9
Crayfish 1 100 59 11.5 26 1
" 2 85 96 22.9 52 9
" 3 103.73 12.7 27.1
Snapper 1* 90.38 12 4 28 3
" 2 81.51 14 6 23.8
Mullet 1* 172 89 9.0 13.3
Tarakihi 1 167 45 15 6 17.4
" 2 111.64 16 0 29 0
Blue cod 1 85 40 31.7 69.7
Kingfish 1 116 93 17 6 28 1
" 2 119 47 17.2 28 6
Trumpeter 1 110 20 20.1 35 3
Moki 1 93.56 16.2 33.1
" 2 104 96 18.3 31.9
Eggs at 2s. per dozen 158 33 32.9 29 5
Beef at 1s. per pound 137.25 12.6 19 1
Milk at 3d. per pint 70 00 14 6 7.3

[Footnote] * Auckland prices.

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Table IV.—Showing Fish in Order of Fat Content.
Per Cent.
Tarakihi 1 10.30
Mullet 1 10 09
Kingfish 1 4 32
" 2 4.10
Sea-bream 1 4 25
Groper 3 3 40
Trumpeter 1 3 31
Moki 2 3 21
Tarakihi 2 3 05
Groper 4 2 93
Baby groper 2.32
Groper 2 1 90
Crayfish 3 1 30
Moki 1 1 63
Blue cod 1 0.90
Crayfish 1 0 72
Snapper 1 0 60
Crayfish 2 0 52
Snapper 2 0 42
Egg 10 50
Meat (beef) 5.50
Milk 4 00
Table V.—Showing Fish in Order of Caloric Values.
(Total calories per 100 grammes fresh material.)
Per Cent.
Mullet 1 172 89
Tarakihi 1 167 45
Sea-bream 1 119 51
Kingfish 2 119.47
" 1 116 93
Tarakihi 2 111 64
Groper 3 110 92
Trumpeter 1 110 20
Moki 2 104 96
Crayfish 3 103 73
Groper 4 102 78
Baby groper 102 56
Crayfish 1 100 59
Groper 3 96 39
Moki 1 93 56
Snapper 1 90 38
Crayfish 2 85 96
Snapper 2 81 51
Blue cod 1 85 40
Egg 158 33
Beef 137 25
Milk 70 00
Table VI.—Showing Fish in Order of Cost of 100 Grammes Protein.
Groper 1 7 31
Mullet 1 8 96
Groper 2 10 45
" 3 11 80
Crayfish 1 11 49
" 3 12 66
Snapper 1 12 35
" 2 14 64
Tarakihi 1 15 61
" 2 15 95
Sea-bream 1 15 99
Moki 1 16 21
Kingfish 1 17 22
" 2 17 56
Moki 2 18 27
Groper 4 19 78
Trumpeter 1 20 11
Crayfish 2 22 98
Blue cod 1 31 66
Beef 12 60
Milk 14 62
Eggs 32 94


The following points are noticeable:—

1. The percentage of water and of solids shows much the same variation that similar analyses * of American and European food fishes have shown. Further, the analyses exhibit the fact that a high fat value goes with a low water percentage, the protein percentage fluctuating but little from the mean of 19.69. In the process of fattening, therefore, the water,

[Footnote] * R. Hutchison, Food and the Principles of Dietetics, Clark and Almy, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 33, p. 483, 1918.

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not the protein, is replaced by fat. In a fatty fish there is an absolute gain in nutritive value though a decrease in digestibility. For example,—

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Fish Water Percentage. Fat Percentage. Protein Percentage.
Blue cod 79.70 0.90 18.79
Kingfish 75.65 4.32 18.72
Groper 76.10 3.40 19.34
Mullet 69.43 10.09 19.29
Snapper 69.23 10.30 19.71

2. Table IV shows the fish in order of fat content, which is the usual order of classification for dietetic purposes. There is considerable variation from tarakihi (sample 1) with 10.30 per cent. to snapper (sample 2) with 0.42 per cent. One noticeable fact, however, is the difference between two samples of the same variety of fish, even when bought at short intervals from each other. For example,—

Fish. Date of Purchase. Fat Percentage.
Tarakihi 1 13th October, 1919 10.30
" 2 22nd November, 1919 3.05
Moki 1 28th October, 1919 1.63
" 2 10th November, 1919 3.21

This question needs to be investigated further before definite comparison can be made of the fat content of various fish. It may be a question, say, of metabolism or of seasonal variation.

3. Table V shows the caloric values. The figures represent the total calories per 100 grammes of edible material. The presence to any great extent of fat increases the caloric value considerably, as will be seen by comparing Tables IV and V. Mullet 1, tarakihi 1, kingfish 1 and 2, seabream 1, groper 3, and trumpeter 1 occupy almost the same positions a the head of each table, and compare quite favourably with egg, beef, and milk.

4. The cost of the fish, as shown in Tables II and VI, is the price actually paid as for home consumption. For comparative purposes the cost of 100 grammes of protein has been calculated. It will be noticed that there is considerable variation in price for the same variety of fish; fish being a perishable commodity, and the supply being erratic owing to weather conditions, the fluctuations of the market are considerable.

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Fish. Date of Purchase. Price.
s. d.
Groper 16th July, 1919 0 8 per pound
" 30th July, 1919 1 0 "
" 28th August, 1919 1 6 "

The price, therefore, is not necessarily indicative of the food value. This is also apparent from the fact that 100 grammes of protein can be obtained from groper at 7½d., mullet at 9d., kingfish at 1s. 6d., but from blue cod the cost is 2s. 8d. Hence the popularity of the last-named fish has little

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to do with its food value, but probably has considerable influence on its price. Also, a chemical analysis does not take into account such qualities as delicacy of flavour and texture, which, appealing to a buyer, exert an influence in increasing the amount he is willing to pay.

5. Table II also points out that in dealing with fish the element of waste must be considered in comparing the cost. When bought in slices the average waste is one-sixth of the total weight, but with whole fish as much as one-half tends to be lost. There is also a further loss on cooking, but that has not been dealt with in this investigation.

6. The methods used in ascertaining the percentage of protein give the maximum figure, since part of the total nitrogen will be contained in extractives and gelatin substances. As a source of protein, therefore, a fish containing 19 per cent protein has really not the same value as meat or egg with 19 per cent protein. But, without considering this factor, with beef at Is. per pound the corresponding prices for fish should not be greater than the following:—

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Per 1b. Per 1b. Average price paid.
Groper 8½d. instead of 1s. 2d.
Kingfish 7½d. " 1s. 1½d.
Tarakihi 5½d. to 7½d. " 7½d.
Blue cod 3½d. " 1s. Od.
Sea-bream 9d. " 1s. 3d.
Snapper 3d. " 5½d.
Mullet 10d. " 6d.

These figures point to the high prices prevailing for a food that is naturally plentiful, and seem to indicate a state of artificial scarcity in the market. Another point which is very apparent in making these calculations is that the amount of waste (from a food point of view) is an important determinant in comparing prices: e.g., compare groper and kingfish. From the analyses (calories per cent.) the edible portion of kingfish is superior to that of groper in the proportion of 118 to 105; but the waste is 24 per cent. with kingfish, and only 7 per cent. with groper (slices). Therefore (compared with beefsteak at 1s. per pound) the housewife can afford to pay 8½d. per pound for groper, but only 7½d. per pound for kingfish.

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Name. Calories (Percentage). Waste (Percentage). Maximum Price per Pound.
Kingfish 118 24 7½d.
Groper 105 7 8½d.

It is necessary to point out, however, that these deductions are based on twenty samples (eleven kinds), and more complete investigation may make modifications necessary; but it is noticeable that in many salient features the results concur with those of wider investigations carried out in other countries.

Besides acknowledging, with thanks, the constant help I have received from Professor J. Malcolm—to whom, indeed, the initiation of this research is due—I have also to thank the Council of the University of Otago for the use of their laboratories and apparatus.

All the expenses incurred have been defrayed by a grant from the New Zealand Government, through the New Zealand Institute.

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Art. V.—The Distillation of Waikaia Oil-shale.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 3rd December, 1919; received by Editor, 31st December, 1919; issued separately, 4th June, 1920.]

The following paper embodies the results of an investigation of the properties of Waikaia shale, conducted at the Dominion Laboratory during 1918, at the request of the Director of the Geological Survey.

Eight representative samples were received from various bores put down by the Waikaia Shale Company. Proximate analyses were made, and also distillation tests, to obtain the yields of oil and gas. The results were:—

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No. Fixed Carbon. Volatile Hydrocarbons Water lost at 100° C Ash. Sulphur. Crude Oil (Gallons per Ton). Gas (Cubic Feet per Ton).
1 9 60 33.42 7 78 49.20 2 30 23 5 2,000
2 17 20 43 74 10 13 28 93 2 93 37.0 3,400
3 17 25 42 67 8 63 31.45 3 40 Not distilled.
4 20 80 46.87 9.83 22.50 3 40 48 0 4,000
5 20.75 51.42 10.78 17.05 3.08 46 0 4,000
6 18 30 46 65 15 70 19.35 3.20 38 0 3,800
7 17 65 51.45 10 40 20.50 3 07 35 0 3,500
8 17 70 47.35 13 75 21.20 3 06 42 0 4,000

Note.—There was not sufficient of No. 3 for a distillation test to be made.

A composite sample, made by taking equal weights of the above eight and mixing thoroughly, was examined in greater detail, The proximate analysis was—

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Fixed carbon 17.10
Volatile hydrocarbons 43.03
Water 10.42
Ash 29.45
Total sulphur per cent. 3.05

An ultimate analysis yielded—

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Hydrogen 5.64
Carbon 39.55
Nitrogen 0.30
Sulphur 3.05
Oxygen 22.01
Ash 29.45

On distillation there was obtained—Crude, oil equivalent to 38 gallons per ton of shale; ammonium sulphate equivalent to 8 lb. per ton of shale; gas equivalent to 4,000 cubic feet per ton of shale.

The specific gravity of the crude oil was 0.96.

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The oil was redistilled into the following fractions:—

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Below 200° C. 7.0 (naphtha).
200°–250° C. 11.5 burning-oils.
250°–300° C. 14.0
300°–350° C. 18.0 lubricating-oils.
Above 350° C. 41.0
Residue 6.0
Loss 2.5

The distillate above 350° C. contained 14.2 per cent. of paraffin of melting-point 58.5° C., equivalent to 22 lb. paraffin per ton of shale.

If all the fractions were collected in the same vessel they would give once-once-run shale-oil, 91.5 per cent. (equivalent to 34.75 gallons per ton of shale).

The fuel values of this and of the crude oil were determined in the calorimeter, together with a crude oil from the Orepuki Shale-works, year 1903, and crude Taranaki petroleum, received in 1906 (No. 562). The sulphur was also estimated at the same time. The results were:—

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Walkaia Shale. Crude Orepuki Shale-oil., Crude Taranaki Petroleum.
Crude. Once run.
Calorides per gramme 9,470 10,032 10,339 10,713
British thermal units per pound 17,046 18,058 18,610 19,283
Evaporative power per pound in pounds of water at 212° F. 17 67 18 72 19 29 19 28
Total sulphur per cent. 1 80 1 76 1 79 0 21

A good fuel-oil should not contain more than 0.5 per cent. of sulphur.

The yield of ammonium sulphate, 8 lb. per ton of shale distilled, is low. It would be increased if the distillation were conducted in the presence of superheated steam, as is usual in working practice; but even if all the nitrogen were recovered in this form it would not exceed 28.3 lb. per ton.

The gas from the distillation had the following composition:—

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Carbon dioxide 18.3
Oxygen 1.0
Carbon monoxide 14.3
Methane 37.3
Hydrogen 22.3
Nitrogen 6.8

(Sulphur compounds, which were not determined, would be partly included in the carbon dioxide.)

When purified from carbon dioxide the composition would be:—

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Oxygen 1.2
Carbon monoxide (CO) 17.5
Methane (CH4) 45.7
Hydrogen 27.3
Nitrogen 8.3
– 29 –
Calorific value, gross, in calories per cubic foot 1529
" net, in calories per cubic foot 1375
" gross, in British thermal units per cubic foot 6111
" net, in British thermal units per cubic foot 5456
" (Gas measured at 15.5° C. and 762 mm.)

There would be about 3,250 cubic feet of such gas per ton of shale. The calorific value is approximately the same as that of good coal-gas.


Waikaia shale would yield on distillation the following products per ton: 38 gallons crude oil, equivalent to 34¾ gallons once-run oil; ammonium sulphate, 8 lb.; gas free from carbon dioxide, 3,250 cubic feet.

After fractional distillation and refining the oil would give the following products per ton, allowing 10 per cent. for impurities and loss: Light oil (naphtha), 2.5 gallons; burning-oil, 8.8 gallons; light lubricating-oil, 6.2 gallons; heavy lubricating-oil, 12.0 gallons; paraffin, 20 lb.

(The amount of light oil would probably be increased by scrubbing the gas evolved with a suitable medium oil, to dissolve the light hydro-carbons that escape condensation.)

The shale appears to be very similar to Orepuki shale.

Art. VI.—Sting-ray-liver Oil.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 3rd December, 1919; received by Editor, 31st December, 1919; issued separately, 4th June, 1920.]

Mr. Hoyle, of Thames, conducted some experiments in the extraction of oil from sting-ray livers, and a quantity of about 8 oz., which he obtained from the liver of a single fish, was examined at the-Dominion Laboratory in September, 1918. The sting-ray was probably Dasybatis brevicaudatus (Hutton).

The oil was compared with cod-liver oil, with the following results:—

Sting-ray-liver Oil. Cod-liver Oil.
Specific gravity at 15.5° C. 0.927 0.923–0.930
Saponification value 189 182–187
Iodine value 156.5 137–167
Refractive index at 15° C. 1.4796 1.4800
Unsaponifiable matter (per cent.) 3.7 0.6–2.6
Hexabromides (per cent.) 45 42.9

The oil was free from rancidity, and quite palatable. It contained some “stearine,” which made it cloudy at low temperature, and which, in the case of cod-oil, is usually removed by cooling and filtering.

If the present sample were similarly treated the product would scarcely be distinguishable in appearance or composition from good cod-liver oil.

– 30 –

Art. VII.—Descriptions of New Zealand Lepidoptera.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 3rd December, 1919; received by Editor 31st December, 1919; issued separately, 4th June, 1920.]

I am again indebted to the kindness of my esteemed correspondent Mr. G. V. Hudson for the material on which the following descriptions are based.


Orocrambus ventosus n. sp.

♀. 26–27 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax blackish, mixed with brown hairs. Abdomen dark fuscous irrorated with pale greyish-ochreous. Forewings elongate, posteriorly dilated, costa hardly arched, apex obtuse, termen slightly rounded, little oblique; dark fuscous, suffusedly mixed with brown, especially on posterior half, somewhat lighter on post-median area, veins on posterior half more or less obscurely indicated with whitish scales; a very obscurely indicated angulated darker transverse line towards termen: cilia grey, tips white, with a tendency to obscure whitish bars on veins. Hindwings grey, becoming dark grey towards termen: cilia ochreous grey-whitish, with grey basal line.

Mount Arthur, 4,200 ft., in January (Hudson); two specimens.


Scoparia ciserodes n. sp.

♂. 17 mm. Head grey suffusedly mixed with white. Labial palpi 2, dark grey, base whitish, apical edge mixed with whitish. Maxillary palpi white, basal half dark fuscous. Thorax grey irrorated with white, a streak of blackish irroration on each side of back. Abdomen grey-whitish. Fore-wings elongate, narrow at base, posteriorly dilated, costa anteriorly straight, posteriorly gently arched, apex obtuse, termen rounded, rather oblique; light grey irrorated with white, with some scattered blackish scales; a short fine blackish median longitudinal line rising from a small white spot at base; lines indistinct, whitish, first slightly curved, direct (rubbed), second obtusely angulated in middle; small cloudy dark-grey spots on costa beyond middle and at ¾; orbicular and claviform indicated by some scattered blackish scales, discal spot represented by a slight 3-armed blackish mark, posterior arm edged beneath with pale ochreous; two or three dashes of blackish irroration towards upper part of termen cilia whitish, with subbasal series of well-marked grey spots. Hindwings 1⅕, grey-whitish: cilia whitish, with very faint greyish subbasal line.

Porirua, Wellington, in January (Hudson); one specimen. An inconspicuous insect, yet quite distinct from anything else.


Tortrix sphenias Meyr.

Mr. Hudson has pointed out to me that this species (originally referred by me to Cnephasia), of which he has sent a second specimen from Dunedin, is very close to fervida, and suggested that the two are identical. This

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second specimen has veins 6 and 7 of hindwings separate; in the original type they are unmistakably stalked, but it now appears probable that this was an individual abnormality, and the presence of a costal fold (a discordant character in Cnephasia) and the specific affinity to fervida indicate that the species should be removed to Tortrix. After careful comparison with my seven specimens of fervida, however, I entertain no doubt that the two species are distinct; apart from superficial colouring, in which there is certainly some variability, the ciliations of antennae in ♂ are obviously longer and more fasciculate in fervida, and the termen of forewings in that species is distinctly less oblique than in sphenias.


Borkhausenia compsogramma n. sp.

♂. 13–15 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen dark purplish-fuscous. Antennal ciliations 1. Palpi grey, second joint sometimes partially suffused with whitish-yellowish. Forewings elongate; costa gently arched apex obtuse, termen obliquely rounded; dark violet-fuscous; markings ochreous-yellow suffused in disc with fulvous-orange, and with some scattered blackish scales on their edges; an oval blotch extending over basal fourth of dorsum; a narrow irregular rather oblique fascia from costa before ⅓, not reaching dorsum; a transverse fasciate blotch from costa beyond middle, and another inwardly oblique from costa at ⅘, both directed towards but not reaching a spot on dorsum before tornus; a streak along termen throughout: cilia fuscous, base scaled with ochreous-yellow along terminal streak. Hindwings and cilia dark grey.

Buller River, in December (Hudson); two specimens. At first sight extremely like chrysogramma, but on comparison the markings are seen to be quite differently arranged.

Izatha amorbas Meyr.

This species has an elongate pale-yellow blotch extending beneath median third of costa of hindwings, sometimes nearly obsolete, and not noticed in my description, but in an example now sent from Dunedin it is conspicuous.


Hectacma crypsimima n. sp.

♂. 10 mm. Head grey mixed with whitish and blackish. Palpi dark fuscous. Thorax dark fuscous slightly speckled with whitish. Abdomen dark fuscous. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa gently arched, apex tolerably pointed, termen hardly rounded, extremely oblique; bronzy-brown, irregularly speckled with whitish except in posterior part of disc, with some scattered blackish scales; a very oblique blackish wedge-shaped streak from basal part of costa reaching half across wing; oblique blackish wedge-shaped spots from costa before middle and towards apex, and one from middle of dorsum; a small round blackish apical spot: cilia grey, whitish-tinged round apex, with two blackish lines. Hindwings and cilia dark fuscous.

Wellington, in February (Hudson); one specimen, “taken on black Fagus trunks.”

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Mallobathra perisseuta n. sp.

♂. 15 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and abdomen dark fuscous. Antenna ciliations 2½. Forewings elongate, posteriorly slightly dilated, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen obliquely rounded; 6 present; fuscous, anterior half of costa suffused with darker fuscous; a dark-fuscous quadrate spot on middle of dorsum, preceded and followed by suffused whitish blotches: cilia fuscous. Hindwings with 6 present; rather dark fuscous: cilia fuscous.

Dunedin, in October (Clarke); one specimen.

Art. VIII.—Illustrated Life-histories of New Zealand Insects: No. 1.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 3rd December, 1919; received by Editor, 9th December, 1919; issued separately, 4th June, 1920.]

Plate I.

The present article is the first of a series I hope to publish from time to time on the life-histories of New Zealand insects, which to the best of my belief have not previously been recorded. The subjects will not be selected in any systematic order, but the life-histories will simply appear as they are worked out in the field. Preference will, however, be given to those orders of insects where the least is known regarding their habits, and the species dealt with will therefore mainly belong to the so-called “neglected orders.” Hence species belonging to the better-known orders of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera will be excluded from the scope of these papers at present. Illustrations will be given with each paper, which it is hoped will enable any naturalist to recognize the insects in all their stages. Such structural descriptions as may be given will be extremely brief, as it will necessarily devolve on specialists in each order to give fuller details when the study of the “neglected orders” is taken up in real earnest. In the meantime the present notes and illustrations may be useful in arousing interest and in presenting the subject in an intelligible form to the general student of nature.

Order Diptera.
Family Tipulidae.

Gnophomyia rufa. (Plate I, fig. 7. ♂.)

Tipula rufa Huds., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 27, p. 294. Gnophomyia rufa Hutton, ib., vol. 32, p. 39.

This large and very handsome species of crane-fly, or “daddy-long-legs,” may be found occasionally in dense forests in the Wellington and Nelson districts. It is very possibly a generally distributed species, but precise

Picture icon

Fig. 1.—Limnophila sinistra ♂. Nat. size.
Fig. 2.—Pupa of L. sinistra. Magnified.
Fig. 3.—Larva of L. sinislra. Magnified.
Fig. 4.—Larva of Melanostoma decessum. Magnified.
Fig. 5.—Melanostoma decessum. ♂. Magnified.
Fig. 6.—Pupa of M. decessum. Magnified.
Fig. 7.—Gnophomyia rufa. ♂. Nat. size.
Fig. 8.—Larva of G. rufa. Magnified.
Fig. 9.—Pupa of G. rufa. Magnified.

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records of its distribution are at present lacking. The larva lives and feeds in the semi-liquid vegetable detritus which accumulates in large quantities at the bases of the leaves of the well-known Astelia Solandri, a common and very conspicuous epiphytic plant in most of our untouched native forests. The length of the full-grown larva (see Plate I, fig. 8) is about 1¼ in. It is subcylindrical, considerably flattened, with the head very minute, and eleven visible body-segments. Special oval warts armed with minute teeth are situated on the upper surface of body-segments 5 to 10 inclusive, similar larger warts being present on the underside, and this no doubt facilitates the insect's movements between the leaves. The colour of the larva is very dark slaty-brown, darker towards the extremities; the posterior end is considerably tapered.

Apparently only one larva inhabits each space between two sheathing leaves; and only those full of the thick brown coffee-like liquid are so inhabited.

The pupa is enclosed in a rather tough, extremely elongate silken tube situated between the sheathing leaves. It rests in an upright position in the midst of the semi-liquid mass, breathing, no doubt, being effected by means of the remarkable thoracic process. The length of the pupa is about 1½ in. It is very elongate, with the head and thorax unusually small; there is a large double breathing-process on the top of the thorax, shaped somewhat like a bivalve shell. Four of the abdominal segments are furnished on the dorsal surface with special finely-toothed warts like those of the larva, the ventral surface with plain ridges. There is a horny cremaster with two recurved hooks and several other smaller processes. (See Plate I, fig. 9.)

The perfect crane-fly appears from November till March. It is probable that the larva is feeding during the autumn and winter, and that pupation usually takes place in the spring, although the pupa which was actually reared was found in company with feeding larvae early in March.

Limnophila sinistra. (Plate I, fig. 1. ♂.)

Tipula obscuripennis Huds., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 27, p. 294; not Limnophila obscuripennis Skuse, 1890. Limnophila sinistra Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 40.

This very distinct species of crane-fly is fairly common in most dense forests throughout the country.

The larva (Plate I, fig. 3) inhabits fallen tree-trunks in an advanced state of decay, forming burrows between the soft decayed portion and the harder part of the wood. It is about 1 in. in length, cylindrical, tapering towards the head, which is very small and furnished with two minute jaws and a pair of very short antennae. There are eleven visible body-segments. The extremity of the last segment is truncate and deeply excavated, the concavity being protected by five converging spines, which can be spread out or drawn inwards at the will of the insect. The orifices of the air-tubes are situated in this concavity, that of the alimentary canal being placed on the underside of the final segment, quite remote from the breathing-apparatus. Pedal warts occur on the undersides of all the segments, excepting the three immediately following the head and the terminal segment.

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The pupa (Plate I, fig. 2) is about ½ in. in length, rather stout; the thoracic breathing-appendages are about one-third the length of the wing-cases; moderately stout and strongly recurved. There are two dorsal rows of hooks on each exposed abdominal segment, and one ventral row near the terminal extremity. The cremaster is bifid, strongly recurved, and very stout. The head and thorax are dark blackish-brown and highly polished; the abdomen greyish-ochreous, darker in the middle. The cremaster and extremities of the hind-leg cases are reddish. The pupa rests in a burrow made by the larva near the surface of the log.

The perfect crane-fly appears from November till March. It is practically invisible when at rest on an old fallen tree-trunk, and it is evident that the rather unusual colouring of both the wings and body has been specially adapted to harmonize with the insect's natural surroundings.

Family Syrphidae.

Melanostoma decessum. (Plate I, fig. 5. ♂.)

Melanostoma decessum, Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 33, p. 43.

The larva of this fly (Plate I, fig. 4), which is one of the so-called “rat-tailed maggots,” feeds during the early spring in the liquid decay which occasionally involves certain portions of the inner bark of the cabbage-tree (Cordyline australis), and very possibly inhabits liquid decaying vegetable matter generally. When full grown it is about ½ in. long, of the usual maggot type, with a long breathing-tail and two short air-tubes near the head. Although apparently very fragile and gelatinous, it is really extremely tough. Its body is semi-transparent, and the internal organs are clearly visible. The head is retracted within the second segment; there are two dark patches on each side of the head which may be rudimentary eyes. A row of hooklets extends along the outer edge of the second segment, which assists the larva in progression. It is active in habit, being almost constantly on the move.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

The pupa (Plate I, fig. 6) is about 5/16 in. in length, immobile, pear-shaped, flattened beneath; the segmental divisions are very indistinctly indicated. There are several obscure tubercles on the anterior portion, and two rows, of about six in each, on the flattened ventral portion. The posterior segments are strongly curved, and bear at their extremity the breathing-tube proper. The pupa rests partially embedded in the dried portion of the decayed bark of the cabbage-tree.

The fly appears in November.

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Art. IX.—New Lepidoptera.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 9th December, 1919; received by Editor, 31st December, 1919; issued separately, 4th June, 1920.]


Tatosoma monoviridisata n. sp.

♂ ♀. 31–32 mm. Head and thorax olive-green. Antennae: proximal third olive-green, tips brownish. Palpi nearly 3 mm. Abdomen varying green above, irrorated with dark-brown scales with lateral dorsal tufts of brown-grey hairs at each segment, especially noticeable on fourth, fifth, sixth, and terminal segments. Forewings olive-green, elongate, costa rounded, hind-margin obliquely rounded, several transverse wavy dentate darker-greenish stripes, convex externally near middle, the most conspicuous being at ⅙, before ½, and at ⅔; a series of double dots around termen. Hindwings in ♀ small, elongate, grey, tinged with greenish terminally; an indistinct greenish band at ⅔; lobe of hindwings in ♀ 3mm. long; all cilia light green.

The palpi of this species are shorter than in T.tipulata, but the lobe of the hindwing is as small as in tipulata

Twelve specimens were beaten from Coriaria on the Waitati Water Reserve in October and November, 1918, and three in 1919.


Sabatinca lucilia n. sp.

12 mm. Head, face, and palpi covered with long bronze-brown hair. Antennae purplish tending to brown at tips. Thorax brown, densely covered with long brown hair. Abdomen grey-blackish along sides. Legs ochreous tinged with grey-blackish. Forewings ovate-lanceolate, costa bent abruptly near base, arched, apex less acute than in incongruella; basal area to nearly ⅓ ochreous suffused with ruby banded by abrupt black transverse line; an ochreous-grey band slightly suffused with ruby reaching to nearly ½ widening on dorsum; a dark fascia bordered blackish-grey, constricted both sides at middle and narrowed on anal margin; at ⅔ another light-grey band slightly tinged with orange but broken in centre by longitudinal blackish stripe; a transverse blackish-bordered ochreous band, beyond which to apex light grey slightly tinged with orange; cilia ochreous with dark-greyish-brown bars in continuation of the dark markings on the wings. Hindwings dark grey suffused with violet, brighter towards apex; cilia dark grey with a few orange hairs.

My first specimen, rather worn, I took at the electric light at Waitomo Hotel on the 25th December, 1916. During the second week of January, 1919, I took six specimens in good condition on a sunny moss-covered clay, bank at Kauri Gully, Auckland. The season was an exceptionally late one, and normally the species would probably be at its best quite a month earlier,

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Art X.—Lepidoptera of Auckland and the King-country.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 9th December, 1919; received by Editor. 31st December, 1919: issued separately, 4th June, 1920.]

During the month of January, 1919, I made a collecting tour along the Main Trunk Railway from Wellington to Auckland, returning via Rotorua, Tokaanu, and Waimarino. I collected at various other localities en route—Swanson, Wairakei, Waitomo, Raurimu, Erua, Ohakune, Waiouru, the Hot Lakes district, and the lower slopes of Mount Ruapehu from Rangataua, all being included. I had originally intended climbing to the subalpine of Mount Ruapehu, but was deterred by stormy weather, which decided me to proceed to the Auckland District for a few days in search of a better climate. I there experienced good weather and collected at Kauri Gully and in the Auckland Domain, and also ascended the Waitakere Ranges from Henderson and Swanson. The best collecting of the trip, however, was made on my return journey while camping at Waimarino and Erua at an altitude of about 2,600 ft. From Erua I ascended Mount Hauhaungatahi by the track, but owing to the cloud-banks enveloping the higher country I was able to collect during my visit only to a height of about 3,500 ft.

The following list contains only such species as I actually took in good condition on my somewhat hurried journey:—

  • Vanessa gonerilla Fabr. A few at Kauri Gully.

  • Lycaena oxleyi Murray. Very common at Auckland and at the foot of the Waitakere Ranges.

  • Chrysophanus boldenarum White. Very common on the Waimarino Plateau.

  • Nyctemera annulata Boisd. Generally common.

  • Heliothis armigera Hübn. Plentiful in Auckland Domain; also netted at Rotorua.

  • Euxoa admirationis Guen. Several at Rotorua on Veronica blossom.

  • Agrotis ypsilon Rott. At sugar, Waimarino.

  • Graphiphora compta Walk. Three netted in the Auckland Domain.

  • Leucania sulcana Fer. Several at Waitakere.

  • —— semivittata Walk. Two specimens at Rangataua.

  • —— phaula Meyr. A few at sugar on the Mangaehuehu Stream, near Rangataua.

  • Aletia moderata Walk. One at Waitomo.

  • —— unipuncta Hew. Several in the Auckland Domain.

  • Dipaustica epiastra Meyr. One at Waimarino and one at Rangataua.

  • Persectania disjungens Walk. Some fine specimens were taken at Waimarino.

  • —— steropastis Meyr. Two at sugar on the Mangaehuehu Stream.

  • —— composita Guen. Several at Auckland.

  • —— atristriga Walk. Common at Auckland and Rotorua.

  • Erana graminosa Walk. Two only at Waimarino.

  • Melanchra exquisita Philp. One very fine specimen taken at the electric light of Waitomo Hotel.

  • —— plena Walk. A few at Waimarino.

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  • Melanchra maya Huds.A few of each of these at sugar on the Mangaehuehu Stream.

  • —— diameta Walk.

  • —— mutans Walk.These four species were generally common.

  • —— ustistriga Walk.

  • —— insignis Huds.

  • —— morosa Butl.

  • —— rubescens Butl.A few of each of these were taken at sugar on the Mangaehuehu Stream.

  • —— phricias Meyr.

  • —— dotata Walk.

  • Ariathisa comma Walk. An exceptionally dark form was common at Rotorua.

  • Cosmodes elegans Don. Two fine specimens were taken at the electric light at Waitomo.

  • Hypenodes anticlina Meyr. Common at Waimarino and Erua, but in rather worn condition.

  • Plusia chalcites Esp. Several fine specimens taken in the Auckland Domain.

  • Rhapsa scotosialis Walk. Common in most localities.

  • Tatosoma topia Philp. At Waimarino some very fine specimens were netted.

  • —— timora Meyr. Common at Waimarino.

  • Elvia glaucata Walk. Waimarino; fairly common.

  • Venusia verriculata Feld. Common at Auckland and Waitakere.

  • —— undosata Feld. Common at Waimarino.

  • Selidosema pelurgata Walk. A few at Waitakere and Waimarino.

  • —— monacha Huds. Some fine specimens of both sexes netted at Waimarino.

  • —— fenerata Feld. A few at Kauri Gully.

  • —— aristdrcha Meyr. Two only at Waitakere.

  • —— productata Walk. Both these species common at Auckland and Waimarino.

  • —— dejectaria Walk.

  • Chloroclystis semialbata Walk. Common at Waitakere.

  • —— lichenodes Purd. A few at Raurimu and Waimarino.

  • —— nereis Meyr. A few at Rangataua and Waimarino.

  • —— n. sp. A very fine unknown species was taken at Waimarino.

  • Eucymatoge gobiata Feld. Common at Auckland and Waimarino.

  • —— anguligera Butl. Very common at Kauri Gully.

  • Hydriomena deltoidata Walk. Some very fine varieties obtained at Raurimu.

  • —— rixata Feld. Ohakune and Waimarino; common.

  • —— hemizona Meyr. Very common at Waimarino.

  • —— similata Walk. Waimarino and Erua.

  • —— callichlora Butl. A few worn specimens at Waimarino.

  • —— purpurifera Fer. Common at Waimarino, but rather worn.

  • —— subochraria Doubl. Common at Waitomo and Ohakune.

  • Asthena schistaria Walk. Waitakere, Rotorua, Wairakei; common.

  • —— pulchraria Doubl. Common at Kauri Gully.

  • Euchoeca rubropunctaria Doubl. Common at Auckland and Waimarino.

  • Leptomeris rubraria Doubl. Very common at Auckland and Waitakere on the roadsides.

  • Asapodes megaspilata Walk. Common at Waimarino.

  • Xanthorhoe clarata Walk. A few at Waimarino.

  • —— obarata Feld. Common at Waimarino and Erua.

  • —— chorica Meyr. A few very fine specimens taken at Waimarino.

  • —— limonodes Meyr. A few at Waimarino and Erua.

  • —— praefectata Walk. Some beautiful pure-white specimens taken at Waimarino.

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  • Xanthorhoe aegrota Butl. One at Kauri Gully.

  • —— lucidata Walk. Not uncommon in the Auckland Domain.

  • —— chlamydota Meyr. Tokaanu; one fine specimen.

  • —— semisignata Walk. Common at Swanson, Waimarino, and Erua.

  • —— cinerearia Doubl. Common at Auckland, Waimarino, and Tokaanu.

  • —— semifissata Walk. A few at Waimarino.

  • Notoreas perornata Walk. Both species common on the Waimarino Plateau.

  • —— vulcanica Meyr.

  • Samana falcatella Walk. Four specimens netted at Henderson and Swanson, at the foot of the Waitakere Ranges.

  • Adeixis inostentata Walk. This species was very common at Waimarino and on the Mangaehuehu Stream.

  • Epirranthis hemipteraria Guen. These two species occurred sparingly at Kauri Gully and Waimarino.

  • —— alectoraria Walk.

  • Gargaphania muriferata Walk. Common at Waitakere and Ohakune.

  • Sestra flexata Walk. A few at Waimarino.

  • —— humeraria Walk. Common at Kauri Gully.

  • Azelina ophiopa Meyr. Common at Waitakere and Raurimu.

  • —— fortinata Guen. Very common at Waimarino and Erua.

  • —— nelsonaria Feld. Common at Waimarino and Wairakei.

  • Declana atronivea Walk. Common at Waitomo and Waimarino.

  • —— floccosa Walk. Common at Auckland, Waimarino, and Ohakune.

  • Eurythecta eremana Meyr. Common at Tokaanu.

  • —— loxias Meyr. Four fine specimens were taken at Waimarino.

  • Catamacta gavisana Walk. Common at Auckland and Waitomo.

  • Capua semiferana Walk. Common at Auckland and Wairekei.

  • —— plinthoglypta Meyr. Two only at Ohakune.

  • —— plagiatana Walk. Common at Wairakei, Auckland, Waitomo, and Tokaanu.

  • Tortrix leucaniana Walk. A few at Ohakune.

  • —— charactana Meyr. Common at Rangataua and Ohakune.

  • —— tigris Philp. One fine specimen at Swanson.

  • —— molybditis Meyr. Several at Waimarino.

  • —— postvittana Walk. This species was very common in the Auckland Domain.

  • —— torogramma Meyr. One only at Kauri Gully.

  • —— excessana Walk. Common at Auckland.

  • —— orthocopa Meyr. A few of this fine species at Waimarino and Swanson.

  • Epalxiphora axenana Meyr. Common at Auckland, Ohakune, Wairakei; several varieties taken.

  • Ctenopseustis obliquana Walk. Very common in various localities.

  • Cnephasia jactatana Walk. Common at Auckland and Rangataua.

  • —— incessana Walk. Common at Kauri Gully, Waimarino, and Raurimu.

  • —— imbriferana Meyr. Common at Kauri Gully.

  • Spilonota zopherana Meyr. Both these species common at Auckland and Wairakei among manuka scrub.

  • —— ejectana Walk.

  • Eucosma querula Meyr. Very common in the Auckland Domain.

  • Bactra noteraula Wals. Some very large examples were taken at Taupo.

  • Isonomeutis amauropa Meyr. A few at Waimarino and Erua.

  • Laspeyresia pomonella Linn. One taken on a fruit-shop window in Rotorua.

  • Crocydopora cinigerella Walk. A good series of this species was taken on the shingly beach of Lake Taupo.

  • Argyria strophaea Meyr. Common at the side of the railway-line at Raurimu; also taken at Whakarewarewa.

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  • Gadira acerella Walk. Kauri Gully and Tokaanu.

  • Diptychophora metallifera Butl. Several at Waimarino.

  • —— harmonica Meyr. Common at Kauri Gully and Waimarino.

  • —— chrysochyta Meyr. Common at Kauri Gully.

  • —— elaina Meyr. Very common at Ohakune and Waimarino.

  • —— auriscriptella Walk. Common at Kauri Gully, Ohakune, and Waimarino.

  • —— epiphaea Meyr. Two only at Waimarino.

  • —— selenaea Meyr. Common at Kauri Gully and Ohakune.

  • —— pyrsophanes Meyr. Waimarino; a few specimens larger than usual.

  • —— leucoxantha Meyr. Very common at Waimarino and Erua.

  • Crambus vitellus Doubl. Common at Rangataua and Swanson.

  • —— ramosellus Doubl. A few at Raurimu.

  • —— heliotes Meyr. Very common at Waimarino.

  • —— apicellus Zell. Common at Waimarino.

  • —— siriellus Meyr. Common at Waimarino and Rangataua.

  • Scoparia minusculalis Walk. Common at Auckland and Waimarino.

  • —— minualis Walk. Common at Waimarino.

  • —— dinodes Meyr. A few at Raurimu.

  • —— pongalis Feld. Several in the Auckland Domain.

  • —— thyridias Meyr. Very common at Waimarino.

  • —— epicomia Meyr. A few at the Mangaehuehu Stream.

  • —— leucogramma Meyr. Two at Waimarino.

  • —— submarginalis Walk. Commonest at Ohakune.

  • —— asterisca Meyr. One at Raurimu.

  • —— feredayi Knaggs. A few at Waimarino.

  • —— choristis Meyr. Two at Waimarino.

  • —— indistinctalis Walk. Common at Tokaanu and Wairakei.

  • —— illota Philp. Two at Waimarino.

  • —— trivirgata Feld. A few at Waimarino.

  • —— aspidota Meyr. Fairly common at Raurimu and Waimarino.

  • —— hemiplaca Meyr. Two at Waimarino and two at Raurimu.

  • —— petrina Meyr. A few at Ohakune and Waitakere.

  • —— harpalea Meyr. A few at Ohakune and Waimarino.

  • —— philerga Meyr. Common at Auckland.

  • —— periphanes Meyr. Waitakere, Auckland, and Waimarino; common.

  • Besides the above species of Scoparia an unknown species was taken at Auckland Domain and another at Tokaanu.

  • Mecyna flavidalis Doubl. A very dark variety was common at Tokaanu and Waimarino.

  • —— daiclealis Walk. One at Waimarino and one at Waitakere.

  • Proternia philocapna Meyr. Common in Auckland Domain.

  • Sceliodes cordalis Doubl. Common at electric light, Waitomo.

  • Clepsicosma iridia Meyr. Common at Waitakere and Waimarino.

  • Pyralis farinalis Linn. One only in a Rotorua store.

  • Diasemia grammalis Doubl. Several at Okere Falls, Taupo, and Waimarino.

  • Platyptilia aeolodes Meyr. Common in Auckland, Taupo, Swanson, and Waimarino.

  • —— monospilalis Walk. Common in Auckland Domain.

  • Aristotelia paradesma Meyr. A few at Kauri Gully and Auckland.

  • Gelechia monophragma Meyr. Common at Waimarino and Erua.

  • Hieroxestis omoscopa Meyr. Common in Auckland Domain.

  • —— hapsimacha Meyr. Common at Kauri Gully and Waimarino, attached to Cordyline indivisa.

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  • Pyroderces apparitella Walk. Common in Auckland Domain.

  • Schiffermuelleria orthopanes Meyr. Several at Waimarino.

  • Compsistis bifaciella Walk. Common at Kauri Gully, Raurimu, and Waimarino.

  • Elachista gerasmia Meyr. A few in Auckland Domain.

  • —— archaeonoma Meyr. Common at Waimarino, Auckland, and Waitakere.

  • Stathmopoda caminora Meyr. A few at Auckland.

  • —— skelloni Butl. Common at Auckland and Waimarino.

  • Endrosis lacteela Schiff. Common everywhere in the neighbourhood of houses.

  • Izatha epiphanes Meyr. Two only, at light, Waitomo.

  • —— austera Meyr. Common at Kauri Gully.

  • —— attactella Walk. One found drowned in a water-butt on Ohakune Railway-station.

  • —— peroneanella Walk. Auckland, Wairakei, and Waimarino. The Wairakei specimens taken among the hot springs had faded to a blackish-brown shade by the action of the sulphurous vapours.

  • —— picarella Walk. A few at Waitakere.

  • —— huttoni Butl. One only at Raurimu.

  • —— balanophora Meyr. One at Waitomo.

  • —— copiosella Walk. Several at Waimarino and Raurimu: one particularly large specimen has a wing-expanse of 40 mm.

  • Gymnobathra hyetodes Meyr. A fine specimen at Swanson.

  • —— tholodella Meyr. A few at Raurimu and Waimarino.

  • —— flavidella Walk. Common at Kauri Gully and Okere Falls.

  • —— omphalota Meyr. Common at Ohakune and Rangataua.

  • —— thetodes Meyr. Two only, at light Waitomo.

  • Borkhausenia crotala Meyr. Common at Auckland and Waimarino.

  • —— armigerella Walk.

  • —— innotella Walk.

  • —— chrysogramma Meyr. Several taken at Waimarino. Much more bright than southern specimens.

  • —— hoplodesma Meyr. Kauri Gully; one only.

  • —— basella Walk. Several at Rangataua.

  • —— pseudospretella Staint. Common at Auckland, Waimarino, Tokaanu, and Ohakune.

  • Several undetermined species were also taken.

  • Trachypepla leucoplanetis Meyr. A fine series at Waimarino.

  • —— lathriopa Meyr. Common at Waimarino and Raurimu.

  • —— galaxias Meyr. A few at Raurimu and Waimarino.

  • —— protochlora Meyr. Several at Waimarino.

  • —— aspidephora Meyr. Several at Kauri Gully.

  • —— euryleucota Meyr. One large specimen at Raurimu.

  • —— contritella Walk. Common at Waimarino.

  • —— anastrella Meyr. A few at Raurimu.

  • Barea dinocosma Meyr. Two at Raurimu.

  • Proteodes profunda Meyr. A few at Raurimu.

  • Cryptolechia liochroa Meyr. Some fine specimens at Waimarino and Erua.

  • Eutorna caryochroa Meyr. A few at Waimarino.

  • Vanicela disjunctella Walk. Two only at Kauri Gully.

  • Thylacosceles acridomima Meyr. Common at Kauri Gully.

  • Glyphipteryx oxymachaera Meyr. Common at Waimarino.

  • —— erastis Meyr. A few at Waimarino.

  • —— leptosema Meyr. A few at Waimarino.

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  • Glyphipteryx zelota Meyr. A good series at Kauri Gully.

  • —— transversella Walk. Very common at Waimarino.

  • —— achlyoessa Meyr. Common at Waimarino.

  • —— asteronota Meyr. A few at Kauri Gully.

  • Pantosperma holochalca Meyr. A few on rushes at Tokaanu.

  • Coridomorpha stella Meyr. One at Raurimu.

  • Simaethis combinatana Walk. One at Waimarino and one at Ohakune.

  • —— microlitha Meyr. One only at Waitakere.

  • Acrocercops cyanospila Meyr. Two only at Taupo.

  • Batrachedra psithrya Meyr. A few at Kauri Gully.

  • Parectopa aellomacha Meyr. A few at Kauri Gully and the Auckland Domain.

  • Gracilaria chalcodelta Meyr. Fairly common at Waimarino and Raurimu.

  • —— chrysitis Feld. Three specimens of this beautiful moth at Kauri Gully.

  • —— linearis Butl. Common, especially at Waimarino.

  • Dolichernis chloroleuca Meyr. Common at Raurimu and Waimarino.

  • Protosynaema steropucha Meyr. One only at Rangitoto Island, Auckland Harbour.

  • Orthenches porphyritis Meyr. Kauri Gully and Waimarino; common.

  • —— drosochalca Meyr. One only at Kauri Gully.

  • —— chlorocoma Meyr. A few in Auckland Domain.

  • —— glyptarcha Meyr. One only of this fine species at Waimarino.

  • Circoxena ditrocha Meyr. Two of this moth at Kauri Gully.

  • Eschatotypa melichrysa Meyr. Auckland and Waimarino; common.

  • Erechthias exospila Meyr. Two only at Kauri Gully.

  • —— hemiclistra Meyr. Common at Waimarino, attached to Cordyline indivisa.

  • Hectacma chasmatias Meyr. Two taken in Auckland Domain.

  • —— stilbella Newm. Common in Auckland Domain.

  • Crypsitricha mesotypa Meyr. Common at Kauri Gully and Waimarino.

  • —— roseata Meyr. A few at Waimarino.

  • Habrophila compseuta Meyr. A few at Kauri Gully.

  • Endophthora omogramma Meyr. Common in Auckland Domain.

  • Thallostoma eurygrapha Meyr. One only at Raurimu.

  • Sagephora exsanguis Philp. One or two in Auckland Domain.

  • Lysiphragma epixyla Meyr. A few at Waimarino.

  • Mallobathra crataea Meyr. Common at Waimarino.

  • Protnodes grammocosma Meyr. Common at Kauri Gully and Waimarino, attached to Cordyline indivisa.

  • Porina umbraculata Gn. Common at Ohakune.

  • —— enysii Butl. Three fine specimens at Waimarino.

  • Mnesarchaea loxoscia Meyr. Common at Raurimu.

  • Sabatinca calliarcha Meyr. One only at Kauri Gully.

  • —— incongruella Walk. Very common at Ohakune, Erua, and Waimarino.

  • —— doroxena Meyr. Seveal at Waimarino.

  • —— lucilia n. sp. A few at Kauri Gully and one at Waitomo.

  • Hepialis virescens Doubl. A few in Auckland Domain and one at Waimarino.

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Art. XI.—Notes and Descriptions of New Zealand Lepidoptera.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 9th December, 1919; received by Editor, 31st December 1919; issued separately, 4th June, 1920.]


Agrotis spina Guen., Noct., vol. 1, p. 269; Hamps., Cat. Lep. Phal., vol. 4, p. 367.

This well-known Australian moth should be added to the list of New Zealand Lepidoptera. Dr. A. Jefferis Turner, of Brisbane, has kindly supplied me with examples, and these show that spina has been hitherto overlooked by New Zealand lepidopterists, having been treated as a form of A. ypsilon. The males of the Australian examples which I have are more ochreous than New Zealand specimens, but the females are of almost exactly the same tint. The chief difference between the species is to be found in the form of the subterminal line: in ypsilon this is strongly dentate, whilst in spina it is only slightly irregular. In spina also the orbicular and reniform are connected by a prominent blackish bar, this being absent in ypsilon. These distinctions, however, apply best to the males, the females of the species being very difficult to separate.

From Dr. Turner I learn that Agrotis spina is found throughout Australia, and is in some seasons extraordinarily abundant.

Aletia panda n. sp.

♂, 33 mm.; ♀; 36 mm. Head and palpi grey, in ♂ tinged with ochreous. Antennae in ♂ strongly bipectinated. Thorax grey, with dark bar on collar, crests absent. Abdomen greyish-ochreous. Legs greyish-ochreous, anterior tarsi blackish annulated with ochreous. Forewings, costa almost straight, apex rounded, termen oblique, evenly rounded; bluish-grey, tinged with ochreous, in ♀ mixed with blackish-fuscous; a black dot on costa at base, margined broadly with whitish; first line faintly indicated, irregularly dentate, fuscous, margined anteriorly with whitish; second line from ½ costa to ⅗ dorsum, deeply and widely indented on upper half, irregularly dentate on lower half, blackish; a thin dentate fuscous presubterminal line, curving beneath reniform and closely approaching second line, thence running parallel with it to dorsum, apex of teeth margined with white; subterminal line obscure, margined anteriorly, in ♂ narrowly, in ♀ broadly, with fuscous; a series of fuscous dots round termen; orbicular circular, pale, interruptedly margined with fuscous; claviform directly beneath orbicular, circular, half as large as, and similar in colouring to, orbicular; reniform pale, faintly fuscous-margined: cilia ochreous with basal and post-median fuscous lines. Hindwings in ♂ ochreous-fuscous, in ♀ fuscous: cilia ochreous, in ♀ with obscure fuscous line.

Very close to A. cuneata Philp. in appearance, but differing in the pectinated antennae and the pale-centred stigmata. In the structure of the antennae and palpi, the new form comes nearer to A. temenaula Meyr. I have placed the species in Aletia owing to its obvious relationship to the cuneata-temenaula group, but the arrangement of species at present adopted for our New Zealand forms in this genus and Leucania seems to me to stand in need of revision.

A single pair is all the material at present available. The male was taken by Mr. G. V. Hudson on Mount Earnslaw in January, 1914, and the female was captured by myself at Routeburn in December, 1918. The types remain in the collections of their respective discoverers.

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Melanchra inchoata n. sp.

♂ ♀ 33 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax greyish-ochreous sprinkled with fuscous. Thorax in both sexes with rather prominent anterior crest. Antennae in ♂ ciliated, ciliations ⅘. Abdomen in both sexes with the first four or five segments prominently crested. Legs ochreous, tarsi annulated with fuscous. Forewings, costa almost straight, apex subacute, termen crenate, oblique below middle; ochreous clouded with fuscous, in ♀ darker; a small pale apical patch; a series of four or five paired fuscous dots on costa; all lines except subterminal very obscure; basal evenly curved, serrate, fuscous; first and second almost obsolete, apparently double, fuscous; a presubterminal thin serrate dark line faintly indicated; sub-terminal conspicuous, unindented, equidistant with termen, white; terminal crenations edged with black; stigmata unusually closely grouped; orbicular rounded, whitish, dark-centred; claviform small, dark fuscous; reniform dark fuscous, obscurely white-linged: cilia ochreous, basally mixed with fuscous. Hindwings dark fuscous: cilia ochreous with dark-fuscous sub-basal line. Underwings ochreous thickly irrorated with fuscous, clear ochreous along costa and round termen of forewings; lunules and second lines of both wings fuscous.

Belongs to the coeleno-levis group, but is easily distinguished by the form of the subterminal line.

Stephen Island. Collected by Mr. H. Hamilton on the 9th September, 1916. I am indebted to Dr. J. A. Thomson, Director of the Dominion Museum, for the opportunity of describing this interesting species. Types, ♂ and ♀, in coll. Dominion Museum.


Choerocampa celerio Linn.

In the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, vol. 37, p. 369, Hudson, records the first captures of this species in New Zealand, four examples having been taken in the summer of 1903–4. To this record I am able to add that of a specimen taken at Te Tua, near the southern coast of the South Island. The moth was taken by a resident of the district and forwarded to the Southland Museum, in the collection of which institution it remains. It is in fine condition, so fresh as to cast considerable doubt on the possibility of its having been wind-driven across a wide expanse of ocean.


Scoparia pascoella n. sp.

♂ ♀. 15–18 mm. Head and palpi ferruginous-brown, palpi ochreous beneath. Antennal ciliations ½. Thorax ferruginous-brown mixed with white. Abdomen fuscous-grey. Legs ochreous-grey mixed with fuscous, tarsi obscurely banded with fuscous. Forewings moderate, triangular, costa almost straight, apex round-pointed, termen hardly rounded, oblique; ferruginous-brown mingled with some fuscous and much suffused with white; first line hardly curved, unindented, white, broadly margined with ferruginous posteriorly; orbicular and claviform dot-like, blackish, partially obscured by ferruginous suffusion, reniform X-shaped, blackish, frequently obscure; second line irregularly bent but not deeply indented, narrow, parallel to termen, white, narrowly margined with ferruginous anteriorly; subterminal line obscure, interrupted at middle, widely remote from second line, white: cilia ochreous-grey. Hindwings grey-fuscous, paler anteriorly: cilia ochreous-grey with fuscous basal line.

– 44 –

Near S. organaea Meyr., but the forewings are much narrower at the base and the costa is straighter; the second line of the two forms is quite different both in colour and form. In some examples the white suffusion is very pronounced and the markings are more or less obsolete.

I took a good series on Tooth Peaks, Wakatipu, at an elevation of about 3,000 ft., in December. The species was abundant on the moist ground near a little stream. The specific name is intended as a tribute to the memory of the late Quartermaster Merlin Owen Pascoe, who fell at La Newaille, France, a few months before the conclusion of the war. Quartermaster Pascoe did a great deal of entomological work in the Wakatipu district, and was the first entomologist to collect on Tooth Peaks.


Endotricha pyrosalis Guen., Lep., vol. 8, p. 219.

Among some moths sent to me several years ago by Mr. H. Hamilton was a single example of this species, labelled “Mt. Dennan (Tararua Mountains), February, 1911.” I was not at the time able to identify the specimen, and as it was not in very good condition it was set aside in the hope of obtaining further material. Having now, through the kindness of Dr. Jefferis Turner, procured good examples of pyrosalis from Australia, I am able to make the above record. The species has a wing-expanse of about 20 mm. The forewings are rather bright yellow, densely sprinkled with pink, especially on the apical ⅖. The hindwings are also bright yellow, and have the termen broadly margined with pink. The patagial tufts are much elongated, reaching more than half-way to the tornus of the hindwing.

I learn from Mr. H. Hamilton that this interesting capture could not have been made by him, as he did not visit Mount Dennan on the date recorded. He suggests that the moth was probably taken by his father, the late Augustus Hamilton.


Orthenches virgata n. sp.

♂ 10 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax ochreous. Antennae ochreous on basal fifth, annulated with white and black on remaining portion. Abdomen greyish-white. Legs, anterior pairs fuscous, tarsi obscurely annulated with ochreous, posterior pair ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderate, costa strongly arched, apex round-pointed, termen moderately oblique; bright ochreous with violet and purplish reflections; a brownish fascia from beneath, costa near base to dorsum at ¼; a well-defined fascia from costa at ¼ to dorsum at ½, slightly irregular, brownish mixed with black; a similar fascia from costa at ⅖, strongly angled above middle towards termen, thence to dorsum at ⅔, where it coalesces with inwardly-oblique fascia from costa at ¾, both these fasciae having black patches at middle; a white patch margining last fascia at middle; a few black scales on central portion of dorsum: cilia ochreous, becoming fuscous round apex. Hindwings and cilia shining white.

A well-marked species, having little affinity with any other member of the genus.

The type of this interesting species was taken at Auckland on the 2nd October, 1918, by Dr. A. Jefferis Turner, of Queensland, to whose generosity I am indebted for the specimen. Mr. Charles E. Clarke was fortunate enough to secure a second example at Waitati, Otago, in February, 1919, so that the species, though apparently rare, must be widely distributed.

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Art. XII.—The Southern Maori, and Greenstone.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 9th December, 1919; received by Editor, 31st December, 1919; issued separately, 4th June, 1920.]

While I was gathering place-names from the southern Maori they gave me a little information about greenstone which may be worth recording in print. Although greenstone is not the technical name of this stone, it is the popular one, and I shall adhere to it.

In his admirable paper in Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 24, pp. 479–539, Mr. Justice Chapman states that nowhere did the Maori get greenstone in an inland locality, and thus he considers Shortland's statement that it was procured at “Lake Wakatipua” is erroneous. The southern Maori assure me that Shortland's information was correct, and that you can still see the place where the pounamu was got at Te Koroka, a mountain up the Dart River. One old man said, “Pounamu of the inaka kind was found at Te Koroka, at the head of Whakatipu. It was the only place where it was got inland. Takiwai greenstone was found at Milford and elsewhere.” Another said, “Te Koroka, where they got the greenstone, is north of Wakatipu. Taumaro is the name of the mountains between Wakatipu-wai-tai and Wakatipu-wai-maori, and Te Koroka is one of those heights.”

Some of the Maori say “Wakatipu” and others “Whakatipu.” It was explained to me that the word occurs in five place-names. The mountains west of the lake are called Whakatipu, and the lake is known as Whakatipu-wai-maori (Fresh-water Whakatipu). The Dart River is Te-awa-Whakatipu, the Hollyford River is Whakatipu-katuku, and Lake McKerrow is Whakatipu-wai-tai (Salt-water Whakatipu). These last three are all on the track by which the Maori went from the head of Lake Wakatipu to Martin's Bay, on the west coast.

One old Maori said, “Under Te Koroka is a place now called Maori Hill, I believe, but known of old as Puketai, after a chief of note who died there. Near this spot stood a kaika called Puia, and there the Maori lived when getting the greenstone. The general name of the whole district north of Lake Wakatipu was Te-wahi-pounamu.” This last statement conflicts with Mr. Justice Chapman's conclusion (p. 522) that Te-wai-pounamu is the correct form of the name, although there is nothing to prevent the latter form having been applied to the rivers on the west coast. A chapter could be written on the elision or addition of “h” in the southern dialectal usages; and in any case—again to differ from the conclusions of Mr. Justice Chapman—the pronunciations of “wai” and “wahi” by a southern Maori are often so alike as to be indistinguishable save to an acute or trained ear.

Before leaving the subject of greenstone in the Wakatipu district I may add that Mr. James Cowan kindly lent me some notes he had gathered from the southern Maori in 1905, and among them are the following items of information: “Beyond the head of Whakatipu on the road to Martin's Bay, somewhere near Lake Harris Saddle, is the place where the Maori used to get koko-tangiwai.” “Te Koroka is a bold peak at the head of Lake Whakatipu, and the Maori got a sort of coarse greenstone there.”

– 46 –

An old Maori said to me, “Pekerakitahi is a mountain standing by itself at the head of Wakatipu” (Mount Earnslaw). “There is greenstone in it, because Te Ariki, who lived seven generations ago, took some pounamu from Te Koroka and hid it in Pekerakitahi, where it went like the skin of a tuatara. If you break the rock you will find the greenstone inside. A mountain and creek both called Pekerakitahi are at the head of Lake Wanaka, but it is the Wakatipu mountain I mean.”

In regard to how long the Maori have known greenstone, I was told that Kahue (Ngahue), who visited New Zealand thirty-nine generations ago, took some back to Hawaiki with him. One piece Kahue split into three axe-heads—one for himself, called Kapakitua; one for Kupe, named Tauira-a-pa; and one for Rata, called Te-papa-ariari. Rata sharpened his axe-head, attached a handle, and named it Aumapu. With this axe he cut down the famous tree which the “little folk” of the forest erected again, as in the oft-repeated story.

Another story has it that Tamatea-pokai-whenua, twenty-two generations ago, sailed round the South Island in search of his missing wives. Unaware that they had been wrecked off the Arahura River and turned into greenstone, Tamatea landed there, and his slave in cooking some koka birds burnt his fingers, which he licked. This was a violation of tapu, and the slave, Tumuaki, was turned into the mountain since known by his name, whilst Tamatea never found his wives, their petrified bodies furnishing the greenstone, some of which has a flaw known as tutae-koka, or the dung of the birds Tumuaki was cooking when he committed his thoughtless act. Mr. Justice Chapman says (p. 518), “I am unable to obtain a satisfactory meaning for koka. Mr. Tregear suggests koko (the tui), which seems probable.” The bird was the orange-wattled crow (Glaucopis cinerea), whose name throughout the South is koka, although its confrère in the North Island (Glaucopis wilsoni) is there called kokako.

An old Maori, usually well informed, gave me a peculiar version of this tradition. He said, “I think that story about Tamatea and his three runaway wives is false. Tama-taku-ariki, often called Tama, went to Arahura in search of greenstone, which was then in human shape. He killed one, and was cooking it in an umu, when his companion burnt his finger and put in in his mouth. In consequence of this act the greenstone disappeared and they came away disappointed.”

Mr. James Cowan writes, “The wives of Tama-ki-te-Rangi (captain of the Tairea canoe) deserted him, and he searched for them from Cook Strait to Piopiotahi (Milford Sound). The flax-like kiekie (Freycinetia Banksii), which fringes the fiord for miles, sprang, according to legend, from the shreds of Tama's shoulder-mat, torn off in his forest travels. Here he found one of his wives, but she had turned into greenstone, and as Tama wept over her his tears penetrated the very rock. This is why the nephrite found on the slopes of Mitre Peak, close to Anita Bay, is called tangi-wai (the water of weeping, or tear-water). If you take a clear piece of this stone and hold it up to the light you will sometimes see marks like water-drops in it. This is the true tangi-wai, for these are the tears of Tama-ki-te-Rangi.”

Whoever the chief was who pursued his fugitive wives, it is fairly certain it was not the captain of the Takitimu canoe, who bore at various times in his own proper person the names Tamatea-ariki-nui, Tamatea-mai-Tawhiti, Tamatea-ure-kotia, Tamatea-muriwhenua, and Tamatea-pokai-whenua. This illustrious chief resided for some time in southern New

– 47 –

Zealand, and at least three places near Dusky Sound perpetuate the memory of his voyage of exploration in that vicinity, but his name and fame have never, that I know of, been associated with greenstone.

Mr. Cowan has given a tradition accounting for the name tangi-wai, but the Memoirs of the Polynesian Society, vol. 4, page 138, say the name was bestowed on one kind of jadeite because of the tears of Hine-ahu over the death of Tuhua, whom her jealous husband, Tama-ahua, killed. Tama-ahua, twenty-nine generations ago, led a party to get pounamu at Arahura, and not only was tangi-wai named then, but two other kinds of jadeite were named also—kahurangi and kawakawa; while through a fire that occurred the kahotea kind of pounamu was burnt, which accounts for its peculiar marking.

The same authority states that Kupe, thirty-nine generations ago, was the first to discover the jadeite, or pounamu. The locality was the Arahura River. The river at the time was swarming with whitebait (inanga), which the party proceeded to catch. Kupe's daughter picked a stone out of the river to act as a sinker to the net, and the one she seized was different from any they had seen before, and so it was called inanga, this remaining to the present day the name of this valued kind of pounamu.

I have a note as follows: “Piopiotahi was a canoe which came from Hawaiki. Kahotea was the captain and Tangiwai one of the crew, and two kinds of greenstone now bear these names.”

The conflicting evidence regarding the discovery and naming of the various kinds of pounamu occurs because the accounts are gleaned from different tribes, who each have an explanation based on ancestral lore, although it must be admitted that all the traditions are not of equal probability and merit.

The first settlement of people of Maori blood in the South Island of which we possess reliable information is that under Rakaihautu, a chief who flourished forty-two generations ago. His people were called Waitaha, and their descendants were numerous in the South Island when the last and principal influx of Maoris occurred, twenty-two generations ago. This Waitaha people used weapons of bone and wood, and the late Tare-te-Maiharoa said of them, “They did not know greenstone, but used a glassy stone known as takiwai.” Takiwai is the southern pronunciation of tangiwai, said to be the most transparent variety of jade and to come from Milford Sound, so that apparently my informant did not class it as a proper greenstone, which, of course, is scientifically correct.

Pounamu was classed with fish, according to Dr. Shortland, (and there are numerous legends in this connection outside the scope of this paper, but the only reference I have to the Rapuwai people knowing any form of greenstone has a distinctly piscatorial aspect. A sub-tribe of Rapuwai known as Kati-Koko, said my informant, went round to Milford Sound, and, finding a huge piece of greenstone in the sea, set out to drive it round to Foveaux Strait. Three canoes followed it—one on each side and one behind, and yet it nearly escaped several times. They almost got it ashore at Oraka (near Riverton), but it dodged on till it settled where it is, and it now forms Motupiu (Dog Island, near Bluff). My informant added that if you went down into the interior of that island you would find it hollow and supported on three legs, or columns, of greenstone.

When the Kati-Mamoe Tribe were pushed out of the North Island some time after the arrival of the six canoes, twenty-two generations ago, they spread southward and intermarried with the Waitaha and Rapuwai Tribes

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One of my informants, a descendant of these tribes, said to me, “There are four kinds of greenstone, but the Kati-Mamoe never used them. The North Island people did not make trips for greenstone as early as they say, for the first expedition to get it went from Kaiapohia and fought the Patea people in Westland. The people of Raumano who settled on the West Coast had greenstone before either the Kati-Mamoe or Kai-Tahu Tribes came to this island.”

A Maori of Kati-Mamoe descent says, “The Kati-Mamoe remained on the east and south sides of the South Island, and had no greenstone weapons until the Kai-Tahu brought these among them. In some of the old encampments at Kawhakaputaputa and elsewhere in Murihiku you can find the uri, or slatestone axes, and parahi, or flint knives, of the old people of the Kati-Mamoe before they used greenstone.”

Greenstone was brought under the notice of the Kai-Tahu Tribe in Canterbury by a woman named Raureka, who, accompanied by her dog, found a way through the dividing range between Westland and Canterbury. Both Stack and Wohlers call her a mad woman, but I should scarcely like to infer that she was, seeing she is an ancestress of an esteemed old friend of mine. She married a man called Puhou, and by the genealogy furnished me I note she flourished ten generations ago. The Kai-Tahu invasion of the South Island took place in the year 1650 approximately, and ten generations back from 1900 places the birth of Raureka as about 1650 also; so if we allow she was twenty when she made her exploring trip, we can put down a.d. 1670 as somewhere near the time when Kai-Tahu became interested in procuring greenstone.

I was told that two West Coast Maori, named Pakiha and Taka-ahi, came over to Canterbury and were acting as brigands, pouncing on solitary wayfarers, whom they killed and ate. Rakitamau killed them, but before doing so elicited information as to the route to the West Coast. He and his sons (Weka and Marama) followed the directions and arrived at a lake where was a store of greenstone, guarded just them by only an old man and woman. They killed the old couple and used them as provisions on the way back to Kaiapohia, which they entered in triumph, carrying as much greenstone as they could bring. The time of this occurrence is not stated, but I take it to be before the war expedition led by Rakitamau at the time when he killed Uekanuka.

The possession of greenstone weapons was an advantage to Kai-Tahu in their conflicts with Kati-Mamoe, but the latter gradually acquired the valued pounamu. It is said that one of the weapons of Marakai, one of the most valiant Kati-Mamoe, chiefs, was a pounamu toki. For a long time the Kati-Mamoe, a tangata-whenua people, were inferior to Kai-Tahu, who belonged to the conquering strain, whose achievements in Maoriland were analogous to the Norman Conquest in England. They were inferior both in weapons and prowess, but as they were pushed back from Canterbury into Otago and Southland they roused themselves, and, to quote one of my informants, they “fought like tigers,” with a result that the two tribes amalgamated and were so found by the white people.

That the Kati-Mamoe possessed greenstone is evident from the traditions concerning the Otaupiri pa, on the north side of the Hokanui Hills. After Tu-te-Makobu killed Kaweriri at the fight of Waitaramea (also known as Tarahaukapiti) he lived at Otaupiri. Of the presence of greenstone in this pa I have been told no fewer than eight times. “There is, or was, a spring close to the pa,” said the first man who told me of this famous piece of pounamu, “and it is, or was, covered over with a greenstone slab,

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which has never been found yet.” Another said, “There was a well in the pa of Tu-te-Makohu, and its top was covered by a celebrated slab of greenstone”; and another added these details: “I will let you into a secret. In a creek near Taupiri eight valuable mere are buried under a slab of greenstone which was concealed in the creek-bed. There is also in that hidden store a beautiful greenstone taiaha, which is said to be 3 ft. long. I have never heard of any one making a proper search for that buried treasure placed there by our ancestors.”

In regard to the last remark, one old man said to me, “Several people, including the late Tame Parata, once went up to try and get Tu-te-Makohu's greenstone at Otaupiri, but the search was without result. Tu-te-Makohu died at that pa and was buried on a hilltop which can be seen for miles round. His maipi was put upright in the ground to mark his burial-place.”

One old man gave some information which may refer to the foregoing, or it may be a different incident altogether: “In a creek up about the head of the Waimumu Stream, in the Hokanui Hills, is a big hole that was used in old times to get water from. Somewhere near it a noted greenstone mere was buried in the creek-bed. This mere is said to have once belonged to a great woman, and it was secreted to preserve it from falling into strange hands. It was buried by a woman who was the only one of her family left at that place, and she hid it secretly so the rest of the people would not know, and it has never been found to this day as far as is known.”

The hiding of valued pieces of greenstone was quite common. Rawiri-te-Awha had once lived at Lakes Manapouri and Te Anau, and he buried some greenstone there. One of my informants was up there with Rawiri and some other Maori in 1872, and one night a companion and he went to the site of Rawiri's old whare and dug up the greenstone and had a look at it. They carefully replaced it, and as the party came away without it my informant considered it would be there still, although he has never been back in the locality to ascertain the changes made by the white man's occupation.

At one point near Port Molyneux, tradition says, a whare stood many generations ago, and that when the chief called Makatu was killed on the headland above his heart was brought down and roasted before this ancient dwelling. My informant had dug down at the spot and found traces of habitation, coming on an old bone mere, beautifully carved, but unfortunately half burnt. He also found a greenstone weapon of unusual design, and this he gave to Captain Bollons, of the s.s. “Hinemoa.” The hill behind the old pilot station at Port Molyneux is called Kaoriori, after a block of greenstone of this name which had been brought there and broken up to manufacture. A rivulet running from the hills near Kaitangata is called Te Waihoaka because in it, according to a correspondent of mine, “were found large quantities of a hard stone (hoaka) much sought after by the Maori for grinding greenstone and other stones and fashioning them into ornaments, as well as for making tools and other implements, an art in which the Maori attained truly marvellous skill.”

It was natural, of course, that greenstone should be used as a medium of exchange, and two of these barters were mentioned to me. The first was that some valuable pieces of greenstone changed hands for the right to squat (noho) on certain lands in Otago at the time Rauparaha was raiding the people of North Canterbury. The other recorded that a fast canoe, named Kura-matakitaki, was made at Matainaka (near Waikouaiti) by Rimurapa and Horuwai some time before the whalers came. Pahi was anxious to secure it, and this he did by giving greenstone in exchange. He

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took it round south with him to Foveaux Strait. The whalers subsequently named a place (Pahi's, near Orepuki) after this chief.

Te Horo is the name of the place in Milford Sound where the takiwai (tangiwai) greenstone is got. It is a cliff-face behind Anita Bay. Piopiotahi, as I understand it, was originally the name of the Cleddau River, but is now applied to the whole sound. The Maori went round in canoes from Murihiku (Southland) to Piopiotahi to get takiwai up to about fifty or sixty years ago. It is said by the southern Maori that, although the greenstone at Milford was inferior, good pounamu could be got at Barn Bay, some distance farther north.

One old man said to me, “In 1841 Anglem, Gilroy, Stirling, and others started trading with Sydney in flax, and they also opened up greenstone-quarries about Milford. The flax was properly dressed (whitau). They had natives getting greenstone at Piopiotahi, and they took this greenstone to the North Island and exchanged it for plenty of flax, which they could sell at Sydney for £70 or £80 a ton. While getting the pounamu at Milford a boat, overloaded with the stone, capsized and sank between two rocks.”

Some years ago I had a chat with Mrs. Gilroy, who was a daughter of Captain Anglem, and was born on the west coast, near Puysegur Point, about the year 1832. She narrated: “After taking flax to Sydney my father came back and took one lot of greenstone to China. The stone was got at Piopiotahi, or Milford, and neither Stirling nor Gilroy had anything to do with it. My father was living at the Bluff then. Captain Waybone(?), of the schooner ‘Success,’ was washed overboard one stormy night off the Bluff, and the vessel came in and lay here five or six weeks. Johnny Jones, who was part-owner, got my father to take the schooner back to Sydney. My father came back in a brig, ‘The Royal Mail,’ and, picking up all the old natives here, he took them round to Milford to get greenstone. I was a girl at the time. The owner of ‘The Royal Mail’ came over in the ‘Anita’ and sailed round to Milford, and after they got a cargo of greenstone both vessels proceeded to China.” Here the narrative unfortunately ends. I was gathering Maori place-names—Mrs. Gilroy gave me a long and valuable list—and did not pursue the subject of greenstone further.

One thing that has always struck me is the great number of greenstone tools, weapons, and ornaments that has been found in Otago, and also the very wide extent over which the finds range. Either the population was much larger at one time, or the limited number of inhabitants worked unceasingly to produce such a quantity of manufactured stone. Then, again, the Maori must have been very happy-go-lucky or indifferent in their care of possessions so valuable to a people in the Stone Age. Although much may have been buried with the dead or hidden in the earth for safety and left there through the owners dying, yet a large quantity has been found lying on the ground as if carelessly thrown down by travelling parties and left unretrieved and forgotten. As already inferred, these greenstone articles (“curios,” the pakeha calls them) have been found in most parts of Otago. Among other localities where such have been found, I see I have a note that an axe-head was picked up on the top of the Old Man Range, near the Kawarau end. Many farmhouses throughout Otago possess greenstone curios picked up in the neighbourhood, and if the whole could be gathered in one place, together with museum collections and private collectors' hoards, it would, I am sure, make an array of astonishing extent. Several days ago, too, at a place near where I am writing in Gore, a big adze-head was dug up, and much more may still be found.

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The testimony of the southern Maori that greenstone was got a [ unclear: ] head of Lake Wakatipu raises the query, What is the correct for [ unclear: ] the name Wakatipu? Shortland gives the name as “Wakatipua” [ unclear: ] two maps in his book, The Southern Districts of New Zealand, and [ unclear: ] page 205 also spells the name with a final “a,” but at page 35 he refers to the lake as “Wakatipu.”

Its correct form is one of the conundrums in Maori nomenclature. The difficulty is threefold: Should there be an “h” in the name, or a final “a,” or both? I referred the matter to the best-informed of the southern Maori, and have nine opinions regarding it, but cannot says am much further ahead.

Two of the old men said the name was Wakatipu, and meant “growing” canoe”; but why it was growing they knew not, except it was a sort of magic canoe. Another also said the first part of the name was waka, not whaka. He had never heard the reason for the name, but considered it was a canoe to cross the lake. An old woman said she had heard no traditions to account for the name, but the old people she had known usually called the lake by the name of Whakatipu-wai-maori. An old man said, “Whakatipu means ‘to grow,’ ‘to nourish,’ and the reason the name was given was because the Waitaha and Kati-Mamoe tribes when beaten in war retired there to rear families.” But against this one of the best authorities on southern history says it is a Waitaha name given long before the Kati-Mamoe appeared in the south. The Waitaha, he says, were descended from Toi, Rauru, and Rakaihautu, and why they named the lake “Whakatipu” is not known, but, as far as he knew, it was not after any chief or ancestor. The late Tare-te-Maiharoa said he did not know who named Wakatipu, nor why. It was a Waitaha name, and its origin had been lost in antiquity. Another usually well-informed man said he had never heard the origin of the name, nor did he even know the correct form of the word. The last opinion I got was from a man who gave me numerous place-names of the lake vicinity, and he said the Waitaha bestowed the name Whakatipu. The word whaka (or, as the North-Islanders would say, whanga) meant “a bay,” and tipu meant “growing,” but he had never heard why the Waitaha applied the name.

In regard to information derived by Europeans from Maori sources, Mr. Henry P. Young, who got his information at Colac Bay, wrote in 1903, “Wakatipu should be Wakatipua, the waka or hollow of the tipua or demon from the well-known legend.” Mr. Henry E. Nickless, writing in 1898, said that Hoani Matewai Poko, a son of Te Waewae, told him the proper name of the lake was Whakatipu and not Whakatipua. Mr. H. M. Stowell (Hare Hongi), in 1898—the year the stamp was printed with “Wakitipu” on it—wrote that the name should be Whakatipu; and he was followed by Mr. S. Percy Smith, who wrote, “Mr. Stowell may be right about Whakatipu, although Tare Wetere assures me that it should be Whakatipua, and I am inclined to think that the name should be Wakatipua.” Halswell in his 1841 map spelt the name “Wakatopa.” James F. Healey, writing in 1898, said that the Waitaki Maori in 1856 gave him the name as Whakatipu, and said it was a mighty lake [ unclear: ] existed near a greenstone river. A white settler told me that the [ unclear: ] had told him the name was Waka-tipua because a phantom can [ unclear: ] to drift on the lake. In Mr. Cowan's notes was one—“Whaka [ unclear: ] was the name of a canoe in which the Maoris went to fetch the [ unclear: ]

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[ unclear: ] wai from across Lake Whakatipu.” Mr. Cowan says in his Maoris [ unclear: ] New Zealand the full name of the lake is Te-roto-whakatipu-whenua.

The late Mr. W. S. Young, of Otakeho, writing to me regarding his [ unclear: ] trips in 1857–59, said a very intelligent old Maori, Kawana by name, told them he used “to live at a large lake called Wakatapu, the only place where greenstone could be obtained. Opposite their settlement on the shore of the lake was a great cliff, which occasionally broke away, when the chief would launch his sacred canoe, Wakatapu—hence the name given to the lake—and, paddling across, obtain pieces of greenstone and distribute them among the tribe. Ultimately the northern Maori came after greenstone and destroyed the lake tribe… When or how the name first degenerated from Wakatapu to Wakatipu is more than I can tell. Had we lived in southern Otago I think the lake would have been called Wakatapu (sacred canoe).” Mr. Young saw the lake and a slip in a cliff from the top of the Shotover Mountains; but as he soon after removed to the North Island he never saw at close quarters the Roto Wakatapu and the Pari Pounamu (greenstone cliff) described by old Kawana.

In a letter to me Mr. S. Percy Smith says he is inclined to think the name should be Whaka-tipua, and that is also my conclusion. An old legend says the lake-bed was formed by a giant ogre or tipua, called Kopu-wai, being burnt there. Shortland. wrote wakapapa instead of whakapapa, so he may also have written “Wakatipua” for “Whakatipua.” The tradition of a canoe crossing the lake for greenstone will probably be true, but it has become grafted into or intermixed with the older story that the great hollow in which the lake lies was formed by the ashes of the giant. Hence we find the conflicting opinions already recorded. The matter cannot be regarded as settled yet, but it is hoped that the foregoing information may help towards a solution.

The question as to whether the name is rightly Wai-pounamu or Wahi-pounamu is an interesting one. The southern Maori was almost as bad as the cockney for deleting and adding the aspirate. Dozens of examples could be given, but one will suffice here. There is an island east of Stewart Island, and its name is Wahi-taua, but it is usually called Wai-taua. Even in Mr. Justice Chapman's paper there are two illustrations of this trait. One kind of greenstone is called auhunga on page 513, and on page 515 it is called hauhunga. On page 509 an ear-pendant is termed kapehu and also kapeu. One of my informants found a kapeu on Pigeon Island (Wawahi-waka), Lake Wakatipu, in the year 1864. It must be very old, as it was worn white. As far as I know, he has it still in his possession. To revert to Wai-pounamu and Wahi-pounamu, I think it is probable both forms were used—the former for the rivers of Westland, where pounamu was got in the water, and the latter for perhaps Piopiotahi and Te Koroka, where it was procured from cliffs or mountain-sides.

Mr. Cowan gives the kind of greenstone that was found at the head of Lake Wakatipu as koko-tangiwai, but I was told it was inaka (or inanga). I heard recently that a European resident in that locality had come across what he considered to be an old greenstone-quarry. If that be so, we should be able to ascertain something more than we know at present about this traditional pounamu hunting-ground.

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Art. XIII.—Nature-lore of the Southern Maori.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 9th December, 1919; received by Editor, 31st December, 1919; issued separately, 4th June, 1920.]

In collecting the traditions and place-names of the Maori of Otago and Southland I have gathered a great mass of information, some of which has recently been published elsewhere. There remains, however, a considerable quantity of material which has never been printed, and some of this relating to nature may be of interest. It must be understood that I am not trying to deal exhaustively with the various phases of this extensive subject, but simply to record what the southern Maori have occasionally said to me about it. The Maori gave me some nine hundred place-names hitherto unrecorded by the pakeha, and it was while giving these names that they mentioned the following facts. Where the terms “North” and “South” are used, reference is made to the districts north or south of Timaru, Canterbury.

The Kanakana, or Lamprey.

The general name for the lamprey is piharau in the North and kana-kana in the South. One of my informants said that there are at least four different kinds of kanakana, or, if counted as all one species, the Maori had names for them at four separate stages or at different sizes. These names are—(1) Te-ika-tukituki-wai; (2) te-ika-totoe-wai; (3) matua-iwi-papaho; (4) te ru. Some rivers might have all four kinds, and other rivers fewer. They went up certain rivers only, and they shunned others for no apparent reason; but evidently something in the water, either in taste or in plant or animal life, or in the situation of rocks, &c., attracted or repelled them. My informant added that the kanakana would not come up the Karoro Creek, but swarmed up the Molyneux River, whose mouth is about two miles distant. They proceed up the rivers until they find their passage barred by rocks, and to these rocks they cling with their sucker-like mouths and are easily caught. One of my informants combated the statement that the kanakana lived on whitebait, saying that its food was the kohuwai, a green mossy growth which adheres to the rocks.

The most famous of the spots where the Maori assembled every October and November to catch the lampreys was Te Au-nui (Mataura Falls). Only certain hapu (families) had the right to fish there, and each family had a strictly defined pa (fishing spot), the right to which had been handed down from their ancestors. The names of some of these pa were (1) Wai-kana, (2) O-te-hakihaki, (3) Rerepari, (4) Mataniho-o-Hukou, (5) Mupuke-a-Rahui (6) Otautari. The names of the others are forgotten.

The falls on the Pomahaka River named Opurere were also a celebrated kanakana fishery. An old man tells me that the people used to go there every October and November, and after catching all they could they would return to their homes to plant potatoes. There were six pa (fishing-allotments) at Opurere, and, beginning from the south side, the names were (1) Mataniho-o-Muka, (2) Tu-kutu-tahi, (3) Te-awa-inaka, (4) Patu-moana (this is a small island), (5) Rau-tawhiri, (6) Te Rerewa.

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Other places at which kanakana might be caught were Te Rere-o-Kaihiku (Kaihiku Falls), Hehetu a small fall where the Orawia runs into the Waiau, Waipapa-o-Karetai, on the Silverstream, and elsewhere.

It must not be thought that persons entitled to take the lampreys from a certain section of rock could proceed to do so at haphazard. It was a matter that had to be gone about with karakia (incantations) and due observance of time-honoured customs. Each of the falls was protected by a guardian taepo * (spectre), and if a person offended against tradition, woe betide him. The taepo of the Mataura Falls was a magic dog. It was explained to me as a rock which stuck out of the water about where the Mataura Freezing-works are, and, although it looked like a rock at ordinary times, to one who was guilty of desecration it would miraculously change, and appear as an ogre possessing a dog's head, paws, and body, but with a fish's tail. The luckless wight who saw it thus was doomed to disaster unless he could invoke powerful charms to ward off the evil.

The taepo of the Pomahaka Falls was also an uncanny thing to provoke. It frequented the tiny island known as Patu-moana, and took the shape of a giant eel. These spectres did not trouble those who proceeded to take the kanakana in the correct manner as prescribed by ancestral usage.

To supplement what the Maori told me about the kanakana, I may add that the late Mr. N. Chalmers, of Fiji, writing to me in 1910, said, “I reached Tuturau in September, 1853. This was in the kanakana season, and I was much interested in the way in which the Natives caught the lampreys. On the top of the falls there are—or were at that time—three large potholes about 6 ft. deep, and full of stones. These were cleared out and strong stakes put in each; then as the kanakana came crawling up and clinging to the rocky wall of the falls the Maori, leaning on the stakes, reached out their hands and, grasping the fish, put them in the korari eel-pots handy. It took them only about ten minutes to fill one pot, when another took its place. The superstition of the Maori is very marked, for Reko told me that if an enemy or any one threw a firestick into the falls, then the kanakana would desert the locality; so, needless to say, I was very careful to avoid hurting their feelings… When I was at Hokanui in 1858 I had a stockman called George, a Sussex man, who came to the house one afternoon with a face as white as a sheet and swearing he had seen an eel at least a mile long at the Longford (now Gore). I got on my horse and went with him, and when I saw the phenomenon I was not surprised at his statement; for I saw a column of kanakana more than a mile long, swimming in a round mass exactly like a large eel, so beautifully were they keeping a circular shape.” Mr. F. L. Mieville, who stayed at Tuturau in 1854, writes, “The natives were very good to us and supplied us with potatoes, also kanakanas much resembling leather with a strong flavour of train-oil—they were dried and very hard.”

The Maori Dog.

The question of who introduced the Maori dog to New Zealand has aroused discussion at various times. Maori tradition says that some of the canoes which came here from Hawaiki A.D. 1350 brought dogs; but some people consider that the inhabitants of New Zealand before that time had dogs. Thus in the story of Kopuwai (one of the oldest legends in the South Island annals—it must be much over a thousand years

[Footnote] * ? taipo. Williams says taepo is not used by the Maori.—Ed.

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old) we are told he had a pack of ten two-headed dogs. Be that as it may, we know that when the pakeha came to New Zealand they found Maori dogs extant. In Otago and Southland these dogs roamed the interior, living on the countless flocks of native birds that thronged everywhere. The animals made inroads into the runholders' flocks and were hunted down and exterminated. Some white men considered that these dogs were descendants of ones liberated by Captain Cook or of those that had got away from the whalers, but there is no doubt whatever that they were genuine Maori dogs. They had woolly hair, sharp-pointed noses, pointed ears, and never barked, the noise they made being a long, melancholy howl. According to European observers, some of these dogs were pure white, others black-and-white, and others fawn. The Maori called them kuri, and several places in Otago and on Stewart Island bear names reminiscent of these animals. Asked concerning these dogs, two of the old Maori said the kuri was usually of a black-and-white colour, and another old man said they were often reddish-tan. One said, “It had long hair, a bushy tail, a short, sharp nose, and a small head. They were very wary, but could be caught by tying up a bitch (uha) and leaving it, when the wild ones would come round it. These dogs were in New Zealand long before Captain Cook came, as our traditions show; but when they began to run wild I cannot say.”

Another said, “The kuri was the Maori dog. The reason why one lot of Maori came to New Zealand was because some of them who were not high-class people stole a dog and ate it. Through this they were forced to leave Hawaiki. Before the pakeha came our people used to sometimes castrate (whakapoka) these dogs and then fatten and eat them. They had long hair, and their skins made fine mats called topuni, and rugs. When I was a boy I remember a fine kuri belonging to a native called Koati in Westland. It had a big body and short legs A man named McDonald bought it as a curio for £2; but he tied it up and it jumped the fence and was strangled.”

Another said, “I never heard how the kuri came to New Zealand. The skins were cut into strips and made into rugs. I once saw a kakahu (garment) made of them—it was a taniko cloak. Its colour was white and black, and some of the hair had been stained red with dye from a tree like the miro but whose name I forget.”

A shepherd speaking of wild dogs on Knapdale Run in 1858 said, “A family of red ones seemed to frequent the lower flat, while those on the upper flat were yellow.”

The question of the kuri, or Maori dog, still requires much investigation.

Lizards And Tuatara.

Having read that the Maori had a superstitious awe of lizards, I asked about them, but got little satisfaction. One old man said, “I know three kinds of lizards. The one which lives in the cracks in rocks is karara-papani, the greenish one is called kakariki, and the common one is karara-toro-pakihi. I know nothing of the tuatara.” Another said, “The kind of lizard known as mokakariki was perhaps so called because its colour was like the plumage of a parrakeet. The general name was karara. I have never seen or heard of tuatara down here, but I have seen a lizard about 2 ft. long. It was on top of one of the Hokanui Hills and, because I had had a bad dream the night before, I killed the karara with a big stone, lit a fire, and burnt it. It was the biggest lizard I ever saw. A wise old

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man told me afterwards that it was a good job I had killed and burnt the lizard and so stopped any evil coming to me because of my dream. Some of the old Maori used to eat lizards. You could tame them for pets so that they would come when their names were called and they would lie and sleep alongside you. One such pet, Te Horo-mokai by name, was kept at Motu-kai-puhuka (village near Kaitangata), but it was lost, and although it was seen later eating tutu it was never caught again.” Another said, “Tuatara were down on Auckland Island, and Mrs. Cameron, of Riverton, got two from there. They had fins on their heads and backs. I reckon the Maori had been down there before the Europeans came, and had a look round but thought it no good and never settled there.” My last informant on this subject stated that legend averred that at Mason's Bay, Stewart Island, some people saw tuatara eggs and broke them; the tuatara came after them and they killed it. The names of two small islets in Lake Wanaka commemorate lizards—viz., Taki-karara and Te Pae-karara. “Only the big kind of lizard was called karara” (see Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 7, p. 295).

The Maori Rat.

Some people have expressed abhorrence of the idea of eating rats, but my Maori friends were careful to explain that the Maori rat was an altogether different creature from the filth-eating European rat. The Maori rat was a fruit-eater and a cleanly animal. One old Maori told me that once a party of white whalers was wrecked in the West Coast Sounds and walked overland. They were glad to eat the Maori rats, which were then feeding on the fruit of the kowhai, and were big and fat. “Long Harry,” one of the party, told my informant that the rats were “very good.” My informant added that some of these rats had hair like the opossum, and that the general name for the rats was kiore, but one kind was called pouhawaiki. Another old man said the Maori rat was not found on Stewart Island, although it was plentiful on the mainland. It was a fruit-eater, and was snared. An old song mentioned that Tawera, near Oxford, in Canterbury, was the best place to go if one wanted a feast of kiore (rats). A well-informed kaumatua (elder) said that the Maori rat was called kiore-tawai, and was once very plentiful. It was grey, but not like the colour of our present rodents. It would not eat flesh, but only fruit and berries. Pouhawaiki, he said, was the name of the introduced, or European, rat.

Near the mouth of the Molyneux is a bank called Te Rua-koi, which I was told meant “a hole made by the rats.” When they were fat the Maori would go and dig them out. My informant was certain that was the correct name of the locality, and that the getting of the rats out of their lairs was why it was so named. Another Maori, well versed in nature-lore, said he had never seen the Maori rat (kiore maori he called it), although a very old white settler had told him of seeing it many years ago in that district. According to what he had heard, this rat liked to live in mossy places in swampy ground. It made holes in the moss, and the nest was known as rua kiore. That this creature existed before the pakeha came he knew from tradition; also the ancient name of a creek near, Otaraia was Tapiri-kiore, which meant “two rats walking together.” In fact, there were two creeks with this name. Leaving Poupoutunoa (Clinton) and going through the Kuriwao Gorge you come to Tapiri-kiore-tuatahi (tuatahi = first), and then to Tapiri-kiore-rahi (rahi= big). Then you cross Te Kauaka-o-Waipahi (the ford of the Waipahi), and go on to Te Au-nui (Mataura Falls).

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The pioneer runholders on the Waimea Plain found “futtahs” (whata = storehouse) left by former Maori inhabitants. These whata were erected on the top of two stout, high posts, each of which had a nick round it about 18 in. from the ground to prevent the rats from getting up to the provisions, so evidently the Maori rat had some sort of predilection for Maori food, notwithstanding it was reputedly frugivorous.

Settlers of the late “fifties” speak of the plague of rats that overran Otago, but I presume these were European rats. On the subject of the kiore, or Maori rat, like that of the kuri, or Maori dog, we could do with much more information.

The Mutton-birds.

The titi (mutton-bird) is a favourite item of food with Maori and pakeha alike. The edible qualities of this bird were, I was told, unknown to the Waitaha and Kati-Mamoe Tribes. It was the. first two Kai-Tahu visitors to Ruapuke who discovered that the pi-titi (young mutton-birds) were good eating. Ruapuke was then uninhabited, and these two chiefs, Potoma and Rerewhakaupoko (two of the titi islands are named after them), visited it, and on the small adjacent island of Papatea saw rua (holes) and inserted their hands and pulled out the plump young titi. It is said that they preserved the mutton-birds and some human flesh in alternate layers in a poha (bag) made of rimu (kelp), and that those to whom it was given as a kaihaukai (gift of food) relished it exceedingly. This was, as far as can be ascertained, about two hundred years ago, and since then he poha-titi (a kelp bag) has always been the receptacle to hold these birds, fat being poured over the contents and acting as an efficient preservative.

A very old Maori said to me, “March is the season for mutton-birds, and I went after them many years ago although I have never been inland after weka. Titi was the general name for mutton-birds. but a small kind was called koruri, and there were other kinds whose names I cannot recall.”

Another said, “There are three principal kinds of mutton-birds. The chief one is a black bird, and is simply called titi; another kind is black-and-white, and is called titi-wainui; and another kind is titi-ariki. This is a grey bird, and is very scarce.”

Still another remarked, “I know no legends about the titi and its catching, killing, or preserving. A small kind is called korure, and the kind known as wainui is rather rare.” This informant went on to say that some of the larger titi islands were divided into manu, or bird-preserves, for different families. For instance, on Herekopare Island there were five manu—viz., Te Tihi, Kuri, Te Upoko-o-Tamairaki, Hotunui, and Te Ahi-o-Pere.

There was evidently some etiquette observed about taking the titi, as an old and respected-Maori of the South received his name from the following circumstance. It was the rule that one party arriving on an island before the other parties entitled to do so should wait until the arrival of all before starting operations. In” this case the first party caught some birds at once and were roasting them when another party came. High words led to blows, and my informant's mother joined in the melee with a kohiku (a skewer or stick used to roast birds before a fire), and in consequence when he was born a few months later he was called-Kohiku Titi.

I was told that the general name for the islands round Stewart Island was Mai-ko-kai, meaning that they were places to come to for food. (Perhaps this name should be Mahika-kai.)

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Eels (Tuna).

An old Maori said to me that there were three kinds of eels that he knew. The horepara is a light green, with white belly and white underjaw, and is good for eating. The arokehe is a) black eel, with big head, strong jaw, thick skin, and does not taste very good. Owing to the thickness of its skin another name for it is kirirua (” two skins” or “double skin”). The tunapou is still bigger in the head than the arokehe and tapers to a very small tail. It has the same kind of skin as the kirirua, and is not eaten by the Maori but thrown away when caught.

All or nearly all fish spawn in salt water, may informant thought, but he was not so sure of eels. Lots of eels are cast up on the bars at the mouths of rivers, and the old Maori would say these were aged breeding-eels, which were done. It was only breeding-eels which came down to the sea and then went back up the river. When they came down to spawn you would not see them unless they were cast up on the beach. This was about June. You could catch them in the rivers from August to May, but not many in the latter month, as it was too cold for them. In the town of Wyndham there is a lagoon called Pipi-a-Manawa, and it is fed by a spring called Matatiki, and he remembered old Tangatahuruhuru telling him this spring was a winter retreat of the tuna (eels). You could see the hole in the ground from which the spring came, and it was almost blocked with eels in winter, the reason being that spring water is warmer than river water. In the Otu Creek just before it enters the Mataura River there is a hole which is another winter resort of the eels. They used to congregate thickly in that spot, and if you threw in a stone they would swarm out in great agitation. There was a season for catching everything, continued the old man, but eels could be caught the whole year round in some places, although from a food view the best time to catch them was from Christmas-time to February, as the flies were not so bad then, and the eels could be dried (tauraki). Hang them up for three weeks, then put in aumu (earth-oven), cook, and put into a poha (kelp bag), which can be bound with totara bark and flax, and there you have your delicious eel-flesh preserved for an indefinite period.

Eels from the rivers, continued my informant, are not so good as those from the lakes, as the flesh is not so firm. The eels in the lagoons were all right if one just wanted a few eels for daily use, but there were not enough eels in the lagoons, as a rule, to make it worth while to fish for them for preserving purposes. The lakes known to the Maori as Roto-nui-o-Whatu and Kaitiria—but now called by the white settlers Lake Tuakitoto and Lake Kaitangata—were great eeling-places, but to be truly successful one had to be careful to say the right karakia (invocations) before starting operations. The eels were usually caught in eel-pots (rohe-wainui), the basket or cage part of which was called hinaki. A smaller kind of eel-pot, called hinaki-kanakana, was used for catching kanakana (lampreys); and, strange to say, eels will not go into this, and, vice versa, kanakana will not go into the ordinary eel-pots. There was one kind of net to catch one size of eel, as a rule, but there was another mesh which could be used to catch all sizes. Eel-pots were sometimes made of flax in the South, as it took a lot of work and manipulation to make them of the toraro vine.

All the foregoing information was from one man, but I have still three further notes. One man said, “At Manawapore (Upper Mavora Lake) there is a stone eel-trap. Old Rawiri told us, if we went there, to block

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the end, to lift the stone and take out the eels, then go up forward and lift the next stone door and take out more eels. It is a very old trap, and is partly natural and partly made.”

Mr: James Cowan collected the following note from southern sources: “At Little Mavora (Hikuraki) there is an artificial stone hinaki with a door for eels to get in. It was built by the old Ngati-Mamoe” people—they put a stone cover on. The two notes evidently refer to the same “stone eel-pot,” but its discovery has never been reported by white men.

Another old man speaking about eeling said, “A fine place to get eels is at Miki-oe, near Dr. Menzies' old run, near the Mokoruta River, now miscalled Mokoreta. It is a spring and creek where the eels go in the winter-time because the water is warm.”

A large number of place-names in Otago and Southland perpetuate the ancient Maori love for the toothsome tuna. There are a number of places called Kaituna and Waituna (eel-stream), one of the latter being in the West Coast Sounds region. A lagoon near Gore is called after a man, Tunarere; and Taieri Lake, in central Otago, was named after a chief, Tuna-heketaka. Of nomenclature which does not bear its significance on its face two names occur to me. A tributary of the Waiau is Kaipurua Creek, and I was informed the name meant a pair of eels eating at one bait or “two eels on one bob.” Murikauhaka was an ancient village at the old mouth of the Mata-au (Molyneux), and I was told the name means—muri, “the end”; kauhaka, a hole in a bank where an eel has its quarters.”

The figurative name for the Canterbury seaboard is Ka Poupou a Te Rakihouia, because that chief, over a thousand years ago, erected posts and built pa-tuna (eel-weirs) at the mouths of the rivers. These weirs were continued until comparatively recently, but I have no description of them as yet.

Mr. F. L. Mieville, writing of his experiences with the Maori in Otago in 1853 and 1854, says, “The Maoris have a very good way of cooking an eel. They clean it, but do not skin it. Like them, I now think it is a great mistake to skin an eel. Next they impale it with a stick pointed at both ends, running it through from the tail to the head. The stick is then stuck slantingly into the ground close to a good fire, and when one side is cooked the other is turned. The eel is then served up—i.e., the stick is placed upright in the earth amidst seven or eight Maoris, and each one pulls off a bit with his fingers.”

The Small Fry.

The season for whitebait (paraki) was October and November, said an old Maori wise in these matters. The patete was another kind of whitebait, and was good, to eat after it leaves the sea, but as it proceeds up the rivers inland it picks up stones and gets rubbish inside and is then no good for food. Waharoa (long mouth) was a big kind of whitebait. You could catch it with a hook baited with a worm. It had bones and its flesh was coarse. Mata was the very small whitebait, and it was caught with Maori nets (kaka) which were sometimes a chain long. Inaka is the name of the little minnows—they are black, with white bellies. My informant reckoned they came down to the sea to spawn, as Wai-whakarara, near the mouth of the Molyneux, was a great place to catch them. If not caught before spawning they were no good, and would go up the river again in long columns, leaving the water white with spawn at the mouth of

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the river. The name of the crabs in inland creeks is papaka, and of the crayfish koura. “The native trout, known to the settlers as cockabully, is called kokopu, and the mountain-trout is called kokopara,” said my informant, adding, “both these fish are various-coloured, but they are of different shapes.”

Another of the old men said, “The correct name of the cockabullies is kokopara. They are still to be found in the creeks at Stewart Island.” In the early days of Otago settlement the name of this fish was spelt “kokobula,” or sometimes “cockabulla.” I have a note, “Mata-inaka was a lagoon near Waikouaiti where the Maori got very small whitebait; hence its name.” A fish called puaihakarua, which was caught in some streams, I have no particulars of, nor of a small fish called ikamaru.


An old Maori said to me, “Our name for the barracouta is maka, and the proper name of the place the white men call Titri is Kaimaka (to eat barracouta). We caught these fish with a rod (matere), using a jigger (pa) worked with string (tau). When the flesh of the maka was preserved by drying it was called moe. The jigger was made of wood, and whenever possible of towai wood. One of the best places in Otago to get this kind of wood was at a bush called Oreheke, north-west of the Tapuaenuku Range—now called Tapanui—and near the head of the Pomahaka River. This bush was full of towai timber. On days when you cannot see a barracouta, and you are getting no bites, use a towai jigger and you will get plenty of fish. The reason for this is because a particular bird once settled on this tree; but I do not know which bird it was, nor the story about it.”

Another old Maori, in speaking of sea-fish, said, “We called the blue cod, rawaru; rock-cod moeanu; red cod, hoka; ling, rari; soles, whose jaws are more bent than flounders, horihori; butterfish, takakaha; white-fish, tarakihi. The name of the falls in the Owaka River near the township is Taheke-aua (Mullet Falls). The reason of the name is that the mullet (aua) ran up the river from the sea until stopped by the falls, and that was a great place for catching them.” A stream near Taieri Lake was Te Awa-kai-aua (eat mullet), but I do not know why it was so named.

I have a note, “At Moeraki the fish principally caught are hapuku (groper), rawaru (blue cod), and mangaa (North Island name of barracouta),” but I am sorry I omitted to get details of ancient fishing methods or of the huge flax nets of pre-European days.

Seals and Sea-lions.

In regard to the larger denizens of the sea, the southern Maori name for seals generally was pakake; the fur-seal was kekeno; the porpoise, terehu; the sea-leopard, rapoka; and the sea-lion, whakahau. A number of place-names in the South reveals the Maori interest in these mammals, such as Whakawai-pakake (to entice seals), Tangi-pakake (when the mother seals were killed the young ones would tangi and shed tears), Ara-kaki (the path of a female seal), &c. One old man said, “The two hind flippers of a seal are called ka-kautaua, and two rocks near Ruapuke are called this name because of their shape.” Another said, “The bight below Lord's River, Stewart Island, is called Pupuri-kautaua (Hold on to the flipper) because here a chief named Kahu surprised a whakahau (sea-lion) and caught hold of its flipper and held on till his men could kill it. He

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was a big, powerful man, but it must have been a young whakahau or he could not have held it.” Another narrates that when a boy he copied some white boys and made bow and arrows, and he got into sad trouble for shooting an arrow into a poha of kekeno flesh suspended to the roof. The poha was opened, and he says the seal-flesh made good eating, although fat. The Maori method of killing the seals, &c., is said to have been by clubbing, but more particulars would be welcome.

Whales in the South were called kewa, and the traditions frequently mention them, chiefly as miracle-workers; but the Maori would occasionally find stranded whales, when they would enjoy a course of whale-flesh.


So much has been written about the sparing and catching of birds by the Maori that the collector will not say much on the subject except to add a remark or two made by, the old people.

The southern Maori trained their kuri to catch birds such as weka, kakapo, and tokoeka. The last-named bird I was told had big “paws” (toes) and was able to kick the dogs, so there was a certain knack in catching them. In catching woodhens (weka), the art, as I understand it, was for the huntsman to entice the woodhen near enough for the dog to seize without letting the bird whakakeokeo or alarm the rest. Keokeo is the short sharp cry of the weka when alarmed, and to prevent it the hunter would turutu, or imitate the cry of the bird, and so coax it quite close, when the dog would spring at it; but not many of the present Maori have been weka-catching. Weka were also captured with a noose.

Wild ducks were snared in the creeks with a flax net or snare, called the kaha. I was also told that a Maori who was a fast swimmer could catch moulting ducks, which in common with unfledged young are called maunu. An old and respected white settler tells me that in 1859 he was invited by the Maori at Henley to take part in a “duck drive” on Lake Waihola. They started out at daybreak in canoes and dug-outs, and rounded up great numbers of young and moulting paradise ducks unable to fly. They ran these maunu into a corner and slew them with waddies. They returned in triumph to the “kaik” with six or seven hundred birds, cleaned them, and hung them up in rows, to be subsequently stored in the whata (food-storehouses). My informant added that one of the best feeds he ever had was an eel taken out of the whata one day he chanced to call.

Ducks, said one of my informants, were caught in long nets, into which they swam, and the more they struggled to withdraw their heads the tighter the mesh became on their necks. He had never heard of the Maori swimming under the birds and pulling them down by the legs, as was done in some parts of the world. There was no need to do so, as they were so plentiful, and they were very tame and would come close to you. There were no guns to scare and make them afraid and wild, and all the killing of them done by the Maori was done quietly and orderly.

Another said that the place-name Pomahaka should be Pou-mahaka, meaning posts to which the snares for catching ducks were attached.

The season to catch weka, said one old man; was from April to July, when they were fattest; after July the birds became thin. Sometimes the Maori would go out at night and blow (or whakataki) on flax held between the lips. If two weka had been answering each other this call would bring them. Two birds calling each other were called puhuka, or

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weka-puhuka. The cal of the male bird was slow—tore, tore—but when the call was quick and agitated—tore, tore—that was the female bird. The former was called toa (a toa-tautahi was a fat male weka) and the female bird was called uwha

I have a further note to the effect that there is a kind of woodhen on the islands round Stewart Island known as miuweka.

One of my aged friends said he could go into the bush and get kaka by the drinking-trough method, or the rush-hut and decoy-bird method, or by the aid of ordinary manuka spears. He could get tui, pigeons, parra-keets, &c., in the same manner; there was no fuss, and no one need starve if he knew the bush-lore. I neglected to get fuller details from him, but hope to do so later on.

Experiences of Weka-hunters.

Winter being the best season to catch the weka, the parties who went inland then sometimes had rough experiences. I was told of one tragedy of the long-ago through this cause. A man named Weka, his wife Nuku, and their two children set out from Tuturau up-country on a weka-hunting expedition. They camped on the hill on which East Gore is now built, and here the woman busied herself gathering taramea (spear-grass) from which to extract scent (kakara). Resuming their journey, they went to Nokomai, but much to their disappointment theweka were scarce, so, under the shadow of the mountain called Karu-a-hine, Weka made a pahuri (shelter) for his wife and family while he went on to Kimiakau (Arrow River) and Kamuriwai. (My informant said, “Kamuri-whenua is the pakihi (plain) from Oamaru to the Waitaki but not across that river, while Kamuri-wai is the pakihi near Foxe's (Arrowtown) on the Arrow.”) This was a noted weka ground, and he had fair success and started to return, but was delayed several days by a violent snowstorm. He crossed the Kawarau on a moki and struggled through the deep snow to Nokomai. There was no trace of his wife and children, but when the snow melted a bit he found their dead bodies. With some difficulty he buried them and sadly came down-country. Camping on the hill between the Mataura and Waikakahi (Waikaka) Rivers, memories of his wife gathering the taramea came over him and he composed a song, which is still preserved. From this circumstance the hill is called Onuku in memory of her. Weka continued his journey to Tuturau, where, it is said, he died of grief shortly after.

Another aged Maori told me of a party, among whom was Rakitapu, his informant, who went weka-hunting, their objective being Okopiri, a wooded gully north of Heriot, I was told. There were no runholders there then. The party were on the Otuparaoa Mountains one fine moonlit night, when all of a sudden snow came on. It proved to be an exceptionally heavy fall, and the weka-hunters had a rough time. That snowfall is now known traditionally as Kaipahau, a name which implies that the party, or such of them as sported whiskers, ate the snow off their beards. It was in July, the month that the weka are fattest, that this great snowstorm occurred.

A noted place for getting weka was Mikioe, up the Otamatea (now called Otamita, or Otamete) in the Hokanui Hills. Here there was a clump of mikimiki shrub, of the berries of which the weka are fond. I was told that miki meant the shrub and that oe denoted the shedding of its berries or leaves. My informant once saw some weka so eager to get the berries that they had clambered on to a matted mass of mikimiki and were perhaps 2 ft. off the ground. The sight interested and amused him.

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It is said the Maori named the woodhen from its cry, “we-ka, we-ka”; but a European who is well acquainted with the birds renders this cry as “kea-week, ka-week.” This is just another illustration of the difference between Maori and pakeha ideas in regard to onomatopoeia.

The Weather.

The foregoing accounts of the rough weather sometimes experienced by the Maori in winter afford an appropriate opportunity of giving some stray remarks made to me by the old men. One said, “Our word for spring is kana; summer, raumati; autumn, kahuru, a word meaning ‘ten,’ or ‘plenty’; and winter, makariri, which means cold. The old people did not like the winter. If snowflakes came they would shiver and say ‘Kai te oka te huka’ (The snow is falling). We used the word huka for snow generally, huka-wai for snow and rain or sleet, huka-taratara for hail, huka-nehunehu for fine dry snow, huka-kapu for flakes of snow, kopaka for ice, ua or awha for rain, and the name for frost I cannot recollect.”

Another said, “The mountains north of Gore are called Te Rau, and when the natives of Murihiku heard thunder from the north or north-west they said that was Te Rau praying for snow, and if the thunder was from the south-west they said that was Hautere (Solander Island) praying for snow.” My informant added that he had heard the green tui or koparapara chattering that morning, and that this was not a good weather sign. The koparapara is the bell-bird (korimako, or makomako, in the North). The Maori also foretell the seasons by observing trees and plants, but I have no particulars of this.

Maori traditions tell of great floods in the Aparima, Mataura, and Clutha Rivers, and debris was found by early white settlers at a height which has never been approached since. A vast flood in the Clutha is known as Wai-mau-pakura (” Water which carried the swamp-hen “—so called because it swept many nesting-birds out to sea), and at the recent Rivers Commission the date was surmised to be 1800. The question arises, Was the climate wetter before European settlement ?


My Maori friends did not have very much to say about the avifauna. One remarked, “In days gone by the bush swarmed with native birds; now we see scarcely any. We had the kakaruai (robin), miromiro (tomtit), titakataka (fantail), tatariki (canary), a very small bird without a tail called titiripounamu (rifleman), kakariki (parrakeet). We had a black bird with red wattles, koka (native crow), and a bird with a yellow-mark over its back, tieke (saddleback). Both these birds had beautiful notes— they could whistle like a man. Then we had two birds which came only in the summer, the pipiwharauroa (shining cuckoo) and the koekoea (long-tailed cuckoo).”

Another said, “Our name for the tui was koko. Away behind Seacliff Asylum there is a bush called Potae-rua, and a creek there is Waikoko (Tui Stream). Our trees fruit about six weeks later than the North Island, and the tui are fat in April and May. A man could hit them with stones [sic] and fill his basket; hence the name of that place. A ridge between Waikaro and Te Akaroa, near Measly Beach, is Paekoko, which means ‘the tui's resting-place.’”

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One of my old Maori friends went to the Wakatipu diggings in 1862. He says, “When in Moonlight Gully my dog caught some big moreporks in the rocks there, and we called the place Kohaka-ruru (nest of more-porks). These birds were not the small bush-owls known as ruru, but the bigger open-country ones known as ruru-whenua. They were big and fat, and when cooked the whole party ate them, and they tasted so good that even the white men smacked their lips over them.” I have never heard of the Maori eating owls except this instance, it being generally supposed they regarded the bird with a good deal of awe. A place-near Colac Bay is Ruru-koukou (“the cry of the morepork”—ruru being the bird and koukou its call).

In securing Maori nomenclature I ascertained that many place-names in the South are reminiscent of birds. The native lark is pioioi, and the name of Dunback Hill is Te Awapioioi; the native quail was called koreke, and a range of hills between Milton and the sea is Whatu-koreke; the kingfisher is kotare, and a hill near Nuggets Point is Taumata-kotare; the teal duck is patake, and a creek near Invercargill is Te Awapatake; the seagull is karoro, and an island in the Mataura River above Gore is Pokai-karoro; the parrakeet is kakariki, and a place near Charlton was known as Pokai-kakariki, while a beach near Fortrose is Kakariki-taunoa; and so on.

One of the aged men said to me, “There used to be a small bird at Roto-nui-a-Whatu (now called by the white people Lake Tuakitoto). It was about the size of a redbill (torea), and had a white breast and a black back. We called it pouakakai, but its European name I do not know.”

The common name of the swamp-turkey in the South was pakura, and a swamp near Balfour was called Kai-pakura (to eat swamp-hens). The bird was also called pukaki because of a habit it has of stretching up its neck when alarmed and so bulging its throat. The North Island name of this bird is pukeko, and how often has one heard it said, “Look at those awful Southerners massacring the beautiful Maori language ! Fancy them corrupting the word pukeko into pukaki !” This is not so; it is only one of the numerous instances where northern and southern names differ.

The native pigeon is a celebrated bird in southern estimation. My Maori friends laid great stress on its connection with the story of Maui. It is commonly called kereru, but is also known as kukupa. When Maui was a boy he went down into the underworld to find his father, and he painted his mouth and legs red and put on a white maro, or kilt, and transformed himself into a pigeon. One of my informants said, “The white on the breast of the kereru is the napkin, or maro, Maui was wrapped in as a babe.” Maui in the shape of a pigeon flew on to the handle of the ko (spade) of his father, who spoke to the bird; but all it could do was to nod its head and answer, “Ku, ku.” Any one familiar with the bird knows the way it wags and nods its head—this is in memory of Maui— and all it can say is what Maui answered his father, “Ku, ku.

Speaking of Maui reminds me that legend says it was the mirth of the titakataka (fantail) which caused his death. One of the old men said the word titakataka meant “flitting about,” and the bird was so named because of its restless disposition. The correct name of Akatore, in Otago, is Aka-torea, and it means “the harbour of the redbills (or, oystercatchers).” The North Island form of the name would be Whanga-torea. The southern Maori used the ordinary manuka to make bird-spears, and I have a note that the clump of manuka called Pokai-kakariki, near Charlton, was celebrated in this connection.

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The Moa.

As a rule, my informants frankly admitted they knew nothing about the moa. One man, however, said the last moa was killed on the Waimea Plains about five generations ago, and gave some very plausible details. There is just a possibility that one of the smaller kinds of moa may have survived long after the big birds became extinct, or that a very large kiwi was killed, but I do not place absolute reliance on the tradition.

One man said, “Just a few chains below the Mataura Falls is Te-kohaka-a-moa (the nest of the moa). It is a round depression on a flat rock, and the old people thought it resembled a moa's nest. They also found moa bones about it. Near Clinton is the hill Te-kohaka-a-pouakai (the nest of the pouakai). The pouakai was one of the kinds of moa that lived in this land. A small sea-bird is now called pouakakai: but do not mix the name. The pouakai has not been seen for many generations; the pouakakai is quite common yet.” From this it appears that the southern Maori recognized that there were different species of Dinornis.

The late Tare-te-Maiharoa, than whom there was no greater authority in recent years, was positive the moa was extinct when the Maori came, a.d. 1350. They were killed out in the South Island by the Waitaha, who called the birds pouakai. The name moa was given by the latest comers who saw the bones lying about. “The Moriori of the Chatham Islands,” said Tare, “were related to the Kati-Mamoe, but left New Zealand very long ago.”

This accounts for the poua bird of Moriori traditions. It is simply the moa of New Zealand, which was probably on the point of extinction or already extinct when that people left this country. The last Maori note I have on the moa runs, “I have heard a song which says the moa was killed out by karakia (tau-whaka-moe-tia) because it was a dangerous bird, but how long ago I cannot say.”


I understand that the question has recently been raised whether the flea was brought into New Zealand by European ships. I did not know of this inquiry in time to ask my Maori friends what they knew of the matter, but may say that on Ruapuke Island there is a place known as Te Awatuiau (Flea Channel). Shortland in 1843 said tuiau was the southern name for the flea, the northern name being puruhi. One old man noticed a statement that the Maori name of the mosquito was waeroa, and said to me, “Its name in the North might be waeroa, but in the South it was always known as keroa.” Noticing some insects as I was conversing with an old Maori, he supplied me with the following names: “Our name for the bluebottle-fly was rako, and for its eggs and maggots iro. Spiders were pukau-werewere, and grasshoppers tukarakau. The daddy-long-legs' name was te tatau-o-te-whare-o-Maui (the door of the house of Maui), but I do not know how it got this name. A green kind of butterfly, a sort of cricket, was called kikiwaru, while the black and spotted butterflies are mokarakara. [He pronounced this mokalakala.] Then we used to have pekapeka (bats) in plenty, but I have not seen any of them for a long time.” The sandfly was called namu, and there is a place near Waiau mouth called Kai-namu(eat sandflies) because these pests were so numerous as to get into the mouth with the food that was being eaten. I have a further note that in the South the name of the ant was upokorua.

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One of my informants said, “One of the raids made by the southern Maori northward is called Kai-whareatua. It is not the name of a fight but of a war expedition, and Tare Wetere te Kahu was in it. The Southerners had gone up to fight the North-Islanders and were returning, when they ran ashore, and were wrecked at the mouth of the Rakitata River. In the capsize all the food was lost, and the party found mushrooms and ate them. Hence the origin of the name Kai-whareatua (eat mushrooms). The word whareatua means a ‘devil house’ and that is the old Maori name of the mushroom.” Another old man remarked, “Tare Wetere was in the Taua-iti raid on Te Rauparaha, but I do not think he was at the Kai-whareatua raid, as, according to my information, it was before his time.” This opens up the interesting question, Were mushrooms indigenous or introduced ? I consulted a lot of New Zealand works without result, and I asked old settlers. One says that probably mushrooms were native, as they were to be found in the early days among the tussocks in the backblocks, but others consider that they will not grow without horse-manure. This belief Chambers's Encyclopaedia classes as unreliable, and says that mushrooms were found growing over nearly all the world a very fine edible variety being native to Victoria, Australia. If this be so, why not in New Zealand ? It is said that although the North Island Maori have plenty of names for fungi growing on trees they have none for field fungi—at least, so I understand. I therefore interrogated my aged Maori friends in the South, with the following results:—

“Yes, there were mushrooms, but I forget their names.”

“The name of the mushroom was whareatua, but I cannot say if they were here before the pakeha came.”

“Mushrooms were not here all the time. You could see them only in their season. Their Maori name was whareatua.

“There were three kinds of mushrooms. One was very small and thin in the bush and was called harore, and the others were called whareatua and were all sizes up to almost as big as a hat. One of these kinds was good to eat. Another thing like mushrooms was called weho, and was also good to eat. They all belonged to the ground. The Waitaha people brought fern-trees and fern-roots to eat, but no one brought the mushrooms. Another thing to eat came out of the ground after thunderstorms. It was called poketara. You would come out in the morning and see it. It was a round-like ball, and sometimes almost as big as a small football. It was wonderful how it grew so quickly. It had to be eaten at once—after a day it was no good. It could be cooked on the fire and tasted like a mushroom.”

“The whareatua was a mushroom on a long stalk and with a deep body. I am not sure if it was here before the white people. The poketara was a big, round thing, a sort of mushroom, but it had no opening; it was all covered. It lasted only a short time, and then it would go into dust. I do not know the history of the raid known as Kai-whareatua.”

Whareatua was the name of the mushroom. I do not know who brought them to New Zealand, but they were all over the country. They were like an umbrella in shape, but in late years I have seen what is a new sort to me, with thick stems and bunched tops, and for which I know no name. It is said the poketara comes down in thunderstorms. It has no opening at all, and is white and round. When it becomes old the stuff inside turns into a powder and blows away. It sometimes grows as big

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as your two fists together, but some remain quite small. There was also a small, round thing about the size of your thumb, white or somewhat darker. An old fellow said it was good to eat, but I cannot think of its name. I once tried it. I placed it in a whena (roll) of bush flax and cooked it in an umu (oven). It had no taste, and was soft like a jujube.”

This represents the information I gleaned about fungi. The/poketara is possibly our “puffball,” but that, and other queries, is now presented for discussion.

Fern-trees and Fern-root.

Mention of the southern Maori eating mushrooms leads me on to the question of how they wrested an existence from Nature, whose moods are sterner down here than in the more enervating North. They say the kumara did not flourish farther south than Banks Peninsula, but a northern opinion that they must have subsisted mainly on fern-root and fish did not meet with the approval of one old Maori, who told me that by the system of kaihaukai they could exchange titi (mutton-birds) and other things for kumara from Canterbury, and even get taro and hue from the North Island. In regard to the natural produets of Otago he said, “We had different kinds of fern-trees. The mamaku was not in this district, although it was over on Stewart Island; but we had the poka, wheki, and katote. The leaves of the poka are white underneath, the katote leaves are green on both sides and softer, while the leaves of the wheki are very rough and its stem very black. The iho (heart) of the katote is good to eat, but that of the others is bitter. I remember that three of us had a good feed of the heart of a katote at Opiriao (Sandy Bay, near Catlin's). Perhaps katote heart might make good jam—it had a sweet taste.

“Our name for fern-root was aruhe, and the leaves of the fern were called rau-aruhe. I remember once, at the south end of the Koau on Inch-Clutha, at a place called Pekeihupuku—the ihupuku was a big kind of seal and peke means its shoulder—eating fern-root. It was during the big flood of 1868, and we went back to the reserve and got fern-root and beat it on a big stone with a piece of iron. In the old days it was beaten with sticks and wooden clubs. When it was mashed we picked out the fibres and ate the rest, and it tasted good. It used to be mixed with whitebait, these tiny fish being beaten into it; the name of the resulting mash was kohere-aruhe. Mr. Hay, an early settler, used to eat fern-root occasionally, both when he was among the Maori and at his own home.”

Relative to eating tree-ferns, one of my informants related, “In the whaling days the brig ‘New Hampden’ was wrecked at the Bluff. She was known to the Maori as ‘Kai-mamaku’ (to eát fern-trees) because once she ran into Te Ana-hawea (Bligh Sound) for shelter, and, food becoming short, the crew went ashore and cut some mamaku, which they ate.”

Some localities were renowned for the excellence of the fern-root growing there, one such place, I was told, being Pau-upoko, near Port Molyneux.

Various Foods and Drinks.

The old Maori who spoke to me about fern-trees and fern-root continued, “But we had another vegetable food too, and that was thekauru, the cooked root of the ti (cabbage-tree). Sometimes these trees had a side shoot, and that was the proper kaur; when it was taken the tree did not die, as it did if its root (more-ti) was taken. If the kauru you were eating

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was called more-ti you would know it was from that root only. Sometimes the people would leave a bit of the root in the ground and in a few years another tree would grow in its place. The root could be cooked at an open fire or in an umu (oven). In the old days the umu in which the kauru was baked was often called a puna-ti, puna meaning a hole and ti being the cabbage-tree. It would cook quicker at an open fire, and its rough skin prevented it from charring, but it did not taste its best unless placed in an ipu (basin) and soaked in flax-honey (wai-korari). Or the kauru could be taken and laid flat, and the flax-honey dripped on it, when it would absorb it. Then if you were travelling and were thirsty you could up-end your kauru root and let the moisture trickle down your throat. This was called unu-wai-korari, and it was a good sweet drink.

“Another food of the ancient times was prepared like this: Secure some kelp (rimu), the same as that dried for the poha-titi, and take it up-country to a place where tutu is plentiful. Gather tutu berries and put them in a putoro, a small flax bag very closely woven so that the seeds of the tutu cannot get through. Squeeze the bag, and the juice comes through and forms a good drink, called waitutu. Take an ipu, or wooden trough, put the kelp and tutu juice in it and boil by putting hot stones in. You can tell that the kelp is boiled enough by poking a stick into it and it falls to bits. Leave it till it is cold, and the result is a black-coloured jelly, called rehia, which was often eaten by the aid of an akapipi (mussel-shell).

“Waitutu was a good refreshing drink, although sweet. I remember once at Tuturau another Maori and I had a good drink of it. We held the putoro over our heads and wrung them and let the juice drop into our mouths. I never heard of any other drinks among the old people except waikorari, waitutu, and water. Besides the foods I have described we had berries of various kinds, such as the hua-kotukutuku (fuchsia), which were eaten raw, and mako berries, which came in their season. I also remember long ago eating snowberries in the Hokanui Hills. I think our name for them was tapuku.”

Near Colac Bay is a small lagoon called Okoura, and I was told it was named after a man who was killed there. Bulrushes grew in the lagoon, and their roots were gathered and eaten with the flesh of Koura. Bulrush-roots were called ko-areare; they were mashed and formed an article of diet with the old-time Maori.

An old Maori said to me, “In the North Island the fuchsia-berry was called konini, but down here both tree and fruit bore the same name—kotukutuku.”

I have a further note that a berry which grows in swamps is called te rerewa, but I cannot say if it is edible.

The Tuturau Reserve.

Recently I was at the Tuturau Maori Reserve to see my old friend Mrs. Gourlay (Toki Reko) laid to rest in the burial-ground there. That evening Mr. Gourlay, a European, a keen observer of nature, told me some of the methods he had seen the Maori at Tuturau adopt in getting food. He has been fifty years in the district, the last forty-five of them in his present location, and following is a summary of his information.

In rain or high winds the pigeons kept low in the bush, and the Maori speared them with bird-spears made of manuka or horoeka (lancewood). The end of the spear was sharp-pointed and burnt hard, and seemed to go right through the birds if skilfully thrust. There was nothing attached to the spear.

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Ducks were snared by placing nets across streams at the height to intercept the birds' heads as they swam along. One morning Mr. Gourlay saw a duck and all its brood caught in one. Some years ago he got his wife to make him an old-fashioned net for snaring ducks, and it was quite efficacious. There was no fuss nor worry with the snare—the gun was simply not in it with the noiseless net.

The Maori used to go down to the swamp at Menzies Ferry and catch matuku (bittern) by laying snares for the birds' feet on the paths they had made through the rushes. The bitterns made a booming noise at times, and the Maori said the birds did this when catching eels. The Maori caught pukuki (swamp-hens) in the same manner.

He had never seen, or heard of, the Maori catching kotuku (white heron), as that bird was so rare, but it could no doubt be caught in the same way as the bittern.

Snares were also laid on the feeding-flats of the paradise ducks at certain times. When the birds were moulting and could not fly the Maori would get into the swamps after them and run them down.

He had seen the Maori catch tui by covering a pool with branches, leaving an open space for the birds to drink. Snares were set round this open place and tui a-plenty were bagged in a good season.

To catch kaka, a square, 8 ft. by 10 ft., say, was thatched over, the fowlers waiting underneath with a decoy kaka. The cries of this bird brought many others, and as they settled on the corner posts the snares affixed thereto made them captives. These were not killed at once, but added to the collection below. The bird could gnaw through green flax, so their legs were fastened with dry flax amid an appalling din. When enough were caught the birds were killed and preserved in kelp bags. To save the fat for this purpose the birds were cooked in a wooden trough with hot stones. Weka were often cooked in the same way.

Various Birds and Fishes.

Weka (woodhens) were caught by the familiar red rag and snare method. The snarer sat still, and, as he caught each bird he bit the back of its neck to kill it and threw it behind him. This saved him wringing its neck, and was not only quicker, but it did not alarm or disturb the other birds.

The Maori also killed the titi(mutton-birds) by biting the neck. There was a knack in catching them. He had heard that these birds would tear your hands to pieces with their beaks and feet if you tried to wring their necks.

Kiwi were never at Tuturau, although they had frequented the Hokanui Hills. He had heard it said that the Maori would wait behind trees, and as the bird came pecking along he would hit it on the head with a stick.

By the Mataura River, in the South Wyndham Bush, there used to be a shaggery, and he had seen a Maori bring away about two or three hundred young shags caught just before they were ready to fly. The big birds were too rank to eat. The Maori would not touch hawks—they were probably too rank also.

In regard to fish, the Maori caught kanakana (lampreys) in the river at Tuturau. They built a wing-dam of logs, stakes, branches, and scrub across the river, except for a few feet where the “pot” was. The dam was anchored with big stones and the material woven with flax so as to stand-big floods in the river. He had seen a “pot” 8 ft. wide by 3 ft.

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or 4 ft. deep, and when full of lampreys it had taken as many as six people to haul it out. It was made of fine flax, with vines as bows to strengthen it. This dam was quite close to the kaika, and during many years the people did not go to the falls at all, as they could get all the kanakana they wanted so handy.

He had seen a Maori put an eel-pot in the Upoko-papaii Creek and get as many eels as his horse could carry—probably 2 cwt. of eels. The Maori also caught eels with bobs (mounu). These were made by sticking strips of flax through rushes (wiwi) and threading worms (noke) on. Eels cannot wriggle fast on dry grass, so this was spread by the fisher, and as the eels took the bob they were hauled on to the spread grass, where they were seized and threaded through the gills on to a flax line ready to be carried away. He had seen old Pi catch eels by hand. The spring was blocked with tussock (patiti), and the water was to her hips, but she caught the eels round the gills and handed them out one by one. The eels the Maori ate were not the silver-bellies, which they thought too poor, but the big black fellows.

The Maori did not like the kokopura, as it had too many bones. Koura, or crayfish, were caught by turning over the stones in creeks, and they were roasted on the embers. Kakahi, or fresh-water mussels, were found in some streams.

In the Mataura River at certain seasons the Maori would net patiki (flounders) on the beaches. Mata (whitebait) were caught in baskets of flax very finely woven. Inaka (minnows) were caught at the falls, and were spread on flax mats and sun-dried. When properly done they would last a long time.

The kiore, or native rat, was nearly cream in colour, and was caught with a bent stick and loop. The rat would chew a string to get at a bait, and this released the stick and the loop caught them. They were rolled in mud and baked in the fire, the mud bringing the skin off. Most Maori would not touch the pouhawaiki, or European rat.

Tuturau was a very rich kaika in the old days. The bush swarmed with birds and the creeks with fish; but, strange to say, the proper fern-root did not grow here, being brought from Otama and Tokanui. It was dug with the Maori spade. This was of wood, about 5 ft. long, and had a sort of scoop at the business end and a stick stuck out on one side for the foot of the digger to press. They were square at the end, and dug fairly well, being very vigorously used; in fact, Mr. Gourlay thought that many an English spade would break if the same energy was used on it.

When he came to the reserve half a dozen trees were held to be sacred. These were all matai (black-pine), and it was perhaps because of the edible berries on them that they had been originally “tapu-ed.” You could shoot or spear pigeons on them, but you must not put an axe near them. Pikiraki was the name of the red mistletoe on the tawai (beech); but the white mistletoe on the rata was called puawai. The Maori at Tuturau got mud from a swamp at Waimumu, and this made an excellent fast black dye.

When eels were put out to dry and rain threatened, a shelter of tussock or ti leaves was thatched over them. This shelter was called an uhi. One kind of whata (storehouse) was built up high, and you went up an arawhata(ladder) to reach it.

He would eat Maori preserved food even if it had mildew on it, as it would cause no harm; but food preserved by Europeans was apt to go

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bad quickly and might poison any one not careful. The Maori food was naturally cured, kept well, and tasted sweet and good.

The above is the essence of Mr. Gourlay's information; but a granddaughter added that she had recently visited the Bay of Plenty and noticed the following differences between the names of shell-fish there and in Southland. What is called the pipi in the South is there called kuku, and what they call pipi is like a cockle, only with an oval shell and flatter, and they dig in the sand for it as the tide goes out. This shell-fish is called toheroa in the South. There is also a big, heavy shell like a very large cockle, which is called kuakua in the North Island, but down round Foveaux Strait is known as whakai-a-tama.

A pakeha who was brought up at Riverton writes, “Eels were taken with a spear. The fishermen waded and sought for the fish by poking about in the silt with their bare feet. When an eel was located by the Maori's toe it was immediately secured with the spear, which was unerring in Maori hands. The Maori also used eel-pots in capturing their winter's food-supply. These traps were made of manuka sticks, bound together with whitau (scraped flax), and made in cylindrical form, about 5 ft. long; a netting of prepared flax, with an opening in the centre, was placed at each end of the cylinder. The two nets were attached to each other by means of a flax cord passing down the centre of the eel-trap. The fish, attracted by a bait of worms, pork, flesh, or fish of any kind, suspended midway in the eel-pot, were led by the sloping net to the entrance, passing in and becoming prisoners. The eels, after capture, were cleaned and dried in the sun, and then stored away for future use.”


Strolling through the bush and clearings one day with a venerable Maori, he gave me the names of a few of the plants. The shrub known to the white people as the pepper-tree is called ramarama; that known to the northern Maoris as koromiko is known in the South as kokomuka, while the bush-lawyer is named tataraihika, and a kind of bramble is tataramoa. The cutty-grass of the settlers was to the southern Maori known as matoreha, the biddy-bid as piripiri, and the nettle as okaoka (the island Pukeokaoka, near Stewart Island, simply means “Nettle Hill.” The common native grass, he said, was called ma-uku-uku, the native mountain-grass pouaka, and the ordinary swamp-rushes wiwi.

The southern Maori say that the patiti, ake-rautaki, and other vegetation growing on the Takitimu Mountains have a peculiar scent of their own. A visitor took some to an old Riverton chief, who sniffed at it and said “Ah! 'tis Takitimu.” A legendary account says that the celebrated chief Tamatea brought these plants from Hawaiki in his canoe, Takitimu, twenty-two generations ago, and that he planted them on this mountain-range.

Kohuwai, also known as kohuai, said one of my informants, is a green sort of weed or moss in the bottoms of streams, and a small creek between Waikawa and Chasland's is called Wai-kohuwai because of its bed being so covered with this moss.

After the Europeans introduced smoking the Maori would smoke a weed called kopata. They would, said an old man, make a bowl for a pipe out of wood, insert as a stem a reed of pukakaho, and puff away. This kind of smoking was called tiniko. Over at Stewart Island there is a plant called punui with a leaf like a pumpkin. A boy dried and smoked

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this leaf, and, gravely added the narrator, his mouth was turned inside out. These leaves deceived another lad, too. He came from the North, and when he saw the leaves thought he was going to feast on pumpkins, but he was disappointed.

Haumata was the name of what are now called Maori-heads, said one old man, and upoko-takata was the name of a plant, possibly the snow-grass of the early settlers. Papaii was a kind of spear-grass, and the name is perpetuated in Upoko-papaii (“Sam's Grief,” near Tuturau). Pukio was the Maori name of “niggerheads,” and there is a stream beyond the Waiau known as Wai-pukio. The grass-tree was called nei in the South, and Mantell, writing in 1852, says they formed so constant a part of the “mosses” or vegetation in swampy valleys—comprising mosses, lichens, sundews, grasses, shrubs—that the Maori called these mosses nei also.

Legend says that the pikiraki was the last plant remaining in the kit of Tane, the forest god, when he sowed the forest. He looked at it tenderly and said, “I cannot let my last child lie on the ground,” and that is why it is a parasitic plant perched high up on the big trees, a kind of mistletoe with red flowers.

The common bush fern is turokio; another kind of fern is the piupiu, and it is said the kakapo (ground-parrot) will bite it off at the base and hold the frond over its head to shield itself from observation. And this leads us to an interesting bit of folk-lore.

A Folk-tale.

The kakapo and the toroa (albatross), said my informant, had a dispute as to who was to be “boss” of the land, and finally they agreed to decide the question by a test. They were to take turn about at hiding, to see which had the greater success at finding the other. A piece of open land with very little cover was selected, and the toroa hid first, but his white plumage was too conspicuous and he was found almost at once. “I will hide again,” he cried, “and this time you wonn't find me.” But alas for his hopes ! his opponent found him with very little trouble. Then the kakapo took his turn at hiding, and lay down on a bare place with a piupiu fern over his head. Search as he might, the toroa could not find his wily rival until the latter laughed aloud, the sound disclosing his whereabouts. “I will hide again,” he said, “on that bare patch over there, and this time you won't find me.” The cunning bird again used piupiu to avoid detection, and again the toroa, search as he might, failed to discover his rival. He flew backwards and forwards over the place as low as possible, but all to no purpose—his quest was in vain. Having been so unsuccessful, the other birds decided that the toroa was not a fit and proper bird to dwell on land, so in deep disgrace he was banished to the wide oceans and there he is now to be found.

Potatoes and Introduced Plants.

Potatoes, introduced by Europeans, were early grown in the South, for in the late R. McNab's Murihiku we read that in 1813 there was “a field of considerably more than 100 acres which presented one well-cultivated bed, filled with rising crops of various ages, some ready for digging, while others had been but newly planted.” This was inland from Bluff Harbour, and it was also recorded that “a spike nail would buy a hundredweight of potatoes” from the Maori. One of my old Maori friends said,

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Horeta was the name of the old variety of potatoes which the whalers brought. A black variety was called, I believe, mangumangu in the North, but we called it tatairako in the South. A potato which was veined inside was named ropi, while our name for the Derwent was pikaukene.” I was also told about Te Puoho's raiders reaching Tuturau in 1836—“It must have been about Christmas, for the early potatoes were just ripe enough to eat and the invaders had a fine feed after their starvation trip.”

The early settlers in Otago found “Maori cabbage” growing wild. The Maori gave me the name of this as pora, and further said that a kind of turnip had grown wild in Central Otago, their name for it being kawakawa.

One old Maori said, “In 1869 I was eeling at Longford (now Gore) and was engaged to help harvest 30 acres of oats. Among it I saw a jaggy plant and I wondered what it was. It was the first time I had ever seen thistles.”

An old settler tells me the “Maori cabbage” was simply a degenerate swede turnip. The leaves were turnip-leaves; the body was a thin wiry root and uneatable—it was the leaves which were eaten. From the description of the kawakawa it is surmised to have been kohlrabi growing wild but not yet degenerated.


I did not get very much information about shell-fish, although we know that, judging by the middens left by the Maori, such were eaten with avidity. The correct name of the Waikaka River, I was told, was Waikakahi, so called because of the number of kakahi, or fresh-water shell-fish, in its waters. The names of salt-water shell-fish are perpetuated in the place-names Hakapupu (in northern dialect Whanga-pupu—“periwinkle Harbour”) and kaipipi (“eat shell-fish”—the kind usually called the cockle). Hakapupu is the Maori name of Pleasant River, near Waikouaiti, and Kaipipi is at Stewart Island. A kind of mussel (kutai) is mentioned in one tradition as furnishing the relish (kinaki) for a cannibal feast. The eating of the pawa or paua (mutton-fish—a univalve) is also mentioned in the history. One of my informants said there was a thread in the limpet(kaki), and this was said to represent the line which Maui was using when he fished the North Island out of the deep.

One old Maori mentioned oysters, and he thought they had been brought by Captain Howell to Port William, and from there had spread to Foveaux Strait. The story runs that about 1839 Howell brought over some sacks of oysters from Australia as a treat to his men at Riverton, but adverse weather compelled him to toss the sacks overboard off Bluff, and that this was the nucleus of the extensive bed, there now. I should like to know if oysters propagate sufficiently fast to render this account feasible.

Paints and Dyes.

Looking through my notebooks, I see casual references to paints and dyes, but really so little it is scarcely worth mentioning. One of the old Maori said that, some of the people who came on the Arai-te-Uru canoe, about twenty-seven generations ago, were skilled workmen—at cultivating the kumara, at carving, &c. One in particular brought red paint with him, but in exploring the land he dropped it in the hills east of Lake Kaitangata, and hence those hills are famous to this day for yielding the haematite stone from which the Maori got their red paint. It is said that

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one of these hills bears quite a big hole made by generations of Maori in search of maukoroa (also known as horu—red paint). One old man said, “The Kati-Mamoe used to put red paint on their faces. They knew only two paints—maukoroa (red) and a blue paint whose name I forget. The red paint and the hoaka (stone used as a grindstone) were brought to this land from Hawaiki.” I am sorry I did not get a description of how the paint was made. I was also told, “Maraki is a red-yellow clay found at Waikouaiti and used for seaming canoes.”

An old woman said, “Kiakia is the name of a creek at Woodside, near Outram, and it runs into Lee Creek. It is so called because of the kiakia which grew there. The kiakia is a small bush-like spear-grass or grass-tree, and the Maori went there to get it. They soaked it with the bark of the pokaka tree and a dye resulted.”

“There is a swamp near, Paterson's store at Port Molyneux called Tukoroua,” said another of my informants, “and that little spot is famous for the dye it produces. The Tukoroua Swamp is the only place in South Otago where the proper kind of paruparu, or black mud, for dyeing whitau (prepared flax-fibre) can be found. The mud found elsewhere would turn the whitau red or rusty looking, but the Tukoroua mud made it a beautiful black. You could wash it with the best soap and you would never get that black out. Such a reputation had this place that people would come down from the North to get their mats treated with the dye from this swamp.”

A creek in Southland is called Opani because on its banks the Maori got earth suitable for making red paint (pani), and the name of the hill north of Kaitangata where the red ochre was procured is Te-horo-maukoroa. I was told that a tree called makatoatoa was no good for timber and that the Maori extracted the sap from its bark for dye, but I do not know what its European name is.

Introduced Animals.

One or two of my Maori friends casually mentioned some of the animals introduced into this land. It is well known that the southern Maori call the mouse hinereta (henrietta) because a vessel of this name (“Elizabeth Henrietta”—1823) introduced these little creatures to their notice, but why they call a cat naki I could not ascertain.

Some of the old people are not pleased with the introduction of vermin to Maoriland. They blame the ferrets, weasels, and stoats for largely helping to kill out the native birds, and the fact remains that although Stewart Island has been settled by white men, with their dogs roaming about too, for many years, bird-life is still fairly plentiful. Thus in 1918 in Oban, the principal settlement, I saw the kereru, or native pigeon, and heard the weka, or woodhen, calling. One old man said that if any one attempted to take vermin to Stewart Island he hoped he would be caught; and he further expressed the bloodthirsty wish that the delinquent would be slowly done to death in boiling oil.

It is generally conceded that Captain Cook introduced the pig to New Zealand, but the late Tare-te-Maiharoa told me they knew the animal traditionally, and they called it poaka. He said it was mentioned in the history very far back. I have read that poaka is a corruption of the English word “porker,” but against this we must remember that those Polynesians who had pigs when Cook visited the South Sea islands called

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the animals puaka. A European who went pig-hunting with the Maori in the “fifties” says their custom was to get astride the pig and stick it upwards.

Detached Information.

I find I have a collection of stray notes which I do not seem able to incorporate with the other sections of this paper, so will include them here.

Koura.—The crayfish found in inland streams and in the sea were both called Koura, as far as I know. A stream north of Gore is Kai-koura (to eat crayfish) and Wai-koura is quite a common place-name. The Maori had a peculiar method of treating crayfish. They would place them across a stream of fresh running water as tight as they could pack them, having them so fastened they could not escape. After they were dead some time the crayfish were, I understand, taken out and dried. A small creek in the gorge of the Taieri River near its mouth was described to me as a place where crayfish had been thus treated in the old days. A place near Tautuku is called Hiri-koura, and I was told it meant the place where crayfish were fastened. The usual meaning of hiri (or whiri) is to plait or twist.

Kaio (or, as called by the northern Maori, ngaio) is a well-known curiosity—half plant, half animal—that was eaten by the Maori. Wharekaio is the name of a beach and landing-place near where the “Tararua” was wrecked, near Fortrose. My informant said, “The kaio fastens one end of itself to the rocks and the other end is like a spud. You take this knob and soak it all night and eat it.” A European who has boiled and eaten them says, “They taste like a boiled egg flavoured with oil, and have a very good flavour. The taste must, however, be acquired.”

Nets.—Although I have very little information about nets, I append the few items gleaned. Lovell's Creek was known to the Maori as Tuakitata, after a kind of fishing-net. This style of net (tata) was made in the shape of the cockle-shell called tuaki. Other kinds of nets were called kaka and houka, whilst two kinds of snares for netting birds were called mahaka and here.

Primitive Appliances.—When the southern Maori finally abandoned their old methods and adopted European ones I cannot exactly say, but here are some notes concerning the Maori at Tuturau in the “fifties.” In 1852 old Reko was working at a pine log, 25 ft. long, with a stone adze, trying to hollow out a canoe. Then he got an old chisel from some white man, but was not making much progress, and finally two Europeans completed the dug-out for him. In 1853 Mr. Chalmers left Tuturau with Reko and Kaikoura on an exploring trip, the white man carrying a gun, and the two Maori had eel-spears and a stick about 6 ft. long with a big fish-hook tied to one end. They carried no provisions, but lived on the country they traversed. The three walked the whole trip in paraerae (sandals) made of flax and cabbage-tree leaves, the latter far and away the more durable. In 1854 old Reko would go eeling with a large-hook tied to his wrist and lying on the palm of his hand so when his hand felt an eel he had only to pull it forward to have the eel hooked. Writing in 1854, Mr. Mieville says, “Old Reko scorned matches, and had a light from his firesticks nearly as quickly as I did. He rubbed a pointed stick in a groove in another stick. I never could get fire, but the Maori does so at once.”

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Maori Cooking.—One of my informants said he greatly preferred food cooked by the old Maori methods to those introduced by the pakeha, although he had not enjoyed the former for years now. European cooking, he said, took the strength out of flesh or fish, whereas the umu, or earth oven, preserved all the natural virtue and flavour. What better than to wrap the food in nice green flax-leaves and let it steam in an umu? He considered even the method of toasting food before a fire on a Kohiku or stick was preferable to frying in a pan or roasting in a stove. Some of the superstitions connected with cooking continued after the white people came, and the operation would be done outside, the women who had been cooking changing their dress before coming in and eating.

Preserving Food.—The same Maori went on to draw my attention to the excellence of Maori methods of preserving food. Anything cooked was called paka, and you could get paka-weka, paka-titi, and so on. These birds have been cooked and then preserved in their own fat. The great receptacle for these preserved foods was kelp which had been made into the familiar poha. My informant considered that kelp possessed some special quality in preserving the taste of what it held, and said he had heard there was a proposal to send butter away in kelp bags. He thought if such was done the butter would keep its taste and quality better in hot weather than under the present system.

Not all food was preserved- in the foregoing manner, some being dried uncooked. The hapuku, or groper, was sometimes cut into strips and treated this way, the flesh being then called maraki. One' old man gave me some maraki to chew, but my tastes were not sufficiently educated in what pleases the Maori palate for me to ask for a second helping.

The Maori Quail.—One of my informants mentioned the Koreke, or Maori quail, but unfortunately I omitted to ask how the Maori caught them. These birds were teeming in Otago when European settlement began, and it is hard to realize the countless numbers of them that existed; yet when the diggings broke out this beautiful bird vanished as if it had never been. An old settler who has eaten dozens of them says he never found berries inside them; they had no gizzards, and apparently lived on beetles and insects.

Bob Fishing.—One of the old Maoris mentioned catching eels with a bob. Some frayed strips of flax were attached to a stick, and large worms were threaded on the flax strands, which were looped up, and then the baited mass was dangled in the water. If a tug is felt the fisherman flicks out the eel before it can disentangle its teeth from the bob. I have not learned whether the Europeans copied this from the Maori, or vice versa, but somebody may be able to supply the information.


An old Maori said to me, “A good remedy for colds and sore throats is to steep goai (kowhai) bark in boiling water and drink the infusion. It has to be taken fresh, as it will not keep, although perhaps spirits would act as a preservative. The bark is taken only from the sunny side of the tree, and its removal does not kill the tree. My neighbours and I all keep a stock of the bark handy.” A well-known Maori remedy for diarrhoea is the leaves of the Kokomuka, or New Zealand veronica, and it is used by both races now. It is said that in the old days the Maori who suffered from toothache—a rare complaint among them—stuffed the gum out of

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the flax into the holes in the offending molars as a palliative. According to a southern Maori, a water-plant called the runa was applied to the skin of sufferers from ringworm. It is said to be a sort of water-lily, and the Wairuna Stream derived its name from it.

The ancient people of the South Island, said one Maori, were skilled in the use of shrubs and herbs. They had known a cure for consumption, but now it is so much needed the shrub cannot be found—the white man's fires and cultivation seem to have destroyed it. This shrub is said to have grown on the Canterbury Plains.

I was reading lately of a herb, called “dortza,” which the American Indians asserted would cure influenza, pneumonia, and incipient consumption. Tests by medical men were to the effect that it had done remarkable work in many cases

The claim by southern Maori that they had once known such a herb seemed to me a noteworthy one, and the fact was told to me years before the fame of dortza got spread by the Press.

The Old Order Changes.

A thoughtful old full-blooded Maori, in saying adieu to me last time I visited him, remarked, “The Maori knew how to gather his food from of old, and it suited him, and he raised a vigorous race. Look at him now! There are few middle-aged and few young people! Why? It is largely ignorance of food-values. It takes a lot of food to maintain a Maori in health. In the old days he could eat as many fish and birds as he wanted, and all beautifully cooked in the earth-ovens. Using European foods, he does not know how much to use, or how to cook it properly. He eats it half-prepared or in insufficient quantities, and by not keeping his strength up throws the way open to consumption and wasting diseases. The hope of the Maori is education. The old people had not learned through generation after generation to be farmers or roadmakers and they could not settle to work as the young can. I always urge the young to learn to read and write and get knowledge. A young woman in the ‘kaik’ had a little boy ill and gave him coastor-oil; and this not working quickly enough, she gave him Epsom salts. The boy became worse, and a friend raised the money to take the boy to a doctor, who said the two medicines combined formed a poison, and that if the boy had not been brought then he would soon have died. The doctor gave a corrective remedy and the boy recovered. In the same way I reckon want of knowledge is causing many Maori to eat wrong food or to prepare it wrongly and so to slowly poison themselves, or, at any rate, to undermine their constitutions. I have often told the people this, but my words have received little attention. ' It is impossible to go back to native foods, as these have been mostly destroyed by civilization, so the people must read the proper books to learn how to thrive on the proper European food. The Maori girls should all be taught housekeeping, the proper value of food and how to cook it, as I am convinced this is the only way to save our race.”

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Art. XIV.—The Mission of the “Britomart” at Akaroa, in August, 1840.

[Read before the Historical Section of the Wellington Philosophical Society, 20th May, 1919; received by Editor, 19th June, 1919; issued separately, 10th June, 1920.]

The British Government, though constantly urged by the New Zealand Company, had persistently refused to recognize New Zealand as a British colony, or even as a possession of the Kingdom. The company, therefore, in order to force the hand of the Government, despatched the “Tory” for Port Nicholson (afterwards named Wellington) on the 12th May, 1839, for the purpose of purchasing land from the natives and forming a settlement, the first colonists to follow almost at once. This forced the Government into unwilling action, and an Imperial Proclamation was issued on the 15th June, 1839, extending the boundaries of New South Wales so as to include portions of New Zealand; and on the 13th July of the same year Captain Hobson was appointed Lieutenant-Governor “of any territory which is or may be acquired in sovereignty by Her Majesty in New Zealand.” Among other instructions issued to Captain Hobson by Lord Normanby was one to the effect that he should endeavour to persuade the chiefs of New Zealand to unite themselves to Great Britain; he was also to establish a settled form of civil government, with the free and intelligent consent of the natives expressed according to their established usages; to treat for the recognition of the sovereignty of Her Majesty over the whole or any part of the Islands; to, induce the chiefs to contract that no lands should in future be sold except to the Crown; to announce by Proclamation that no valid title to land acquired from the natives would thereafter be recognized unless confirmed by a Crown grant; to arrange a commission of inquiry as to what lands had been lawfully acquired by British subjects and others; to select and appoint a Protector of Aborigines.

Captain Hobson left in the “Druid” for Port Jackson, where he arrived on the 24th December, 1839. On the 14th January, 1840, Sir George Gipps, Governor of New South Wales, administered the oaths to Captain Hobson, making him Lieutenant-Governor of New-Zealand. He also, in accordance with the instructions of Lord Normanby, issued three Proclamations—the first extending the boundaries of New South Wales to include any territory which then was, or might thereafter be, acquired in sovereignty by Her Majesty in New Zealand; the second appointing Captain Hobson Lieutenant-Governor; the third declaring that all purchases of land from the natives thereafter would be invalid unless supported by a Crown grant.

The new Lieutenant-Governor arrived in the Bay of Islands on the 29th January, 1840, where he next day read his commissions before the people assembled. As a first step towards establishing the sovereignty of Her Majesty he called together the natives, and on the 5th February, 1840, were commenced the negotiations which, on the following day, resulted in the Treaty of Waitangi being signed by forty-six principal chiefs. Others signed it, or authorized copies' of it, in various parts of the Islands at later dates, the aggregate number of signatures obtained being 512! Being

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attacked by paralysis, the Lieutenant-Governor was disabled from travelling to obtain the signatures personally, and he deputed Major Bunbury to visit parts of the North Island, and also the Middle and Stewart Islands, for that purpose. Major Bunbury sailed in H.M.S. “Herald,” with instructions, dated 25th April, 1840, to obtain signatures at all places possible, and to visit such places as he might deem most desirable for establishing Her Majesty's authority.

In reporting the results of his mission Major Bunbury stated that he had, on the 5th June, 1840, proclaimed the Queen's authority, by right of discovery—no natives being there met with—at Southern Port (Stewart Island); and at Cloudy Bay (Middle Island) on the 17th June, the sovereignty at this place having been ceded by the principal chiefs signing the treaty.

Writing on the 25th May, 1840, to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Lieutenant-Governor Hobson concluded his despatch by saying that without waiting for Major Bunbury's report he had, on the 21st May, 1840, proclaimed the sovereignty of Her Majesty, owing to affairs at Port Nicholson pressing him so to do, over the North Island in accordance with the consents given by the natives in the treaty, and over the southern islands by right of discovery. This despatch was acknowledged and approved by Lord John Russell, and the Proclamations making the islands subject to Her Majesty were inserted in the London Gazette. New-Zealand was at the time promised a charter of separate government, which charter was sent on the 9th December, 1840. Lest, however, the proclamation of sovereignty over the Middle Island “by virtue of discovery” should be considered either insufficient or illegal, the Queen's authority was again proclaimed over it by Major Bunbury on the 17th June, 1840, by virtue of the Treaty of Waitangi. This same proclamation was also made, at Cloudy Bay, and Captain Nias, of H.M.S. “Herald,” landed with a party of marines to honour the occasion, twenty-one guns being fired from the ship.

Sir George Gipps, writing to Lord John Russell on the 24th July, 1840, reported that Major Bunbury appeared to have carried out his instructions very satisfactorily. He, says, inter alia, “One of the places visited by the ‘Herald’ was Banks Peninsula, the spot at which it has been said that a settlement is about to be made by a company formed in France. Of this company, however, and of its proceedings I know nothing, save what I have derived from English newspapers.” The French discovery-ships “Astrolabe” and “Zélée” were at Banks Peninsula in April, 1840; they knew of no project for forming a settlement there, and, indeed, thought the locality a disadvantageous and undesirable one for such a purpose.

Strong feeling had been excited in France by the publication in London of the instructions to Captain Hobson when he was sent out as Lieutenant-Governor to New Zealand. The French Press teemed with calls on their Government to take steps similar to those the British Government proposed to adopt, and to take a share in the colonizing of New Zealand, as a country open to all nations. Mr. E. Gibbon Wakefield, giving evidence on the 17th, July, 1840, before the Select Committee on New Zealand affairs, stated that he had received as many as forty different French newspapers containing comments on Captain Hobson's instructions. The French Chamber of Commerce also petitioned the Government, and from all this excitement sprang a project for sending French colonists

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and establishing a French colony in New Zealand. Matters connected with this project were conducted by a company calling itself the Nanto-Bordelaise Company. A certain Captain Langlois had, on the 2nd August, 1838, made a provisional purchase from Tuaanau and other natives, of the greater part of Banks Peninsula, paying a deposit in commodities valued at £pD6, further commodities to the value of £pD234 to be paid at a later period. They were so paid, but not until the arrival of the French colonists in August, 1840. Consequently, owing to the Proclamation of Governor Gipps above referred to, the purchase was, strictly speaking, illegal, and need not have been recognized by the Crown at all. Captain Langlois sold part of his interest to the Nanto-Bordelaise Company, and on the 9th March, 1840, sixty-three emigrants left Rochefort in, the “Comte de Paris,” an old man-of-war given by the French Government for the purpose.

Another man-of-war, the “Aube,” under Captain Lavaud, was sent as escort, and also to take possession for the French Government and protect the colonists on their arrival. The captain, in order to consult the Roman Catholic bishop resident there, sailed for the Bay of Islands, arriving on the 11th July, 1840. Certain proceedings took place subsequently to her arrival, which have given rise to the romantic account of the “taking possession” at Akaroa. It is said that the captain in an unguarded moment revealed the object of his presence in New Zealand waters, whereupon the “Britomart” was secretly despatched to forestall the French by taking possession of the South Island at Akaroa. Lavaud was obliged to make some mention of his mission in order to explain his presence in the bay, and was placed in an extremely awkward position when he was told that the whole of New Zealand, including the South Island, had been proclaimed a possession of the British Crown. At the time he left France New Zealand was still a No Man's Land; and he had had two separate instructions—one to protect the French whaling industry in the southern waters, the other to prepare Akaroa for the reception of the emigrants by the “Comte de Paris,” part of such preparation being the annexation of Banks Peninsula or further territories on behalf of France. He knew nothing even of the appointment of Hobson as Lieutenant-Governor, and he was at first disposed to refuse recognition of his authority.

Hobson appreciated his difficulty; and in order partly to safeguard such British interest in the peninsula as had been established, partly to convince the French that the territory was undoubtedly regarded as British, he despatched Captain Stanley with two Magistrates to hold Courts at Akaroa and other places on the peninsula. The following is a copy of the instructions, to Stanley: they are printed in part in Rusden's History of New Zealand, though not in the printed collections of official documents:—

Government House, Russell,
Bay of Islands, 22nd July, 1840.


It being of the utmost importance that the authority of Her Majesty should be most unequivocally exercised throughout the remote parts of this colony, and more particularly in the Southern and Middle Islands, where, I understand, foreign influence and even interference is to be apprehended, I have the honour to request you to proceed immediately in H.M. sloop, under your command, to those islands.

On the subject of this commission I have to request the most inviolable secrecy from all except your immediate superior officers, to whom it may be your duty to report your proceedings.

The ostensible purpose of your cruise may appear to be the conveyance of two magistrates to Port Nicholson, to whom I will elsewhere more particularly refer. The

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real object to which I wish particularly to call your attention is to defeat the movements of any foreign ship of war that may be engaged in establishing a settlement in any part of the coast of New Zealand.

There are various rumours current that Captain Lavaud, of the French corvette “L'Aube,” now at anchor in this port, is employed in the furtherance of designs such as I have before mentioned. From some observations that fell from him, I discovered that his intention was to proceed to the southern islands, being under the impression that the land about Akaroa and Banks Peninsula, in the Middle Island, is the property of a French subject. These circumstances, combined with the tone in which Captain Lavaud alluded to Akaroa and Banks Peninsula, excited, in my mind, a strong presumption that he is charged with some mission in that quarter incompatible with the Sovereign rights of Her Britannic Majesty, and which, as I have before observed, it will be your study by every means to frustrate.

If my suspicions prove correct, “L'Aube” will no doubt proceed direct to Akaroa and Banks Peninsula, for which place I have earnestly to request that you/will at once depart with the utmost expedition, as it would be a point of the utmost consideration that, on his arrival at that pert, he may find you in occupation, so that it will be out of his power to dislodge you without committing some direct act of hostility.

Captain Lavaud may, however, anticipate you | at' Akaroa, or (should he be defeated in his, movements) may endeavour to establish himself at some other point. In the event of either contingency occurring, I have to request you will remonstrate and protest in the most decided manner against such proceeding, and impress upon him that such interference must be considered as an act of decided hostile invasion.

You will perceive by the enclosed copy of Major Bunbury's declaration that independent of the assumption of the sovereignty of the Middle and Southern Islands, as announced by my proclamation of the 21st May last (a copy of which is also enclosed), the principal chiefs have ceded their rights to Her Majesty through that officer, who was fully authorised to treat with them for that purpose; it will not, therefore, be necessary for you to adopt any further proceedings. It will, however, be advisable that some act of civil authority should be exercised on the islands, and for that purpose the magistrates who accompany you will be instructed to hold a court on their arrival at each port, and to have a record of their proceedings registered and transmitted to me.

You will by every opportunity which may offer forward intelligence of the French squadron's movements, and should you deem it necessary, to the Secretary of State for the Colonies through the Admiralty and to His Excellency Sir George Gipps, Governor of New South Wales.

Mr. Murphy and Mr. Robinson, the magistrates who accompany you, will receive a memorandum of instructions for their future guidance, which you will be pleased to hand to them when you arrive at your destination.

As your presence in these islands will be of the utmost importance to keep in check any aggression on the part of foreign Powers, I have earnestly to request that, should you require any further supply of provisions the same may be procured, if possible, at Port Nicholson, or at any of the ports on the coast, without returning to Sydney.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

W. Hobson,


The instructions to the Magistrates are not copied by Rusden; they and the above were, however, discovered in the Public Records Office in London by Mr. Guy H. Scholefield, London correspondent of the Press. The instructions, were addressed to Mr. Murphy, whose name appears first in Stanley's instructions, he, not Robinson; being apparently the senior-officer. They were as follows:—

Memo. of Instructions to be attended to by Mr. Murphy. P.M.

You will, at every port that H.M. sloop “Britomart” touches at, act in your magisterial capacity, and, as it is requisite that the civil authority should be strictly exercised, should no case be brought under your notice, you will adjourn from day to day, and a careful record of your proceedings be registered, a copy of which you will transmit to me.

Under any circumstances that Captain Stanley may call upon you for assistance you will, of course, render it, and co-operate generally with him in the advancement of any measures he may think it expedient to adopt.

Dated at Russell, 21st July, 1840.

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The following is a copy of Captain Stanley's report, dated 17th September, 1840:—

I have the honour to inform your Excellency that I proceeded in Her Majesty's-sloop under my command to the port of Akaroa, in Banks Peninsula, where I arrived on August 10th after a very stormy passage, during which the stern boat was washed away and one of the quarter-boats stove. The French frigate “L'Aube” had not arrived when I anchored, nor had any French emigrants been landed. August 11th I landed, accompanied by Messrs. Murphy and Robinson, police magistrates, and visited the only two parts of the bay where there were houses; at both places a flag was hoisted, and a court, of which notice had been given the day before, held by the magistrates. Having received information that there were three whaling-stations on the southern side of the peninsula, the exposed positions of which afforded no anchorage for the “Britomart,” I sent Messrs. Murphy and Robinson to visit them in a whale-boat. At each station the flag was hoisted and a court held. On August 15th the French frigate “L'Aube” arrived, having been four days off the point. On August 16th the French whaler “Comte de Paris,” having on board fifty-seven French emigrants, arrived. With the exception of M. Belligni, from the Jardin des Plantes, who is sent to look after the emigrants, and who is a good botanist and mineralogist, the emigrants are all of the lower order, and include carpenters, gardeners, stonemasons, labourers, a baker, a miner—in all thirty men, eleven women, and the rest-children. Captain Lavaud, on the arrival of the French emigrants, assured me on his word of honour that he would observe strict neutrality between the English residents and the emigrants, and should any difference arise he would settle matters impartially. Captain Lavaud also informed me that, as the “Comte de Paris” has to proceed to sea, whaling, he would cause the emigrants to be landed on some unoccupied part of the bay, where he pledged himself they would do nothing which would be considered hostile to the Government, and that until fresh instructions were received from our respective Governments the emigrants would merely build themselves houses for shelter and clear away what little land they might require for gardens. Upon visiting the “Comte de Paris” I found she had on board, besides agricultural tools for the settlers, six long 24-pounders, mounted on field carriages. I immediately called on Captain Lavaud to protest against the guns being landed. Captain Lavaud assured me that he had been much surprised at finding guns had been sent out in the “Comte de Paris,” but that he had already given the most positive orders that they should not be landed. On August 19th, the French emigrants having been landed in a sheltered well-chosen part of the bay, where they could not interfere with anyone, I handed over to Messrs. Murphy and Robinson the instructions entrusted to me by your Excellency to meet such a contingency.' Mr. Robinson, finding that he could engage three or four Englishmen as constables, and having been enabled, through the kindness of Captain Lavaud, to purchase a boat from the French whaler, decided upon remaining. Captain Lavaud expressed much satisfaction when I informed him Mr. Robinson was to remain, and immediately offered him the use of his cabin and table so long as the “Aube” remained at Akaroa. Mr. Robinson accepted Captain Lavaud's offer until he could establish himself on shore. On August 27th I sailed from Akaroa to Pigeon Bay, where, finding no inhabitants, I merely remained long enough to survey the harbour, which, though narrow and exposed to the westward, is well sheltered from every other wind, and is much frequented by whalers, who procure a great number of pigeons. From Pigeon Bay I went to Port Cooper, where Mr. Murphy held a court. Several chiefs were present and seemed to understand and appreciate Mr. Murphy's proceedings in one or two cases that came before him. Between Port Cooper and Cloudy Bay I could hear of no anchorage whatever from the whalers who frequented the coast. I arrived at Port Nicholson on September 2nd, embarked Messrs. Shortland and Smart, and sailed for the Bay of Islands on September 16th. I have the honour to enclose herewith such information as I was enabled to procure during my stay at Banks Peninsula, and also plans of the harbours.

One enclosure is an interesting table of ports and whaling-stations in the peninsula visited by Captain Stanley, but as it does not bear on the subject it is not copied; from it is gathered, however, that the European population at the time of Captain Stanley's visit numbered over eighty.

It will be observed that no note whatever is made of “taking possession.” The log of the “Britomart” is equally reticent. A copy of the log was obtained by Mr. Guy, H. Scholefield in London, and from it the following particulars are gathered. The sloop-of-war “Britomart,” Captain

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Stanley, left Sydney on the 17th June, 1840, and came to anchor at Koro-rareka, or Bay of Islands, on the afternoon of the 2nd July, H.M.S. “Herald” having worked into the bay just a head of her. She lay in the bay for nine days, “cutting brooms,” watering, &c., until on Saturday, the 11th July, “arrived the French ship of war ‘L'Aube,’ and revenue cutter ‘Ranger,’ with the Governor. Saluted the French flag with 21 guns.” Routine work went on as before, but on the 22nd the company of the “Britomart” was employed making preparations for sea. The log of the following day, commencing at midnight on the 22nd, is interesting: “2 a.m. received on board per order of his Excellency Lieutenant-Governor Hobson; Mr. Murphy and Mr. Robinson, magistrates; 8, loosed sail, short'd in cable; 11 weighed and made sail. Working out of Kororareka Harbour; tacked occasionally.” The vessel was busy all the afternoon working out of the Bay of Islands, and at daylight on the 24th Cape Brett lay on the lee bow distant ten or twelve miles. The passage to Akaroa was a thoroughly bad one, and the ship suffered considerably from the knocking-about she received. At midday on the 25th, the first day out, the vessel was off the Great Barrier. The following morning the foretopmast was found to be chafed through, and in the afternoon the foretopsail was split. On the 27th much time was occupied in bending new sails; in the afternoon two ports were stove in by the heavy sea. Cape Wareka [? Wharekahika] was 218 miles distant at noon on the 28th. On the 29th and 30th there was a heavy head swell, which made the 120 miles to East Cape a good deal more. However, the wind veered round, and the “Britomart” rounded East Cape before midnight on the 31st. In the afternoon the hold had 14 in. of water, and thereafter the pumps were going almost continuously. On the 2nd August “Akoroa” was 306 miles distant, and there were 17 in. and 18 in. of water in the hold through the afternoon. At 2 o'clock on the morning of the 3rd a sea was shipped which stove in the lee quarter boat and washed away a port. The ship was twelve miles farther from her destination at noon on the 4th than on the previous day. Again, in the early morning of the 5th, a sea stove in a weather port. Land was seen on the port bow at 10 a.m. on the 6th'; it was somewhere near Flat Point, or Te Awaite, in the North Island. In the afternoon the sea split the foretopmast-staysail. Next day the weather moderated, and sea-water was pumped into the empty tanks. Land showed on the lee. bow at 7 in the evening, and next morning, the 8th, Cape Palliser was four or five leagues distant. On the morning of the 9th, Sunday, the crew was mustered and the Articles of War were read. This was a proceeding of quite a routine nature. There was land on the beam, and a run of eighty-three miles to Akaroa. This is the narrative of the 10th: “4 a.m. bore up for the land; 12.30 calm, with a heavy swell; out sweeps and swept ship; 1.30 a breeze from the nor'ward; in sweeps, trimmed and swept into the harbour; 4.30 shortened sail and came to with S.B. in 6¾ fathoms; furled sails, &c.” At daylight on the 11th the boats were out and the ship was made snug. There is no reference to any incident outside the ordinary routine of the ship. On the 12th the boats were sent out to survey and cut wood, and they were so employed for the next few days, completing on Friday, 14th. On the following day, 15th August: “5 p.m., sent boats to assist towing the French ship-of-war 'L'Aube '; 8, anchored do.” Sunday was marked with the usual Divine service. On Monday, 17th “—'p.m., arrived the French ship (merchant) ‘Count de Paris,’ with emigrants. Lent the cutter with a party to haul the seine.” There is nothing but routine entries until the 22nd, when the company was employed making preparations for sea.

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The “Britomart” ran down the harbour on the 26th and came near the entrance, when she spoke the British merchant ship “Speculator,” just arrived. Sails were loosed on the 27th, and further preparations made for sea. At 8 a.m. Captain' Stanley “discharged Mr. C. B. Robinson, police magistrate,” and at 9 made sail down the harbour, coming to at the anchorage. Putting to sea the following day, the “Britomart” spoke the schooner “Success,” of Sydney, from Port Cooper, and another sail. On the 29th she shaped her course for Pigeon Bay, where-she came to and sent a boat to survey and get water. On the 30th she sailed for Port Cooper (now Lyttelton Harbour) and anchored there. On the 1st September the “Britomart” was again under sail, and a cable was passed to the merchant ship “Africane,” but in getting under way in the squally wind the hawser parted, and the “Britomart” touched bottom. She made a good passage to Cape Palliser, which was in sight at daylight on the 2nd, and in the afternoon she was working up to Port Nicholson, where she anchored at 5 p.m.

Lieutenant-Governor Hobson sent a copy of Captain Stanley's report to Governor Sir George Gipps, saying, “I transmit a copy of Captain Stanley's report of his proceedings while at Akaroa. The measures he adopted with the French emigrants are, I think, extremely judicious, and the whole of his conduct evinces a degree of zeal and intelligence which, I trust, you will consider worthy of the notice of Her Majesty's Government.” There is no note of “forestalling” the French; and the first apparent note of anything that might be construed into pleasure at such forestalling is found in Governor Gipps's despatch to Lord John Russell: “I have already transmitted to your Lordship copies of the instructions which have been given to Captain Stanley, of H.M.S. “Britomart,” by the Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand. I have now the satisfaction to inform your Lordship that Captain Stanley preceded the French

Even in the French Chamber of Deputies the position seemed to have been clearly perceived; for later, on the 29th May, 1844, the following remarks were made in that chamber by M. Guizot, Minister of Foreign Affairs: There are two Proclamations, one on the 21st May, the other on the 17th June. Both are anterior to the arrival of Captain Lavaud, of the ‘Aube.’ Of these I have carefully read only that of June 17th, relative to the taking possession of the southern island. Here is the English text—I translate literally: ‘Taken possession, in the name of Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland, of the southern island of New Zealand. This island, situated in [here follows latitude and longitude], with all its woods, rivers, ports, and territory, having been ceded in sovereignty by different independent chiefs to Her Most Gracious Majesty, we have taken solemn possession of it, &c.’ ”

There was a diary in existence, and may still be, though its whereabouts is not known—the diary of C. B. Robinson, one of the Magistrates sent with Stanley. Thanks to the foresight of the late Mr. S. C. Farr, of Christchurch, important extracts from it are printed in Canterbury Old and New, as follows:—

August 3rd, 1840. Appointed by Captain William Hobson, Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, with all necessary instructions and a proclamation signed “William Hobson,” and dated August 3rd, 1840, at Government House, Russell, Bay of Islands. Also signed by Willoughby Shortland, Colonial Secretary. Instructions were: “To proceed with all despatch in H.M.S. (brig) ‘Britomart,’ Captain Owen Stanley R.N., Commander, to Akaroa, Banks Peninsula, and hoist the Union Jack, which will be given to you, on a spur jutting out a little more than half-way up the harbour, on the east side, and marked in red on the map you take with you.”

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Here followed the Proclamation, which was not copied. The diary continued:—

“We sailed that evening with a fair, strong wind a good passage was made, and we anchored in Akaroa Bay on the morning of August 11th. We at once proceeded to make preparations for the formal ceremony. A log of wood, old and dry, was procured from the bush by some of the crew, and was hewn by the carpenter eight inches square. A hole was dug in the ground at the spot selected, the post put in, and the earth well rammed down round it. A spar had been brought from the vessel, rigged with pulley and halyard for hoisting the flag; this was lashed to the post, and every-thing, made ready by 5 p.m. on August 15th. The next morning, at 12 o'clock noon, I Charles Barrington Robinson, deputed by the Acting-Governor, hoisted the Union Jack in the name of Her Majesty the Queen Victoria, and in the presence of Captain Stanley, his officers, some of the crew, about a dozen natives (Maoris), and the only Englishman then in the bay, Mr. Green, with his family. There was no demonstration other than my reading the proclamation, three cheers for Her Majesty, and the National Anthem.

The next note made was: “August 18th. The French man-of-war ‘Aube,’ Captain Lavaud, arrived in the bay.”

“Now compare these statements with the log of the “Britomart.” The Proclamation signed “William Hobson” was, it is said, dated 3rd August. On that date the “Britomart” was actually being buffeted at sea, south of East Cape, and somewhat over three hundred miles from Akaroa! Mr. Robinson says, “We sailed that evening [August 3rd]… a good passage was made… and we anchored on the morning of August 11th.” The log shows they sailed on the morning of the 22nd July, and made anything but a good passage, anchoring in Akaroa at 4.30 p.m. on the 10th August. Mr. Robinson says he hoisted the flag at noon on the 16th, and the “Aube” appeared on the 18th August; the log shows that the “Aube” came to anchor on Saturday, 15th August. Again, the report of Captain Stanley shows that the flag was hoisted and a Court held at two places in the bay on the 11th August, and at three other bays where there were whaling-stations during the succeeding days, so that during the time Mr. Robinson says they were busy preparing the pole, &c., the report shows that he and Mr. Murphy were visiting the whaling-stations in a whaleboat.

These discrepancies are extraordinary, and cannot but give colour to a suggestion already made in the voluminous newspaper, correspondence on this subject—that the diary was not begun until some time after the event, and then written up from memory, or from faulty notes.

On the late Dr. R. McNab visiting England towards the end of 1909 the writer of this paper wrote to him, in December of that year, urging him to secure, if possible, logs of the “Aube” and “Comte de Paris,” also the instructions to Captain Lavaud, and Lavaud's despatches to his Government. The writer had already sent him a precis of what had been gathered by him up till that date, and Dr. McNab was successful in obtaining copies of a great deal of matter—so much that he intended making it the subject of a book. This his lamented death unfortunately prevented.

The following are translated extracts from a letter written by Lavaud to the Minister of Marine, at the Bay of Islands, on the 19th June, 1840:—

On the 29th of June I sailed round Van Diemen's Land; at that time there was a S.E. wind shifting to the east, a fine breeze but contrary to the course to be travelled to get to the south of New Zealand: I decided to sail into the Bay of Islands, where I hoped to see the Bishop of Maronae. … Your Excellency was kind enough to allow me the latitude to change this part of my course, and I sailed to the north, directing the “Aube” to the Three Kings Islands, the first land I caught sight of

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since the 25th of March and it was on the 8th of this month at 1 o'clock in the morning. On the 9th I recognized the Cape Maria van Diemen. I left the North Cape the same day at night, and on the 10th, in the morning, I was at the entrance of the Bay of Islands, which I could only reach in the night on account of the calm and the strong land breezes which did not permit me to go ahead. I met the vessel H.B.M. “Britomart.” The Captain came to see me as soon as I had cast anchor. We exchanged the usual salutes of politeness and remained very good friends. I immediately visited the Bishop.

On my arrival I heard of the taking possession, in the name of the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, of the three islands composing the group known under the name of New Zealand. The British flag flies two miles from the anchorage of Kororareka, on the River Karra-karra, on the site of Fort Russell-Town, the name of the town to be built there. A Lieutenant-Governor, Mr. Hobson, is established there with a large administrative staff and a garrison of 130 men, commanded by a field officer of the land forces, who has three other officers under his command. Three warships seem to be attached to the British colony. The corvette “Herald,” which belongs to them, recently made a voyage round all the islands where Englishmen are established, visiting the principal places…. Akaroa is at present also occupied by an Englishman, whose cattle graze there. The corvette “Herald” went there, and I heard that about two months ago, there, as well as everywhere where she found no Europeans, the declaration of British sovereignty had been written on a paper, enclosed in a bottle, and hidden in the earth…

The property of Banks Peninsula has been constituted by a Mr. Clayton, who lives in the Bay of Islands and who has heard from the whalers long ago that Mr. Langlois had acquired it; but as I thought, in such a state of affairs, I ought at present to conceal the mission I was charged with, this statement did not come to me in an official way.

The position has greatly changed since my departure from France; British jealousy has made great steps forward and is running fast. I shall avoid to compromise the Government of the King; I will act with great caution; but, on the other hand, so far away from Your Excellency, and ignoring what has happened between the two Governments, after France has been notified that the full sovereign power lies in the hands of “Her Majesty Queen Victoria, her heirs and successors,” as stated in the Proclamation dated the 21st of May—I repeat, so far away, I cannot deviate from the orders I carry, and, having above all to preserve the honour of my flag, I shall declare officially to the representative of Her Britannic Majesty on the island, Captain Hobson, that for the present I protest against any measure, coming from the British Government, which might result in infringing the French property duly acquired from the free and independent natives, till the moment in which the Government of the King will be pleased to recognize British sovereignty over these islands.

I fear that the “Comte de Paris,” which, according to what her captain wrote to me before I left France, has put into port at Senegal, at the Cape, at Hobart Town, and at the Bay of Islands, before returning to Akaroa, will keep us waiting for some time, which will be very regrettable. There ought to be more than one warship here, for I shall not be able to leave Akaroa when I get there, and yet I will entirely ignore there what is happening around me. We must not conceal from ourselves that everybody here will try and hinder us, and I will be all the more unprepared to avoid the pitfalls of our neighbours because I will have no information from the outside…. I hope that the official news received in France the last few months will appear to Your Excellency to be of such a nature that fresh instructions will be sent me, and that perhaps also the sea forces will be increased…

I add my letter to Captain Hobson… who, as Your Excellency will see, refused to enter into explanations with me if I did not previously recognize his title as Governor of the Islands of New Zealand…. I tried to make him understand that I could not see why he should keep silent about the object of my letter [concerning properties acquired by the French in various parts of the Islands], having only as a reason that I did not recognize him as Governor of the Islands of New Zealand. I also pointed out to him that large French properties existed in the Islands, especially in the Middle Island, which we call in France the South Island, and that I could not admit the rights of sovereignty of a foreign Government over this property; but he very well explained to me that there was a distinction to be made here—that he did not contest the property of the French on the Islands; that the chiefs when selling had only sold the land, but not their authority, which they abdicated in favour of Britain; that only after this abdication the British sovereignty had been declared. Then I handed him a letter telling him that the contents would make him understand my last word. He read it with great attention, and told me that in my place he would

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have acted as I had done, and that he thought it was the surest way to avoid a conflict which might have had very unpleasant consequences for both Governments, in breaking out so far away. I insisted upon knowing if the contents of my letter had been well understood. He told me, Yes, that he understood the whole sense and the whole situation; that he would send a copy to the Governor-General at Sydney, who would take his orders from the Government of the Queen; and that in the meantime he would use his whole persuasive influence with this same Governor-General, so that the Committee should not be obliged to inquire about the validity of the French title-deeds until the two Governments had come to some arrangement. After that I added that I was going to the South; that several landowners and colonists were already established there, and others would go there to establish themselves; that the measures I claimed were to be extended to them also, and that there, too, they were to feel the protection of their Government, and consequently should be able to occupy the land, work on it, sow and reap without being worried. Mr. Langlois will take possession of Banks Peninsula and will give over to me the land which he is to transfer to the French Government, which will not appear in the matter, unless it were to judge that it ought not to give its adhesion to the sovereignty of Queen Victoria over the Islands of New Zealand of which Banks Peninsula is a part; and in case that I were to receive orders to declare that this sovereignty was not recognized I should proclaim that of France over the peninsula. I say only Banks Peninsula because all the rest is invaded and occupied by the British. There is even a Magistrate at Cloudy Bay. Well, Minister, things are so advanced that it is too late to stop. them, and being persuaded of this I wish to let the King's Government act freely without urging or compromising it in anything. The same motives have made me avoid placing myself in the position to be obliged to fire the first cannon-shot, the signal of war, knowing that if, on my departure from France, Your Excellency could have seen the position in which I find myself at present you would have sent me off with different instructions from those I have; you would not have let the “Comte de Paris” sail, and would not have left me the choice of war or peace….

Later, in July, Lavaud received information of other claims than that of Langlois to land on Banks Peninsula; and he writes to his Minister—

Your Excellency will see that, as I had already heard, the ownership of Banks Peninsula has been partially or totally claimed by several people, who every one of them pretend to be the legitimate owners and to possess title-deeds. I have had the honour of mentioning to you, among others, Mr. Clayton, who lays claim only to a part. Further I may name to you the firm of Cooper and Levy, of Sydney, who, as well as Monsieur Langlois, claim the whole peninsula; they have already brought timber to close the isthmus of this peninsula, and the herd of oxen which is in the bay of Akaroa belongs to this firm….

I shall concert with Monsieur Langlois to see what can be done; perhaps it would be suitable to come to some arrangement with the claimants, of whom at least two, Messrs. Clayton and Cooper, bought prior to him.

In any case, we shall settle at Akaroa, awaiting your orders.

The Middle Island (Tawai-Ponamoo) is to-day, as I had the honour of telling you, nearly entirely in the possession of foreigners. We can no more think of acquiring from the natives, who possess only the land reserved for their habitations and plantations; we could only buy from the British, but they are so numerous that I regard it as very difficult to proclaim the sovereignty of France there, as the company, according to all appearances, can actually only claim a part of this peninsula. Through negotiations, I believe it to be quite possible to make the Britannic Cabinet disown Governor Hobson's first Proclamation, as he, in declaring the Queen's sovereignty, relies on a right of discovery which cannot be acknowledged by the nations.

It seems to me that it is impossible that this pretended right can be invoked to-day, so long after the discovery of these islands by Captain Cook; besides, the right of discovery can only be exercised in uninhabited countries, but not in those where the land is trodden by those to whom it naturally belongs and ought to belong. The independence of the Middle Island, under the protectorate of France, would be, I believe, what would henceforth suit you the best. The freedom of the ports of this Island would lead to great commercial movement, which would strike a big blow at the colony of the North Island, soon to be subjected to Customs duties. Your Excellency will appreciate, from all that I have had the honour of communicating to you, the obstacles I have had to encounter and the delicate position in which I find myself. Nevertheless, in a conversation I had yesterday with Mr. Hobson, I thought fit to tell him that French colonists, landowners in the Middle Island, had just arrived, and

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that I was going there to protect them when they would take possession of their lands. His letter of the 23rd will perhaps lead me, if I find difficulties in Akaroa, to return to Sydney, when I have settled Monsieur Langlois, for I see that Mr. Hobson can or will not settle the question. In this state of affairs, if the Britannic Government has not got the signatures of the chiefs of Banks Peninsula—that is to say, their consent to recognize its sovereignty—I will make every possible effort to convince the chiefs that they must not abandon their land to any nation, but preserve it for themselves and their descendants by accepting the patronage of ‘France and its’ Government. It is also in the direction of independence, I believe, that we ought to act with Britain.

But, sir, there is no time to be lost to enter into an explanation with the Britannic Cabinet: everything goes very quickly in this colony, and the powers given by Lord Normanby to the Government of Sydney give him all the more latitude, because what he will decide to do concerning these islands has been applauded in advance…

A later letter is dated Akaroa, 19th August, 1840. In it he informs his Minister what he found at Akaroa:—

I have the honour to announce to you the arrival of the “Aube” in the Bay of Akaroa on the 15th instant.

I found several British established there, and the Proclamation placarded by the corvette “Herald” last May posted on the house of an Englishman placed in charge of these Proclamations…

The brig “Britomart” is sailing along the coast and visiting the different ports with two Magistrates, having to go everywhere where any offence has to be investigated and punished. I suppose that my presence is somewhat the reason of these cruises. A boat from this brig, which was lying outside the bay on the 17th instant, came alongside the “Comte de Paris,” which, on entering, had fired guns; in this boat were officers and the two Magistrates I just mentioned. Believing that this gun-fire was to call their boat, these gentlemen came on board. They noticed carriages for coast-guns which were on deck; they seemed astonished, but, however, did not say anything about it. Various remarks thoughtlessly made by Captain Langlois also made them feel uneasy, and have been the subject of an explanation between the British captain and myself. I promised to follow the line of conduct that I had traced for myself in the Bay of Islands, and to maintain what I had written, until the British and French Cabinets had decided the question of occupancy in one way or another.

As I have had the honour of informing Your Excellency, I had officially announced to Captain Hobson that I was returning to Akaroa, where the surrounding land, as well as the whole of Banks Peninsula, belonged to French proprietors, who had sent out cultivators from France to clear the land and make it productive… My surprise was great when, on the arrival of the “Comte de Paris,” I heard, in the most positive way, that Monsieur Langlois had never negotiated with the chiefs of this part, that he possessed nothing there, and that we had, in fact, no right of ownership we could put forward. The chiefs gathered around me declared to me, through the voice of M. Comte, a missionary priest of Monseignor Pompallier, who speaks the language of the natives, that Monsieur Langlois had negotiated for a part of the land of Port Cooper, Tokolabo Bay, for which he had paid one part, but that there never had been any question of the port of Akaroa, in which they had sold to a Mr. Rhodes a certain part for grazing or cultivating, and that in the same way they had sold the bay of Pyreka and other bays forming the southern part of the peninsula; and, finally, that that they had never signed a contract of sale, drawn up between Monsieur Langlois and the tribes, of the north-west and west of the peninsula.

In such a state of things, how am I to execute the orders of the King? How to take possession… even tacitly, in case of an arrangement between the Governments of France and of Britain, of a land that does not belong to the company? In one word, how to execute the treaty of the 11th October, 1839, made in Paris between the Government and the Nanto-Bordelaise Company? Really, sir, I am travelling on such a winding and dark road that I only walk by groping my way…. If Monsieur Langlois had not heard of my presence he would have treated the acts and the official doings of Britain as a joke; he would have hoisted the tricolour flag, would have saluted it with 101 guns, and he would have taken possession in the name of the King of the French; while I, for my part, have tried every day in my conduct to avoid binding my Government, and especially not to compromise the dignity of Royalty. Fortunately, the whaler “Pauline,” which I met at sea, by making my presence here known at Port Cooper, prevented a demonstration of this kind, for the ceremony of which several officers and masters of whalers had already been convoked.

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From to-day [21st August] a British Magistrate has been appointed to reside at Akaroa and will establish himself there. I suppose it is the arrival and the landing of our colonists that has called forth this measure. I had a conference on this matter with him, and I could see a certain fear concerning my intentions; nevertheless, I am pleased at his presence, because, together with mine, it might avoid misunderstandings between the established British and our colonists….

In ending this despatch I must repeat to Your Excellency my whole idea: No colonization possible in these seas if we do not obtain the withdrawal of these Proclamations and declarations as to the island of Tawai Poenamou (Middle Island); and then, apart from the inconvenience of the neighbourhood, one would have to make a better choice of emigrants than those brought out by the “Comte de Paris.”

There is a voluminous essay written by Lavaud, entitled “Voyage and Attempted Colonization of the South Island of New Zealand, undertaken by the Corvette ‘Aube,’ commanded by Commander Lavaud,” which gives more detail than the official papers, but is hardly more to the point.

It will be admitted that Lavaud was placed in a very difficult position through the change of circumstances that had taken place since he left France; that he, as representative of that country, bore himself in a courteous if independent manner, and that both he and Hobson acted with admirable mutual forbearance; that there was no race, the French objects having been defeated whilst Lavaud was still at sea and in ignorance of events; and that Lavaud, whilst accepting the defeat with difficulty, did so with dignity; that his action was the best he could have taken, both for the continued amity of the two nations and for the comfort of the emigrants.

In conclusion, it is a pleasure to be able to express this respect for one who represented a nation with whom we have often been at variance, but between whom and ourselves a bitter war against a common foe has, we trust, consummated an enduring friendship. The French did not prosecute their claim; upon inquiry, the New Zealand Government, in view of the fact that a large number of emigrants had been sent out in good faith, at a cost of £pD15,125, made the company a grant of 30,000 acres, and the company finally ceded all its rights on the peninsula to the New Zealand Company for the sum of £pD4,500.

Many contemporary versions have appeared of what was supposed to have taken place at Akaroa in August, 1840; and it was the great discrepancies among these, and the reading of Stanley's report, that awoke in the writer a suspicion that the ceremony performed was not one of taking possession, but merely one of exercising civil authority in virtue of possession already taken; and that more facts were to be gleaned from the dark fields of the past.

It is to be hoped that the whole of the official correspondence, both English and French, may be made generally available by publication.

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Art. XV.—Ranunculus paucifolius T. Kirk: its Distribution and Ecology, and the Bearing of these upon certain Geological and Phylogenetic Problems.

[Read before the New Zealand Institute, at Christchurch, 4th—8th February, 1919; received by Editor, 24th June, 1919; issued separately, 10th June, 1920.]

Plates II-V.

Historical 90
Comparison of Ranunculus chordorhizos and R. paucifolius 90
Habitat and Distribution— General 92
Details of Distribution 93
Associations of the Area 94
Ecological: Main Problems involved— General 96
Relation to Geological Problems 97
Origin of the Group to which it belonged 99
Conclusions 103
References 104
Postscript 105


Ranunculus paucifolius was “raised to specific rank” by Kirk (1899, p. 11), who separated it from R. chordorhizos Hook. f.

The notable points in his description are: “Leaves 1 or 2”; “Scape equalling the petioles”; “Achenes few, turgid, with a straight subulate beak”; “flowering season, December.”

Under R. paucifolius, Cheeseman (1906, p. 16) says, “Much more complete material is required before a good description can be given of this curious little plant. It is very close to the preceding species, but seems sufficiently distinct in the less fleshy and more coriaceous habit; fewer leaves, which are broader, and much less divided; longer scape, and broader petals. Only one flowering specimen has been obtained.”

From Hooker's account of R. chordorhizos it is evident that Ranunculus paucifolius was first collected by Haast before the publication of the Handbook (1867), though its discovery is accredited by Cheeseman to Enys (1906, p. xxxiii), where it is stated that Enys's work in New Zealand began in 1874.

Comparison of Ranunculus chordorhizos and R. paucifolius.

R. chordorhizos.

In 1918 I obtained flowers of R. chordorhizos from two plants in my garden at Christchurch brought from Mount Hutt (at c. 4,000 ft.) in 1917. One of those also flowered in 1919. The flowering-date in Christchurch (sea-level) was September. The flower is from 1 in. to 1½ in. in diameter. The petals are from 5 to 8, and even more.

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Photograph of Ranunculus paucifolius in situ showing five leaves and root.

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Fig. 1.—Photograph of Ranunculus paucifolius showing six leaves.

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The most striking feature of the flower (hitherto undescribed) is the form of the sepals, which are lobed like the radical leaves, and one of them in each flower is much larger than the rest, lobed and appearing like the cauline leaves which form a sort of involucre in R. Haastii, but attached so much higher that it should rather be termed a bract. The edges of the petals are also lobed shallowly. The colour of the sepals is dark like the leaves. I obtained one head of ripe achenes from my plants. The description of the achene in Kirk and Cheeseman seems to be quite exact.

Specimens of the plants here used were sent to Kew for identification; there are no flowering specimens there, but my plants were identified as R. chordorhizos. The locality (Mount Hutt) is not far from Mount Somers (the original locality), and the plant has been collected by Laing at Mount Winterslow, between Mount Somers and Mount Hutt.

R. paucifolius.

I visited Castle Hill on the 8th November, 1919, and obtained specimens. There had been a heavy fall of snow on the 1st and 2nd November, and most of the flowers were much damaged. Between twenty and thirty blooms were observed. The flowering-date is late October and November, not December (Kirk, Cheeseman). I was able to get about a dozen specimens which had flowered after the disappearance of the snow. No buds were coming on, and the season was rather backward than otherwise.

The flower is large and showy, averaging about 1½ in. in diameter when fully expanded. I measured one exactly 2 in. in diameter.

The number of petals is from 5 to 8 or even more; the most usual number seemed to be 6. The sepals are 5. Most of the plants bear one flower only, but several were observed with two. The scape is very short, not more than 1 in. in any of my specimens. There are no cauline leaves as in R. Haastii; the sepals are pale yellow and have nothing of the peculiar character of those of R. chordorhizos. The edges of the petals, unlike those of R. chordorhizos, are entire or very nearly so, the margin being very slightly wavy.

I obtained ripe achenes at Castle Hill in December, 1918. The description in Kirk is inexact, and the achene is not distinguishable from that of R. chordorhizos.

I may add that I have in cultivation seven plants brought from Castle Hill in 1918. All are thriving, but none flowered in 1919.

The two species having been grown close together, the following points of comparison may be noted. The general coloration of the two is very similar and very curious; R. chordorhizos is, however, a little darker than R. paucifolius. The leaf of R. chordorhizos has the segments distinctly recurved; those of R. paucifolius are nearly flat. R. paucifolius is a good deal the larger plant in every way. The leaf of R. paucifolius is pitted, but not so deeply as that of R. chordorhizos. The leaves of both species are pitted when fresh, not only “when dry” (Kirk, Cheeseman).

To summarize the new facts resulting from these observations:—


R. chordorhizos has recurved leaves, pitted while fresh.


R. chordorhizos has a flower about 1½ in. in diameter (not “1 in.”)


The sepals of R. chordorhizos are lobed, and have something of the character of a cauline leaf or bract.


The number of petals of R. chordorhizos is from 5 to 8 or more.


The edge of the petals of R. chordorhizos is lobed or crenate.

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The leaves ofR. paucifolius, instead of being only 2–3 (Kirk), are as many as 8. One of my plants in cultivation has 9 now. Six is quite usual. The name paucifolius is a misnomer.


The scape of R. paucifolius is not always solitary.


The number of petals of R. paucifolius is 5–8.


The flower of R. paucifolius is larger than described hitherto, being from 1½ in. to 2 in.


The flowering-date of R. paucifolius is late October and November, not December.


The achene of R. paucifolius is exactly like that of R. chordorhizos; the style is curved, not straight.

Conclusion from these Facts.

I have been tempted to think that R. paucifolius hardly deserves specific status, and that it should be reduced to the rank of a variety of R. chordorhizos; but in the light of the above observations I am compelled to decide that it should be upheld as a distinct species. While the differences in the cutting and the colour of the leaf, the size of the plant and of the flower, the edging of the petals, the pitting of the leaf, might be considered trivial, yet the character of the sepals of R. chordorhizos, constituting a distinct link with R. Haastii, would seem to be important enough, taken in conjunction with the other differences, to warrant the retention of the species. Until flowering specimens of R. crithmifolius have been studied it is not possible to tell how the group may ultimately be treated.

Habitat and Distribution.


The only known locality for Ranunculus paucifolius is a rock-bound hollow behind the farm buildings at Castle Hill, in the Trelissick Basin, about a mile and a half from the homestead of the late J.D. Enys, upon whose property the farm was situated.

A full account of the general geological features of the district is given by Speight (1917), with a map showing the Castle Hill itself (p. 323), and plates, of which Plate xxi, fig. 1, gives a view of the small hollow from above.

The locality of the species is a small synclinal basin forming a kind of amphitheatre. Its main direction is north-east and south-west, the north-east end being the higher. It is bounded on the south and west by the steep grassy slopes of Castle Hill, with frequent outcrops of limestone (seen in Plate IV), and on the north and east by piles of limestone rocks from 80 ft. to 100 ft. high, which are weathered into the usual fantastic shapes. It is entered from the eastern side by a gap in the limestone barrier about 100 yards broad; a small but constant stream rises on the south-west side of the basin, and flows through this gap on to the flat cultivated plains of the Castle Hill farm, which are overlooked by the steep limestone rocks. Except at this point the basin is surrounded on all sides by limestone rocks or steep slopes of grass upon a limestone soil. The weathering of the rocks by frost and wind produces a great amount of debris, which is blown far and wide by the strong winds of the Southern Alps, and this debris collects in the basin owing to its enclosed character. Within the basin a small dune-system is produced by the action of the wind, so that its floor is diversified by small

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Photograph of locality from south-east, showing open formation

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Photograph of locality from north-east, the white patches showing the limestone debris in which grows Ranunculus paucifolius.

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ridges and shallow hollows of dune type. The south-west half of the basin is clothed with tussock grassland, and does not concern us. The north-east half, at the south-west end, shows first (moving from south-west to north-east) a small area, about 120 yards by 100 yards, of open debris formation which does not harbour this Ranunculus. The upper (or north-eastern) portion consists of a larger area of limestone debris, about 350 yards by 100 to 150 yards, of which some parts are clothed with a half-closed tussock formation, others with an open formation, including the Ranunculus paucifolius, while some considerable portions are entirely barren. The bottom of this part of the basin is occupied chiefly by a belt of half-closed tussock formation; the eastern side has rapid slopes of coarse debris below the limestone rocks; the western side (shown in Plate IV) has a gentler gradient, and the grass-covered slopes of Castle Hill here ease off gradually into the central basin. Tongues of half-closed tussock formation, on this side, occupying higher ground or ridges, separate roughly circular or semicircular areas of the open formation well seen in Plate V, within which most of the plants of Ranunculus paucifolius occur.

The debris itself is of a flaky character, but is reduced, over most of the area, to a fine uniform powder. The colour of the bare patches is thus a pale yellow, deepening to brown in certain places, owing apparently to the volcanic element present in the limestone itself in varying quantity. The debris on the steep eastern slopes is much of it very coarse and rough, and very large flakes of the stone lie thickly here.

At the extreme north-east corner a dune formation is being broken up. Here are semicircular breaches of the higher dune, whence masses of very loose debris come down. At the top the slope is steep and the material deep and soft; hardly and vegetation can grow, and the line separating the tussock grassland from the perfectly barren space is sharp and clear.

Possibly all parts of the basin have at one time or another been thus closely covered, the covering being subsequently stripped away or buried, while a certain area must always have remained sufficiently open somewhere in the area for the calciphile community to exist.

Digging at a spot where several plants of Ranunculus paucifolius grew close together showed that the limestone debris was here exactly 18 in. deep. At that depth a more consolidated subsoil was reached. Down to this depth the material was perfectly uniform, fine and incoherent, and the roots of the Ranunculus, about 10 in. or 12 in. long, do not reach beyond this layer, which seemed fairly damp throughout at the end of a period of about a fortnight's fine weather. In a really dry season this material must, of course, become extremely dry.

Details of Distribution.

The following are the main results of the careful search of the whole, or nearly the whole, of the area, in which I had the assistance of Messrs. R. Speight, A. E. Flower, and Dr. W. P. Evans.

(1.) Most of the plants grow on the more gently sloping north-west side of the basin, and are most thickly congregated on two areas, each about 60 yards by 40 yards. The whole area within which all the plants (except three or four) were found is about 300 yards by about 60 yards— roughly, between 3½ and 4 acres.

(2.) Nearly all the plants were found on ground sloping at an angle of from 6° to 8°. Few were found on quite level spots, and none at all on very steep places.

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(3.) Where several plants occur in a line, from 2 ft. to 4 ft. apart, as sometimes happens, this line takes no constant direction.

(4.) The plants occur, roughly, in groups, but seldom close to one another and not often very near any other plants. Only in one small area were they found among tussocks (about a dozen altogether), and here the tussock formation is peculiarly scanty.

(5.) The whole number of plants I counted was seventy. Allowing for possible errors and oversights, and portions not quite so minutely examined, it is safe to say, I think, that the area does not contain more than from one hundred and fifty to two hundred individuals, and I should think it probable that there are not more than one hundred.

(6.) In one space which was most carefully examined, and in which the plants were as frequent as anywhere, the nearest neighbours of a particular plant of Ranunculus paucifolius were: Poa acicularifolia, Lepidium sisymbrioides, Wahlenbergia albomarginata, Myosotis decora, Carmichaelia Monroi var., and the introduced Arenaria serpyllifolia and Cerastium glomeratum. The plants in the vicinity were on an average about 6 in. from one another, and spaces about 12 in. square were frequently quite barren. This would be a typical “open formation.”

In another case, not at all exceptional, at the other end of the area examined, a plant of Ranunculus paucifolius was seen to have no other plant nearer to it than 3 ft.; at this distance was a small patch of Poa acicularifolia; a little farther away was one plant of Oreomyrrhis andicola var. rigida, and at about the same distance one of Lepidium sisymbrioides; and 10 ft. away was one plant of Notothlaspi rosulatum. The rest of the 10 ft. circle was perfectly bare.

To complete the account of the surface of the hollow it may be added that areas of 12 yards by 6 yards were measured which supported no living plant of any kind. These completely barren spots form a fairly large part of the small available space.

Associations of the Area.

The small basin here described supports a limited community of calciphile xerophytes, of which Ranunculus paucifolius is a typical member. It supports also a good number of mesophytes, representing the usual flora of the district, and a fairly large group of introduced plants.

(a.) On the barest portions of the area, where the debris is deepest, loosest, and, in dry seasons, presumably driest, the only plants are Lepidium sisymbrioides, Oreomyrrhis andicola var., Oremyrrhis andicola var. rigida, the introduced Arenaria serpyllifolia, and occasionally Myosotis decora.

(b.) The usual open formation of the gentler slopes includes, besides the plant under consideration, all the above-named, and in addition Pimelea prostrata var., Notothlaspi rosulatum, Poa acicularifolia, Anisotome Enysii, Cardamine heterophylla var., Carmichaelia Monroi or nana, Wahlenbergia albomarginata, Anisotome aromatica; and, more occasionally, Ranunculus Monroi var. dentatus, Senecio Haastii, Crepis novae-zelandiae, Raoulia australis, that variety of Epilobium novae-zelandiae which is distinguished by its generally reddish colouring and pink flower, and Myosotis cinerascens Petrie.

All these plants are perennial, and all are very low in stature.

These two—(a) and (b)—might be said to form a Lepidium sisymbrioides association. This association presents a most singular and characteristic facies. The general background is a glaring yellow, shading into pale brown in certain patohes. Upon this ground the scattered plants of

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Lepidium sisymbrioides make spots of very dull chocolate, which are confused in the general scheme with the paler browns, dull greenish-yellows, and greys, of Oreomyrrhis andicola, Myosotis decora, Anisotome Enysii, &c. The sparsely scattered plants of Ranunculus paucifolius become almost invisible in this environment, and play no leading part in determining the appearance of the whole unit. The whole effect is most peculiar; the calciphile flora gives the impression that it belongs elsewhere—to another age, another climate and country. Much the same effect is produced, in my experience, by the isolated patches of ancient fen vegetation which survive at such spots as Wicken and Cottenham, set like savage aliens of some older and vanishing race in the midst of the green crops and pastures of modern Cambridgeshire.

(c.) As the formation becomes more nearly closed, on the borders of the grassy closed areas, Plantago spathulata appears in great quantities, and the closed formation of the immediate neighbourhood includes Festuca novae-zelandiae, two or three others of the usual grasses of the district, Raoulia subsericea, Hydrocotyle novae-zelandiae var. montana, Vittadinia australis, and a fair amount of moss. Here occasional plants of Lepidium sisymbrioides appear, but not far from the pure limestone patches.

(d.) The chief introduced plants which occur in the basin are Arenaria serpyllifolia (extremely abundant everywhere—more so than any native plant), Cerastium glomeratum, Hypochaeris radicata, the large ox-eye daisy (which completely covers the slopes on the eastern side of the rocks outside the basin), and Verbascum Thapsus. It is not without significance, as showing the very special and peculiar character of the locality, that Hypochaeris radicata, elsewhere so exceedingly abundant in New Zealand, is here comparatively rare.

It must be added that the rocks above the basin and the steepest slopes around them also harbour Epilobium gracilipes (which never occurs on the flat), Senecio Haastii (which is comparatively seldom seen below), Senecio lautus var. montanus, and a good number of such shrubs as Coprosma propinqua, Discaria toumatou, and Aristotelia fruticosa. Upon these shrubs the peculiar parasite Korthalsella clavata is found; this also grows upon shrubs in other limestone rocks (e.g., those at the junction of the Porter and Broken Rivers), but apparently is found only in the Castle Hill district.

A certain number of these plants are definitely calciphiles, and occur in no other situations; others seem to grow by preference on limestone, but are not confined strictly to it (in this district, at any rate); and the rest are of general distribution.

In the first class are Ranunculus paucifolius, Poa acicularifolia, Korthalsella clavata, Epilobium gracilipes, Myosotis decora, Anisotome Enysii. In the second are Oreomyrrhis andicola var. rigida and Crepis novae-zelandiae.

Several of them exhibit marked xerophytic characters, as described by Cockayne and Laing (Speight, Cockayne, and Laing, 1911, p. 358), and among these Ranunculus paucifolius is conspicuous. It has the pale ashenpurple colouring which distinguishes the shingle-slip plants generally, such as its relations Ranunculus chordorhizos, R. crithmifolius, and R. Haastii, Lepidium sisymbrioides has special adaptations, of which the disproportion ately long root is most remarkable (Cheeseman, p. 42). Anisotome Enysii shows a colouring very similar to that of Ranunculus paucifolius. There is here a marked degree of epharmonic convergence.

These plants make up a community of intense interest, and the problem of their existence is bound up with that of Ranunculus paucifolius, whose limited distribution and feeble powers of reproduction help to put that problem in a clearer and more striking light.

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Ecological: Main Problems involved.


These problems may be thus stated: How are we to account for the survival, in an exceedingly limited area, of a very special and peculiar formation, and in very limited numbers, of a plant which is obviously adapted to a climate very different from that of the present time, which reproduces itself only by seed, not vegetatively, and that only in a very sparing manner, and which apparently can exist only upon a kind of soil occurring only in limited areas separated from one another by great distances?

Apart from geological history several considerations may here be given as bearing upon the main problems.

Reproduction and Distribution of Seed.—The achene, on dropping off, no doubt falls into the soil and is moved by the wind, as the surface of the debris is quite unstable, most of the plants being actually buried in it above the rootstock. It is remarkable that none of the plants of this association is a “traveller.” The seed of all is presumably distributed in the same way—by the action of the wind in shifting the soil; none of them is provided with a pappus or coma; no composite plant except Raoulia australis enters into the unit. Epilobium gracilipes and Senecio Monroi var. dentatus, which occur on the steep slopes and rocks above the basin and have seeds specially adapted for carriage to a distance by the wind, are absent altogether from the flatter portions of the area.

Instability of Soil.—The wind is always bringing fresh debris into the basin, and is always stirring and shifting all that part of the surface which is entirely or nearly bare. As the rocks are now always rapidly crumbling, and no doubt have been in the same state for a very long period of time, it follows that they must formerly have been much larger than they are now; therefore they must formerly have set free annually a much larger amount of material, and therefore the superficial area of unstable debris must formerly have been much greater. But in recent times the area of bare debris could never have been really extensive, as the accumulation of it would hardly be possible under present conditions except within the enclosed space of the basin. However, in some much older age it may be imagined that a much greater area lying eastward of the small basin might during a period of steppe climate or drought become a semi-desert, mainly of this debris, supporting a calciphile and xerophytic flora, in open formation, of such individuals and in such disposition as we now see within the enclosed and protected area only.

Struggle for Life.—As Warming (1909, p. 256) observes of fell-field in general, the typical xerophytic plants are so thinly distributed that they do not interfere with one another nor compete with one another. It is so here, and it is so upon the steep shingle-slopes of the dry eastern mountains of the neighbourhood. Ranunculus Haastii, for instance, is exactly like R. paucifolius in this respect. Only a certain small number of plants grow within a given space, when, so far as one can see, an infinitely greater number might grow there without in the least inconveniencing their neighbours.

Thus Ranunculus paucifolius has not been threatened with extinction in this manner. It seems, however, to have had to face two other dangers in recent times. On the one hand, if the surface upon which it grows were for any cause to become still more unstable, and the wind to act

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more violently and continuously upon it, the plants might all be buried, as some of them no doubt have been. On the other hand, if the supply of material delivered into the basin should diminish and finally cease altogether, no doubt the closed tussock formation which now covers the south-west portion of it would gradually invade the whole, and Ranunculus paucifolius would die out. This, it would seem, must ultimately happen.

The area has for many years been open to stock and rabbits, but they evidently do not care for the plant, otherwise it would have perished long ago. There are plenty of rabbits now in and about the basin. The openness of the formation has no doubt protected the plant from destruction by fire, a great and very real danger in New Zealand.

Influence of Slopes.—The fact that it is confined to the easier slopes— almost to level ground—is also of very great significance. Among its associates, for instance, Lepidium sisymbrioides and Myosotis decora easily maintain themselves upon very steep slopes, and consequently these plants are quite widely distributed, occurring, in the immediate neighbourhood, upon the limestone slopes at and near the junction of the Porter and Broken Rivers, and upon those of the Whitewater River and of the Upper Porter or Coleridge Creek, whereas Ranunculus paucifolius, by reason of its apparent inability to grow except upon easy gradients, is debarred from these areas, where every condition which it requires is to be had except this one, and can maintain itself only within the very limited basin where it is presumably doomed ultimately to perish.

Limestone Soil.—When it is said that the plant can exist only in limestone soil, it is not denied that it might live, if transplanted or sown, in some other soil; but the assumption is that in any other soil, if it can live at all, it cannot compete with the ordinary vegetation of that soil: it could live, that is, only under artificial conditions and when protected.

Relation to Geological Problems.

We may now consider what conditions are indicated as most probable in the remote past of this community in general and of R. paucifolius in particular.

It seems inconceivable that the plant should have “originated,” established itself, and subsequently maintained itself for countless ages, all within the narrow limits of its present distribution, and the first condition requisite for its establishment would be the existence of a very much larger area of continuous Tertiary limestone strata than is now to be found anywhere in New Zealand.

This area need not have been—and, indeed, could not have been—one continuous sheet of limestone beds covering the whole of the district within which the isolated fragmentary remnants now exist. But the inference here drawn from the existence of this whole calciphile unit, and of Ranunculus paucifolius in particular, is that these beds must once have been more extensive and more nearly continuous than they are now. The ancestral Ranunculus may well have existed upon soils of pre-Tertiary origin and developed there its xerophytic characters, while one form of it established itself especially upon the limestone, developed characters accordingly, and ultimately become virtually incapable of maintaining itself elsewhere. This is, at any rate, one hypothesis which seems to fit the facts. But the exact sequence of events can here, in the nature of things, be only a matter of conjecture.

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This comparatively wide area must have had, at some remote period, a steppe or semi-desert climate, under whose influences a xerophytic and partly calciphile flora developed and flourished, and it is likely that what we now have represents only a portion of this flora, many species having probably died out altogether.

This area must have been partly a peneplain (upon which alone R. paucifolius, it would seem, could “originate” and flourish), and would probably be conterminous with a range or ranges of hills with limestone rocks exposed and weathering into dust exactly as they now do on the small area here under observation. But such peneplain need not have consisted entirely of Tertiary limestone beds.

The area would be in the nature of a strip or belt, of no very great width and probably much interrupted, corresponding roughly to the shoreline or lines of the hypothetic Tertiary sea or seas. It would be conterminous with and more or less alternated with an area or areas of pre-Tertiary formation, probably lying to the north and east, as posited, e.g., by Cockayne (1911, pp. 343–44), by way of which probably the mesophytic flora would return when a more humid climate should prevail in this area. Upon this pre-Tertiary area the related species, R. chordorhizos, &c., would have originated and flourished, or that single species or form from which they and R. paucifolius trace their common descent.

The greater part of these limestone beds was destroyed by erosion of various kinds in subsequent ages, leaving only the present small isolated remnants, of which the Trelissick Basin is one of the largest.

It is impossible that by the elevation of the land 3,000 ft. or 4,000 ft. (Haast, Hutton, Park), and the consequent refrigeration and glaciation, the whole flora of the district (as has been thought) was driven to another tract, now non-existent, and returned with the subsidence of the land and consequent change of climate. “Return” of a calciphile flora over areas upon which the Tertiary beds had becn destroyed would be impossible, especially since, as we have seen, this flora as a unit is not a “traveller”; and we cannot escape the conclusion that this plant community has been represented within the area of the small basin, since it first established itself or “originated” in that neighbourhood.

Glaciation bears upon the question in two ways:—

(1.) Hutton (1900, p. 176), followed by Cockayne, correlated the supposed drought epoch, of which our flora shows signs, with the glacial epoch, which he placed in the older Pliocene period. This view was adopted by Cockayne (1901, pp. 280 et seq.); but that authority believed that at the height of the glaciation the eastern mountains (within which this area is included) might still support a xerophyte flora like that of the shingle-slips of the present day (Cockayne, 1911, pp. 348 et seq.).

The view of Speight (1911) and others is that the last glacial epoch is much more recent, that the drought period was correlated with it (Cockayne, 1911, p. 344), that the Tertiary deposits were continuous over a much larger area than is the case now (Speight, 1915, p. 54), that the Castle Hill area probably escaped glaciation altogether (Speight, 1917, pp. 323 et seq.), and that the Trelissick Basin at the height of glaciation was “probably a snowfield” (Speight, 1917, p. 323).

It would seem certain that a steppe climate or period of drought must have obtained here over a large area at least once (probably more than once) since Tertiary times, but to the present writer it seems quite uncertain whether this was coeval with and resultant from the glacial epoch or not

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and the analogy of other lands would seem to show that such a climate may have existed in New Zealand independently of any glacial epoch, whether that epoch be (with Hutton) older Pliocene or (with Speight and others) Pleistocene. The question whether the “drought” be Pliocene or Pleistocene is here dwelt upon because, whatever conditions obtained and whatever balance was established at the end of the “drought,” if that “drought” were Pliocene that balance must in all probability have been disturbed and a new set of condition reached when the later Pleistocene glacial period came. The problem is then, to discover what were the conditions during and after some more recent period, rather than during and after the exceedingly remote period of any possible Pliocene glaciation and concomitant steppe climate.

(2.) Glaciation also has been supposed to have been the chief, though not the sole, eroding agency by which the great area of Tertiary beds was destroyed (Hutton, 1885, p. 92; Speight, 1915, p. 337). The question of the agency by which, and the probable period during which, these beds have been destroyed is, however, one of secondary import in this connection. It is enough, for the botanical problem, if it is decided that they once existed, have been in one way or another largely destroyed (being now represented by the small isolated fragmentary areas which remain to us), and that the Trelissick Basin (including the small area here studied) escaped glaciation and any great degree of refrigeration during any glacial epoch. We may then imagine the ancient birthplace and habitat of Ranunculus paucifolius and its associates to have been a semi-desert area of flat or flattish plains diversified with ridges and islets of higher ground, and neighboured closely by a range of limestone hills or even mountains. The whole landscape would have a yellow hue; upon the surface large areas of unstable shifting debris would possibly alternate with ridges of more grassy and closed formation. Strong winds would be frequent and dust-storms violent. The vegetation would be sparse and harsh, including the species here described, and no doubt many others which have perished; a pale-purple, greyish, and brown colour scheme would predominate. The land would be occupied by no animals save lizards and birds, its whole appearance being monotonous, parched, and glaring; while the dreariness of the scene would be enhanced by the setting of pallid limestone rocks of grotesque and fantastic form—chessmen, collar-studs, sea-lions, and gorilla torsos. The general appearance of the limestone desert might be much like parts of the Sahara—e.g., as figured in plate 345 of Schimper's Plant-geography, p. 614.

If Speight's (1911) hypothesis of a pluvial climate in post-glacial times be accepted—and certainly the-evidence collected by him seems to be conclusive—this community and others like it must have passed through and survived such a period, unless the districts in which they exist have been specially favoured. There is little or no reason to suppose that this was so, for, although Cockayne (1900) mentions that the Trelissick Basin is now very dry climatically, old residents do not support this view; and, in any case, the fact, if established, that it is now dry does not prove that it was always so in the remote past.

Origin of the Group to which it belonged.

With regard to the historical development of this group of Ranunculi, if the neo-Lamarckian view of the origin of species be adopted—the theory

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of direct adaptation or self-adaptation, as understood by Warming (1909) —it would seem probable that a single ancestral form of Ranunculus developed under conditions of extreme drought into a typical xerophyte, and that, after the conditions to which it had adapted itself had been modified or completely changed, this plant maintained itself against the competition of a mesophyte flora in certain localities—i.e., shingle-slips—in which it had an advantage, and in course of a long period of time, existing only in isolated areas completely separated from one another (one of which is the limestone area here described), it developed those comparatively trivial distinctive characters (especially in the cutting of the leaf) which now distinguish the “species” from one another.

According to De Vries (1912), however, such speculations and conjectures as to the conditions under which a species originated are idle, and can achieve no result. Speaking of “beautiful adaptations” to local conditions, he says: “In no case is it possible to tell whether the species have acquired these during their migration or during their stay in the new environment, or perhaps previous to their being subjected to the influence in question” (p. 592). Again: “Adaptations to new conditions [which are conceded] depend upon characters which were inherent in the species before it arrived in the new environment. The characters themselves are not the effect of the external influences considered” (p. 579). Such characters, it is contended, cannot be good specific marks; they fall within the range of “fluctuations” (as distinguished from mutations) and “cannot lead to constant races” (p. 540). The species thus modified or adapted remains essentially the same, and will, if replaced in the favourable conditions, resume its older form (as in the classic experiments of Cockayne upon seedling forms, and those of Bonnier upon alpine plants). The sole condition required in the plant is therefore “high plasticity.” We must not say that a species originated under the stimulus of its environment, or that it acquired new characters in response to changed conditions: that would be confusing cause and effect. “Fitness for present life-conditions… can hardly be considered as a result of adaptation, and we have to recur to previous hypothetical environments to explain the much-admired adjustments. All speculations of this kind are merely reduced to more or less plausible and more or less poetical* considerations” (p. 574). It is concluded that “geological changes of climate may have been accompanied by the production of new forms, but there is no evidence that this has occurred in such a way as to provoke directly useful changes”; that “the characters of local and endemic types do not betray any definite relation to their special environment”; and, finally, that “the facts which are at present available plead against the hypothesis of a direct adjusting influence of environment upon plants, and comply with the proposition of changes brought about by other causes and afterward subjected to natural selection” (p. 595). The author then restates his personal belief “that the species-making changes occur by leaps and bounds, however small.”

If these conclusions be accepted, the case of Ranunculus paucifolius and its associates may be thus considered in their light. It is generally accepted that a period of more or less severe drought or “steppe climate” has been passed through by a great part at least of the flora of New

[Footnote] * The writer explains in a footnote that this epithet is not intended to convey any reproach.

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Zealand. The particular community here studied shows this with especial clearness, consisting as it does of a small association of plants all of which show very definite xerophytic adaptations, while some of them can exist only under certain very special and peculiar edaphic conditions such as may have obtained more widely in the past. The conditions governing plant-life before and during this period of drought may be supposed to have been much the same as those of the Sahara at the present time, thus described by De Vries (after Battandier): “Originally this region must have had an ordinary degree of rainfall and moisture…. Then… the rainfall must have slowly diminished, taking centuries… to reach the conditions which now prevail. The consequent changes in this flora must have been correspondingly slow, and must have consisted mainly in the disappearing of the larger part of the species; first of those which were dependent on the higher degree of moisture; then of others; until at the present time only the most drought-resisting forms are spared” (pp. 589–90). He proceeds to show that no specific changes, probably, were brought about by this process; that a large number of the species of this arid region are monotypic genera, each genus consisting of a single species; whereas, “if there had been any degree of adaptation during this whole period of increasing dryness, new species would have been produced —from those forms which by their own inherent capacities would be the very last to be threatened with extermination. These genera would therefore have produced quite a number of smaller or even of larger species, adapting themselves more and more to the changing conditions and stocking the desert, in the same way as other deserts have been stocked, from adjoining countries!” As this has not happened, it is concluded “that the single species… have not undergone any change in the direction of drought-resistance, but have simply been those which happened to be the best fitted for the life in the desert. A thick epidermis, a small display of leaves, long and deep roots, were the main qualifications for this choice” (p. 590).

Then, in our case, we assume that the moister climate re-established itself; the mesophyte flora which had been destroyed here, but had maintained itself in some adjoining land where the conditions remained favourable, returned and gradually repeopled the desert or semi-desert, while the xerophytes retreated before it to those places, such as shingle-slips and areas like the small hollow at Castle Hill, where they had an advantage and have subsequently maintained themselves. But, in contradistinction to what has been said above, we must accept the following propositions as to this community of plants:—

(1.) The species here studied—e.g., Ranunculus paucifolius, Lepidium sisymbrioides, Oreomyrrhis andicola var. rigida, and Poa acicularifolia— all existed and held their own among the pre-drought mesophyte flora, but not perhaps exactly in their present form, since “adaptations” are not denied except as differential marks of new species. The only alternative is that they have originated, some or all of them, since the period of “drought.”

(2.) All these species must have had a high degree of plasticity, and thus they are able gradually to accommodate themselves to the increasingly severe drought; but all must have had already, at the beginning of the period, a definitely drought-resisting structure, and this was not at any time acquired by any of them in response to any external stress, and it would be at first quite useless to them.

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(3.) Each of these species originated by a mutation or sudden change involving the introduction of at least one quite new unit-character,* and this must have happened at some period anterior to that of the drought, not as a result of any such condition. Like other differential characters in general, those induced by this mutation would be at first perfectly useless (De Vries, 1912, p. 534), and the changed form would get its advantage only by the chance of the occurrence of the drought. The new character or characters then became useful; but we must resist the temptation to regard the useful character (e.g., the excessively thick and coriaceous leaf or long thick roots of the xerophytic Ranunculi) as an adaptation to the needs of the new external condition.

(4.) As “adaptations” can in this case not be denied, it follows that all the changes which are truly “adaptations” in these species are of the nature of “fluctuations,” and if any of them be cultivated under more favourable conditions the “adaptations” will disappear; the plant will then retain only so much of its xerophytic character as it had at the beginning of the drought, which gave it its initial advantage over others, and which was the result of some previous mutation. Until each plant of the community, therefore, has been so transplanted and tested it is impossible for us to tell which of its characters ought, and which ought not, to be regarded as differential specific characters; and it follows that the status of each is doubtful except where the plant has no near relatives at all among existing plants.

(5.) It is very improbable that the species of this community were all produced in the early stages of the drought by mutation. It is assumed “that the origin of new forms is not due to a hard struggle, but is promoted by a luxuriant environment and by easy conditions of development” (De Vries, 1912, p. 520). It is shown that a species (or genus) which is in a “state of mutability” may produce whole groups of new forms, even “swarms” (as in the case of Draba or Viola in Europe), though sometimes apparently such changes are only sporadic (p. 549). In this case it must be supposed that at some more or less remote period before the drought each of the genera Ranunculus, Lepidium, Oreomyrrhis, Myosotis, and Poa passed through a “mutation period” and threw off numbers of new species, some of which would immediately perish, while others would maintain themselves for shorter or longer periods under the stress of natural selection, and finally the species here perpetuated would alone survive under the fierce stress of the drought until rejoined by their relatives under the new climatic conditions.

(6.) Narrowing down the proposition to the particular genus and species here studied, we must believe that there existed at the beginning of the period of drought a species (or possibly more than one) of Ranunculus which had originated by mutation at some period (as to which it is useless to speculate) having peculiarly thick leaves, long roots, and other characters which gave it an advantage when the drought began to be severe. These characters, however, had been acquired by it owing to causes which are completely dark to us, not in response to any external stimulus or stress of environment. Fortunate in possessing these characters, it continued to live when other less-favoured Ranunculi perished, and it may or may not have changed under the new conditions, adapting itself thereto. But if it did so change it acquired no new unit-character; and all its modification remained mere “fluctuations,” and under more favourable conditions

[Footnote] * One is enough (De Vries, 1912, p. 562, in re Oenothera gigas).

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would disappear and leave it as it had been when the drought began. The five species here treated as a collective group would represent varying degrees of “adaptation” of this kind, and none of them is a true species, or even a microspecies, unless it already possessed its distinguishing specific characters at the beginning of the period. In this respect Ranunculus paucifolius is like any of the others of the group, and it is impossible for us to tell whether it originated from the same ancestral form with them or was already a true species when the stress of drought came upon it. Its “adaptation” to a limestone soil is thus most probably not a specific character, but an adaptation of the unstable kind which may disappear as soon as the need for it is withdrawn. The test of cultivation can alone decide this point.

It would be beyond the scope of this paper to discuss all the difficulties which stand in the way of a full acceptance of these propositions. But it may be said that the words “however small” (“Species-making changes occur by leaps and bounds, however small”) seem to imply a very great concession. Changes of the nature of “adaptations” to new conditions are not denied (De Vries, 1912, p. 579). “It is clear that we may call all these changes adaptations to new conditions. But then we must concede that these adaptations depend upon characters which were inherent in the species before it arrived in the new environment.” And, as very small changes may be due to true mutations, there seems to be no very great difference between the opposing views. It is admitted that under new conditions a species may change very greatly and appear to become quite a different species, and it is admitted that under new (as under any other) conditions a species may acquire very small new characters by mutation and so become a new species. Is it not possible that the “state of mutability,” whose causes have hitherto remained obscure, may be induced by the impact of new conditions and the demands of a new stress? No very great adjustment seems necessary to reconcile this view with that of De Vries. He says that plants may change and adapt themselves gradually to new conditions, but no new species can originate in that way; changes so induced are not “mutations.” It may be suggested, on the other hand, that possibly new characters, due to “mutations,” may be acquired by the plant as a direct response to Nature's ultimatum, “Change or die!”


1. The original description of the species by Kirk is not quite accurate. The number of the leaves is not abnormally small, being frequently 5 and may be as many as 9. The style, when the achene is ripe, is curved, not straight. The flowering-period is late October and November, not December. The petals number 5 to 8.

2. It is one member of a xerophytic plant community, or association, of very ancient origin, and is specially adapted, like some others of that community, to live upon a limestone soil, or, rather, debris formation.

3. Though its habitat is now, so far as is known, extremely restricted, it must formerly, with its associates, have been distributed over a far more extensive area of Tertiary limestone beds. This conclusion supports that reached by Speight (1915, p. 345) upon quite different evidence.

4. It is the product of a period of drought or steppe climate, which directly caused the development of its xerophytic characters; and in this it resembles the other members of the community to which it belongs, one which was formerly, in all probability, far richer in species, and perhaps even in genera, than it is now.

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5. It is adapted only for life under very special and peculiar conditions— e.g., its confinement to gentle gradients and to a limestone soil—which conditions have been provided and preserved for it, by a series of fortunate chances, in one small locality only (so far as is known at present).

6. Its life-history may be thus summed up conjecturally: Originating in the very remote past during a period of drought (which was probably very long) somewhere within or not far from an extensive area of Tertiary limestone, this plant acquired marked xerophytic characters and flourished, maintaining itself with ease, and as the area upon which it grew was slowly and gradually eroded (or perhaps, in parts, more rapidly by glaciation) it was restricted to areas continually diminishing in size and farther and farther separated from one another, until it remained in only one very limited area peculiarly situated and adapted to its needs. Here, as in its original state, it had little or no severe competition to meet and overcome, and for countless ages it has continued to exist there, surviving at least one great period of glaciation, which its habitat escaped; at least one pluvial epoch, which could not be favourable to it; and finally the various dangers resultant upon human occupation—depredations of stock and of hares and rabbits, pests and blights, and agricultural necessities and accidents, such as the plough and the wax match. Thus within its own narrow nook, secure from the competition of rivals, this strange plant, relic of an earlier day and clime, is passing slowly and, it may be permitted to fancy, unreluctantly away before our eyes in an age-long euthanasia.

I desire to express my great obligation of Mr. R. Speight, who with infinite trouble and pains took photographs of the plant in situ and of the locality; to Dr. W. P. Evans, who also photographed and sketched the locality and took the necessary observations of heights and levels and the measurements of the area; to Mr. A. E. Flower, who, with Dr. Evans, assisted me in the task of counting the plants; and to Dr. L. Cockayne, who has most kindly read over the whole of the paper and given me the benefit of his invaluable suggestions and criticisms.


Cheeseman, T. F., 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora.

Cockayne, L., 1900. A Sketch of the Plant Geography of the Waimakariri River Basin, considered chiefly from an Ecological Point of View, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, pp. 95–136.

— 1901. An Inquiry into the Seedling Forms of New Zealand Phanerogams and their Development, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 33, pp. 265–98.

De Vries, H., 1912. Rice Institute Book of the Opening Lectures on Mutations in Heredity and Geographical Botany.

Hooker, J. D., 1867. Handbook of the New Zealand Flora.

Hutton, F. W., 1885. Fauna and Flora of New Zealand, Ann. Nat. Hist., vol. 15, pp. 77–107.

— 1900. The Geological History of New Zealand, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, pp. 159–83.

Kirk, T., 1899. Students' Flora of New Zealand and the Outlying Islands.

Speight, R., 1911. The Post-glacial Climate of Canterbury, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 43, pp. 408–20.

— 1915. The Intermontane Basins of Canterbury, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 47, pp. 336–53.

— 1917. The Stratigraphy of the Tertiary Beds of the Trelissick or Castle Hill Basin, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 49, pp. 321–56.

Speight, R., Cockayne, L., and Laing, R. M., 1911. The Mount Arrowsmith District: a Study in Physiography and Plant Ecology. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 43, pp. 315–78.

Warming E., 1909. Oecology of Plants.

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This paper has been submitted to Professor Hugo de Vries, and he has sent me this comment:—

“It is, of course, interesting for me to read a statement of my views from a neo-Lamarckian standpoint, and the concession that the facts described by you do not contain any argument for a decision between the two contrasting theories.

“For me your article shows that R. paucifolius, R. chordorhizos, R. crithmifolius, and R. Haastii must have had a common ancestor, which was already a xerophyte, and that they must have inherited this character from it. This ancestor may have had the same geographical distribution which is now shown by the aggregate of its descendants. Perhaps one of them is identical with it; perhaps it has wholly disappeared. Under what conditions it lived we can, of course, not know, nor where and when it acquired its xerophytic properties. To conclude that it must have acquired them in a period of drought would be a circulus vitiosus, since it would simply be applying the theory to a special case and then considering the case as a proof of the theory.

“You say that possibly new characters may be acquired by a plant as a direct response to Nature's ultimatum, ‘Change or die.’ This is the old view, but not mine. The article you quote from was just intended to show that, as far as we know, the response has, as a matter of fact, always been, ‘I cannot change at your will and so I must die.’

“You assume that your plants have passed through periods of moisture, but have retained their xerophytic character nevertheless. It seems to me that this is conceding that external conditions do not, as a rule, provoke corresponding useful changes. They may do so, or seem to do so, or they may not. My view, that mutations, although, of course, caused by external conditions, are not necessarily responses to the ‘demands of a new stress,’ seems quite adequate to interpret your facts. I gladly concede that the causes of mutations are still dark to us, but then I say that responses such as Warming and other neo-Lamarckians suppose are far darker. Especially if you take into consideration what is now known concerning the structure of chromosomes and the distribution of the hereditary characters in them, it seems impossible to imagine the nature of such a supposed response. On the other hand, if we do not know the causes of mutation, the fact of their occurrence has been proved in so numerous individual cases that it can no longer be doubted, even by those who want to exclude the Oenotheras from the discussion.

“I shall be very glad to learn the results of your garden cultures. I should not wonder if your plants would behave just like the creosotbush of Tucson, and prefer better conditions to those which they enjoy (?) just-now. To me it seems that plants are found in those localities where they can better endure the circumstances than their competitors. But whether they really enjoy them, or would prefer more moisture and more fertile soils, and so on, is another question.”

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Art. XVI.—Helichrysum dimorphum Cockayne—a Hybrid?

[Read before the Canterbury Philosophical Institute, 1st October, 1919; received by Editor, 3rd October, 1919; issued separately, 10th June, 1920.]

Helichrysum dimorphum was discovered by Cockayne near the confluence of the Poulter and Waimakariri Rivers and described by him in 1915. Another plant was found by the same authority at Puffer's Creek, which runs into the Broken River not far from its junction with the Waimakariri. The two localities are about ten miles apart. The species has not been found again.

I visited the Puffer's Creek locality in February, 1919, and took specimens. The object of this paper is to suggest that Helichrysum dimorphum is a hybrid between H. filicaule and H. depressum, just as H. Purdiei seems to be certainly a cross between H. glomeratum and H. bellidioides.

Helichrysum dimorphum is a strong climber. The plant has a lusty, thriving appearance, and the branches grow in very great profusion and are most thickly massed together. Climbing upon a plant of Coprosma propinqua it shows leafless branches in the open, and leafy branches wherever it is at all shaded. The flowers, which are not fully open in my specimens, are borne upon the leafless branches. H. depressum occurs close to it in the bed of the creek, and H. filicaule is, as usual in such localities, abundant all round it. The plant grows about 8 ft. or 10 ft. above the bed of the creek.

Helichrysum filicaule shows a distinctly scandent or semi-scandent habit whenever it grows among tall plants, such as Discaria or Leptospermum. I have collected specimens over 2 ft. in length at Akaroa and elsewhere, one of these being found in the immediate neighbourhood of the Puffer's Creek plant when I was unsuccessfully searching for it in 1917. H. depressum, on the other hand, has been observed growing in actual contact with plants of Discaria without showing any tendency to climb.

My suggestion is that H. dimorphum is a cross between the two, deriving its scandent habit from H. filicaule, and its strength and solidity of form, which enable it to become a true climber, from H. depressum. As regards the inflorescence, H. dimorphum appears to be more closely related to H. depressum than to H. filicaule. The flowers in my specimens are just sufficiently advanced to make this quite clear. The resemblance to the flower and involucre of H. depressum is very close indeed. The flower is sessile at the tips of the branches, as in H. depressum, not terminal on a long filiform peduncle, as in H. filicaule; and the involucral bracts in their number and arrangement are exactly like those of H. depressum, the involucre being rather cylindrical than hemispherical.

In support of the theory I should adduce the following considerations:—

(1.) In both its localities both H. filicaule and H. depressum are present at no great distance. In the Poulter locality the plant grows on the top of a high terrace (perhaps 60 ft. to 80 ft.) above the river, in whose bed H. depressum is abundant, while H. filicaule is present everywhere about it.

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(2.) The leafy parts strongly resemble H. filicaule, and the leafless parts H. depressum.

(3.) The plant is of extreme rarity, and this would be accounted for, in part, if H. dimorphum were a hybrid between the two plants named.


Since the above was written I have observed the plant in great quantities on the Lower Poulter, on the Esk River near its confluence with the Waimakariri, and along the Waimakariri itself between the confluence of the Poulter and that of the Esk with that river. The Esk mouth is not much more than five miles from the Puffer's Creek locality.

Art. XVII.—On the Occurrence of Striated Boulders in a Palaeozoic Breccia near Taieri Mouth, Otago, New Zealand.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 9th December, 1919; received by Editor, 31st December, 1919; issued separately, 10th, June 1920.]

In a small cove close to Rocky Point, which is the first headland on the south side of Taieri Mouth, and about a mile and a half from the Taieri jetty, there is a conspicuous bed of coarse red and green breccia. It is underlain by bluish-grey micaceous phyllites, and overlain by altered flaggy greywacke. The strike of the breccia and associated rocks is about N.N.E.-S.S.W., and the dip S.S.E. at angles ranging from 5° to 30°. Generally the inclination of the lowermost beds is flatter than that of the uppermost beds. At Taieri Mouth the dip of the grey micaceous slaty rocks ranges from 5° to 15°, and that of the greywacke south of Rocky Point from 15° to 30°.

The breccia is well exposed in the sea-cliffs near Rocky Point, and can be traced northward along the line of strike one-third of the distance to Taieri Island as a line of submerged reef that is in places awash at low water. It is not present on Taieri Island.

To the southward of Rocky Point the breccia ought to crop out on the ridge between that place and Akatore Inlet, but I failed to find it there. It is a rock not easily overlooked, and I am inclined to believe that it peters out before it reaches the crest of the ridge. It is probably a lensshaped mass with a maximum thickness of some 120 ft.

At Rocky Point the breccia resembles a consolidated rock-rubble, being mainly composed of a confused pile of angular and subangular fragments and blocks of red and green siliceous slaty shale. It also contains numerous masses of an excessively hard jasperoid and aphanitic breccia that appear to have been torn from some pre-existing breccia. The constituent fragments range in size from small grains to masses many feet in diameter.

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The largest block in the breccia occurs in place, at the foot of the sea-cliff in the first sandy cove south of Rocky Point. It is an included breccia-boulder, partially rounded at the corners and sides, compact, and intensely hard. It measures some 7.5 ft. by 5.3 ft. by 4.5 ft. Its upper surface is fairly flat, and covered with distinct striae that, as a rule, run parallel with the longer axis of the block. The area of the striated surface is about 10 square feet. Several of the smaller included blocks on the south side of the cove are similarly striated.

This remarkable rock resembles the typical Te Anau breccia of Sir James Hector. It is underlain, apparently conformably, by the semi-metamorphic Kakanuian rocks of Hector, which everywhere in Otago overlie the mica-schists of Central Otago. There is no internal evidence to fix the age of the Kakanuian rocks. All that can be said is that they underlie the Mount St. Mary series, which is Triassic, and overlie the mica-schists of the interior. The Te Anau series of Hector, as identified by him in Nelson, conformably underlies the Maitai series, which is now known to be Upper Carboniferous or Permo-Carboniferous. I have always found it difficult to separate the Te Anau rocks from the Maitaian, and in 1910 grouped them as belonging to the same formation. Hector ascribed the Te Anau series to the Devonian period, the only evidence in favour of this being its inferior and conformable relationship to the Maitaian, which he placed in the Carboniferous.

In Nelson and Marlborough, the rocks identified by Hector and McKay as belonging to the Te Anau series are underlain by semi-metamorphic rocks of supposed Kakanuian age.

The Taieri Mouth breccia and overlying greywackes may very well belong to the Te Anau series of Hector, and the underlying grey silky micaceous phyllites to the Kakanuian. If this position can be established, the Taieri Mouth breccia may be placed in the Upper Carboniferous or Permo-Carboniferous.

This is the first discovery of striated boulders in the Palaeozoic formations of New Zealand, and the origin of the striae is certain to give rise to some diversity of opinion.

The striation may be glacial or dynamical. If the striated boulders occurred along the fracture of a shear-plane I should ascribe the striation to shearing. Though crushed and broken, the breccia shows no evidence of shearing along defined planes, and for this reason I am inclined to favour the glacial hypothesis.

If the glacial view be sustained we are at once confronted with the question—(a.) What relationship, if any, does the Taieri Mouth breccia bear to the glacial deposits reported in the Upper Palaeozoic formations of India,* Australia, South Africa, and Brazil§? (b.) Was the glaciation alpine or secular? (c.) Did the ancient Gondwana continent extend southward to the New Zealand area?

[Footnote] * H. B. Medlicott and W. T. Blanford, Manual of the Geology of India, pt. i, p. 110, 1879; and R. D. Oldham, Quart, Jour. Geol. Soc., p. 469, 1894.

[Footnote] † T. W. Edgeworth David, Geology of the Hunter River Coal-measures, Mem. Geol. Surv. N S. W. No. 4, p. 124, 1907.

[Footnote] ‡ E. T. Mellor, Study of the Glacial Conglomerate in the Transvaal, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc., vol. 61, p. 682, 1905; W. M. Davis, Bull. Geo. Soc. Am., vol. 17, p. 413, 1906; and others.

[Footnote] § David White, Permo-Carboniferous Climatic Changes in South America, Am. Jour. Geol., vol. 15, p. 618, 1907.

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Art. XVIII.—The Tawhiti Series, East Cape District.

[Read before the Wanganui Philosophical Society, 3rd December, 1919; received by Editor, 31st December, 1919; issued separately, 10th June, 1920.]

The true geological position of the strata that are exposed on the coastline between Tokomaru Bay and the East Cape has never been definitely ascertained, for we have had to rely on rather incomplete statements of McKay. Fossils of a true Cretaceous nature were reported as occurring in some abundance near Awanui. I visited the district in January, 1919, in company with Mr. J. A. Bartrum, with the primary object of making collections of fossils from the localities that were mentioned by McKay, in the hope that study of them would be of assistance in unravelling some of the debated points in regard to the relationship of the Cretaceous rocks to those of Tertiary age in New Zealand.

We spent two days on the coast near Awanui, but failed to find any of the ammonites and other fossils that were mentioned by McKay.* The only fossil remains that we found were some fragments of Inoceramus near the wharf at Awanui and a number of small worm-tubes a little to the north of that place. Inoceramus was very abundant in the concretionary boulders on the north side of Tuparoa Bay, and there were also fossils in the marls on the south side of the bay. These, however, were badly preserved, and seemed to be of a distinctly Tertiary nature. The stratigraphy is extremely involved, and the strata have slipped so much, while the sections are so discontinuous, that in the limited time at our disposal we were quite unable to come to any detailed conclusions on the question of the relationship of the strata.

At Tawhiti Point, on the north side of Tokomaru Bay, fossils are quite numerous, and they are also abundant in the shell conglomerate which occurs on Tawhiti itself at an elevation of 500 ft. or more. From the former of these localities over a distance of about a mile along the coast from Kotunui Point a representative collection of fossils was made. McKay collected from these beds in 1872, and he made a further reference to them in 1886, when he classed them of Upper Miocene age.

Hutton, in his paper on the geology of New Zealand, places the Tawhiti beds in the Pareora system, which is regarded by him as the equivalent of the Miocene of Europe.

No list of fossils that were found in these rocks has yet been published. The rocks are described by McKay as soft brown sandstones. We found that in their unweathered state they are of a grey colour and fine-grained. They are formed partly of small grains of quartz, with a good deal of partly-weathered feldspar, and black grains which seem to be volcanic glass. It is almost certain that the sand is of volcanic origin. The strata are considerably inclined, and strike 41° and dip 37° north-west. The thickness of the strata of which Tawhiti is composed is very considerable. Tawhiti itself rises to a height of 1,670 ft., and if the strike and

[Footnote] * A. McKay, Rep. Geol. Explor. dur. 1873–74, 1877, p. 124; 1886–87, 1887, p. 214.

[Footnote] † A. McKay, Rep. Geol. Explor. dur. 1873–74, 1877, p. 147; 1886–87, 1887, p. 210.

[Footnote] ‡ F. W. Hutton, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., 1885, p. 209.

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dip remain the same throughout as at Kotunui Point there cannot be less than 3,000 ft. of rocks. Our collections were made from practically the lowest rocks that are exposed near Tawhiti. The rocks vary a good deal in coarseness and are concretionary in many of the strata, but the fossils did not appear to vary much, and we have made no attempt to distinguish between the faunas of any of the different strata. Actually the thickness of the strata from which we collected was quite small.

The following is a list of the fossils that were collected by Mr. Bartrum and myself. In identifying the species I have had the invaluable aid of Mr. R. Murdoch.

  • Anomia huttoni (Sut.)

  • Astraea heliotropium (Mart.)

  • *Atrina sp.

  • *Calliostoma sp.

  • Calyptraea sp.

  • *Conus sp.

  • *Corbula canaliculata (Hutt.)

  • Corbula macilenta (Hutt.)

  • *Cucullaea worthingtoni (Hutt.)

  • *Cylichnella enysi (Hutt.)

  • *Dentalium mantelli (Zittel)

  • Dentalium nanum (Hutt.)

  • *Dentalium solidum (Hutt.)

  • *Diplodonta ampla (Hutt.)

  • *Divaricella sp.

  • Dosinia greyi (Zittel)

  • Dosinia lambata (Gould)

  • *Drillia aff. novae-zelandiae (Reeve)

  • *Galeodea senex (Hutt.)

  • *Galeodea sulcata (Hutt.)

  • Glycymeris laticostata (Q. & Q.) (thick form)

  • *Macrocallista assimilis (Hutt.)

  • Macrocallista multistriata (Sow.)

  • Mactra ordinaria (Smith)

  • Mactra scalpellum (Reeve)

  • Malletia australis (Q. & G.)

  • Myodora subrostrata (E. A. Smith)

  • Natica australis (Hutt.)

  • *Natica callosa (Hutt.)

  • *Natica ovata (Hutt.)

  • Nucula nitidula (A. Ad.)

  • Nuculana fastidiosa (A. Ad.)

  • *Olivella neozelanica (Hutt.)

  • Ostrea angasi (Sow.)

  • Ostrea corrugata (Hutt.)

  • *Panope worthingtoni (Hutt.)

  • Pecten convexus (Q. & G.)

  • *Pecten sectus (Hutt.)

  • Pecten zelandiae (Gray)

  • Protocardia pulchella (Gray)

  • *Sinum carinatum (Hutt.)

  • *Siphonalia conoidea (Zittel)

  • *Siphonalia costata (Hutt.)

  • *Siphonalia excelsa (Sut.)

  • *Siphonalia nodosa actuicostata (Sut.)

  • *Struhiolaria cincta (Hutt.)

  • Tellina eugonia (Sut.)

  • Tellina liliana (Iredale)

  • Turritella symmetrica (Hutt.)

  • Venericardia corbis (Phil.)

  • Venericardia purpurata (Desh.)

  • *Voluta corrugata (Hutt.)

Extinct species are distinguished by an asterisk. Several of the species that are unnamed are certainly extinct, but are not in a sufficiently good condition of preservation to allow of a satisfactory description being written.

This list contains fifty-two species, of which twenty-six are extinct—a percentage of 50. If this percentage of extinct species of mollusca is taken as a criterion for the correlation of the strata, the Tawhiti series must be almost exactly midway between the Target Gully series, where there are 35 per cent. of Recent species, and the Waipipi series, in which the percentage is 63. This position of the strata is suggested also by the very nature of the fauna. On the one hand Olivella neozelanica still persists, as well as Diplodonta ampla; while on the other hand a large number of species of Miocene occurrence appear, such as Cucullaea worthingtoni, Siphonalia conoidea, S. costata, Galeodea senex, &c. It is noticeable that there is no species of Limopsis in this collection, and that this genus is absent from those that have been made on the coast-line near Wanganui.

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Art. XIX.—The Hampden Beds and the New Zealand Tertiary Limestones.

[Read before the Wanganui Philosophical Society, 3rd December, 1919; received by Editor, 31st December, 1919; issued separately, 10th June, 1920.]

The facts that have recently come to light in regard to the palaeontology of the Hampden beds may be of some use in determining the relative ages of the Amuri and Oamaru limestones. The number of fossils that have been found actually in the Amuri limestone up to the present time is small but such as have been recorded suggest a Tertiary rather than a Cretaceous age. Within recent years, however, Thomson (1916, p. 51) and Speight (1917, p. 344) have found a fauna in tuff-beds interstratified with the upper portion of the Amuri limestone in the Trelissick Basin, in Canterbury.

The mollusca of this tuff-bed, so far as they have been collected up to the present time, number thirty-seven species, of which 19 per cent. are Recent. This is clearly a much later fauna than that of Hampden, for there the Recent species are no more than 10 per cent. of the total of eighty. If attention is focused more on the nature of the fauna than on the percentage the same conclusion will be reached, for the genera Dicroloma, Trigonia, Gilbertia, and even Exilia, of the Hampden fauna, have no representatives, or even counterpart, in the collections that have been made in the tuff-bed of the Trelissick Basin, the horizon of which is 10 ft. below the upper surface of the Amuri limestone as developed in that locality. It follows, if the palaeontological evidence is to be relied on, that the Hampden beds are considerably older than the upper portion of the Amuri limestone. If Thomson's statement is correct, that the Amuri limestone is Cretaceous at the base and Tertiary in its upper portion (loc. cit., p. 51), the Hampden beds must represent some horizon in the middle or upper part of the Amuri limestone. Thomson's statement, however, is based rather on surmise than on actual fact, for up to the present time no fauna has been found in the deposits immediately at the base of the Amuri limestone, though at Amuri Bluff itself it is true that only some 200 ft. of strata separate the beds with Cretaceous saurian remains from the base of the Amuri limestone.

Irrespective altogether of the accuracy of Thomson's statement, there is reason to believe that the Hampden beds are equivalent to some horizon of the Amuri limestone, or possibly to an horizon actually below the Amuri limestone. At Hampden itself there is no limestone, for on the fossil-bearing beds, which are mainly formed of greensand, there is a great thickness of submarine tuff, scoria, and other volcanic matter. The eruption of this apparently affected the sea-floor so much, and for such a long time, that all deposition of limestone was prevented. As a matter of fact, the first occurrence of limestone in this neighbourhood is at All Day Bay, fifteen miles farther north; and even there the limestone stratum is thin, and rests directly on submarine volcanic scoria. Since the regular succession of the Oamaru system in its upper members cannot be found at Hampden, some other neighbouring locality must be found where it is more complete, and where there are strata recognizable by their fossil contents as being of somewhat similar age to those of Hampden.

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Such a succession can be found near the Waihao Forks. Here the green-sand strata that are exposed on the right bank of the river, between the Forks and McCulloch's bridge, are similar lithologically to the Hampden beds, and there is a clear stratigraphical succession to the local representative of the Oamaru limestone above, as has been clearly shown by McKay, Park, Marshall, and all others except Hutton, who gave a most surprising account of the stratigraphy. Not only are the Waihao greensands similar lithologically to the Hampden beds, but there is also a close palaeontological similarity, for the following fossils which have not yet been found in any higher or, indeed, any other strata occur in both of them—Polinices waihaoensis, Exilia waihaoensis, Turris regius, Turris complicatus, Surcula serotina, Fusinus solidus, and Euthriofusus spinosus—though up to the present time only very small collections have been made in the Waihao beds. The Hampden beds may therefore be considered as of much the same age as, though perhaps a little older than, those at Waihao. In this locality, however, the stratigraphy is not complicated by the occurrence of any strata of volcanic origin, and the greensands pass up without any break, and within a thickness of 100 ft. of strata, into a limestone which is thought by all observers except Park to be the local representative of the Oamaru limestone. No collection of fossils has yet been made from the limestone at the Waihao, but at Otiake, twenty miles distant, on the south side of the Waitaki River, there is a similar limestone, which is considered by all geologists who have examined this area to be of the same age, and in effect a continuation of the limestone stratum of the Waihao. At Otiake a collection of fossils was made by Marshall and others, who found sixty-one species, of which 24 per cent. were determined as Recent species.

The facts so far mentioned may be summarized as follows: At Coleridge Creek, in the Trelissick Basin, there is a fossiliferous horizon containing 19 per cent. of Recent species. This horizon is below the limestone (Speight, 1917, pp. 328 and 344), or 10 ft. below the upper surface of the Amuri limestone (Thomson, 1916, p. 51). In the greensands at Hampden there are 10 per cent. of Recent species. Lithologically and palaeonto-logically the Hampden beds are closely similar to those at the Waihao Forks, which pass up conformably into the arenaceous limestone. This limestone is always correlated with that at Otiake, which in its upper portion of 2 ft. or 3 ft. contains 24 per cent. of Recent species.

Such palaeontological evidence as we have at present therefore clearly points to the probability that the age of the Amuri limestone as developed in the Trelissick Basin is practically the same as the age of the Otiake limestone, which is admitted by all geologists except Park to be the same horizon as that of the Oamaru or Ototara limestone.

This consideration also shows that too much importance should not be attached to the absence of the Amuri limestone in Otago. This material is a Globigerina ooze, which was probably deposited on the floor of a deep, clear-water, oceanic area. The Oamaru or Ototara limestone was deposited in far shallower water, where Polyzoa abounded, but still outside the area to which sediment was carried. The Waihao and Otiake limestones, however, were deposited nearer to the shore, in an area to which terrigenous sediment was carried, and where tidal scour disturbed the sea-floor.

It seems unnecessary to call in the aid of local diastrophes to explain the differences between the Canterbury and Otago succession of Tertiary rocks, for, as I have often maintained, the differences that exist can easily be explained on general considerations. The Canterbury area was evidently

– 113 –

more deeply depressed during this middle Tertiary period than Otago, a fact that is clearly evidenced by the very nature of the Amuri limestone, which is often wholly composed of Globigerina, but in some cases of other pelagic organisms as well. In Otago, on the other hand, the limestones, whilst still free from all terrestrial sediment, consist mainly of organisms that live on the floor of moderately deep water only. While this is the case, however, it must still be remembered that at Oamaru the limestone rests on a deposit that is composed of diatoms, Radiolaria, and sponge-spicules. Park (1918, p. 50) has lately maintained that this is really a shallow-water deposit, an opinion that is based partly on the general geology of the district and partly on the nature of the mollusca and brachiopods that are found in the deposit. The fossil species to which he refers are not named. In a collection made by me in June, 1915, the following mollusca were obtained: Amusium zitteli (Hutton), Nuculana (Leda) sp., Lima sp. (small), and Terebratulina suessi (Zittel). These are all genera that have a wide occurrence in deep water, and until a list is published which contains the names of other mollusca, that have a shallow-water habitat there is no reason to suppose that the molluscan remains in these diatomaceous deposits are incompatible with the accumulation of the material on a deep oceanic floor. There is no reason to suppose that the water was of the same depth over all that portion of New Zealand that was then covered by the ocean. In Canterbury the area in which the Amuri limestone occurs was covered by deeper water than that portion of Otago where the Oamaru or Ototara limestone is found. It may therefore fairly be said that all the palaeontological evidence that is known at the present time supports the belief that the Oamaru limestone represents an horizon of the Amuri limestone, and that there are no stratigraphical or structural facts known that oppose this conclusion.

In the north of Auckland the so-called hydraulic limestone covers a large area. This limestone is also composed mainly of Globigerina ooze, and, like the Amuri limestone, it is often highly siliceous, and in places the siliceous organisms are calcified, though at others diatoms, Radiolaria, and sponge-spicules are in a perfectly fresh condition and can be obtained in large numbers. This limestone has generally been correlated with the Amuri limestone of Canterbury, and Thomson's objection to this has already been refuted (Marshall, 1919, p. 248, footnote). In addition, however, to the general stratigraphical position of this limestone, there is palaeontological evidence of considerable importance. At Pahi, on the Arapaoa arm of the Kaipara Harbour, there is on the foreshore a little to the west of Pahi Township a bed of greensand lying between two beds of the hydraulic limestone. This greensand contains a considerable number of fossils, as first noted by Park. The fossils, however, are in a bad state of preservation, and only a few of them can be identified specifically. The following were collected in 1916:—

  • Atrina sp.

  • Calliostoma sp.

  • Cassidea n. sp.

  • Corbula canaliculata (Hutt.)

  • Cucullaea alta (Sow.)

  • Cytherea sp.

  • Dentalium solidum (Hutt.)

  • Divaricella aff. cumingi (Ad. & Ang.)

  • Limopsis zitteli (Iher.)

  • Nucula sp.

  • Nuculana aff. bellula (A. Ad.)

  • Ostrea aff. corrugata (Hutt.)

  • Panope worthingtoni (Hutt.)

  • Polinices gibbosus (Hutt.)

  • Psammobia sp.

  • Struthiolaria sp.

  • Surcula n. sp.

  • Tellina sp.

  • Turritella ambulacrum (Sow.)

  • Venericardia aff. australis (Lamk.)

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Although this list is short and many species are not identified, it can be asserted that not more than two are Recent species, and even these are doubtful. The new species of Surcula is of considerable interest, for it belongs to the group that contains S. hamiltoni,. S. gravida, and S. torticostata, all of which are restricted to the strata that lie beneath the limestone near Oamaru. The horizon is probably a little higher than the Hampden series, but also lower than the lower fossiliferous bed in the Trelissick Basin, to which reference has previously been made.

The hydraulic limestone of the Kaipara Harbour is thus, from a consideration of such palaeontological evidence as is available, seen to be of approximately the same age as the Amuri limestone of the Trelissick Basin.

The following changes and additions must be made to the list of the Hampden molluscan fauna given in Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 51, p. 235, 1919:—

Siphonalia nodosa Martyn to be Siphonalia nodosa acuticostata (Suter).

Volutoderma zelandica Marshall to be Borsonia zelandica (Marshall).

The list of additions that is given below includes the species mentioned in the footnote on the page cited above:—

  • Admete anomala (Marshall and Murdoch)

  • Epitonium aff. gracillimum (Sut.)

  • Epitonium parvicostatum (Marshall)

  • Euthriofusus spinosus (Sut.)

  • Fusinus sp. (fragments only)

  • Fusinus aff. morgani (Sut.)

  • Leptoconus armoricus pseudoarmoricus (Marshall and Murdoch)

  • Limopsis aurita (Brocchi)

  • Limopsis catenata (Sut.)

  • Nucula n. sp.

  • Nuculana semiteres (Hutt.)

  • Pecten aff. fischeri (Zittel)

  • Phos sp. (fragments only)

  • Protocardia pulchella (Gray)

  • Rissoina obliquecostata (Marshall and Murdoch)

  • Seila attenuissima (Marshall and Murdoch)

  • Sinum carinatum (Hutt.)

  • Siphonalia senilis (Marshall and Murdoch)

  • Soletellina n. sp.

  • Surcula hampdenensis (Marshall and Murdoch)

  • Trifora aoteaensis (Marshall and Murdoch)

  • Turris curialis (Marshall and Murdoch)

This list raises the total to ninety-three species, of which some thirty-nine have not been found elsewhere. Siphonalia nodosa is now taken out of the list, and Protocardia pulchella and Limopsis aurita are added to the number of Recent species, which now number eight, a percentage of only 8.7. Cossman has pointed out that the identification of Limopsis aurita in New Zealand is an error, and that the species should be called L. zelandica Hutton. It is placed here under L. aurita because in other lists of Oamaru strata this identification has been made.

List of Papers cited.

Marshall, P., 1919. Fauna of the Hampden Beds and Classification of the Oamaru System, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 51, pp. 226–50.

Park, J., 1918. N.Z. Geol. Surv. Bull. No. 20.

Speight, R., 1917. The Stratigraphy of the Tertiary Beds of the Trelissick or Castle Hill Basin, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 49, pp. 321–56.

Thomson, J. A., 1916. The Flint-beds associated with the Amuri Limestone of Marlborough, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 48, pp. 48–58.

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Art. XX.—The Tertiary Rocks near Wanganui.

[Read before the Wanganui Philosophical Society, 3rd December, 1919; received by Editor, 31st December, 1919; issued separately, 10th June, 1920.]

The marine strata that occur in the neighbourhood of Wanganui have long been the subject of geological inquiry and research. As developed along the coast-line they are richly fossiliferous almost throughout their extent, and the fossils that they contain are so closely related to the Recent molluscan fauna that the rocks have always been referred to the higher divisions of the Tertiary era. A résumé of the earlier work that had been published on these sediments was given by Hutton (1886, p. 338), and it is in general unnecessary to refer to it here. In that paper also Hutton gave for the first time a fairly complete list of the mollusca that had been collected from the Wanganui system up to that date. The list, however, contains also a number of species that had been found in the strata at Matapiro and Petane, in Hawke's Bay, which were considered by Hutton to be of equivalent geological age.

In his Wanganui system Hutton included the blue clays at Castlecliff and the blue clays at Patea, but he makes no reference to the rocks that outcrop on the coast between those places—the mouth of the Wanganui River and that of the Patea River.

A fuller list, but based upon the same principles and containing descriptions of a number of additional species, was published by Hutton subsequently (1893, p. 35 et seq.).

In these papers Hutton rarely makes any statement as to the actual Wanganui locality at which the various species were found. For that reason none of his lists can be utilized in any statement of the species that occur in the beds at Castlecliff and elsewhere along the coast. This is the more regrettable because many of the new species that were described in the Macleay Memorial Volume were found by Drew in the marine cliffs somewhere to the north of Castlecliff.

Hutton (1886, p. 337) took this course deliberately, for he says, “In order to save space I have not thought it necessary to give separate lists of the fossils from each locality, but have contented myself with one list of all the species that have been found in the Wanganui system,” but the work that has been done “will enable local geologists to fill in the details.” This additional work has not been done up to the present time, and the details that have to be filled in are so numerous that much time must elapse before anything approaching a complete result is achieved.

Park (1887) examined all the Wanganui and west-coast district for the Geological Survey, and in his report there are lists of fossils that he collected from the various strata that crop out on the coast-line and on the banks of the Wanganui River, as well as a number of other adjacent localities. The lists that he gives are, however, far from complete, though they reveal the occurrence of a large number of extinct species, such as Pecten triphooki, Pecten semiplicatus, Ostrea ingens, Cardium spatiosum, and Perna sp., several of which were regarded by Hutton as characteristic of his Pareora system, of Upper Miocene age.

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In 1916 Thomson proposed to divide the rocks exposed on the Wanganui coast-line into the Castlecliffian and Waitotaran series. This proposal, however, was not based on any further work, but merely on a consideration of Park's work and of the lists of fossils that he had recorded.

Murdoch (1900, p. 216) described further species that had been collected by himself and others from the blue clays in the Castlecliff area.

All of the strata on the coast-line north of Wanganui, as far at least as Patea, were placed by Hutton (1885, p. 211) in the Pliocene system. Hector (1886, p. 48) placed the strata partly in the Upper Miocene. Park (1887, p. 57) placed the beds near Wanganui in the Upper Pliocene, those at Nukumaru in the Lower Pliocene, and those between Waitotara and Patea in the Upper Miocene.

The present work was undertaken partly to discover the thickness of the strata exposed on the coast-line, and partly to find out as accurately as possible the extent to which the fauna changed as the depth in the strata, and therefore the geological age, increased. At first the intention was to collect the fossils in every stratum in which they could be found, and to make a separate list of the fauna in every case. The great number of fossil-bearing strata soon showed that such a project was impracticable, and that for the present purpose it was also undesirable, for each single stratum contains a small fauna only. If the fauna of each stratum were taken separately there would result a very large number of lists, and the comparison of these would lead to much confusion. For these reasons four different collecting localities have been chosen, and in each instance a thickness of about 500 ft. of sediment has been searched carefully, and as complete a collection as possible has been made from it. The lists that have been made cannot in general be regarded as in any way exhaustive, but in nearly every instance several visits have been made by two collectors in company. The Castlecliff locality has probably been almost completely collected, for much time has been spent in the study of the strata there, because it is most accessible. The late S. H. Drew obtained a large number of fossils there, and one of us has collected in these strata for a number of years, and of late times it is only rarely that any additions have been made to previous lists.

The localities that have been chosen as suitable for the comparison of faunas are as follows:—

(1.) Castlecliff.—A thickness of about 500 ft. of strata, commencing at the southernmost end of the sea-cliffs and ending about a mile and a half from the mouth of the Wanganui River. Nearly every stratum in this thickness is fossil-bearing. Almost all of the strata consist of a fine but hard blue clay—the so-called “papa.” The fineness and general nature of this material, as well as the mollusca that it contains, give the impression that the material was deposited on the floor of a sea that was not less than 50 fathoms in depth in this locality. As the strata are followed to the north and rise in the cliffs the material becomes a little coarser, and often changes to a micaceous sand before it works out at the top of the cliff. This apparently indicates that the water became shallower in the northern part of the district. This conclusion is supported by the nature of the fossil mollusca which have been found in the sandy facies of the strata.

(2.) Kai Iwi.—This locality is five miles to the north of the previous one. The rocks which extend about a mile to the south of the Kai Iwi Stream form the source of the collections classified under this name. The material is almost entirely blue clay of a fine unctuous nature. The collection that has been made is less complete than those made in the other localities.

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(3.) Nukumaru Beach.—This locality is six miles to the north of Kai Iwi, and extends over a distance of one mile to the south of the boat-landing. The strata here are of a much coarser grain and are highly micaceous. In some of the strata there are pebbly bands. The pebbles are formed of extremely hard submetamorphic sandstones, or greywackes, often penetrated by quartz veins. Many of them are of a green tint. Much of the fossiliferous material in this locality is of a concretionary nature.

(4.) Waipipi Beach.—This is nine miles north of Nukumaru. The strata here consist of a stiff and fine blue clay, with occasional bands of fine micaceous sandy matter. It is mainly in these bands that the fossils are found. The best localities are directly north of the mouth of the Waipipi Stream and on a projecting headland three-quarters of a mile farther to the north. Sometimes as the sand drifts with changing winds and tides very fine fossils are exposed above low-tide level between these two localities.

It may be said definitely that lithologically the strata are of the same general nature throughout. A bluish-grey fine-grained sediment is the ordinary material. This in places becomes sandy, especially between Kai Iwi and Nukumaru, where there is much false bedding, due apparently to rough-weather and tidal scouring, for there does not appear to be any actual beach formation. Sometimes the fossiliferous bands have an extremely marked concretionary nature, and then the rock becomes a hard arenaceous limestone; but this is always a shoal-water rock, and it generally contains a number of small pebbles. This is the nature of the Nukumaru limestone, which is really a shell conglomerate. This hard rock fronts the coast for a distance of some three miles north of Nukumaru Beach.

The strata always strike to the east of north. The most northerly strike is N. 27° E., at the mouth of the Waipipi Stream, and the most easterly N. 85° E., near the mouth of the Kai Iwi Stream. The average throughout the whole distance is considered to be N. 70° E. The dip is always to the south-east, and its amount is small throughout—never more than 6° and never less than 2½°. The average is considered to be a little over 4°.

No dislocations of any importance have been seen in the strata, though the sea-cliffs, which are continuous from Castlecliff to three miles north of Nukumaru, have been closely inspected throughout the whole distance. There are some small faults, but they always have a slight throw only. Nothing of the nature of an important unconformity can be seen. Three miles to the north of Kai Iwi an old land-surface can be seen distinctly in the stratification. The evidence of this is found in a stratum of beach-worn pebbles, a carbonaceous stratum with roots penetrating the blue clay beneath, and a number of molluscan bores penetrating it. There is, however, no discordance in the stratification, and no species of mollusca were found in the strata lying just above the old land-surface different from those that were found beneath it. It is, however, noticeable that Crepidula gregaria was far more abundant in the rocks below than in those above this old surface. The structure is certainly due to a purely temporary emergence of what was probably a small portion of the area of deposition.

There is another instance of interbedded carbonaceous matter and of penetrating roots near the south end of the Nukumaru Beach, a quarter of a mile to the south of the place where the fossil moa-bones were found. This is a far less marked instance than the former one. These

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two instances emphasize the shallow-water nature of the strata in the Nukumaru — Kai Iwi section, and they show also that there were temporary oscillations in the level of the land whilst the deposition of these rocks was in progress.

The continuity of the stratigraphical succession is, however, well shown by the nature of the fossil mollusca which are contained in the rocks, for they display a nearly uniform gradual change as one proceeds northward along the coast-line, and therefore into lower strata. It has already been suggested that the small pebbles in some of the strata came from the northwest of Nelson, but no suggestion has yet been made as to the source of the great mass of the blue clay, which constitutes by far the greater part of these younger Tertiary sediments. One of the most notable features of the mineralogical composition of this blue clay is its highly micaceous nature. The mica is muscovite, and whenever a coarser stratum than usual occurs the mica flakes in particular are of such a large size that the only origin that can reasonably be assigned to them is a granitic rock. There is at the present time no such rock known to occur in the North Island, and unless some large pre-existing mass has been submerged, or covered up by sediments, we must look to the South Island for the rock-mass from which all this sediment was derived. There is no reason to think that any previously existing granite mass in the North Island is now concealed from view, and it is to the South Island that our attention is at once directed.

In the north-west of Nelson there is now a large area of country which is composed of a granite. It is suggested that it is from this rock that the younger Tertiary sediments of the Wanganui district were derived. It is true that so far as that granite is known there is not a great deal of muscovite in its composition; but up to the present time little petrographical work has been done on the rock, and it is quite possible that a portion of the granite, which crops out over an area of some 800 square miles, is more micaceous than the few specimens that have been closely examined. It is true also that on its seaward margin the granite has a superficial covering of Tertiary rocks of a greater age than the Wanganui series of sediments. The granite mountains rise, however, to a height of 6,000 ft., and no Tertiary sediments are exposed at a greater height than 2,000 ft. It is a fact also that no granite pebbles have been found in the coarser strata that often occur in the Wanganui sediments. This objection, however, is not a strong one, because the granite is notoriously friable, and no pebbles are found on the long beach of Farewell Spit, which is mainly composed of detritus from the granite.

At the present time there is no material on the beaches of the Wanganui coast that could have a granite origin assigned to it, and the depth of the north-west entrance of Cook Strait is too great to allow of the drift of any such material from the South Island, especially when the strong inflow and outflow of tides through the strait is considered. If the origin of the sediment is to be traced to the Karamea granite, as is here suggested, Cook Strait must at that time have been closed, and a continuous beach must have extended from Kahurangi Point to the Wanganui area.

The thickness of the sediments is a matter of great importance in the subject of this paper. The direction of the strike is, on the whole, so constant, and makes such a considerable angle with the coast-line, that it is at once evident that in a distance of twenty miles along the coast a great thickness of sediment must be passed through. Taking the average of the dip and strike mentioned above (strike 70° and dip 4½°), it is found that the thickness of rocks between Castlecliff and Kai Iwi is 950 ft., the

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thickness between Kai Iwi and Nukumaru is 1,050 ft., and that between Nukumaru and Waipipi is 1,450 ft. If the rate at which these sediments were deposited can be approximately estimated, it should be possible to calculate the time at which various species of mollusca made their last appearance. It is generally estimated that the average rate of deposition of sediment amounts to about 1 ft. in 100 years (Sollas, 1905, p. 24). This estimate, of course, cannot have a precise application in all actual cases, if in any one, because in every case the true rate must depend upon the size of the country that is being denuded and is supplying the sediment, upon the hardness of the rock of which this country is mainly composed, and, of course, upon the distance from the coast-line of the area in which deposition is taking place.

In the present instance the area of land which was undergoing denudation was probably small, and therefore supplied sediment at a slow rate. Whether the land was composed of granite rock or was in part formed of sediments that had been derived from granite and raised above the sea-level a little while earlier and again submitted to denudation is by no means certain. On the one hand, the fact that from Karioi to Waiouru, sixty miles inland, rocks of this very young Tertiary age were being deposited points to the conclusion that there was at this time a wide extent of shallow sea in the Wanganui district. On the other hand, the inter-bedded land-surface near the mouth of the Okehu Stream supports the idea that a part at least of the huge Tertiary area to the north was above the sea-level for a portion at least of the period of deposition. If that was the case sediment would have been supplied at a relatively rapid rate. Until the country to the north has been more fully examined with the object of ascertaining how large an area is bare of a covering of these youngest Tertiary rocks it is not safe to offer any opinion on this matter. Much of the sediment was deposited at a considerable distance from the coast-line, and in water of considerable depth. This is proved both by the finegrained texture of the sediment and by the nature of the fossil mollusca embedded in it. The sediment is generally of an extremely fine grain and contains a large proportion of small mica plates, two features which point to deposition in an area which was reached by the finest and lightest sediment only.

The fossil mollusca found over the first five miles north of Castlecliff are of a nature which indicates that the sea-floor was at a depth of between 50 and 100 fathoms. At Kai Iwi the depth of the water was probably nearer the former than the latter figure. If this were the case the rate of deposition must have been a very slow one. Thus the following considerations point to the probability of slow deposition: (1) The small size of the land area from which the sediment was derived; (2) the hard nature of the rocks that were undergoing denudation; (3) the distance of the area of deposition from the area of denudation; (4) the depth of water in which the deposition took place. On the other hand, it is possible that—(1) some of the material was derived from older Tertiary rocks only lately deposited (if that were the case the deposition area may have been quite close to that of denudation); (2) some of the strata were deposited under shallow-water conditions and close to the shore-line. A balancing of these considerations inclines us to the opinion that the material was possibly deposited at the rate of 1 ft. of sediment in 200 years. If this rate of accumulation is applied generally to the thicknesses of sediment that have been already mentioned, we find that the Waipipi beds are 690,000 years older, those at Nukumaru 400,000 years older, and those at Kai Iwi 190,000 years older than the Castlecliff beds.

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Fossils from Castlecliff.

The collections in this locality were made in the marine cliffs over a distance of two miles from the Castlecliff end. The rocks are everywhere blue clay, or “papa,” which, however, has a tendency to become more sandy as the strata rise in the face of the cliff when they are followed to the northward. This probably indicates that the water became rather more shallow in this direction—a conclusion which is supported by the very nature of the mollusca that are found in them as they are followed northwards.

In the following lists extinct species are marked with an asterisk.

  • Acanthochites zelandicus (Q. & G.)

  • Acmaea daedala (Sut.)

  • *Acteon sulcatus (Hutt.)

  • Alcira inconstans (Sut.)

  • Amphidesma gaymardi (Desh.)

  • Amphidesma ventricosa (Gray)

  • Ancilla australis (Sow.)

  • Ancilla australis pyramidalis (Reeve)

  • Ancilla depressa (Sow.)

  • Ancilla mucronata (Sow.)

  • Ancilla novae-zelandiae (Sow.)

  • Arca novae-zelandiae (E.A. Smith)

  • [= decussata Sut., not Sow.]

  • Argobuccinum australasia (Perry)

  • Astraea heliotropium (Mart.)

  • Atrina zelandica (Gray)

  • Barnea similis (Gray)

  • Bathytoma albula (Hutt.)

  • Bathytoma nodilirata (Murd. & Sut.)

  • Bathytoma zealandica (E. A. Smith)

  • [= cheesemani (Hutt.)]

  • *Bezanconia huttoni (Coss.)

  • Caecum digitulum (Hedley)

  • *Calliostoma hodgei (Hutt.)

  • Calliostoma pellucidum (Val.)

  • *Calliostoma ponderosum (Hutt.)

  • Calliostoma punctulatum (Mart.)

  • Calliostoma selectum (Chemn.)

  • Calyptraea alta (Hutt.)

  • Calyptraea novae - zelandiae Lesson [= maculata (Q. & G.)]

  • Calyptraea tenuis (Gray)

  • Cantharidus sanguineus (Gray)

  • Cardita calyculata (L.)

  • Chione mesodesma (Q. & G.)

  • Chione spissa (Desh.)

  • Chione stutchburyi (Gray)

  • Chione yatei (Gray)

  • Cominella lurida (Phil.)

  • Cominella virgata (A. Ad.)

  • Corbula macilenta (Hutt.)

  • Corbula zelandica (Q. & G.)

  • *Couthouyia exilis (Murdoch)

  • Crepidula costata (Sow.)

  • Crepidula monoxyla (Less.)

  • Cylichnella striata (Hutt.)

  • Cymatium spengleri (Chemn.)

  • Cytherea oblonga (Hanley)

  • Daphnella cancellata (Hutt.)

  • Daphnella lacunosa (Hutt.)

  • Daphnella striata (Hutt.)

  • Dentalium ecostatum (T. W. Kirk)

  • Dentalium huttoni (T. W. Kirk)

  • Dentalium zelandicum (Sow.)

  • Diplodonta zelandica (Gray)

  • Divaricella cumingi (Ad. & Ang.)

  • Dosinia anus (Phil.)

  • Dosinia greyi (Zittel)

  • Dosinia subrosea (Gray)

  • *Drillia buchanani (Hutt.)

  • Drillia laevis (Hutt.)

  • Drillia novae-zelandiae (Reeve)

  • *Drillia wanganuiensis (Hutt.)

  • Emarginula striatula (Q. & G.)

  • Epitonium zelebori (D [ unclear: ] ker)

  • Erycina parva (Desh.)

  • Ethalia zelandica (H. & J.)

  • Euthria linea (Mart.)

  • Euthria linea traversi (Hutt.)

  • Euthria littorinoides (Reeve)

  • Euthria striata (Hutt.)

  • Fissuridea monilifera (Hutt.)

  • Fusinus spiralis (A. Ad.)

  • Glycymeris laticostata (Q. & G.)

  • Glycymeris modesta (Angas)

  • *Hipponix radiatus (Hutt.)

  • Kellia suborbicularis (Mont.)

  • Leptomya perconfusa (Iredale)

  • Leptothyra fluctuata (Hutt.)

  • Lima angulata (Sow.)

  • Lima bullata (Born)

  • Lima lima (L.)

  • Liotia benhami (Sut.)

  • Lissospira corulum (Hutt.)

  • Lucinida concinna (Hutt.)

  • Macoma edgari (Iredale)

– 121 –
  • Macrocallista multistriata (Sow.)

  • Mactra discors (Gray)

  • Mactra elongata (Q. & G.)

  • Mactra ovata (Gray)

  • Mactra scalpellum (Reeve)

  • Malletia australis (Q. & G.)

  • Mangilia amoena (E. A. Smith)

  • Mangilia sinclairi (E. A. Smith)

  • Mitrella choava (Reeve)

  • Modiolus australis (Gray)

  • Murex angasi (Crosse)

  • Murex octogonus (Q. & G.)

  • Murex octogonus umbilicatus (T. -Woods)

  • Murex zelandicus (Q. & G.)

  • Musculus impactus (Herm.)

  • Myodora antipodum (E. A. Smith)

  • Myodora striata (Q. & G.)

  • Myodora subrostrata (E. A. Smith)

  • Mytilus canaliculus (Mart.)

  • Mytilus edulis (L.)

  • Mytilus maorianus (Iredale)

  • Natica australis (Hutt.)

  • Natica zelandica (Q. & G.)

  • Nucula hartvigiana (Pfr.)

  • Nucula nitidula (A. Ad.)

  • Nuculana bellula (A. Ad.)

  • Nuculana fastidiosa (A. Ad.)

  • Odostomia bembix (Sut.)

  • Odostomia huttoni (Sut.)

  • Odostomia rugata (Hutt.)

  • Ostrea angasi (Sow.)

  • Ostrea corrugata (Hutt.)

  • Panope zelandica (Q. & G.)

  • Paphia intermedia (Q. & G.)

  • Pecten convexus (Q. & G.)

  • Pecten medius (Lamk.)

  • Pecten radiatus (Hutt.)

  • Pecten zelandiae (Gray)

  • Phalium achatinum pyrum (Lamk.)

  • *Philobrya trigonopsis (Hutt.)

  • Protocardia pulchella (Gray)

  • Psammobia lineolata (Gray)

  • Psammobia stangeri (Gray)

  • Psammobia zelandica (Desh.)

  • Pupa affinis (A. Ad.)

  • Pupa alba (Hutt.)

  • *Rissoa semisulcata (Hutt.) [”Lironoba“]

  • Rissoina chathamensis (Hutt.) [= R. rugulosa (Hutt.)]

  • Rissoina emarginata (Hutt.) [”Nozeba“]

  • Rissoina olivacea (Hutt.) [”Dardanula“]

  • Rochefortia reniformis (Sut.)

  • Saxicava arctica (L.)

  • Seila terebelloides (Mts.)

  • Sinum undulatum (Hutt.)

  • Siphonalia caudata (Q. & G.)

  • Siphonalia dilatata (Q. & G.)

  • Siphonalia mandarina (Duclos)

  • Siphonalia nodosa (Mart.)

  • Siphonalia valedicta (Wats.)

  • Solariella egena (Gould)

  • Soletellina nitida (Gray)

  • Spisula equilateralis (Desh.)

  • Spisula ordinaria (E. A. Smith)

  • Struthiolaria papulosa (Mart.)

  • Struthiolaria vermis (Mart.)

  • *Surcula castlecliffensis (Marshall and Murdoch)

  • Tellina eugonia (Sut.)

  • Tellina huttoni sterrha (Sut.)

  • Tellina liliana (Iredale)

  • Tellina spenceri (Sut.)

  • Terebra tristis (Desh.)

  • *Thracia vegrandis (Marshall and Murdoch)

  • Thracia vitrea (Hutt.)

  • Tornatina pachys (Wats.)

  • Trichotropis clathrata (Sow.)

  • *Trochus conicus (Hutt.)

  • Trochus tiaratus (Q. & G.)

  • Trochus viridis (Gmel.)

  • Trophon ambiguus (Phil.)

  • Trophon cheesemani (Hutt.)

  • Trophon pumila Sut. [= T. bonneti Cossm.]

  • Tugalia intermedia (Reeve)

  • Turbo granosus (Mart.)

  • Turbo smaragdus (Mart.)

  • Turbonilla zealandica (Hutt.)

  • Turritella carlottae (Wats.)

  • Turritella rosea (Q. & G.)

  • Turritella symmetrica (Hutt.)

  • Venericardia lutea (Hutt.)

  • Venericardia purpurata (Desh.)

  • Venericardia unidentata (Basterot)

  • Vexillum marginatum (Hutt.)

  • Vexillum rubiginosum (Hutt.)

  • Voluta arabica (Mart.)

  • Voluta arabica elongata (Swains.)

  • Voluta gracilis (Swains.)

  • Xymene plebejus (Hutt.)

  • Zenatia acinaces (Q. & G.)

The total number of species is 181, of which 92.8 per cent. are Recent.

– 122 –

Fossils from Kai Iwi.

In this locality collections were made for a distance of three-quarters of a mile south of the mouth of the Kai Iwi Stream. The collection was made by one of us (Marshall) in a single day's excursion, and it is probable that the list will have a large number of additions made to it in the future.

  • Acteon sulcatus (Hutt.)

  • Alcira inconstans (Sut.)

  • Ancilla australis (Sow.)

  • Arca reticulata (Gmel.)

  • Atrina zelandiae (Gray)

  • Barnea similis (Gray)

  • *Bezanconia huttoni (Cossm.)

  • *Calliostoma hodgei (Hutt.)

  • Calliostoma punctulatum (Mart.)

  • Calliostoma selectum (Chemn.)

  • Calyptraea novae-zelandiae (Lesson)

  • Calyptraea tenuis (Gray)

  • Cantharidus sanguineus (Gray)

  • Cardita calyculata (L.)

  • Chione mesodesma (Q. & G.)

  • Cominella virgata (A. Ad.)

  • Corbula macilenta (Hutt.)

  • Cytherea oblonga (Hanley)

  • Daphnella cancellata (Hutt.)

  • Dentalium ecostatum (T. W. Kirk)

  • Dentalium nanum (Hutt.)

  • Divaricella cumingi (Ad. & Ang.)

  • *Drillia buchanani (Hutt.)

  • Drillia novae-zelandiae (Reeve)

  • *Drillia wanganuiensis (Hutt.)

  • Emarginula striatula (Q. & G.)

  • Epitonium zelebori (Dkr.)

  • Erycina parva (Desh.)

  • Euthria littorinoides (Reeve)

  • Glycymeris modesta (Angas)

  • Leptomyia perconfusa (Iredale)

  • Lucinida concinna (Hutt.)

  • Macoma edgari (Iredale)

  • Macrocallista multistriata (Sow.)

  • Mactra scalpellum (Reeve)

  • Malletia australis (Q. & G.)

  • Mangilia amoena (E. A. Smith)

  • Murex angasi (Crosse)

  • Murex zelandicus (Q. & G.)

  • Myodora antipodum (E. A. Smith)

  • Natica australis (Hutt.)

  • Natica zelandica (Q. &. G.)

  • Nucula nitidula (A. Ad.)

  • Nuculana bellula (A. Ad.)

  • Odostomia bembix (Sut.)

  • Ostrea corrugata (Hutt.)

  • Panope zelandica (Q. & G.)

  • Pecten zelandiae (Gray)

  • *Philobrya trigonopsis (Hutt.)

  • Poroleda lanceolata (Hutt.)

  • Protocardia pulchella (Gray)

  • Psammobia lineolata (Gray)

  • Saxicava arctica (L.)

  • *Serpulorbis sipho (Lamk.)

  • Sinum undulatum (Hutt.)

  • Siphonalia caudata (Q. & G.)

  • Siphonalia mandarina (Duclos)

  • Siphonalia nodosa (Mart.)

  • Spisula ordinaria (E. A. Smith)

  • Struthiolaria papulosa (Mart.)

  • Struthiolaria vermis (Mart.)

  • *Surcula castlecliffensis (Marshall and Murdoch)

  • Tellina eugonia (Sut.)

  • Terebra tristis (Desh.)

  • Trichotropis clathrata (Sow.)

  • *Trochus conicus (Hutt.)

  • Trochus tiaratus (Q. &. G.)

  • Trophon ambiguus (Phil.)

  • Trophon cheesemani (Hutt.)

  • Trophon corticatus (Hutt.)

  • Trophon pumila (Sut.)

  • Tugalia intermedia (Reeve)

  • Turritella rosea (Q. & G.)

  • Turritella symmetrica (Hutt.)

  • Venericardia lutea (Hutt.)

  • Venericardia purpurata (Desh.)

  • Venericardia unidentata (Bast.)

  • Vexillum planatum (Hutt.)

  • Vexillum rubiginosum (Hutt.)

  • Voluta gracilis (Swains.)

  • *Xymene expansus (Hutt.)

  • Xymene plebejus (Hutt.)

This list contains eighty-two species, of which eight are extinct. The percentage of Recent species is therefore 90.25.

– 123 –

Fossils from Nukumaru.

Collections were made over a distance of one mile south from the Nukumaru boat-landing. One of us (Marshall) spent four days in collecting in this locality, and the other (Murdoch) spent two days. These are the Rotella beds of Park (1887, p. 63).

  • Acanthochites zelandicus (Q. & G.)

  • Alcira inconstans (Sut.)

  • *Amphidesma crassiformis n. sp.

  • Amphidesma gaymardi (Desh.)

  • *Anachis pisaniopsis (Hutt.)

  • Ancilla australis (Sow.)

  • Ancilla depressa (Sow.)

  • Ancilla novae-zelandiae (Sow.)

  • Anomia huttoni (Sut.)

  • *Ataxocerithium perplexum (Marshall and Murdoch)

  • Barnea similis (Gray)

  • *Calliostoma hodgei (Hutt.)

  • Calliostoma pellucidum (Val.)

  • Calliostoma punctulatum (Mart.)

  • Calyptraea alta (Hutt.)

  • Calyptraea tenuis (Gray)

  • Cantharidus sanguineus (Gray)

  • Cardita calyculata (L.)

  • Chione mesodesma (Q. & G.)

  • Chione spissa (Desh.)

  • Chione yatei (Gray)

  • Cochlodesma angasi (C. & F.)

  • Cominella lurida (Phil.)

  • Cominella virgata (A. Ad.)

  • Crepidula crepidula (L.)

  • *Crepidula gregaria (Sow.)

  • Cylichnella striata (Hutt.)

  • Cytherea oblonga (Hanley)

  • *Diplodonta ampla (Hutt.)

  • Diplodonta zelandica (Gray)

  • Dosinia anus (Phil.)

  • Dosinia subrosea (Gray)

  • Epitonium zelebori (Dkr.)

  • Ethalia zelandica (H. & J.)

  • *Eulimella media (Hutt.)

  • Euthria striata (Hutt.)

  • Fissuridea monilifera (Hutt.)

  • Glycymeris modesta (Angas)

  • Leptomya perconfusa (Iredale)

  • *Lucinida levifoliata (Marshall and Murdoch)

  • *Lutraria solida (Hutt.)

  • Macoma edgari (Iredale)

  • Mactra ordinaria (E. A. Smith)

  • Mactra rudis (Hutt.)

  • Mactra scalpellum (Reeve)

  • Mangilia amoena (E. A. Smith)

  • *Melina zealandica (Sut.)

  • Myodora antipodium (E. A. Smith)

  • Myodora subrostrata (E. A. Smith)

  • Mytilus maorianus (Iredale)

  • *Neolepton sp.

  • Nucula nitidula (A. Ad.)

  • Odostomia huttoni (Sut.)

  • Ostrea angasi (Sow.)

  • *Ostrea ingens (Zittel).

  • *Paphia curta (Hutt.)

  • Paphia intermedia (Q. & G.)

  • Pecten zelandiae (Gray)

  • *Philobrya trigonopsis (Hutt.)

  • Rissoina olivacea (Hutt.) [”Dardanula“].

  • *Rissoa semisulcata (Hutt.) [”Lironoba“]

  • Seila chathamensis (Sut.)

  • Sinum undulatum (Hutt.)

  • Siphonalia caudata (Q. & G.)

  • Siphonalia dilatata (Q. & G.)

  • Siphonalia mandarina (Duclos)

  • Soletellina nitida (Gray)

  • *Struthiolaria frazeri (Hutt.)

  • Struthiolaria vermis (Mart.)

  • Terebra tristis (Desh.)

  • *Trochus conicus (Hutt.)

  • Trochus tiaratus (Q. & G.)

  • Trophon ambiguus (Phil.)

  • Trophon cheesemani (Hutt.)

  • Turbonilla zealandica (Hutt.)

  • Turritella rosea (Q. & G.)

  • Turritella symmetrica (Hutt.)

  • Venericardia difficilis (Desh.)

  • Venericardia lutea (Hutt.)

  • Venericardia purpurata (Desh.)

  • *Voluta turrita (Sut.)

  • *Voluta turrita nukumaruensis (Marshall and Murdoch)

  • *Xymene expansus (Hutt.)

  • Xymene plebejus (Hutt.)

There are eighty-four species in this list, of which 76.2 per cent. are Recent.

– 124 –

One of the main features of the fauna in this locality is the large size of many of the extinct species that are found. Not only this, but the large species are represented by a great number of individuals, and at the first glance it is apparent that the fauna is essentially different from that of Kai Iwi and of Castlecliff. In addition to this, several of the species that occur in the strata at Castlecliff and are also of Recent occurrence have unusual dimensions at Nukumaru. Of these, Chione yatei, Cytherea oblonga, and Paphia intermedia are noticeable. Of the extinct species, Melina zealandica, Cytherea enysi, Lutraria solida, Lucinida levifoliata, Struthiolaria frazeri, and Amphidesma crassiformis are all of large size. This large size of the shells in itself suggests that climatic conditions at the time that these strata were deposited were more genial than those that now prevail, and this suggestion, due to the mere size of the shells, is strengthened by the occurrence of such a genus as Melina, which is now, of course, extinct in New Zealand waters.

The bone of Dinornis robusta which was described in a previous paper came from the stratum that lies immediately below the bed in which the occurrence of the large shells is first especially conspicuous. Another moa-bone has since been found, and it is identified by Professor Benham as part of the right tibia of Mesopteryx casuarina Owen. The medullary cavity of this bone is partly filled with pyrite, a sufficient proof that the bone has been preserved in strata that lie beneath the level to which oxidizing waters can percolate.

Fossils from Waipipi.

This locality is about five miles north of Nukumaru along the coastline. The collection was made from the outcrops of the cliffs over a distance of one mile to the north of the mouth of the Waipipi Stream and a quarter of a mile to the south of it. The rocks are for the main part tough blue papa, or blue clay, with a few distinctly sandy or micaceous strata. It is in the latter that the majority of the fossils were found.

  • Ancilla australis (Sow.)

  • Ancilla novae-zelandiae (Sow.)

  • *Ancilla pseud-australis (Tate)

  • Astraea heliotropium (Mart.)

  • Atrina zelandica (Gray)

  • Bathytoma albula (Hutt.)

  • Bathytoma zealandica (E. A. Smith)

  • Calliostoma pellucidum (Val.)

  • Calyptraea alta (Hutt.)

  • Calyptraea tenuis (Gray)

  • *Cardium spatiosum (Hutt.)

  • Chione mesodesma (Q. & G.)

  • Chione spissa (Desh.)

  • Chione yatei (Gray)

  • Corbula macilenta (Hutt.)

  • *Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.)

  • Crepidula crepidula (L.)

  • *Crepidula gregaria (Sow.)

  • *Cymbiola (Miomelon) corrugata (Hutt.)

  • *Cytherea enysi (Hutt.)

  • Cytherea oblonga (Hanley)

  • *Dentalium solidum (Hutt.)

  • *Diplodonta ampla (Hutt.)

  • Divaricella cumingi (Ad. & Ang.)

  • Dosinia lambata (Gould)

  • *Dosinia magna (Hutt.)

  • Dosinia subrosea (Gray)

  • *Erycina cf. bifurca (Webster)

  • Glycymeris laticostata (Q. & G.)

  • *Glycymeris subglobosa (Sut.)

  • Lima angulata (Sow.)

  • Lima bullata (Born.)

  • *Lima waipipiensis (Marshall and Murdoch)

  • *Lucinida levifoliata (Marshall and Murdoch)

  • *Lutraria solida (Hutt.)

  • Macoma edgari (Iredale)

  • Macrocallista multistriata (Sow.)

  • Mactra scalpellum (Reeve)

  • Marginella pygmaea (Sow.) (?)

– 125 –
  • *Melina zealandica (Sut.)

  • Musculus impacta (Herm.)

  • Mytilus maorianus (Iredale)

  • Natica australis (Hutt.)

  • *Natica ovata (Hutt.)

  • *Natica sagena (Sut.)

  • Natica zelandica (Q. & G.)

  • Nuculana fastidiosa (A. Ad.)

  • Odostomia aff. bembix (Sut.)

  • *Olivella neozelanica (Hutt.)

  • Ostrea angasi (Sow.)

  • *Ostrea ingens (Zittel)

  • Panope zelandica (Q. & G.)

  • *Paphia curta (Hutt.)

  • Pecten convexus (Q. & G.)

  • *Pecten semiplicatus (Hutt.)

  • *Pecten triphooki (Zittel)

  • Pecten zelandiae (Gray)

  • *Phalium fibratum (Marshall and Murdoch)

  • Protocardia pulchella (Gray)

  • Psammobia lineolata (Gray)

  • Siphonalia mandarina (Duclos)

  • *Siphonalia subnodosa (Hutt.)

  • Soletellina nitida (Gray)

  • *Struthiolaria canaliculata (Zittel)

  • *Struthiolaria zelandica (Marshall and Murdoch)

  • Turritella rosea (Q. & G.)

  • Turritella symmetrica (Hutt.)

  • Venericardia difficilis (Desh.)

  • Venericardia lutea (Hutt.)

  • *Voluta turrita (Sut.)

  • *Voluta morgani (Marshall and Murdoch)

  • Zenatia acinaces (Q. & G.)

This list contains seventy-two species, of which 61 per cent, are Recent.

The remarks that have been made about the occurrence of large shells in the strata at Nukumaru apply with even greater force to these beds, for there are these additional extinct species of large dimensions: Cardium spatiosum, Paphia curta, Ostrea ingens, Pecten triphooki, Dentalium solidum, Natica sagena, Natica ovata, and Crassatellites obesus. The appearance of the large Phalium fibratum adds to the effect. It is hard to resist the opinion that either the climate of the country as a whole was more genial or that the region was a sea-floor that was washed by a warmer current when the sediment was deposited. The latter alternative, however, is an improbable explanation, because the nature of the sediment is essentially the same at Waipipi as it is in the highest of the Castlecliff beds. It thus becomes probable that there was a reduction in the temperature of the New Zealand area which extended over a considerable interval of time. This gradual cooling of the climate continued throughout the lapse of time between the deposition of the Waipipi beds and of the upper beds at Nukumaru. In an earlier portion of this paper this interval of time is stated as possibly as much as 300,000 years.

The general results of this examination of the fossils on the coast-line between Castlecliff and Waipipi thus show clearly that as lower and lower strata are inspected the percentage of extinct species of mollusca becomes greater and greater. This increase of extinct species could be due mainly to three different conditions.

(1.) The mere increase in age as the lower beds are reached might in itself account for it, because as time proceeds various species become outclassed in the struggle for existence that is always in progress. The many slight changes in food-supply, ocean currents, and accompanying variations of temperature may be as potent in this direction as the mere lapse of time and the consequent change of vital energy of the different species.

(2.) The migration of additional species to the district or to the region would, of course, have a similar effect; but in our opinion our collections of the mollusca afford no evidence of this. On the contrary, as one of us (Marshall) has frequently pointed out before, the present molluscan fauna of New Zealand seems rather to be a remnant of a more extensive fauna

– 126 –

of early or Middle Tertiary age. There is certainly a striking poverty of mollusca in the Wanganui beds when they are compared with that of the very small exposure of fossiliferous strata at Target Gully, near Oamaru, and elsewhere in the Middle Tertiary strata. This relative poverty in species is certainly not due to less careful collecting at Wanganui, for a greater amount of time has been spent in the latter locality and a much greater variety of strata has been scrutinized than at Oamaru. There are no additional genera of any importance in the Castlecliff strata, and there is no sudden inrush of new species, so far as our investigations go, at any horizon of the beds exposed on the coast-line between Wanganui and Waipipi.

(3.) A considerable and general change of climate must naturally have a great effect upon the molluscan life on the coast-line. It is, of course, well established that towards the close of Tertiary time in Europe and in America and elsewhere there was a great change in climate, especially during the Pliocene period. The high percentage of Recent species of mollusca in all the strata with which this paper deals shows clearly enough that they are of Upper Tertiary age. Those at Waipipi perhaps correspond to the early Pliocene of Europe, or perhaps to the later Miocene, while the Castlecliff beds probably represent the highest Pliocene. The change in molluscan fauna may therefore be mainly due to the gradual reduction of temperature that was a feature of all climates during the Pliocene period. The faunal change in this district seems to have been much less rapid in the upper portion of the strata examined than in the lower ones. In the 960 ft. of strata between Castlecliff and Kai Iwi only 2.5 per cent. of extinct species appear, while in the 1,050 ft. between Kai Iwi and Nukumaru an additional 14 per cent. appear, and between Nukumaru and Waipipi, in a thickness of 1,450 ft. of sediment, 15 per cent. more of extinct species are found. In other words, between Waipipi and Nukumaru 1 per cent of the species becomes extinct in every 97 ft. of sediment. Between Nukumaru and Kai Iwi the rate is 1 per cent. of extinction for every 75 ft. of sediment, and between Kai Iwi and Castlecliff the rate is much slower and amounts to no more than 1 per cent. in a thickness of 384 ft. of sediment. The general average of extinction for a total thickness of 3,560 ft. is almost exactly 1 per cent. of the species in every 100 ft. If, as suggested before, this sediment has been deposited at an average rate of 1 ft. in 200 years, it follows that on the average during the greater part of the Pliocene period in New Zealand 1 per cent of the species of marine mollusca has become extinct in every 20,000 years. It is not intended to assert any accuracy for this result, though it is thought that it is of the same order of magnitude as the actual result would be if all the various factors could be ascertained with certainty.

It has been stated earlier that, as far as the stratigraphy can be seen in the marine cliffs, there is certainly no sign of any unconformity. The cliffs give an actually continuous section from Castlecliff to Nukumaru. To the north of Nukumaru the continuity is interrupted for a considerable distance, but the close resemblance of the fauna of the Waipipi beds to that of Nukumaru in itself points to the conclusion that deposition was continuous. This idea is strongly supported by the fauna which is found at Wilkie's Bluff, on the left bank of the Waitotara River, two miles and a half below the railway-bridge, a locality intermediate between Nukumaru and Waipipi. Here there is a great abundance of Ostrea ingens, with Pecten triphooki and some Cardium spatiosum and Lutraria solida. Palaeontologically as well as in geographical position the bluff

– 127 –

forms a connecting-link between Waipipi and Nukumaru. The large number of species that is found throughout this thick series of strata is in itself sufficient proof that the series is continuous, and it is interesting to find that so many well-known species of Miocene occurrence rise so high into the Wanganui Tertiaries. In this Wanganui area at least it is possible to determine the upper limits of their occurrence. So far as our collections have given us information the following are the levels at which the specified well-known Miocene species finally disappear. At present it is most convenient to define their position as so-many feet below the highest beds at Castlecliff.

  • Crepidula gregaria, uncommon above 1,200 ft.

  • Lutraria solida, 2,000 ft.

  • Cytherea enysi, 2,100 ft.

  • Melina zelandica, 2,100 ft.

  • Struthiolaria frazeri, 2,100 ft.

  • Ostrea ingens, 2,100 ft.

  • Cardium spatiosum, 2,700 ft.

  • Pecten triphooki, 2,700 ft.

  • Pecten semiplicatus, 3,000 ft.

  • Dentalium solidum, 3,500 ft.

  • Paphia curta, 3,500 ft.

  • Natica ovata, 3,500 ft.

  • Natica sagena, 3,500 ft.

  • Crassatellites, 3,500 ft.

  • Struthiolaria canaliculata, 3,500 ft.

  • Olivella neozelanica, 3,500 ft.

  • Dosinia magna, 3,800 ft.

The highest beds at Castlecliff, the horizon to which these occurrences are referred, are covered unconformably by sands and gravels of volcanic material, which usually have a good deal of included timber, and are referred to the Pleistocene. Thomson has lately called this formation generally the Hawera series.

It is noticeable that many species which have a Recent occurrence and which are common at Castlecliff are quite absent from our collections at Nukumaru and at Waipipi, though from a lithological standpoint there is little change in the rock, and the conditions of deposition seem to have been substantially the same at Waipipi as at Castlecliff.

Struthiolaria papulosa was last found one mile north of Kai Iwi, about 1,200 ft. below the highest beds at Castlecliff. Struthiolaria vermis was last found at Nukamaru, 2,100 ft. down, and it is very scarce there.

Pecten medius has not been found below 500 ft., though a shell-fragment probably belonging to this species was found at the mouth of the Okehu Stream, 1,700 ft. down.

Murex zelandicus has not been found at Nukumaru or at Waipipi, though it has frequently been found in rocks of Miocene age in the Oamaru district, and at Pakaurangi Point in the Kaipara Harbour. Murex angasi and Murex octogonus also have not been found north of Kai Iwi, though they too occur in Middle Tertiary rocks in various parts of New Zealand.

It does not seem to be the case that any importance is to be attached to the absence of these species as an indication of climatic changes on the New Zealand coast-line. The absence of species of Murex and of the Recent species of Struthiolaria might at first suggest a colder climate for the Nukumaru and Waipipi beds, but this idea is at once offset by the fact that Pecten medius and Struthiolaria papulosa both occur at the present day in the most southern of New Zealand waters. As more extensive collections are made and additional localities of this district are examined it may well happen that such small peculiarities will be explained. It is also possible that by careful collecting the development of some of the species that have most recently appeared, such as Pecten medius and Struthiolaria papulosa, may be most definitely traced. On the other hand, it may possibly be found that a few of these species reached these shores from other faunal regions.

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One point often crops up in the examination of various fossil localities in the Tertiary rocks of New Zealand. In some strata there is a great predominance of gasteropods, while in others the lamellibranchs are far more numerous. So far as observations have gone up to the present time, this striking difference does not appear to be due to the depth of the water or to any other of the ordinary conditions that control the deposition of sediment.

List of Papers cited.

Hector, J., 1886. Outline of the Geology of New Zealand.

Hutton, F. W., 1885. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. 41.

— 1886. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 18, pp. 336–67.

— 1893. Macleay Memorial Volume, Linn. Soc. N.S.W.

Murdoch, R., 1900. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, pp. 216–21.

Park, J., 1887. Rep. Geol. Explor. dur. 1886–87, pp. 24–73, &c.

Sollas, W. J., 1905. Age of the Earth.

Art. XXI.—Some Tertiary Molusca, with Descriptions of New Species.

[Read before the Wanganui Philosophical Society, 3rd December, 1919; received by Editor, 31st December, 1919; issued separately, 10th June, 1920.]

Plates VI-X.

Additional collections made at Waipipi and Nukumaru have produced several new species, and have also brought to light others not previously recorded from these horizons. These localities are not so accessible as the Castlecliff series, and have not been so carefully collected. Further, the Waipipi beds are not fossiliferous throughout, but fossils are restricted to short sections. One of the finest of these is rather below half-tide level and only available after certain weather conditions. During one visit it was sea-swept clean, and there was a most striking display of Pectens, Cardiums, Limas, and other large forms. Almost without exception the collections hitherto made have not been assigned to any definite locality, with the result that Shakespeare Cliff, which was regarded as the equivalent of all the sands and blue clays of the district, is credited with species which do not occur therein. The coastal cliff from Castlecliff to Kai Iwi and thence to Nukumaru and Waipipi presents a perfectly unbroken series of beds older than those of Shakespeare Cliff. The faunal changes, as might be expected, is very gradual, and it is only when horizons fairly distant are compared that a marked distinction is evidenced. Faunal lists from several horizons are recorded on pages 120–25 of this volume.

Hampden was visited by Dr. Marshall, who secured a number of undescribed species, several of which are too fragmentary to deal with, and it is abundantly evident that much collecting has yet to be done in that series of beds before a full knowledge of the fauna is obtained.

Risssoina obliquecostata n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 1.)

Shell small, ovato-elongate, deeply impressed sutures and oblique axial riblets. Whorls six (the protoconch missing), rounded and narrowly shouldered, the last slightly produced at the anterior end. Sculpture consists of about twenty-nine narrow axial riblets, in width about half that of the interspaces, on the sutural shelf they are rather less pronounced, form a

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Fig. 1.—Rissoina obliquecostata n. sp.
Fig. 2.—Seila attenuissima n. sp.
Fig. 3.—Triphora aoteaensis n. sp.
Fig. 4.—Siphonalia senilis n. sp.
Figs. 5, 5a.—Admete suteri n. sp.
Fig. 6.—Admete anomala n sp.
Fig. 7.—Surcula hampdenensis n. sp.
Fig. 8.—Borsonia zelandica Marshall
Fig. 9.—Conus armoricus Suter (protoconch).
Fig. 10.—Conus armoricus var. pseudoarmoricus n. var.

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Figs. 11, 11a.—Struthiolaria zelandiae n. sp.
Figs. 12, 12a, 12b.—Fulguria morgani n. sp
Fig. 13.—Dicroloma zelandica Marshall.
Fig. 14.—Turris curialis n. sp.

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row of small nodules on the angle, thence take a backward sweep, and vanish a little above the suture, on the anterior end of the last irregular and here and there in the form of strong growth-striae; spiral striae are preserved in places only and difficult to detect. There is a narrow, subperforation at the side of the columella, bounded by a small funicular ridge which curves around to the basal lip. Aperture oval, narrow above, basal lip slightly produced and with a lightly impressed gutter at its junction with the columella, inner lip with a thin narrow callus, columella slightly curved and a little reflexed anteriorly.

Length, 6.25 mm.; width, 3.5 mm.; length of aperture, 2.5 mm.

Locality, Hampden. Collected by Dr. Marshall.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

There is a single example only. It is very different from any other of our Recent or fossil Rissoids, and it is with hesitation we refer it to the genus. More material may be brought to light, possibly allied forms which would lead to a more confident classification.

Seila attenuissima n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 2.)

Shell partly embedded in the matrix, very small, gradually tapering, and exceedingly slender; whorls about seventeen, the protoconch of two and a half whorls, smooth, apex minute oblique to the axis, the two succeeding whorls well rounded and somewhat swollen, thence flattened and with three sharply-raised spiral cords, equal to or slightly narrower than the grooves, the lower cord perhaps slightly the stronger; the spacing of the sculpture, including the sutural groove, is exceedingly uniform; within the grooves and preserved in places only are microscopic sharply-raised growth-striae; the last whorl apparently with four or more spirals, the anterior end obscured by the matrix.

Length, 7 mm.; width, 0.9 mm.

Locality, Hampden. Collected by Dr. Marshall.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

There is a single example only, characterized by its exceedingly attenuated form. The protoconch in some respects approaches S. bulbosa Suter.

Triphora aoteaensis n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 3.)

Shell small, slender, of twelve flattened whorls, excluding the apex, which is missing. Sculpture: There are three rows of gemmules on each whorl, a small undulating smooth threadlet at the suture above and occasionally a very minute thread on the margin below, both absent on the earlier whorls; on the last at the basal angle is a fourth smooth sharply-raised narrow riblet, below this a more slender cord, and between the latter and beak two or three ill-defined lines; of the gemmules there are about sixteen in a row, separated rather less than their own width and linked within the rows, axial buttresses low and broad, forming oblique vertical rows but not always continuous; the lower row of gemmules is the most strongly developed, the second distinctly smaller, equal to their own width apart, the third separated by a narrow groove and much more feeble; the gemmules are somewhat oval in form, the anterior sides rounded, the posterior rising rather abruptly, giving to them a subtruncated and slightly ridged appearance. Base sloping, flattened; distinct growth-striae form small irregular riblets. Aperture small, subquadrate, outer lip imperfect, columella short, nearly straight, sharply bent and twisted at the anterior extremity.

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Length, 9.5 mm.; width, 3 mm.

Locality, Hampden. Collected by Dr. Marshall.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

Described from a single specimen; the only other species of the genus recorded in our Tertiary fauna is T. lutea Sut. A casual examination of the Hampden shell might easily lead to its being referred to that species, and probably it is akin to it; the protoconch is missing, and not infrequently it possesses important specific characters.

Dicroloma zelandica Marshall. (Plate VII, fig. 13.)

Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 51, pp. 228–29, pl. xv, fig. 16, 1919.

The example here described is partly embedded in the matrix, and the sculpture is much eroded, but the general form is well preserved. Shell small, fusiform, of six whorls, the last rounded, abruptly contracted at the base, with a narrow and moderately long anterior canal, which is slightly inclined or bent to the left; spire-whorls convex, the apex missing; sutures not impressed, the removal of the outer shelly layer gives to them a somewhat deep appearance. Sculpture: On the last whorl, a little below the periphery, is a strong spiral rib, a second below this margining the base, and beneath these two or three more slender cords, the first-mentioned ribs about twice their own width apart. Aperture oblique, rather narrow, the outer lip expanded, thickened, and with two prominent lobes, while from each lobe proceeds a long stout digitation (the extremities broken off); the posterior digit is almost at right angles to the axis of the shell and proceeds from near to the sutural margin; above its junction is a fairly strong callus which spreads to the suture above; the median lobe and digit are somewhat larger than the above, and the space between and the angle formed are smaller than between the median and the anterior canal. Each digit has a pronounced smooth furrow; the groove of the anterior canal is little more marked than that of the digits.

Length, 23 mm.; width (excluding digit), 13 mm.

Locality, Hampden. Collected by Dr. Marshall.

Struthiolaria zelandiae n. sp. (Plate VII, figs. 11, 11a.)

Shell ovate, oblong, spire turreted, whorls spirally ribbed, rather flattened, shouldered at the sutures, which are deeply excavated, the last more or less angled at the base. Whorls six or more, apex lost. Sculpture: On the last whorl a broad usually strong spiral rib on the sutural shoulder, followed by six or seven narrow cords, thence two stronger cords, the first of which is the more prominent and forms the basal angle, anterior to this contracted and with five or six cords which are usually smaller and more widely spaced as they approach the anterior end; the grooves deep except immediately below the shoulder where they vary considerably, in some examples feeble ill-defined corrugations, in others narrow incised lines, or clean-cut, deep, and slightly narrower than the riblets. The first of the remaining spire-whorls with a few spiral threadlets, on the following whorls increasing to seven or eight, variable as on the last, usually distinct in the deeply excavated sutural area. A secondary sculpture of fine threadlets adorns both ribs and grooves. Aperture ovate, oblique; outer lip sinuous, strong, and reflexed; inner lip with a broad fairly heavy callus; columella curved, a distinct notch at the anterior end.

Length, 36 mm.; width, 27 mm. Another example: Length, 35 mm.; width, 24 mm.

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Locality, Waipipi, near Waverley, in blue sandy clay.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

The sculpture, together with the exceedingly deeply excavated sutures, readily distinguishes it from other Tertiary forms.

Phalium fibratum n. sp. (Plate VIII, figs. 16, 17.)

Shell large, ovato-globose, with prominent spiral sculpture. Whorls about seven; lightly angular; apex minute; spire short, less than one quarter the length of the aperture; the last very large; on the angle a rather prominent row of nodules, on the spire above the angle four or five spiral cords, and below the angle two or three, on the last about twenty-three flat spirals more than twice the width of the grooves, the latter becoming deeper on approaching the anterior end, in places there is a small groove on the rib and here and there a small threadlet in the groove; the axials consist of strong irregular growth-striae which have a fibrous subgranular appearance. Sutures lightly impressed, the marginal rib below rather pronounced. Aperture slightly oblique and narrow above, outer lip uniformly curved, thickened and reflexed; columella short, excavate and twisted, several small denticles above and two or three oblique plaits at the anterior end; body-whorl and columella with a wide, spreading callus produced anteriorly as a broad flat plait limited to the width of the columella.

Length, 75 mm.; width, 60 mm.

Locality, Waipipi.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

Of this form there, is a single almost perfect specimen. It is allied to P. labiatum var. pyrum Lank., which is subject to considerable variation in size and sculpture. We have a good series of the latter for comparison, and in our opinion the Waipipi shell is sufficiently different to warrant specific distinction.

Siphonalia senilis n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 4.)

Shell rather small; canal moderately long; body-whorl comparatively large. Whorls six or seven, rounded, lightly subangled above the middle; protoconch of about three and a half turns, smooth; thence spirally and axially sculptured; axials nineteen to twenty on the last, feebly raised, more pronounced on the spire; growth-striae rather strong; the spirals in the form of undulating cords, delicately beaded, usually one or two larger beads on the axials, in places an alternate larger and smaller cord, wider than the grooves except towards the anterior end; on the penultimate there are eleven to thirteen spirals, the cord at the suture rather pronounced and followed by two or three much smaller. Sutures not deeply impressed. Aperture imperfect. Columella curved, tapering, lightly twisted anteriorly, and thinly callused.

Length, approximately 17 mm.; width, 10 mm.

Locality, Hampden. Collected by Dr. Marshall.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

There are three examples, somewhat distorted and in rather poor preservation. The species may readily be distinguished by the undulating finely beaded cords.

Admete (Bonellitia) ovalis Marshall.

Borsonia (Corderia) ovalis Marshall, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 50, p. 269, pl. 18, figs. 10–10a, 1918.

—A further examination of the type proves that it is a member of the Cancellariidae nearly allied to Bonellita as defined by M. Cossmann.

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Admete suteri n. sp. (Plate VI, figs. 5, 5a.)

Shell small, shortly fusiform; spire short turreted. Whorls five, the last comparatively large, strongly angled; protoconch of two smooth rounded whorls, the apex obliquely disposed, thence rapidly increasing; axially and spirally cancellated, the latter more pronounced and forming small tubercules at the points of intersection; above the aperture and on the spire-whorls are two small spiral cords, on the last eight narrower than the interspaces, at the anterior extremity finer and closer; axials seventeen to twenty-one on the last, irregularly developed anteriorly, on the area between suture and angle sharply inclined forward, this area without spiral sculpture; sutural line undulating, not channelled. Aperture somewhat oblique, outer lip angled above, margin lightly crenulated, grooved within corresponding with the spiral sculpture; columella short, slightly curved, narrowed and twisted at the extremity, lightly callused, with two well-developed rounded plaits on the middle area and a third more slender on the anterior twist of the columella.

Length, 8 mm.; width, 5.25 mm.

Locality, Target Gully. Collected by Dr. Marshall.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

Material consists of four examples in a good state of preservation. We name this pretty little shell in memory of our old friend Henry Suter.

Admete anomala n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 6.)

Shell small, elongate; spire exceeds the aperture in length. Whorls five or six, convex and lightly angled above the middle; apex blunt, and sculpture (if any) obscure, succeeding whorls spirally and axially ribbed, nodular at the crossings; axials broad, equal to the interspaces, nine or ten on a whorl, directed slightly forward, feeble above the angle and on approaching the lip; growth-striae in places well marked with here and there old lip-margins; spirals narrower than the interspaces, twelve on the last, five on the spire-whorls, one of which is above the angle; the first threadlet below the angle is much more slender than the others; a small area at the anterior end smooth. Sutures impressed, slightly undulating. Aperture oval, outer lip uniformly curved, sharp, within the margin a number of small elongated denticles; columella short, curved and obliquely truncated, the extremity slightly twisted to the left, thinly callused and with two small plaits; the anterior lip produced and on uniting with the columella forms a short wide canal.

Length, 8 mm.; width, 3.75 mm.

Locality, Hampden. Collected by Dr. Marshall.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

The material consists of a single examples. The two denticles only on the columella and the peculiar wide shallow anterior canal are not quite in accord with Admete; probably it may be allied to Babylonella of Cossmann.

Fulguraria (Alcithoe) turrita Suter.

F. (Alcithoe) arabica var. turrita Sut., N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 5, p. 39, pl. 5, fig. 4, 1917.

Examples of this species, of which we have a fairly good series from Nukumaru and Waipipi, agree perfectly with Suter's description and figure. The produced spire and narrow form are constant characters, and some examples have the penultimate and last whorl adorned with small inconspicuous spiral lines. The general contour is, however, so different from arabica and its var. elongata as to warrant full specific distinction. It is

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not uncommon in the beds above mentioned, where we have failed to find examples of the Recent species.

Length, 125 mm.; width, 47 mm.

The series of specimens here noted to be lodged in the Wanganui Museum.

Fulguraria (Alcithoe) turrita var. nukumaruensis n. var. (Plate IX, figs. 18, 19.)

Distinguished from the species by its more slender form, the absence of prominent nodules, the axial riblets being feeble and almost absent on the last, the body having the same flat slope as the whorls above.

Length, 102 mm.; width, 34 mm.; length of aperture, 57 mm.

Locality, Nukumaru.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

There are several specimens, of which only one is perfect.

Fulguraria morgani n. sp. (Plate VII, figs. 12, 12a, 12b.)

Shell rather small, narrow, axially costate, spire turreted. Whorls six or seven, lightly shouldered above the middle, excavated or flattened above the shoulder, below slightly convex, the last whorl slightly tapering to the anterior end; the protoconch consists of about two and a half smooth whorls, somewhat rounded, apex blunt, the first half-turn somewhat laterally disposed by a comparatively wide and deep sutural excavation. Axial riblets sixteen to nineteen, rounded, rather narrower than the interspaces, usually less pronounced above the shoulders and on approaching the anterior end of the last whorl, on the latter towards the lip somewhat variable. Sutures undulating, not deep. Aperture slightly oblique, narrow, almost canaliculate above; outer lip with sharp margin, slightly curved to the anterior end, the latter rather broad and deeply notched; columella almost straight, lightly twisted at the anterior extremity, thinly callused and with four plaits, the lowermost occasionally feeble.

Length. 47 mm.; width, 17 mm.; length of aperture, 28 mm.

Locality, Waipipi, in blue sandy clay.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

Originally an example of this species was submitted to Captain Hutton, who pronounced it Voluta corrugata, Miocene. It was said to occur in the Patea or Waverley district, but the exact locality was unknown. On comparing it with the description and figures given by Suter (N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 2) it was apparently quite different from Hutton's species; we therefore submitted examples to Mr. P. G. Morgan, Director of the Geological Survey, for comparison with the types, and his report coincides with the opinion we had formed. Its nearest kin is perhaps F. gracilis Swains. We convey to Mr. Morgan the compliment of associating his name with the species.

Turris curialis n. sp. (Plate VII, fig. 14.)

Shell narrowly fusiform; spire turreted; whorls with sloping flat shoulders bounded by a prominent nodular ridge; thence to the suture below excavated; the concavity below the ridge continues across the body-whorl immediately above the aperture and appears again on the lip strongly marked (shell partly embedded in the matrix), anterior to this slightly convex, thence gradually contracted to the canal. Whorls probably eight or more. Sculpture: Several small spiral threadlets between the suture and keel, and two somewhat stronger between the latter and

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suture below, on the last numerous, exceeding twenty, and narrower than the grooves; axials consist of growth-striae only. Sutural line not deep, in places obscured by the spirals above and below. Aperture imperfect, rather narrow, the posterior sinus as indicated by the lines of growth situated at the nodular angle; columella almost straight, thinly callused, the anterior end missing.

Length, 26 mm.; width, 10 mm.

Locality, Hampden. Collected by Dr. Marshall.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

The material consists of a single specimen of five whorls, including the last except its anterior extremity. The distinctive characters are the marked corrugation on the last whorl, which is a continuation of the peculiar excavate sutural area, the long sloping shoulder, and the prominent nodular angle.

Surcula torticostata Marshall. (Plate VIII, fig. 15.)

S. torticostata Marshall, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 51, p. 232, pl. 12, fig. 7, 1919.

This species was described from very imperfect material, consisting of upper spire-whorls only. An almost perfect specimen is now available, and we offer the following amended description.

Shell fairly large, narrowly fusiform, the aperture and canal apparently rather less than the spire in length (the anterior end of the canal missing). Sutures not deep, margined below by a flat rather prominent rib. Whorls nine or ten, flat or slightly concave below the sutural rib, thence lightly convex, the last gradually tapering to the canal. Axial sculpture varying as the shell progresses; apical whorls apparently smooth; then follow twisted, prominently backward-sloping narrow riblets, which arise a little below the sutural rib, and are suppressed a little above the lower suture, and on the later whorls, especially the penultimate and last, reduced to slight undulations and in places absent; growth-striae well marked, prominent on the last; the spirals consist of numerous fine feebly-raised threadlets wider than the grooves and forming irregular minute granules on crossing the growth-striae. Aperture narrow, deeply channelled above; outer lip sharp, curving forward rather abruptly from the posterior sinus, which is situated immediately below the sutural rib; columella and body-wall thinly callused, the callus on the latter margined by a rather pronounced double groove.

Length, 59 mm.; width, 14 mm.; length from aperture to apex, 34 mm.

Locality, Hampden. Collected by Dr. Marshall.

This specimen to be lodged in the Wanganui Museum.

Surcula hampdenensis n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 7.)

Shell narrowly fusiform; whorls obtusely angled; spirally lirate; short oblique axials at the shoulder and the sutures margined below. Whorls eight, the apex minute, thence gradually increasing, the last viewed dorsally exceeding the spire in length. Almost flat below the angle, then gradually sloping to the long anterior canal, the extremity of which is missing. On the spire-whorls the angle is slightly above the middle, the area above and below very slightly convex. Sculpture: Excluding the apex, the first four whorls with irregular ill-defined axials extending across the whorls; following these the angle well defined and on it developed fourteen or fifteen backward-sloping axials, narrower than the interspaces and not extending to the sutures below; growth-striae, especially on the last, strongly marked;

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spiral threadlets adorn the lower whorls throughout, that margining the suture comparatively large and with a sharply defined lower margin, a few minute threads on its flattened surface, on the last about fifty, those above the angle very slender, below with here and there an alternate larger and smaller threadlet, about equal to the grooves in width. Aperture: Outer lip imperfect; posterior sinus extending from the angle to the sutural cord; columella almost straight; callus thin, not obscuring the spiral sculpture.

Length, 22 mm.; width, 7 mm.

Locality, Hampden. Collected by Dr. Marshall.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

Of this form there is only one example. It nearest kin are perhaps S. sertula, S. obliquecostata, and S. mordax.

Borsonia (Corderia) zelandica Marshall. (Plate VI, fig. 8.)

Volutoderma zelandica Marshall, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 51, p. 230, p. 17, figs. 4 and 5, 1919.

The material from which this species was described consists of two rather badly preserved specimens collected by Dr. Marshall at Hampden. The sculpture can be followed fairly well, and the position and form of the posterior sinus is clearly indicated by the well-marked growth-striae. The outer lip being broken away gives a somewhat marked prominence to the two small plaits on the columella, and this may in a measure have influenced the late Mr. Suter when he recommended its inclusion in Volutoderma. We offer a figure of the aperture restored as indicated by the lines of growth.

Conus (Leptoconus) armoricus Suter. (Plate VI, fig. 9.)

N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 5, p. 61, pl. 12, fig. 25, 1917.

As no description of the protoconch is recorded, we offer the following: The specimen has a total of nine and a half whorls, three and a half of which comprise the smooth protoconch, which is sharply conical and slightly oblique; whorls convex, with somewhat impressed sutures, the initial half-turn minute and somewhat laterally disposed, the third comparatively high, the last half narrowing and merging into the post-embryonic form.

Length, 21 mm.; width, 11 mm. (dimensions of specimen).

Locality, Pakaurangi Point, Kaipara Harbour. Collected by Dr. Marshall.

Conus (Leptoconus) armoricus var. pseudoarmoricus n. var. (Plate VI, fig. 10.)

Shell small, spire low, gradated, the body elongated and sharply tapering. Whorls six, excluding the protoconch, which is missing; each whorl with a pronounced rim-like ridge, which overhangs and partly conceals the suture, giving to the volution a distinctly concave appearance; the last whorl immediately below the ridged shoulder slightly contracted. Sculpture: On the spire-whorls four or five small spiral threadlets, on the anterior area of the last about twelve well marked and obliquely ascending; above these a few ill-defined lines which probably are continued to the crown; axial growth-striae irregular, on the spire distinctly curved, indicating a fairly deep sinus. Aperture narrow; the margins almost parallel; outer lip imperfect.

Length, 18 mm.; width, 10 mm.

Locality, Hampden. Collected by Dr. Marshall.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

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Differs from C. armoricus by the spiral threadlets on the spire, the rim-like ridge which overhangs the sutures, and the accompanying concavity of the whorls. The material consists of a single example. C. armoricus is recorded from Komiti Point,* Kaipara Harbour, and it is interesting to find a form so nearly akin in the Hampden beds.

Melina zealandica Suter. (Plate X, fig. 20; Plate IX, fig. 21.)

For all references see N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 5.

A description derived from very fragmentary materials is given in the above-mentioned publication, pages 68, 69. Plate viii, fig. 4, is a part of the hinge; Plate xiii, fig. 1, is the large fragment from Shrimpton's, and not Ostrea mackayi, and fig. 2 is the latter species.

The species is not uncommon in the Nukumaru and Waipipi beds; numerous large fragments, including an almost complete hinge of a right valve, were obtained. Another example of hinge partly embedded in rock has both valves locked in natural position. Attached to a mass of rock a complete valve was noted, which was much eroded, but presented an approximate indication of the general outline. From this, aided by large fragments, we derive the figure of the restored shell.

The shell is apparently subquadrate, somewhat swollen, the umbo near to the anterior end, the anterior ear small with the margin immediately below prominently inflexed. The ventral margin and posterior end may to some extent have been completely eroded, as the lamellar structure would lend itself to this, but it does not appear to have been prominently winged. The hinge is massive and wide, with four or five conspicuous resilifers. The length of the hinge exceeds 140 mm., and several measurements indicate that the united valves are not less than 90 mm. in diameter.

Amphidesma (Taria) crassiformis n. sp. (Plate X, figs. 22, 23.)

Shell of medium size, massive, triangular; beaks almost at the posterior end which is abruptly truncated, strongly and acutely angled; the anterior dorsal margin long, downward sloping and almost straight, the anterior end narrow and rounded, ventral margin slightly curved; the posterior truncation is slightly concave as it approaches the lip-margin, and on the end there are two, usually three, feebly-raised curved ridges. The median area of the valves and towards the ventral margin sometimes has a slightly concave appearance. Sculpture is irregular shallow concentric corrugations with fine striae, the latter on the posterior end pronounced. Hinge conspicuously massive; right valve with deeply excavate sockets above the laterals, the posterior much the shorter; in the left valve the anterior lateral elongated and with a double tubercle on its crest, the right short high and triangular; cardinals in both lamellar and oblique. Adductorscars, pallial line, and sinus deeply impressed, the sinus short and with a broadly rounded apex. Lip-margins smooth.

Length, 80 mm.; height, 60 mm.

Locality, Nukumaru, in blue sandy clay.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

Material consists of three valves, a right and left of which are almost perfect. Readily distinguished by its massiveness and the abrupt heavy truncation.

[Footnote] * C. armoricus occurs at Pakaurangi Point, not Komiti Point, which is some two miles distant.

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Fig. 15—Surcula torticostata Marshall.
Figs. 16, 17.—Phalium fibratum n. sp.

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Figs. 18, 19—Fulguraria turrita var nukumaruensis n var
Fig. 21—Melina zealandica Suter.

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Fig. 20.— Melina zealandica Suter.
Figs. 22, 23— Amphidesma crassiformis n. sp

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Art. XXII.—Tertiary Geology of the Area between the Otiake River (Kurow District) and Duntroon, North Otago.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 18th September, 1918; received by Editor, 31st December, 1919; issued separately, 15th June, 1920.]





General Description of the Area.


Historical Summary.


Description of the Tertiary Beds.


Trigonometrical Station Z, Otiake River.


Otekaike Special School.


White Rocks and Duntroon Area.


Maruwenua* River.


Station Peak.


Structure of the Area.



I. Introduction.

As will be seen from the accompanying geological map (fig. 1), the area described in this paper extends from the Otiake River, the southern boundary of the Kurow Survey District, to near Duntroon, on the Otago side of the Waitaki River. The district north-west of the Otiake River is dealt with in a later paper in this volume, but to save unnecessary repetition a full historical summary of the work of previous observers in that area, as well as in the present area, is given below.

In the geological map no attempt has been made to map the various types of gravels, as the delimitation of their boundary-lines and their differential characteristics will demand a great deal of detailed work. The gravel lands are now covered with vegetation and soil, and this fact renders their distinction difficult. The Wharekuri-Otekaike fault, which bounds the Kurow tilted block, follows an almost straight line, but between the Otekaike basin and the Otiake basin, a spur of the undermass, dipping easterly at 6° beneath the Tertiary rocks, apparently breaks the continuity of the main fault-line. It would appear that in this locality the low-lying block had failed to break away, as the stripped surface of the spur is certainly continuous with that of the uplifted block for some distance to the west of the main line of faulting. No convincing evidence was obtained to show whether the boundary scarps of this protruding spur were fault-scarps or fold-scarps, except in the neighbourhood of Newsome's Creek, where the quartz-grits were found lying directly on the sloping surface of the undermass on the southern side of the spur, three-quarters of a mile east of Trig. Station D. The surface and overlying quartz-grits at this point dip southerly at 30°, indicating that, in this locality at least, the scarp is a fold-surface.

McKay was the only geologist who investigated the area in any detail, and the sequence of rocks as recorded by him was characteristically accurate. His classification of the sediments was based almost entirely upon lithological characters, but he made large collections of fossils from several parts of the Waitaki Valley, and these were determined by the late Mr. Henry Suter two or three years ago, but the lists have not yet been published. McKay's account of the geology is rendered somewhat difficult

[Footnote] * Spelt also “Maerewhenua” and “Maraewhenua.”

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Fig. 1.—Geological map of the Waitaki Valley between the Otiake River and Duntroon. In the legend the order of superposition is indicated by the numbers.

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to follow owing to the necessity he was under of finding in the series an unconformity marking the line of division between the Cretaceo-Tertiary and Tertiary systems of the old Geological Survey under Sir James Hector.

The relationship of the various rocks present in the area is obscured by the thick deposit of post-Tertiary gravels, and exposures are. revealed only when the streams of the area have entrenched themselves in the gravels and cut through the Tertiary rocks. The outcrops of Tertiary rocks along the fault-lines have been mapped only where they were observed. They are probably continuous beneath the gravels.

The writer wishes to thank Mr. P. G. Morgan for kindly allowing him to examine the lists of fossils determined by the late Mr. Henry Suter from the collections made by McKay forty years ago. To Dr. J. Allan Thomson the writer is much indebted for assistance in determining the brachiopods, and for permission to incorporate his list of molluscan fossils from the upper beds at Otiake in the lists detailed below. Mr. H. Suter named many forms from the same beds for the writer some years ago, and his determinations are included in these lists.

The paper furnishes geological evidence for the existence of two strong faults, which are shown to be intimately connected with the great fault-system of Central Otago, so ably described by Cotton (1917A, p. 272). The elongated relatively depressed area of the Waitaki Valley, between the mountains of South Canterbury and North Otago, occupied by Tertiary beds, is shown to be a tectonic depression which is partly a graben and partly a fault-angle depression. McKay's statement that the Hutchinson Quarry beds lie above the Otekaike limestone is shown to be supported by the evidence. It is further shown that McKay's “two-limestone theory” is radically different from Park's “two-limestone theory,” and that the latter's statement (1918, p. 110) that Hutton, Hector, and McKay considered the limestone of the Waitaki Valley to be of Hutchinsonian age is not warranted. On the evidence of the brachiopod fauna this limestone is shown to be Ototaran.

II. General Description of the Area.

Between the Otiake and the Otekaike Rivers, flowing in a north-easterly direction to join the Waitaki River, the surface rock is a thick deposit of coarse water-worn boulders and silt. The initial gravel tableland has been rather deeply trenched by the streams, and the Otiake and the Otekaike now flow in braided courses to join the trunk stream. Remnants of high-level terraces are to be seen near the school at Otekaike, indicating recent elevation. Before debouching from the mountains on to the gravel-covered plain these rivers flow in steep-sided gorges, and narrow terraces are noticeable on the sides of the streams. The mountainous country that flanks this part of the area on the south-west rises fairly rapidly to a height of over 6,000 ft. in the Kurow Mountains, or at least 5,000 ft. above the general level of the gravel tableland.

From Ben Lomond to Black Hill an even-topped gently sloping ridge extends almost to the main road, and the rise from the Otekaike basin to this ridge is abrupt. The quartz-grits that crop out in the basin of the Waikaura Creek have been deeply dissected and eroded, and in places the greywacke undermass crops to the surface, particularly in the higher country towards Ben Lomond. The country to the east is an elevated tableland, deeply dissected by the streams that traverse it. The surface rock is formed of heavy river-gravels and silts, and limestone is revealed

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in many of the creeks, and forms prominent escarpments on the banks of many of the larger streams. The Maruwenua River, a north-easterly-flowing tributary of the Waitaki, rising in the neighbourhood of Dansey's Pass, where a distant sag is noticeable in the main Kakanui-Kurow Range, is flanked by the rather steeply sloping back of a tilted block, the stripped surface of which dips beneath the Tertiaries exposed in the neighbourhood of the river.

The Waitaki River flows in an east-south-east direction near the base of the well-preserved fault-scarp of the South Canterbury block mountains.

The Tertiary rocks in the Waitaki Valley occur in an elongated depression between the mountain-ranges of North Otago and South Canterbury, and the origin of this depression has been referred to various causes. Haast had no difficulty in imagining that a glacier was the agent of erosion; Hutton and Park invoked the aid of a pie-Tertiary river, the valley of which, after general subsidence of the land, was drowned by the encroachment of the sea, and the sedimentary deposits laid down. Marshall detected signs of tectonic movement in the neighbourhood of Wharekuri, and Cotton later elaborated the idea in his work on the block mountains of Otago, and described the depression as a somewhat complex graben between the uplifted block mountains of North Otago and Canterbury.

The Tertiary rocks consist of quartz conglomerates and sands, and sometimes fireclays, with seams of inferior brown coal. These rocks rest on the eroded surface of the older greywacke rock, and are followed by greensands, often pebbly, sandy, and micaceous, and containing marine fossils 20 ft. above the coal. These greensands pass up into more calcareous greensands containing much less quartz and mica, but glauconitic casts of Foraminifera are abundant. The limestone which overlies these greensands sometimes has at its immediate base a band of calcareous greensand containing brachiopods in abundance; in other cases the transition from a calcareous glauconitic sand to a slightly glauconitic limestone is almost insensible. The glauconitic limestone passes up into a much harder limestone free from glauconite, and the latter rock is capped by very fossiliferous concretionary hardened bands, covered in turn by more sandy beds, which appear to be unfossiliferous in their upper part. Overlying these rocks unconformably is a heavy deposit of river-gravel and silts.

III. Historical Summary.

That the historical summary of the views of previous workers may be more easily followed, the classification as finally adopted by McKay for the Waitaki Valley is tabulated.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Age. Formation.
Recent to Pleistocene Alluvial and glacier deposits.
Lower Miocene Pareora formation.
(a.) Gravels and sands, with lignite-beds.
(b.) Pareora clays.
Upper Eocene (a.) Hutchinson Quarry beds.
(b.) Otekaike limestone.
(c.) Kekenodon beds (greensands).
Cretaceo-Tertiary (a.) “Grey marls.”
(b.) Maruwenua limestone.
(c.) Wharekuri greensands.
(d.) Island sandstone.
(e.) Coal-beds.
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Hector, in 1865, classified the Waitaki arenaceous rocks as Lower Miocene, and the Oamaru rocks as Upper Miocene. In 1870 he considered the Oamaru rocks to be Older Tertiary, and those of the Waitaki Valley Middle Tertiary. In 1877 he placed the coal-grits, sandstones, and overlying limestones at Maruwenua in his Cretaceo-Tertiary system. In 1882 he considered the Otekaike limestone to be of Tertiary age, and at a higher horizon than the Maruwenua limestone (Cretaceo-Tertiary).

Hutton (1875, p. 46), after examining a collection of fossils from Otekaike, classed them as Upper Miocene (Pareoran or Awamoan); and (1875, p. 89) considered that the Tertiary rocks at Wharekuri occupied a depression “hollowed out by an Eocene glacier.” The brown coal at Wharekuri was said to be Eocene. McKay (1877) reported on the geology of the Oamaru and Waitaki districts, and referred the Maruwenua lime-stone and the overlying fossiliferous horizon (”Phorus beds”) to the Cretaceo-Tertiary system, and stated that the “equivalent beds of Hutchinson's Quarry, Oamaru, and even higher beds, assume the character of a calcareous sandstone at Otekaike, and at Big Gully (Wharekuri) of a tufaceous greensand.” In the same report (1877, p. 58) he declared the impossibility of separating the Awamoan, either stratigraphically or otherwise, from the Hutchinsonian. In a later report (1882a) he described the Waitaki Valley more fully, and stated that the Tertiary rocks, comprising limestones and calcareous greensands of Upper Eocene age, rest indifferently on various members of the Cretaceo-Tertiary series. Certain sandstone gravels, often steeply tilted, were classed as Upper Pareoran (Awamoan), and the coal at Wharekuri was referred to this horizon. The Hutchinson Quarry beds at Wharekuri were said to rest conformably on the Otekaike limestone, which was classed as a Tertiary rock, quite distinct from the Maruwenua limestone of Cretaceo-Tertiary age. The “sandy beds with cement concretions” (”Phorus beds”) above the limestone at Maruwenua were referred to the horizon of the “grey marls” of Cretaceo-Tertiary age, although the fossils “resemble those from Hutchinson's Quarry and the Otekaike limestone more than those of the ‘grey marls.’” The Wharekuri greensands were said to be overlain unconformably by the “Kekenodon greensands” (a Tertiary rock), and to belong to the Cretaceo-Tertiary system. The fossiliferous beds that overlie, the coal-rocks at Black Point were said to be at the same horizon as the island sandstone. The heavy angular gravels, containing boulders with Triassic and Permian fossils, were considered to be of glacial origin, the glaciers having taken their rise in the surrounding mountains. McKay collected fossils from Station Peak, opposite Otekaike, and stated that in the section exposed there “the Hutchinson's Quarry beds do not present their usual characters, and must be considered as merged in the Otekaike limestone.” Again, referring to the same section, he affirmed that “the oldest beds seen are limestones as pure as, though less fossiliferous than, the higher part.” In this locality and at Otekaike McKay considered that the limestone rests directly on the subschistose rocks.

In a later report (1882b) McKay still maintained that the coal-beds were of Pareora age, but that quartz sands and fireclays of Eocene age, similar to the rocks usually associated with the coal-seams, lay beneath the “Kekenodon greensands,” of Eocene age. The Maruwenua limestone was now considered to consist of three distinct rocks. The upper part (the “Phorus beds,” of Upper Cretaceo-Tertiary age of his former reports) was referred to the Hutchinson Quarry horizon, the middle part was

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correlated with the Otekaike limestone, both being referred to the Tertiary; while the basal part of the Maruwenua limestone was stated to be of the same age as the Ototara limestone (Cretaceo-Tertiary). McKay asserted that, although these three rocks are quite conformable at Maruwenua, unconformity was deemed to be present, as the Otekaike limestone rested directly on the subschistose rocks at Otekaike and Station Peak. He gave a section (1882b, p. 104) showing the relationship between the two limestones, and the Hutchinson Quarry beds were shown above the limestone at Otekaike.

Hutton (1885, p. 547) described a section on the Rakaia River, Canterbury, at a locality called “The Curiosity Shop.” The aim of the paper was to show that the division of the rocks in this locality into a Cretaceo-Tertiary and a Tertiary series was quite unjustifiable on either stratigraphical or palaeontological grounds. In the course of the paper he discussed the rocks and fossils of the Waitaki Valley, criticized adversely McKay's arguments in favour of an unconformity anywhere in the series, and showed clearly that the sequence at Wharekuri from the Hutchinson Quarry beds down to the greensands forms a single series. In a later paper (1887, p. 429) he again contended that the Otekaike limestone and the Maruwenua limestone belonged to the same series.

Park (1887, p. 139) traced the Ototaran stone almost continuously from Oamaru to Ngapara, where it rests conformably on greensands, the upper part of the greensands being represented at Oamaru by the Waiarekan tuffs. The limestone (at Ngapara) was said to have lost all the characteristics of the fine Oamaru building-stone, yet “standing on the high hills surrounding Ngapara it is quite obvious that the Ototara stone at one time formed a continuous bed” (loc. cit., p. 140). Park (1904a, p. 416) determined the succession of the younger Tertiaries in South Canterbury and Otago to be, in descending order, (a) Oamaru stone, (b) marly and sandy clays, (c) marly greensands, often with calcareous concretions, (d) quartz-grits, fireclays, and coal; and he stated that “the sandy Kekenodon beds and underlying greensands, &c., form the base of the Tertiary beds in the old Waitaki Fiord, and, proceeding westward, they pass under a yellowish-brown limestone, which McKay calls the Otekaike limestone. I think there can be no doubt that this limestone is the horizontal equivalent of the Ngapara (Oamaru) limestone. But, without laying any stress upon the exact correlation of the limestones, we have in the Wharekuri basin a section of the Oamaru series exactly parallel with that at the Waihao River; and there is little to wonder at in this parallelism if these beds, as seems to me likely, were deposited on the floor of the same continuous sea. The position of the sandy beds [the greensands], containing, as we find, most, if not all, of the forms hitherto supposed to be typical of the Pareora [Awamoan] series, at once raises a question as to the relations of the Awamoa and other supposed Pareoras in North Otago to the Oamaru stone.” In a note (1904, p. 418) Park stated that he had since obtained evidence in North Otago and South Canterbury which confirmed his conclusion that the Pareora beds (Awamoan) underlie the Oamaru (Waitaki) stone.

Hamilton (1904, p. 465) described some vertical faults striking north- north-west at Wharekuri, and his section showed the Wharekuri green-sands in contact with the quartz-grits along a line of faulting. Park (1905) elaborated his position in regard to the position of the Pareora (Awamoan) fauna beneath the Waitaki stone, and contended that there were really

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two limestone horizons in North Otago, separated by the Hutchinson Quarry and Awamoan beds The lower limestone he called the Oamaru stone, and the upper limestone the Waitaki stone, as it was strongly developed in the Waitaki Valley. The Maruwenua limestone and the Otekaike limestone at Wharekuri were considered to be at the same horizon above the Awamoan, which, it may be remarked, is an altogether different view from that which McKay held in regard to the relationship of the Ototara (Maruwenua) limestone and the Otekaike limestone. McKay certainly considered the two limestones distinct rocks; but the requirements of the Cretaceo-Tertiary theory demanded this, as a break had to occur somewhere in the series. Never did McKay dream of placing the Waitaki limestone above the Hutchinsonian and Awamoan horizons, for he always maintained the infra-position of the limestone in North Otago and South Canterbury (1882a, p. 65, and 1882b, p. 103). Park correlated the greensands at Wharekuri with the Hutchinson Quarry beds at Kakanui (1905, p. 523), but McKay had always maintained that the beds above the limestone in the Wharekuri area were undoubtedly the representatives of the Hutchinson Quarry beds at Oamaru. Park placed the coal-beds at Wharekuri at the base of the Tertiary series.

Marshall, Speight, and Cotton (1911, p. 405) stated that there was no evidence that the greensands lying beneath the Maruwenua limestone are the equivalent of the Hutchinson Quarry beds at Oamaru, but agreed with Park in his contention that the series is conformable.

Marshall (1915, p. 383) gave a list of fossils from the fossiliferous beds at Otiake, and referred them to the horizon of the Oamaru limestone (Ototaran).

Cotton (1917a, p. 285, and 1917b, p. 432) showed that the Waitaki River followed a complex graben along the northern boundary of the block-complex which forms the mountains of Otago, and he described several interesting examples of tectonic forms.

IV. Description of the Tertiary Beds.

(1.) Trig. Station Z, Otiake River.

The exposure of fossiliferous beds in this locality is seen on the face of a rather prominent cliff, near the Trig. Station Z, close to the Otiake River, and about a mile above the railway bridge. The beds dip 7° in a direction N. 20° W. The section exposed here is illustrated in fig. 2.

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Fig. 2.—Section at Trig. Station Z, Otiake River. (a)Otekaike limestone; (b) glauconitic calcareous bands; (c) less glauconitic calcareous sandstones with glauconitic bands passing up into (d); (d) softer calcareous mudstone.

The lowest bed (a) is a compact light-yellowish-brown limestone (Otekaike limestone) containing abundant tests of Foraminifera, a small quantity of clear subangular minute grains of quartz, and some glauconitic casts of Foraminifera. Microscopic fossils are scattered through the mass of the rock. Pachymagas huttoni Thomson, Pecten huttoni (Park), Limopsis aurita (Brocchi), Dentalium solidum Hutt., Cucullaea sp. were found in the limestone. The overlying bed (b) is distinctly marked out from the underlying

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limestone by its glauconitic nature and by the abundance of fossils it contains. Though occurring in (c) as well, the fossils are most abundant in the glauconitic bands. The bed (b) is hardened and concretionary, and is 3 ft. in thickness. Bed (c) is a calcareous, less glauconitic bed, showing a thickness of 20 ft., and containing occasional thin bands of glauconite with fossils. It appears to pass up into less fossiliferous, more sandy beds (d). The fossils collected from beds (b) and (c) are given below, and include the species collected by Dr. Thomson, Dr. Marshall, and the writer. The collector's name in each case is denoted by the initial letter of his name. For purposes of easy reference and comparison the list is arranged alphabetically. Recent species are marked with an asterisk.

Ampullina suturalis (Hutt.) M, T, U.
Ancilla hebera (Hutt.) M.
*—— mucronata (Sow.) M, U.
*—— novae-zelandiae (Sow.) M.
—— papillata (Tate) T, U.
Anomia trigonopsis Hutt. T.
Bathytoma sulcata excavata Sut. M, T, U.
Borsonia rudis (Hutt.) M, U.
*Calyptraea alta (Hutt.) T.
*—— maculata (Q. & G.) M, T, U.
Cominella pulchra Sut. M.
Corbula canaliculata Hutt. M, T, U.
—— humerosa Hutt. M, U.
—— kaiparaensis Sut. M, U.
*Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.) M, U.
Crepidula gregaria Sow. M.
—— striata (Hutt.) M, U.
Cucullaea attenuata Hutt. M, U.
Cymatium minimum (Hutt.) U.
Cymbiola corrugata (Hutt.) M, T, U.
Cytherea chariessa Sut. U.
*—— oblongata (Hanley) M, T, U.
Dentalium mantelli Zitt. M, U.
—— pareorense P. & S. T.
—— solidum Hutt. M, U.
*Divaricella cumingi (Ad. & Ang.) M, T, U.
*Dosinia greyi Zitt. M, T, U.
Drillia callimorpha Sut. M.
Epitonium lyratum (Zitt.) M, U.
Exilia dalli Sut. M.
Ficus parvus Sut. T.
*Fulgoraria gracilis (Swains.) M, T.
Leucosyrinx alta (Harris) M, U.
—— alta transenna (Sut.) M.
Lima colorata Hutt. M, T.
*Limopsis aurita (Brocchi) M, T, U.
—— catenata Sut. U.
*Loripes concinna Hutt. U.
Macrocallista assimilis (Hutt.) M, U.
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*Macrocallista multistriata (Sow.) M, T, U.
Mangilia blandiata Sut. U.
Marginella harrisi Cossm. M, U.
Mitra armorica Sut. T, U.
Modiolaria elongata (Hutt.) U.
*Modiolus australis (Gray) M.
*Murex zelandicus Q. & G. M, T, U.
*Natica zelandica Q. & G. M, T, U.
Nucula saggitata Sut. U.
*Ostrea tatei Sut. T.
Pecten beethami Hutt. T.
—— chathamensis Hutt. T.
*—— zelandiae Gray M.
Polinices gibbosus (Hutt.) M, T, U.
—— huttoni Iher. M, T, U.
*Psammobia lineolata Gray T.
Ptychatractus tenuiliratus Sut. U.
Sinum cinctum (Hutt.) M.
Siphonalia conoidea (Zitt.) M.
*—— nodosa (Mart.) M, T.
—— turrita Sut. T, U.
*Struthiolaria vermis (Mart.) M.
*Tellina glabrella Desh. T.
Terebra orycta Sut. M.
Teredo heaphyi Zitt. M, T, U.
*Trichotropis clathrata Sow. M.
*Turbonilla zealandica (Hutt.) T.
Turris uttleyi Sut. M, T, U.
Turritella ambulacrum Sow. T.
*—— carlottae Wats. M.
—— cavershamensis Harris M, T, U.
—— semiconcava Sut. M, T.
Typhis maccoyi T. Woods M, U.
*Venericardia difficilis (Desh.) M.
—— pseutes Sut. T, U.
—— purpurata (Desh.) T.
*Zenatia acinaces (Q. & G.) M.

Out of this list of seventy-six species twenty-six are Recent, giving a percentage of 34.

In addition to the molluscs, Pachymagas huttoni Thomson is abundant in the glauconitic bands. Two new species of Surcula were found in the writer's collection, and Dr. Thomson obtained a new species of Vexillum.

Every one of the above species occurs in the Awamoan beds elsewhere, and thirty-nine species have never been found below the “Pachymagas parki” greensand band (the upper limit of the Hutchinsonian) in the Oamaru district. Corals also occur in these beds. (Note.—To avoid circumlocution the writer will refer to these upper fossiliferous beds as the “Otiake beds.”)

Dr. Marshall has published a list of fossils from this locality, and they are stated to have come from the limestone (1915, p. 383). All fossils

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collected by the present writer have been gathered from the glauconitic band (b) and overlying, bed, and at least 50 ft. of limestone is exposed below this bed. This limestone is poorly fossiliferous. Corals occur in the glauconitic bands above the limestone, as well as Pachymagas huttoni Thomson (possibly Marshall's Magellania sp.), but the writer did not find Isis dactyla. Nor was he more successful in finding a glauconitic band of greensand below the limestone in which the corals and brachiopods were said to occur.

Park (1918, p. 83, footnote) says, “Mr. Uttley states (fide Dr. J. A. Thomson) that the beds from, which the collection was made lie above the Waitaki stone, and are undoubtedly Awamoan”; and on the next page of his report (1918, p. 84) he writes, “On the palaeontological evidence the so-called Waitaki. stone at Otiake should be referred to the Awamoan instead of the Upper Hutchinsonian.”

These statements, together with Marshall's view that the fossils came from the limestone, need some comment. The fossils were collected from the top of the section, with a considerable thickness of limestone below them. The fossils are almost certainly Awamoan, but the writer considers the limestone to be of Ototaran age. In the Waitaki Valley there is a lack of brachiopods that characterize the Hutchinsonian greensands of the Oamaru coastal district, particularly the brachiopod Pachymagas parki (Hutt.), which, though not restricted to the Hutchinsonian, occurs abundantly in a well-marked indurated glauconitic band, and marks the upper limit of the Hutchinsonian. In the absence of a brachiopod fauna it would scarcely be possible to differentiate this horizon, except perhaps lithologically, even in the Oamaru district, and the Hutchinsonian and Awamoan would, as far as the molluscan fauna is concerned, have to be considered as part and parcel of the same series. (See McKay, 1877, p. 58; Hutton, 1887, p. 416). The writer believes that this is the case in the Waitaki Valley, and that these fossiliferous beds at Otiake represent the Hutchinsonian and Awamoan horizons of the coastal district. McKay (1882a, p. 65) recognized the beds above the limestone at Wharekuri as Hutchinsonian, and these are at the same horizon as the Otiake beds. There is no evidence to show that the Otekaike limestone is other than Ototaran in age. The beds beneath the limestone are not seen, but on the right bank of the Otiake River, where the limestone again crops out, greyish-green foraminiferal sands, underlain by intensely dark greensands, crop out farther up the river, dipping in the same direction as the limestone; and a short distance from the outcrop of greensands the quartz-grits also dip in the same direction.

(2.) Otekaike Special School.

This is the locality (Geological Survey locality No. 481) where McKay collected fossils in 1881. His collection, he states, was made from the Otekaike limestone, which crops out on the left bank of the Otekaike River, two-miles and half from the main road. Where exposed it contains a few fossils, Cucullaea worthingtoni Hutt. (?) and Pachymagas huttoni Thomson being the forms collected by the writer. McKay records ten forms, eight of which occur in the upper beds at Otiake. Traill's collection (Geol. Surv. loc. 259) is also said to have come from the limestone. Seven species were determined, and six occur in the upper beds at Otiake.

These geologists evidently failed to find a highly fossiliferous horizon in this locality.; On the sloping right bank of the creek, immediately behind the school, the writer discovered, at the top of the limestone, two glauconitic beds crowded with fossils, which are undoubtedly at the same

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horizon as the Otiake beds. Fully 40 ft. of limestone underlies, and its base is not seen. The fossils collected from the Otiake beds in this locality were—

  • Ampullina suturalis (Hutt.)

  • Ancilla papillata (Tate)

  • Anomia trigonopsis Hutt.

  • Bathytoma, sulcata excavata Sut.

  • *Calyptraea alta (Hutt.)

  • *—— maculata (Q. & G.)

  • Cominella pulchra (?) Sut.

  • Corbula canaliculata Hutt.

  • —— humerosa Hutt.

  • —— kaiparaensis Sut.

  • *Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.)

  • Crepidula gregaria Sow.

  • Cucullaea attenuata Hutt.

  • Cymbiola corrugata (Hutt.)

  • Cytherea chariessa Sut.

  • Dentalium pareorense P. & S.

  • —— solidum Hutt.

  • *Divaricella cumingi (Ad. & Ang.)

  • Epitonium lyratum (Zitt.)

  • Leucosyrinx alta (Harris)

  • Lima colorata Hutt.

  • *Limopsis aurita (Brocchi)

  • *Loripes concinna Hutt.

  • Mangilia praecophinodes (?) Sut.

  • Marginella harrisi Cossm.

  • *Natica zelandica Q. & G.

  • Nucula saggitata Sut.

  • Pecten chathamensis Hutt.

  • *—— zelandiae Gray

  • Polinices gibbosus (Hutt.)

  • —— huttoni Iher.

  • Siphonalia turrita Sut.

  • *Tellina glabrella Desh.

  • Terebra orycta Sut.

  • Teredo heaphyi Zitt.

  • *Turbonilla zealandica (Hutt.)

  • Turritella ambulacrum Sow.

  • —— cavershamensis Harris

  • —— semiconcava Sut.

  • Vénericardia pseutes Sut.

  • *——purpurata (Desh.)

Out of this list of forty-one species, two were doubtfully identified. Eleven species are Recent, giving a percentage of 27. This collection was obtained after two or three hours' work, and there is not the slightest doubt that many additional forms may be obtained from this locality.

The brachiopod Pachymagas huttoni Thomson is again very abundant, and corals are also found similar to those found at Trig. Station Z. McKay (1882A, p. 66) states that in this locality the Otekaike limestone rests directly on the Palaeozoic rocks, and he gives a section (1882B, p. 104) illustrating his views. It is true that a short distance from the present locality the old rock crops out, but McKay observed no junction, as the country between is obscured by heavy gravel deposits. The writer followed up the various small creeks that have cut deeply into the gravels, and found the quartzgrits dipping towards the limestone a short distance away close up to the mountain-front, so that there is no doubt that the limestone does not lie on the old rock at Otekaike. The section given by McKay (1882B, p. 104) was intended to illustrate his views of the relationship between the Otekaike limestone and the Maruwenua limestone, which he considered to belong to different systems. In his first report on the locality he gave a section (1882A, p. 75) showing the Otekaike limestone at a higher horizon than the Maruwenua limestone in its entirety; but in a later report during the same year he gave another section (1882B, p. 104), in which he modified his views considerably. He divided the Maruwenua limestone into three distinct rocks, and correlated the Otekaike limestone with the middle portion of the Maruwenua limestone, and the Hutchinson Quarry beds with the fossiliferous horizon (“Phorus beds”) that lies at the top of the Maruwenua limestone. He had previously referred these fossiliferous beds to the top of the Cretaceo-Tertiary. His section shows clearly the Hutchinson Quarry beds lying above the Otekaike limestone at Otekaike (the present locality), although he makes no reference to them in his report. He frequently refers, however, to the Hutchinson Quarry beds

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lying above the Otekaike limestone at Wharekuri. The writer has no doubt that if McKay had discovered the glaucomtic fossiliferous beds above the limestone at Otekaike he would have referred them to the Hutchinson Quarry horizon, for his description of the latter beds at Wharekuri would apply equally, well to the Otiake beds at Otiake and Otekaike. Although McKay made the break between the Cretaceo-Tertiary and Tertiary systems at the top of the lower third of the limestone at Maruwenua, yet he states that there is stratigraphical conformity throughout the section; but that unconformity is proved, as the Otekaike limestone rests on the old “subschistose” rocks at Otekaike. As there is no evidence forthcoming to show that this is so, and as the basal quartz-grits of the series are present, as shown above, unconformity has not been proved. McKay was perhaps justified on lithological grounds in dividing the limestone at Maruwenua into three portions. The “Phorus beds” at Maruwenua, as will be shown below, are similar to the Otiake beds, and therefore probably Hutchinsonian-Awamoan. The less glauconitic limestone below these at this locality has all the lithological characters, of the limestone at Otekaike, while the more glauconitic basal portion of the limestone at Maruwenua represents the basal part of the Otekaike limestone, which is not visible in the present locality, as it is obscured by gravels.

The quartz-grits crop out again at the point where the Otekaike River leaves its gorge and debouches on to the gravel-covered plain. They lie near the foot of a steep escarpment of greywacke rock on the right bank of the stream, and mark the point of intersection of two strong faults, the one extending from Wharekuri to this point, and another trending in a north-easterly direction. The small exposure of the quartz-grits mentioned in the description of the beds at Otekaike lies on the line of the Wharekuri- Otekaike fault, and it will be shown in another paper in this volume that there are other outcrops of Tertiary rocks lying near the base of the mountain-front in the Kurow district. This fault has a north-westerly trend. The escarpment referred to above extends in a north-easterly direction towards the main road, and the crest of the evenly sloping ridge drops 500 ft. in a distance of three miles. Patches of quartz-grits and limestone crop out at various places at the foot of the scarp, and define the direction of this fault, which bounds the northeast portion of the great Kakanui tilted block (Cotton, 1917A, p. 279). The back slope of this portion of the block is stripped of its cover in the higher country towards Ben Lomond, but the covering strata (quartz-grits, greensands, limestone, &c.) are still preserved in the country extending north and south from Black Hill to Livingstone.

(3.)White Rocks and Duntroon Area.

In the Waikaura Creek, quartz-grits crop out to the east of Black Hill, and a prominent limestone mesa rises steeply from the bed of the creek. The slopes are buried in talus, and the intervening rocks are not exposed. The limestone resembles the Otekaike limestone in containing little glauconite. Its dip is westerly. From this point the Maruwenua tableland stretches to the southeast, covered by heavy gravels and silts, but the limestone is exposed in many places where the creeks have cut through the gravels.

At White Rocks, where the limestone crops out on the main road two miles above Duntroon, the highest rocks are the high-level river-gravels, overlying a limestone showing in places a thickness of 70 ft. The underlying rocks are not exposed, but the quartz-grits crop out about three-quarters of a miles up the valley, dipping in the same direction. The dip

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of the limestone is easterly, at an angle of 6°. The lower part of the limestone is very glauconitic, and contains abundant Foraminifera and small echinoderms. Brachiopods also occur, being particularly abundant in one narrow band about 4 ft. wide. The limestone gradually gets less glauconitic and more indurated, and at the top it resembles the harder portions of the Otekaike limestone.

Pachymagas huttoni Thomson, Epitonium lyratum (Zitt.), Graphularia sp., and Lima sp. were found in this upper part.

The lower glauconitic limestone in its upper portion furnished the following fossils:—

  • Aetheia gaulteri (Morris)

  • Liothyrella landonensis Thomson

  • Neothyris tapirina (Hutt.)

  • Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutt.)

  • Pachymagas huttoni Thomson

  • Pachymagas ellipticus Thomson

  • Terebratella totataensis (?) Thomson

  • Terebratulina suessi (Hutt.)

  • Epitonium lyratum (Zitt.)

  • Pecten huttoni (Park).

Foraminifera and echinoderms are plentiful in this bed.

In the neighbourhood of Duntroon, and in other places in the Maruwenua district, prominent salients in the shape of well-rounded hills and ridges are prominent above the surface of the tableland. They are capped with silts or gravels, and their flanks are usually covered with soil and grass, but where cuttings have been made through them fossiliferous beds are exposed which correspond with the horizon above the limestone (the Otiake beds). McKay clearly recognized that the form and position o these salients were an index of their nature, for, after describing them as capped with gravels, which are underlain by brown or light-coloured sands, in the lower part of which lenticular masses and beds of hard sandstone, occur full of fossils, he says that “the fossiliferous beds underlying [the gravels] will probably be found in the isolated hills behind McMaster's Station” (1877, p. 57).

The Trig. Station A is situated on one of these prominent ridges, and on the road from Duntroon to the “Earthquake,” which cuts through this ridge about one mile and a half from the railway-line, these upper fossiliferous beds crop out. In some places the fossils occurred in concretionary masses, but usually as casts. The looser portions of the rock are glauconitic and calcareous, but the fossils in these are very friable. From the hardened bed were obtained Pachymagas huttoni Thomson, and casts of Turritella sp., Dentalium sp., Venericardia sp. In the looser deposits lying immediately above, the following forms were obtained:—

  • Anomia trigonopsis Hutt. (?)

  • Cardium sp.

  • Corbula canaliculata Hutt.

  • *Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.)

  • Cytherea chariessa Sut.

  • *Limopsis aurita (Brocchi)

  • Modiolus sp.

  • Venericardia pseutes Sut.

These beds are the “Phorus beds” of McKay, and this appears to be the locality from which he collected (Geol. Surv. loc. No. 178). These beds, as pointed out above, in his earlier reports he referred to the top of the Cretaceo-Tertiary, but subsequently he correlated them with the Hutchinson Quarry horizon, considering the underlying white limestone as the equivalent of the Otekaike limestone, while the basal portion of the limestone (usually very glauconitic) he referred to his Cretaceo-Tertiary system. The writer is in agreement with McKay in placing the “Phorus beds” in the Hutchinsonian, and believes they are the equivalent of the Otiake beds at Otekaike and Otiake.

At the “Earthquake” the limestone at the top of the cliffs is of the harder whitish variety, but lower down it gradually gets more glauconitic and in the lower 10 ft. it contains an abundance of brachiopods.

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The fossils collected from the lower part of the limestone were—-

  • Aetheia gaulteri (Morris)

  • Liothyrella landonensis (?) Thomson

  • Neothyris tapirina (Hutt.)

  • Pachymagas ellipticus Thomson

  • Pachymagas huttoni Thomson

  • Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutt.)

  • Terebratulina suessi (Hutt.)

  • Epitonium lyratum (Zitt.)

Foraminifera are also abundant.

Below this fossiliferous portion 2 ft. or 3 ft. of greyish-green glauconitic marly sands are exposed, and in the basin of Waipati Creek the quartz-grits are exposed dipping towards the limestone.

(4.) Maruwenua River.

The quartz-grits and overlying greensands can be seen at many places between Duntroon and Livingstone. At the latter place the grits are worked for gold, and are immediately overlam by a bed of fossiliferous greensand in which shark's teeth are abundant. This in turn is followed by concretionary greyish sands full of fossils (McKay, 1882B, p. 105). McKay, however, gave no list of fossils.

On the right bank of the Maruwenua River, at a point about a mile south-west of Trig. Station S (Maruwenua Survey District), a calcareous concretionary band full of fossils occurs in quartzose micaceous greensands, not far above, the basal quartz sands. Twenty feet above this band occurs a sill of basalt, followed by another sill higher in the section, the two sills being separated by 20 ft. of greensands. The beds dip easterly at 10°. The calcareous concretionary band is full of fossils, but, they are very difficult to extract. The late Mr. Henry Suter determined the following forms from a large quantity of material gathered by the writer. The work of identification was rendered difficult, as most of the fossils were casts.

  • *Ancilla novae-zelandiae (Sow.)

  • *Capulus australis (Lamk.)

  • Cardium waitakiense Sut.

  • Cardium n. sp.

  • Corbula humerosa Hutt.

  • Cylichnella enysi (Hutt.)

  • Mangilia n. sp.

  • *Nucula stranger A. Ad.

  • *Polinices amphialus (Wats.)

  • Sinum n. sp.

  • Surcula n. sp.

  • *Turritella carlottae Wats.

  • *Venericardia difficilis (Desh.)

Out of this small list four species are new. Mr. Suter has published the description of only one of these species—Sinum fornicatum Suter.

Some distance to the north-east a steep escarpment of the limestone occurs, the lower portion being glauconitic; the dip is easterly, at 7°. A few fossils were obtained from the lower part of the limestone:—

  • Aetheia gaulteri (Morris)

  • Epitonium lyratum (Zitt.)

  • Terebratulina suessi (Hutt.)

At four places in the road-cuttings in Blocks 2 and 3, Maruwenua Survey District, the writer found a hardened calcareous concretionary band lying above the limestone. The fossils were in the form of casts, but the position of the beds above the limestone indicates that the Otiake beds are widely spread throughout this part of the district.

(5.) Station Peak.

Although this locality is beyond the scope of the present paper, a brief reference should be made to it. On the Canterbury side of the Waitaki, opposite the mouth of the Otekaike River, there is an outcrop of fossiliferous Tertiary rocks lying near the base of a well-marked fault-scarp. The beds dip 40° to the west. This scarp, which bounds the

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block mountains of South Canterbury, and close to the base of which the Waitaki River is now flowing, was diagnosed by Cotton on geomorphological evidence as a fault-scarp. The occurrence of these steeply dipping Tertiary beds at the base of the scarp confirms Cotton's view. This isolated patch of Tertiaries evidently rests on the toe of the splinter described by Cotton (1917B, p. 432). The surface of this splinter is a “fossil plain,” and shows few signs of erosion. Although the Tertiary rocks that formerly covered it have been almost completely stripped, a small remnant has been preserved at Station Peak, close up to the fault-scarp at the back of the splinter. McKay collected fossils from these beds, and states that “in this section the Hutchinson's Quarry beds do not present their usual characters, and must be considered, as merged in the Otekaike limestone” (1882A, p. 65). He further adds that “the lowest beds seen are limestones as pure as, though less fossiliferous than, the higher part. Upwards these beds pass into clay-marls resembling the fossiliferous Pareora beds.” There is no doubt that McKay collected his fossils from the upper, portions of the calcareous rocks at Station Peak, and that these fossiliferous rocks are underlain by a much less fossiliferous limestone. As has been shown above, the limestone at Otiake and Otekaike is also capped by a development of very fossiliferous beds, and it has been pointed out that these beds are probably widely extended beneath the gravel deposits of the Maruwenua tableland. McKay's collection from the beds at Station Peak were determined by the late Mr. Henry Suter. Of the thirty-one species specifically determined, nineteen occur in the Otiake beds at Otiake (Trig. Station Z). Of the remainder, ten species are commons Awamoan fossils, Lima lima (L.) is Recent, and Ancilla subgradata (Tate) is apparently not found elsewhere. Further, ten of the species have never been found below the Hutchinsonian-Awamoan horizon of North Otago. These fossiliferous beds are almost certainly at the horizon of the Otiake beds (Hutchinsonian-Awamoan), lying above the main body of limestone of the Waitaki Valley.

V. Structure of the Area

A fuller description of the structure will be given in a later paper after the are a north-west of the Otiake River has been discussed. A fault (Wharekuri-Otekaike fault) is clearly defined by the outcrops of the basal quartz-grits, lying close to the base of the mountain-front, as shown on the map; whilst another fault, trending north-easterly, runs north-west of the conspicuous ridge extending from Black Hill as far as Ben Lomond. The geological evidence for the latter fault is clearly indicated by the outcrop of tilted quartz-grits and limestone at intervals at the foot of the scarp, and by the occurrence of the same beds on the back slope of the tilted block to the south-east. The majority of the streams draining this portion of the back slope flow in an easterly direction and are consequent on the deformation. These streams have stripped the Tertiary beds from the higher country in the vicinity of Ben Lomond, and the surface here exhibits the characteristic features of a tilted “fossil plain.” Towards the Maruwenua River the plain disappears beneath the Tertiary basal grits and overlying beds in the basin of the stream. From Black Hill to Black' Point the structure of the Tertiary Rocks is synclinal, indicating that the great Kakanui tilted block (Cotton, 1917A, p. 279) has in this locality been warped or folded. The Wharekuri-Otekaike fault, forms the northeasterly boundary of the elevated block known as the Kurow Mountains. The southeasterly boundary of this block is a well-marked narrow

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depression, which follows the line of the Black Hill-Ben Lomond fault as far as Dansey's Pass, near the watershed between the Kyeburn River and the Otiake and Maruwenua Rivers; but there are indications that this relatively depressed area beyond Ben Lomond is complex in structure, and not due to simple differential elevation along a single fault-line. Beyond the pass occurs the reentrant forming the northeast corner of the great Maniototo depression (loc. cit., p. 278). The Kurow block is bounded on the southwest by a conspicuous fault-scarp, which rises abruptly from the fault-angle of the Hawkdun tilted block (loc. cit., p. 278).

From the description given it will be seen that the tilted block is bounded on the northwest by a tectonic depression, which in the lower course of the Otekaike River is a graben, and towards Dansey's Pass appears to be a narrow somewhat complex fault-angle or synclinal depression. This depression connects the Waitaki Valley tectonic depression with the Central Otago chain of tectonic depressions (loc. cit., p. 268). The Kurow mountain-chain is an uplifted elongated block, bounded by faults on the northeast and southwest, and separated from the Kakanui block by a narrow probably complex tectonic depression. To the northwest the crest of the range is remarkably even when viewed from the Waitaki Valley, and it slopes gently towards the northwest. The Waitaki Valley, northwest of the Otekaike River, is a graben; southeast of this line the river flows for some distance in a fault-angle depression, the depression being bounded on the Canterbury side by the splintered fault-scarp of the South Canterbury block mountains.

VI. Conclusion.

The brachiopods listed above from the limestone at White Rocks all occur in the glauconitic base of the limestone at Maruwenua (Park, 1918, p. 83), with the exception of Terebratella totaraensis Thomson, which is doubtfully identified. Murravia catinuliformis (Tate) occurs in the limestone at the “Earthquake,” in addition to the brachiopods collected by Park (loc. cit.) at Maruwenua. These brachiopods, with the exception Pachymagas huttoni Thomson, have not been found in rocks below the limestone in North Otago. Eight brachiopods—

  • Aetheia gaulteri (Morris)

  • Liothyrella landonensis Thomson

  • Murravia catinuliformis (Tate)

  • Neothyris tapirina (Hutt.)

  • Pachymagas ellipticus Thomson

  • —— huttoni Thomson

  • Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutt.)

  • Terebratulina suessi (Hutt.)

can now be recorded from the body of the limestone in the Waitaki Valley. None of these fossils occurs in Park's so-called Upper Hutchinsonian of the Oamaru coastal district. None of them except Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutt.) occurs in the “Pachymagas parki” band (Uttley, 1916, p. 20) of the coastal district, which Park would call Lower Hutchinsonian. The writer has found Pachymagas parki (Hutt.), Aetheia gaulteri (Morris), Terebratulina suessi (Hutt.), and Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutt.) in the greensands between the nodular top of the limestone and the “parki” band. Pachymagas ellipticus Thomson, Neothyris, tapirina (Hutt.), Liothyrella landonensis Thomson, and Murravia catinuliformis (Tate) have not been found by the writer above the limestone in the Landon Creek area. Of these, Neothyris tapirina (Hutt.) and Liothyrella landonensis Thomson are undoubted Ototaran fossils, and never occur above the Ototaran in the typical Oamaru district. The Hutchinsonian of the Oamaru district has as its highest member a hard glauconitic band crowded with Pachymagas parki (Hutt.), and usually accompanied with Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutt.), which Park calls

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Lower Hutchinsonian (1918, p. 109). He would, however, place the limestone in the present locality in the Upper Hutchinsonian; but the evidence is strongly against it, as the brachiopods mentioned above occur below the “parki” band in the Oamaru district. The Otiake beds, which lie above the limestone, contain an Awamoan molluscan fauna, and in the absence of the typical brachiopod of the Hutchinsonian, Pachymagas parki (Hutt.), it is a difficult, matter to differentiate the Hutchinsonian horizon in the Waitaki Valley. McKay and Hutton both considered the Awamoa beds to be part and parcel of the same series, and this may be true when the molluscan fauna alone is taken into account, although the Awamoan beds are far more fossiliferous than the Hutchinsonian. The Otiake beds at their base are lithologically similar to the Hutchinson Quarry beds, and all the evidence available tends to show that the Otiake beds are the equivalent of the Hutchinsonian-Awamoan horizon of the typical Oamaru district. The Otekaike limestone has been shown to be underlain by the basal rocks of the Tertiary series, and not by the “subschistose” rocks of McKay, and this fact invalidates the only evidence produced by McKay to prove an unconformity between the lower part of the Maruwenua limestone and the middle portion of that rock (his Otekaike limestone). It has been shown that McKay considered the Hutchinsonian (”Phorus beds”) to lie above the limestone, and not below it as Park believes. The Waitaki Valley in the present locality is a tectonic depression, being partly a graben and partly a fault-angle depression. Extensive faulting has been proved by geological evidence.


Cotton, C. A., 1917A. Block Mountains in New Zealand, Am. Journ. Sci., vol. 44, pp. 249–93.

—— 1917B. The Fossil Plains of North Otago, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 49, pp. 429–32.

Hamilton, A., 1904. Notes on a Small Collection of Fossils from Wharekuri, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 36, pp. 465–67.

Hector, J., 1865. Quarts Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. 21.

—— 1887. Oamaru and Waitaki Districts, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Prog. Rep., 1876–77, pp. 9–10.

Hutton, F. W., 1875. Report on the Geology and Goldfields of Otago.

—— 1885. On the Correlations of the “Curiosity Shop Bed” in Canterbury, N.Z., Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. 41, pp. 547–64.

—— 1887. On the Geology of the Country between Oamaru and Moeraki, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 19, pp. 415–30.

Marshall, P., 1915. Cainozoic Fossils from Oamaru, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 47, pp. 377–87.

Marshall, P., Speight, R., and Cotton, C. A., 1911. The Younger Rock Series of New Zealand, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 43, pp. 378–407.

McKay, A., 1877. On the Oamaru and Waitaki Districts, Rep. Geol. Explor. during 1876–77, pp. 41–66.

—— 1882A. On the Geology of the Waitaki Valley and Parts of Vincent and Lake Counties, Rep. Geol. Explor. during 1881, pp. 56–83.

—— 1882B. On the Younger Deposits of the Wharekuri Basin and the Lower Waitaki, Valley, Rep. Geol. Explor. during 1881, pp. 98–105.

Park, J., 1887. On the Age of the Waireka Tuffs, Quartz-grits, and Coal at Teaneraki and Ngapara, Oamaru, Rep. Geol. Explor. during 1886–87, pp. 138–41.

—— 1904A. On the Age and Relations of the New Zealand Coalfields, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 36, pp. 405–18.

—— 1904B. On the Discovery of Permo-carboniferous Rocks at Mount Mary, North Otago, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 36, pp. 447–53.

—— 1905. On the Marine Tertiaries of Otago and Canterbury, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 37, pp. 489–551.

—— 1918. The Geology of the Oamaru District, North Otago, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Bull. No. 20 (n.s.), pp. 1–124.

Uttley, G. H., 1916. The Geology of the Neighbourhood of Kakanui, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 48, pp. 19–27.

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Art. XXIII.—Tertiary Geology of the Area between Wharekuri and the Otiake River, North Otago.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 10th December, 1919; received by Editor, 31st December, 1919: issued separately, 15th June, 1920].





General Description, of the Area.


Geology of the Area.


Wharekuri Basin.


Awahokomo Basin.


Awakino Basin.


Kurow River to Otiake River.


General Succession and Palaeontological Notes on the Tertiary Rocks.


General Remarks on the Physiography.


Kurow Block.


Awakino and Trig. G Blocks.


The Gravels.



I. Introduction

The area described in this paper covers a narrow strip of country on the right bank of the Waitaki River, extending from Wharekuri Creek to the Otiake River. The adjacent strip of country south of the Otiake River has already been described in another paper in this volume. Although the exposures of Tertiary rocks are few and widely distant, being obscured over the greater part of the area by heavy gravel deposits, the general sequence of the beds is clear. McKay has dealt with the country in some detail, but various modifications of his interpretation of the succession are necessary. The writer's thanks are due to Mr. P. G. Morgan, Director of the New Zealand Geological Survey, for permission to examine the lists of fossils collected by McKay, and determined by the late Mr. Henry Suter. An examination of these lists serves to emphasize the truth of the writer's contention (refer to Thomson, 1915, p. 123) that the molluscan fauna below the limestone is similar to that above the limestone. The upper beds, however, contain a much greater number of species.

A full historical account of previous geological work in the Waitaki Valley has already been given in another paper in this volume (pp. 140143), and only a brief critical summary of the views of other writers is necessary here.

McKay's opinion that there is an unconformity in the Tertiary rocks at Wharekuri, and that the coal occurs at the top of the sequence, is untenable. McKay was right in his view that an horizon of fossiliferous beds occurs above the limestone at Wharekuri, and that they are at the Hutchinson Quarry horizon. These beds are the equivalent of the writer's Otiake beds (Hutchinsonian-Awamoan) at Otiake, Otekaike, and Duntroon. As the base of the limestone is not exposed at Wharekuri, Otiake, or Otekaike, McKay was right in not correlating the limestone exposed in these places with the basal part of the Maruwenua limestone, but with a higher part of that rock. The “Pareoran” characteristics of the fauna below the limestone at Wharekuri caused Park (1905, p. 527) to eorrelate

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Picture icon

Fig. 1.—Geological map of the Waitaki Valley between Wharekuri and Otiake River North Otago.

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the greensands below the limestone in that locality with the Hutchinsonian-Awamoan horizon at Oamaru, instead of correlating the fossiliferous beds above the limestone at Wharekuri with that horizon, as McKay had done (1882B, p. 103). A similar error was made by Hutton in correlating the greensands below the limestone at Waihoa with the Pareora (Awamoan) horizon. Park's correlation lent support to his view that the Ototara limestone and the Waitaki Valley limestone were at different horizons. The latter in a later work (1918, p. 110) still maintained that the Wharekuri greensands are Hutchinsonian in age, but the writer is in agreement with Marshall (1915, p. 386) that the greensands are pre-Ototaran.

The geological evidence clearly shows that the Waitaki Valley is a tectonic depression of post-Awamoan age, as affirmed by Cotton on geomorphological evidence, in opposition to the view of Park (1905, p. 523) that the depression was in existence before the deposition of the Tertiary sediments.

II. General Description of the Area

From the vicinity of the Wharekuri-Otekaike fault, which bounds the present area on the southwest to within half a mile of the Waitaki River, prominent ridges and hills, possibly composed almost entirely of heavy gravels and silts, form prominent features of the landscape between the lower middle course of the Awahokomo Creek and the Kurow River. These gravel uplands are in many places 800 ft. above the Waitaki valley-plain. From the Kurow River to the Otiake River a gravel-covered tableland sloping gently towards the Waitaki River forms a rather strong contrast to the pyramidal hills and ridges just mentioned. Several prominent salients stand above the general surface of this evenly sloping plain, and, where their flanks have been cut into, fossiliferous beds are exposed.

The southwestern portion of the area is bounded by the steeply rising foothills of the Kurow Mountains. Within a short distance of the fault-line the country rises rapidly to a height of 3,000 ft., or over 2,000 ft. above the valley-plain of the Waitaki River. To the northeast the area is flanked by the block mountains of South Canterbury, reaching to heights of 3,000 ft. not far from the Waitaki River, which now flows close to the almost undissected front of these mountains.

The average height of the Waitaki valley-plain is 650 ft. above sea-level. Kurow Hill (1,947 ft.), composed of Maitai sediments (greywacke), rises abruptly from the general level of the plain, and farther to the northwest the hill on which Trig. Station G is situated reaches a height of nearly 1,300 ft., these two prominences being separated by the depression known as the Little Awakino Valley.

The district is thus a relatively depressed area lying between the block mountains of North Otago and South Canterbury, drained by the Waitaki River, which is fed, from the Otago side, by a number of small streams, flowing in a northeasterly direction from the Kurow Mountains.

III. Geology of the Area.

(1.) Wharekuri Basin.

On both banks of the Waitaki River, a mile below the point where the Wharekuri Creek joins the main stream, there is an exposure of glauconitic greensands extending for two miles down the river. A list of fossils collected on the Canterbury side of the river has been published

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by Marshall (1915, p. 382). The following forms were collected by the writer and determined by Mr. Suter. Recent species are indicated by an asterisk.

  • Ampullina suturalis (Hutt.)

  • Ancilla papillata (Tate)

  • *Anomia trigonopsis Hutt.

  • Bathytoma sulcata excavata Sut.

  • Borsonia rudis (Hutt.)

  • *Calyptraea maculata (Q. & G.)

  • Chione meridionalis (Sow.)

  • Corbula humerosa Hutt.

  • *Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.)

  • Cucullaea attenuata Hutt.

  • Dentalium mantelli Zitt.

  • —— solidum Hutt.

  • *Dosinia greyi Zitt.

  • Epitonium lyratum (Zitt.)

  • Glycymeris cordata (?) Hutt.

  • *Limopsis aurita (Brocchi)

  • Limopsis zitteli Iher.

  • *Macrocallista multistriata (Sow.)

  • *Malletia australis (Q. & G.)

  • Miomelon corrugata (Hutt.)

  • *Ostrea tatei Sut.

  • Polinices gibbosus (Hutt.)

  • —— huttoni Iher.

  • *Psammobia lineolata Gray

  • Sinum cinctum (Hutt.)

  • Teredo heaphyi Zitt.

  • Turritella ambulacrum Sow.

  • *—— carlottae Wats.

  • —— concava Hutt.

  • *—— symmetrica Hutt.

  • Venericardia pseutes Sut.

In addition to the above, five new species have been described from the same locality by Mr. Suter. These are—

  • Borsonia mitromorphoides Sut.

  • Epitonium gracillimum Sut.

  • Euthria callimorpha Sut.

  • Niso neozelanica Sut.

  • Vexillum ligatum Sut.

The greensands from which these fossils were collected, are greyish-green in colour and very glauconitic, the glauconite occurring as foraminiferal casts. There is also a considerable quantity of microscopic, subangular, clear quartz. On the Canterbury side of the river these beds form a flat syncline, both limbs showing a dip of 3°, the axis of folding running north by east. Quartz-grits crop out on the bank of the river dipping below the greensands, and farther to the north coal occurs associated with the quartz-grits in a shallow depression on the Canterbury side of the river, this depression being hemmed in by the steep fronts of elevated blocks. On the Otago side of the river the greensands again prove fossiliferous. The following species were collected on the right bank of the river, near Trig. Station H:—

  • Ampullina suturalis (Hutt.)

  • *Ancilla australis (Sow.)

  • —— papillata (Tate.)

  • *Anomia trigonopsis Hutt.

  • Bathytoma sulcata excavata Sut.

  • Chione meridionalis (Sow.)

  • Cominella exsculpta Sut.

  • —— pulchra Sut.

  • *Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.)

  • Cucullaea attenuata Hutt.

  • —— australis (Hutt.)

  • *Cytherea oblonga (Hanley)

  • Dentalium mantelli Zitt.

  • —— solidum Hutt.

  • Epitonium gracillimum Sut.

  • —— lyratum (Zitt.)

  • *Limopsis aurita (Brocchi)

  • —— zitteli Iher.

  • *Macrocallista multistriata (Sow.)

  • *Malletia australis (Q. & G.)

  • Miomelon corrugata (Hutt.)

  • Nucula sp.

  • Panope orbita Hutt.

  • Pecten chathamensis Hutt.

  • —— huttoni (Park).

  • —— yahliensis T. Woods

  • Polinices gibbosus (Hutt.)

  • —— huttoni Iher.

  • *Psammobia lineolata Gray

  • Sinum elegans Sut.

  • *Siphonalia nodosa (Mart.)

  • Teredo heaphyi Zitt.

  • Turbo approximatus Sut.

  • Turritella ambulacrum Sow.

  • *—— carlottae Wats.

  • —— cavershamensis Harris

  • —— concava Hutt.

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Out of the thirty-seven species of Mollusca enumerated above, ten are Recent, giving a percentage of 27.

McKay's collections from the “Kekenodon beds” (Geol.' Surv. loc. No. 476) and from the Wharekuri greensands (Geol. Surv. loc. No. 486) contain in all thirty-one definitely determined species. If McKay's collections and the list given above are combined the percentage is still 27.

Corals are abundant in the greensands at this locality. The genera represented are Flabellum, and Trochocyathus. Aturia ziczac var. australis Hamilton and Kekenodon onomata Hector were also obtained here, by McKay and Hamilton. Pachymagas huttoni Thomson also occurred. These greensands, which are similar to the greensands on the opposite side of the the river, contain in their lower portions small quartz pebbles, well rounded; and occasional pieces of wood up to 18 in. in length, and completely carbonized, also occur. The lower part of the beds is very concretionary, and the fossils are difficult to remove. The oxide of iron which forms the concretionary masses has been derived from the decomposition of the glauconite.

At the Wharekuri Bridge greensands again crop out, but the fossils are not abundant. The following forms were recognized:—

  • Corbula canaliculata Hutt.

  • *Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.)

  • Cucullaea attenuata Hutt.

  • Dentalium mantelli Zitt.

  • Dentalium solidum Hutt.

  • *Limopsis aurita (Brocchi)

  • Pecten huttoni (Park)

  • Polinices huttoni Iher.

Similar corals to those so abundant in the greensands on the banks of the Waitaki River also occur here.

McKay (1882A, p. 73) always considered that the greensands (Cretaceo-Tertiary) near the Wharekuri bridge lay unconformably below the “Kekenodon greensands” on the banks of the Waitaki River, but he saw no unconformable junction between these two beds. Hutton (1885, pp. 563–64) and Park (1905, p. 523) have shown clearly that McKay's unconformity had no justification, and was merely a deduction in the light of a preconceived theory (Cretaceo-Tertiary theory). The writer is satisfied that the greensands form one series of rocks lying immediately on the quartzose rocks of the coal series. As shown above, the greensands contain pebbles of quartz in their lower portions.

The coal-rocks crop out at Wharekuri a short distance above the bridge, where they are lying in close contact with the greensands. The line of junction is vertical, and is undoubtedly a faulted one, as Hamilton (1904, p. 465) has shown. This vertical fault strikes N. 20° W. The coal-rocks dip 26° to the west—that is, towards the mountains—which a short distance away rise abruptly from the, bed of the creek. McKay considered that the quartzgrits and sandstones associated with the coal in this locality were of Pareora (Awamoan) age, but in other places in the area, as shown above, they dip beneath the greensands, and are, undoubtedly at the base of the series. Beyond the coal-mine on the right bank of the creek the following section is exposed:—

Picture icon

Fig. 2.—Section, right bank of Wharekuri Creek. (a), (c), (e), gravels and sands; (d), fine micaceous sandy bed; (b) and (f), greenish-grey clay.

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The beds dip 70° in a direction N. 10° E. Beds (a), (c), and (e) are gravel deposits, composed of pebbles up to the size of a cricket-ball, intermingled with fine sands. The pebbles consists of greywacke, sandstone, and quartz, all well water-worn. Bed (c) contained a piece of lignitized wood. Beds (b) and (f) are light-coloured greenish-grey unctuous clays. Bed (d) is a fine micaceous sandy bed. On the opposite side of Wharekuri Creek, not 20 yards away, a steep face of the Maitai rocks rises abruptly from the bed of the creek. Slickensided surfaces were noted, and much crush-breccia; and extensive faulting is everywhere indicated. The steeply dipping beds just described show no contact with the other Tertiary rocks in the area.

McKay's section (1882B, p. 101) certainly indicates the order in which the various rocks crop out, as the Wharekuri Creek is followed from its junction with the Waitaki River to the point past the coal-mine, where the tilted beds occur, except that the limestone does not occur in the section exposed in the creek. The tilted beds just described were said by McKay to be of Upper Pareora (Awamoan) age, and to contain, the coal deposits that are worked at Wharekuri. He observed no junction of these tilted beds, and the quartz, sandstone, and clays in which the coal-seam occurs are separated from them by slope deposits and heavy river-gravels. The composition of the beds is also quite different from the beds associated with the coal at Wharekuri Coal-mine. Park (1905, p. 524) stated that there was no evidence to show that the coal-rocks lie at the top of the sequence. The tilted beds, however, may lie conformably at the top of the Tertiary series, although this cannot be definitely affirmed, as no junction was observed. They have certainly been involved along with the Tertiaries in the tectonic movements of the district, the evidence for which is seen at many points in the Waitaki Valley. These tilted gravels appear to be widespread in the Upper Waitaki Valley and in the Waihao district, for McKay described another section in the former locality as follows: “In this section [Quail Burn] the lowest beds seen are soft sandstones, divided into thick bands by beds of greenish greasy clay. These beds dip northwest at an angle of 45°…. At two or three places along the southeast slopes of these hills pieces of lignite have been found and … having, as I consider, proved that the Wharekuri coal-seam farther down the Waitaki occurs in beds of this age, there is more than a possibility of coal being found near the mouth of the Quail Burn.” No other geologist would, agree with McKay in the inference drawn in the last part of this quotation, but the description of these gravel-beds indicates that they are similar to the tilted beds at Wharekuri.

In the Waihao district the gravels are also often tilted, and Hector refers to these in the following words: “With the Waitaki Valley as it now is these beds have no direct connection, since they abundantly show that movements of the lands involving a considerable, alteration of its surface configuration have taken place since their deposition; the beds being frequently tilted at high angles, especially in districts distant from the coastline” (1882, p. xxv), These tilted gravels in the Wharekuri locality are overlain unconformably by the high-level terrace - gravels (McKay 1882B, p. 102).

(2.) Awahokomo Basin

McKay (1882A, p. 66) states that the Otekaike limestone at Wharekuri “is traceable as a continuous line for three miles.” The exposure, however, has nothing like the extent ascribed to it by McKay; it crops out

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on the foothills flanking the Awahokomo Creek on its northern bank. In its upper portion, which is almost inaccessible, as the cliffs are precipitous, two shell-bands were noticed, and, judging by talus strewing the slopes at the base of the cliff, they are glauconitic. The writer examined the limestone, and its main body appeared to be poorly fossiliferous. McKay (1882A, p. 67) states that in the limestone “fossil shells are most abundant… covering the whole ground with shells in a more or less perfect state of preservation.” As he comments on the fact that the limestone forms vertical, cliffs not less than 50 ft. in height, it is possible that the fossils were collected from the slopes and had come from the shell-bands higher in the section.

Suter determined seven forms said by McKay to have come from the Otekaike limestone, and five of these occur in the Otiake beds at Otiake, which lie above the main body of limestone, while the two remaining fossils are found in the Awamoan. McKay recognized the Hutchinson Quarry beds at Wharekuri, and he described them as “loose dirty greensands full of shells, followed by grey sands, and they follow the Otekaike limestone conformably.” In the list of fossils determined by Suter from these beds, ten occur in the Otiake beds at Otaike, three occur in the Awamoan at Oamaru, and one has not been reported elsewhere. The following note was appended to the manuscript list of fossils, evidently written by one of the staff of the Geological Survey: “According to McKay's MS., the beds collected from form the higher part of the ridge south of the coal-mine at Wharekuri.” This means that the collection came from beds lying immediately above the limestone, and these beds are undoubtedly at the same horizon as the fossiliferous beds that occur at the top of the section at Otiake, at Otekaike, and in bands at the top of the limestone near the Awahokomo Creek. Although only fourteen species were determined by Suter, Hector stated that “altogether, about a hundred species were collected from this horizon in the Wharekuri section” (1882, p. xxvii).

McKay himself reported the following forms (nom. mut.):–

  • Cucullaea alta (?) Sow.

  • Dentalium solidum Hutt.

  • Limopsis zitteli Iher.

  • Pecten hochstetteri Zitt.

  • Polinices huttoni Iher.

  • *Venericardia difficilis (Desh.)

  • Waldheimia triangulare Hutt.

The brachiopod is evidently, Pachymagas huttoni Thomson, and is said by McKay to be very abundant, as it always is at the horizon of the Otiake beds. At one locality on the ridge extending from Wharekuri to the Awahokomo the writer found an outcrop of ferruginous micaceous quartz sands at a higher elevation than the limestone. McKay writes that “in this locality the Otekaike limestone passes upwards into the Hutchinson Quarry greensands, which are here overlain by rusty quartzose gravels … not unlike the rocks met with at the base of the Cretaceo-Tertiary series … these quartzose gravels are followed by sandstones.” The beds observed by the writer appear to be conformable to the limestone, as the dip was the same, but no junction was seen. It is in these beds that McKay thought the Wharekuri coal occurred, and he correlates them with the tilted beds there. The limestone of the ridge on the left bank of the Awahokomo dips 10° in a direction N. 30° W. towards the Kurow Mountains.

The quartzgrits and sandstones at the base of the series crop out on both banks of the Awahokomo south of the limestone exposure, and farther up the stream the greensands are seen dipping 30° westerly towards

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the Maitai rocks, which, at this point rise very steeply. From the green sands the following forms were obtained:—

  • Corbula canaliculata Hutt.

  • Cucullaea sp.

  • *Limopsis aurita (Brocchi)

  • Panope orbita Hutt.

  • Polinices gibbosus (Hutt.)

  • Ostrea sp.

  • Turritella cavershamensis Harris

Corals similar to the genera collected on the south, bank of the Waitaki River also occur here

Marshall (1915, p. 381) obtained several species from these greensands at an horizon lying 20.ft. above the quartzgrits. This writer recognized the fault in this locality, and traced the fault-breccia towards Wharekuri, and there can be no doubt that this fault is a continuation of that described above at Wharekuri.

(3.) Awakino Basin.

Traces of the quartzgrits are seen in many places in the basins of the Awahokomo and Little Awakino Streams. In the basin of the latter, about a mile and a half from the main road, these rocks are exposed on the right and left banks, and to the southwest the eroded surface of the Maitai rocks rises from beneath them, and slopes gently upwards towards the crest of Kurow Hill. The quartzgrits evidently formerly covered the whole of this “fossil plain,” which has now been partially stripped of its former cover. The plain forms the back slope of the tilted block figured by Cotton (1917B, p. 432). This block will be referred to later as the Awakino tilted block. Quartzgrits and greensands occur as mapped in several places in a southwesterly direction towards the Big Awakino River, and in many places close to the line of the Wharekuri-Otekaike fault, where the Maitai rocks rise very abruptly. A mile west of the trigonometrical station on Kurow Hill there is a small coal-mine, which supplies an inferior type of coal. It is being worked at present close up to the face of a steeply rising greywacke scarp. The coal-rocks dip away from the scarp at 45° in a direction S. 28° W. The scarp, which is almost undissected in this locality, extends in a northwesterly direction, gradually diminishing in height, and reaching the road-level about half a mile northwest of the point where the west branch of the Little Awakino crosses the road on the southwest side of Kurow Hill. The scarp is evidently a fault-scarp, determined by a fault of diminishing throw, which trends N. 60° W. to meet the main Wharekuri-Otekaike fault. The fault bounds the Awakino tilted block on the southwest. In the angle defined by these two faults the gravel deposits are of great thickness, but the basal quartzgrits and overlying greensands (McKay, 1882B, p. 102) crop out occasionally. The Tertiary rocks have evidently been extensively eroded, and their remnants are buried by the gravel deposits, which now form hills 2,000 ft. in height (loc. cit., p. 99). Cuttings show that the gravels are of at least two types—heavy greywacke and sandstone boulder deposits, and deposits composed of well-rounded sandstone pebbles and sands. At one place on the road between the basin of the Little Awakino and the Big-Awakino the soft unctuous bluish clay similar to that described at Wharekuri was observed in a cutting. McKay states that the latter (the so-called “Pareora gravels”) are highly tilted in the present locality, and he refers the coal deposits of the neighbourhood to the horizon of these rocks (1882B, p. 102). The gravels extend to the Kurow River, forming even-topped elongated ridges and pyramidal hills, which have been blocked out by the action of the numerous intermittent streams that drain the area. Across

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this gravel-mass the Big Awakino flows, entrenched below the general surface of its former valley-plain, which in this portion of its course, over the area lying between the two faults referred to above, is about a quarter of a mile wide. At the coal-mine the stream enters a narrow gorge, which it has cut through the Awakino tilted block on its way to join the Waitaki River. The Big Awakino pursues a remarkably straight course from its source, near the crest-line of the Kurow Mountains, to its mouth, and this course is evidently consequent on the initial deformation; but, as the movements were probably not simultaneous over the whole of northern Otago, the uplift of the Awakino block may have commenced later. The course of the Big Awakino across the Awakino block in a narrow gorge-like channel must be considered as antecedent to the uplift of this block. Its lower course is therefore what Cotton (1917A, p. 253) has termed “anteconsequent.”

(4.) Kurow River to Otiake River.

On the left bank of the Kurow River, four miles above its junction with the Waitaki River, an outcrop of fossiliferous Tertiary rocks occurs. There is only a small exposure, extending along the bank for about 30 yards. The rocks dip at an angle of 46° towards the south-west, and the Maitai rocks rise steeply a short distance from these beds, The junction is again obscured by the gravel deposits, but it is undoubtedly a faulted one. The Tertiary exposure here consists of a hardened calcareous greensand containing Foraminifera, mainly in the form of glauconitic casts. Minute subangular grains of quartz also occur. The larger fossils are poorly preserved, and specific identifications could not be made. The following genera were found: Cucullaea, Malletia, Panope, Pecten. This outcrop is on the line of the Wharekuri-Otekaike fault.

The outcrops of Tertiary rocks are few and scattered between the Kurow River and the Otiake River. About three-quarters of a mile to the south-east of the last locality quartz-grits occur in places, and farther on there is a small exposure of a glauconitic calcareous rock. The only forms obtained were Dentalium solidum Hutt. and Limopsis aurita (Brocchi). Near the source of the most southerly tributary of Malcolm's Creek the quartz-grits again crop out, flanked to the south-west by the steeply rising foothills of the ranges. Traces of greyish-green glauconitic sandstones were found near Trig. Station N. In a cutting on the road that leads from Malcolm's Creek to the basin of the Otiake River there is a small outcrop of calcareous rock, from which the following fossils were obtained:—

  • Corbula canaliculata Hutt.

  • Cytherea chariessa Sut.

  • Dentalium solidum Hutt.

  • *Limopsis aurita (Brocchi)

  • *Malletia australis (Q. & G.)

  • Nucula saggitata Sut.

  • Panope sp.

  • Pecten huttoni (Park)

Traces of brachiopods were also found.

A mile from the railway-line the following section (fig. 3) is exposed on the right bank of the Otiake River:—

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Fig. 3.—Section, right bank of Otiake River. (a), Limestone (Otekaike limestone); (b), glauconitic calcareous shell-bed; (c), calcareous sandy mudstone; (d), hardened calcareous glauconitic bed; (e), calcareous sandy mudstone.

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The limestone (a) becomes glauconitic in its upper 8 ft., and is then capped by (b), a glauconitic calcareous shell-bed 18 in. in thickness and crowded with fossils. The band is concretionary in places, and similar to the beds at the top of the Otiake beds at Trig. Station Z, which is only a short distance from this exposure. From this band the following species were obtained:—

  • Ancilla papillata (Tate)

  • Bathytoma sulcata excavata Sut.

  • Corbula canaliculata Hutt.

  • —— Kaiparaensis Sut.

  • *Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.)

  • Cucullaea australis (Hutt.)

  • Cytherea chariessa Sut.

  • Dentalium mantelli Zitt.

  • —— solidum Hutt.

  • *Divaricella cumingi (Ad. & Ang.)

  • Lima colorata Hutt.

  • Nucula saggitata Sut.

  • Pecten beethami Hutt.

  • —— chathamensis Hutt.

  • —— huttoni (Park)

  • Placunanomia incisura Hutt.

  • Polinices huttoni Iher.

  • Siphonalia turrita Sut.

  • *Tellina glabrella Desh.

  • Teredo heaphyi Zitt.

  • Turritella ambulacrum Sow.

  • —— cavershamensis Harris

  • —— semiconcava Sut.

  • Venericardia pseutes Sut.

The coral Balanophyllia hectori T. Woods and Pachymagas huttoni Thomson were also identified. The overlying bed (c) is less glauconitic, but is capped by another glauconitic hardened bed (d), and above this the rock, passes up into a poorly fossiliferous calcareous mudstone (e). From bed (c) were obtained many of the forms detailed above from bed (b). The following additional species occurred:—

  • Corbula humerosa Hutt.

  • Cucullaea attenuata Hutt.

  • Leucosyrinx alta (Harris)

  • *Limopsis aurita (Brocchi).

River-gravels and silts lie unconformably at the top of the section.

These fossiliferous beds lie above a limestone, of which about 40 ft. is exposed, and are certainly the equivalent of the Otiake beds at Trig Station Z and at Otekaike School. The beds dip 8° in a direction N. 30° W. Greensands crop out on the right bank of the stream about 12 chains farther up the river, dipping in such a way that they would pass beneath the limestone. They are similar to the greensands described, at Wharekuri, containing in places ferruginous nodules. Traces of lamellibranchs were seen, but, none could be identified. The rock is calcareous, and the glauconite in it occurs as foraminiferal casts. Still farther up the stream, at the point where the road crosses the river, intensely dark greensands crop out. These greensands are threaded with ferruginous veins. Farther up the stream the quartzgrits occur dipping towards the higher beds.

IV. General Succession and Palaeontological Notes.

The Tertiary rocks in the Waitaki Valley form a conformable sequence. The general succession is similar to that in the Waihao district of South Canterbury. Quartzgrits, often containing coal, are followed by micaceous quartzose, greensands with interbedded concretionary bands, usually fossiliferous; these are followed by calcareous glauconitic greensands (containing a little microscopic quartz and mica), which are often fossiliferous. In the basin of the Maruwenua River and at Black Point a few fossils have been determined, and these undoubtedly represent an horizon near the base of the greensands—Park's Bortonian. The looser glauconitic greensands lying above the Bortonian have not proved fossiliferous in the

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Duntroon or Kurow districts, except at Wharekuri, where the fossils are abundant. No junction has been observed between the greensands and the underlying Ngaparan coal-rocks except at Black Point. There appears to be a very gradual transition from the quartz conglomerates and fine micaceous quartz sands into the overlying greensands, the glauconite of the latter becoming very abundant, and the quartz and mica gradually diminishing. In the Maruwenua cliffs near Duntroon the limestone overlying the greensands is very glauconitic, and at White Rocks and the “Earthquake” this glauconitic lower portion of the limestone increases greatly in thickness. In the Landon Creek area also this glauconitic portion of the limestone shows a thickness of 50 ft. below the Hutchinsonian horizon (refer to Park, 1918, p. 46). It is noticeable that where the limestone is very glauconitic the brachiopods are abundant. From the glauconitic portion of the limestone near Duntroon, as well as from a higher horizon in the limestone at White Rocks and the “Earthquake” in the Waitaki Valley, a brachiopod fauna similar to that occurring in the glauconitic portions of the limestone at Landon Creek, in the Oamaru district, has been found; and the evidence available strongly favours the view that both rocks are Ototaran. There is no evidence to show that the limestone of the Waitaki Valley is Hutchinsonian. The base of the Otekaike limestone at Wharekuri, Otiake, and Otekaike is not seen in any of the sections exposed. It is probable that if the base of the limestone were not hidden by the gravel deposits we should find the same brachiopod fauna that characterizes the base of the limestone at Maruwenua. The fossiliferous beds overlying the limestone at Wharekuri, at Otiake, at Otekaike, at Duntroon, and at Station Peak are at the same horizon, and represent the Hutchinsonian-Awamoan horizon of the Oamaru district. These rocks pass up into poorly fossiliferous calcareous mudstones.

In the Oamaru district the Ngaparan rocks are overlain by fossiliferous glauconitic calcareous greensands, which in turn are overlain by the Waiarekan tuffs, followed by interbedded tachylite tuffs and diatomaceous deposits, which are overlain by the Ototaran limestone, followed by the Hutchinsonian and Awamoan beds. In the Papakaio district the succession is similar, although the Awamoan beds have been denuded, except at Pukeuri, where all observers agree that they follow the Hutchinsonian. In the Waitaki Valley the succession is not complicated by the presence of volcanic rocks, nor are there diatomaceous beds; but all the evidence available goes to prove that the greensands below the limestone are of Waiarekan age, and that the limestone is Ototaran. The beds above the limestone contain a distinctly Awamoan fauna, and, as both Hutton and McKay believed that the Hutchinsonian and Awamoan were part and parcel of the same series (and the evidence of the molluscan fauna in the Oamaru district supports this view), these fossiliferous beds (Otiake beds) have been classed as Hutchinsonian-Awamoan. In the Oamaru district, however, the occurrence of a brachiopod fauna fully justifies the separation of the post-Ototaran rocks into two stages.

The greensands between the Ngaparan coal-rocks and the limestone in North Otago and South Canterbury will probably admit of subdivision in the future. The fossils have hitherto been “lumped,” but, judging from McKay's report on the Waihao district, several lithological divisions can be recognized; and, as the rocks are very fossiliferous, careful collecting and accurate determinations of fossils from each horizon would probably enable a subdivision of the Waiarekan to be made, as has been

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done by Park in his latest work (1918, p. 26). Many of the species contained in these lower greensands occur also in the Awamoan, but the latter horizon contains a much greater variety of species, and a large number of these appear to be restricted to this horizon. In the Oamaru district the brachiopods have proved serviceable in differentiating several horizons, but some of these brachiopods are apparently restricted to this area, and detailed correlation with beds in the Waitaki Valley is not yet possible. This brachiopod fauna has been discussed in another paper in this volume (pp. 15253). Corals, Echinoderms, and Foraminifera occur abundantly in the Oamaruian of North Otago, but our knowledge of them is very incomplete, and useless for detailed stratigraphical work. A revision of all these groups is urgently needed.

Of the ninety-four species of Mollusca determined from the beds above the limestone in the Waitaki Valley (Otiake beds), seventy-three species occur in the typical Awamoan at Oamaru, four occur in the Hutchinsonian (of Thomson), twelve forms have apparently not been recorded elsewhere in North Otago, whilst only five species have not been previously recorded from post-Ototaran beds. Five of these not recorded elsewhere are new species, seventy-nine species have now been listed from the greensands below the limestone in the Waitaki Valley, and fifty-six of these occur in the Awamoan beds at Oamaru. Nearly three hundred species have been recorded from the Awamoan beds at Oamaru; but in the case of the beds of the Waitaki Valley the collections are few, and previously unrecorded species are continually turning up. The figures quoted above, in the absence of fairly exhaustive collections, do not give much ground for definite conclusions, but they do show that the Otiake beds contain a molluscan fauna of which 78 per cent. occurs in the typical Awamoan, beds of Oamaru. The fauna of the greensands below the limestone contains 70 per cent, of the fossils recorded from the Awamoan at Oamaru, showing that in the Waitaki Valley the fauna above and below the limestone has a strong resemblance to the typical Awamoan fauna (Hutton's Pareora).

V. Physiography of the Area.

(1.). Kurow Block.

From what has already been said it will be evident that Cotton's statement (1917A, p. 285) that the Waitaki River “follows a complex graben along the northern block-complex … which forms the northern highland of Otago” is amply justified by the geological evidence. This graben, is bounded on the southwest by the elevated block called the Kurow-Mount Mary Range (Kurow-block); on the northeast it is flanked by the block mountains of South Canterbury; on the southeast by a portion of the Kakanui block (loc. cit., p. 272). Towards the northwest the fault on the Canterbury side of the river and the Wharekuri-Otekaike fault approach each other, and probably coalesce farther up the Waitaki Valley; but this area lies beyond the scope of the present paper.

The Kurow-Mount Mary Range is an elevated, tilted block of probably complex structure; it is elongated in a northwesterly direction. It is bounded towards the west by a conspicuous fault-scarp (loc. cit., p. 278), and its rather steeply dipping back slope descends towards the Waitaki River, and is then intersected by the Wharekuri-Otekaike fault. A line of dislocation runs from the Otekaike River to Dansey's Pass to meet the great reentrant occupied by part of the Maniototo depression (loc. cit.,

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p. 278). It has been shown in a former paper that a well-marked fault occurs on the right bank of the Otekaike River, and it probably extends in a south-westerly direction for some distance. The district maps show a marked depression beyond Ben Lomond, and it is probable that sharp folding or faulting has taken place on the same line. The back slope of the Kurow block is not simple, and signs of warping are not wanting, the general slope, however, is north-westerly, and the majority of the streams are consequent. As already pointed out, the Big Awakino in the lower part of its course is anteconsequent.

(2.) Awakino and Trig. G Blocks.

Kurow Hill is a tilted block, as shown by Cotton (1917b, p. 432), and, as the Big Awakino and the Little Awakino flow across it, it has been called the Awakino block. The geological evidence for the boundary faults has been already presented. It has been shown that the coal-rocks crop out on the south-west side of the block, near the base of a steep fault-scarp almost entirely undissected, and traceable for a distance of four miles. This north-westerly-trending fault meets the main Wharekuri-Otekaike fault in the basin of the Little Awakino Creek, where the scarp dies out and the stripped surface of the Awakino block is seen to dip below the Tertiary rocks. In the basin of the Little Awakino, about a mile from the main road, quartz-grits are exposed on both sides of the creek, “concealing the erosion-surface of the Awakino block, which has been stripped of its covering strata towards the south-east in the higher parts of Kurow Hill. These grits on the left bank of the creek crop out near the base of a prominent scarp which rises 200 ft. or 300 ft. above the quartz-grits, the attitude of the rocks clearly indicating faulting. From the top of the scarp the surface slopes towards the north, and the quartz-grits crop out in several places, but the surface has been almost completely stripped. The back slope of this small tilted block, on which the Trig. Station G is situated, descends towards the Waitaki River, where the Tertiary rocks are exposed on both banks. The fault-scarp of this block diminishes in height as the Little Awakino Creek is ascended, and the fault dies out towards the west, the erosion-surfaces of the/Awakino block and this small one evidently coalescing, and dipping beneath the Tertiary rocks in the Awahokomo basin. These two blocks are flanked on the east by the Waitaki River, which in this part of its course flows close to the steep scarp of the more elevated Canterbury mountains. The valley-plain of the Waitaki River from near Trig. Station G to Kurow is narrow and rock-bound, and the stream is now flowing close to the main fault-line on the southern side of these mountains.

VI. The Gravels (excluding Recent Deposits).

The terraces and gravels of the Waitaki Valley are well worthy of a detailed study, but good topographical maps are a prime necessity. Some remarks, however, should be made on the gravel deposits. McKay clearly recognized that the gravels were not all of the same origin. His descriptions are somewhat difficult to follow. He distinguishes three types of these deposits—(1) angular gravels, (2) well-rounded coarse gravels, (3) gravels and sands with lignite deposits. He notes that (1) and (2) contain fossiliferous Triassic and Permian boulders, and that (3) are often highly tilted. These three types can undoubtedly be recognized, but it will be

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a difficult matter to trace their boundaries, and this has not been attempted in the present paper. The angular gravels are ascribed by McKay to the action of glaciers—that is, they are glacier-deposits that owe their origin to former glaciers from the neighbouring Kurow and Hakataramea Mountains. Not having discovered these Triassic and Permian fossiliferous rocks in the Kurow Mountains, McKay concluded that glaciers brought them from the Canterbury mountains which were known to contain these older fossiliferous rocks. There is, however, a total absence of the characteristics of glacial deposits, glacial striations being quite lacking. It is true that large masses of rock and fine silts and clays are mixed confusedly together in the deposits near Wharekuri. Marshall explained these angular deposits differently, and (1915, p. 381) stated that the Maitai rocks in the neighbourhood of the fault (Wharekuri-Otekaike fault) have been much shattered; that weathering has developed their shattered nature, and they break down into “a clayey material which still contains angular fragments of rock.” Park (1904, p. 448) traced the fossiliferous boulders to their source near the summit of Mount Mary. The rocks were found in situ at a height of 5,160 ft., at a point distant about three miles and a half from the Wharekuri-Otekaike fault-line. These deposits which occur close to this line were probably derived from the dissection of the fault-scarp as it rose, for deep aggradation would take place as the deformation proceeded. The sloping surface of the tilted block, to the west of the fault-line, would also undergo degradation by the numerous consequent streams, and the waste would be spread out on the floor of the depression, forming an alluvial gravel-plain. This plain appears to have been built up after the reduction of the valley lowland to somewhat low relief. The extensive aggradation would therefore imply a great increase in the supply of waste due to the increasing differential elevation. As the streams that deposited these gravels are now well entrenched, regional uplift has probably been the most recent movement. McKay believed that the tilted sandstone gravels at Wharekuri lay conformably above the higher fossiliferous beds. They may do so, but the writer was unable to satisfy himself on that point. There is no doubt, however, that they have been involved in the differential movements, and may possibly represent the period of emergence of the land.

VII. Summary and Conclusion.

(1.) The Maruwenua limestone is overlain directly by the Otiake beds (Hutchinsonian-Awamoan).

(2.) McKay's unconformity between the lower and upper parts of the limestone is non-existent, and all other observers agree that the rock is a unit.

(3.) McKay correlated the base of the limestone with the Ototaran limestone; the upper part (his Otekaike limestone) must, therefore be Upper Ototaran, -and the overlying beds (McKay's Hutchinson's Quarry beds) are the equivalent of the Hutchinsonian-Awamoan of the coastal district.

(4.) The upper part of the limestone at Landon Creek contains a number of brachiopods that are similar to the brachiopods from the lower portions of the Maruwenua limestone (so-called Waitaki stone). Some of these brachiopods do not rise above the Ototaran of the typical Oamaru district. The evidence points to the limestone of the Waitaki Valley being Ototaran.

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(5.) The greensands at Wharekuri probably represent a slightly higher horizon than the Bortonian of Park, and from the evidence at present available they are probably the equivalents of the Waiarekan tuffs, yet the latter are practically unfossiliferous.

(6.) Volcanic rocks, as shown in a previous paper (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 50, pp. 106–17, 1918), occur in the Maruwenua district: they may be either lava-flows or sills—the evidence in the small exposure observed was neutral. These volcanic rocks, however, extend towards Tokarahi, and are interbedded with the greensands. If they are Waiarekan it would fix the age of the greensands overlying Park's Bortonian.

(7.) The Tertiary rocks of the Waitaki Valley above Duntroon occupy a tectonic depression. McKay has recorded Tertiary rocks from the Hakataramea Valley, which is also undoubtedly a tectonic depression. As post-Awamoan gravels have been involved in the differential movements in many localities in the Waitaki and Waihao Valleys, these “fiord-like depressions” manifestly did not exist in Tertiary or pre-Tertiary times, and the evidence to be gathered in north-east Otago points to the conclusion that the Tertiary rocks once formed a continuous cover on the denuded surface of the pre-Notocene oldermass. The mountain-building period of central and north-east Otago was post-Awamoan.


Cotton, C. A., 1917a. Block Mountains in New Zealand, Am. Journ. Sci., vol. 44, pp. 249–93.

—— 1917b. The Fossil Plains of North Otago, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 49, pp. 429–32.

Hamilton, A., 1904. Notes on a Small Collection of Fossils from Wharekuri, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 36, pp. 465–67.

Hector, J., 1882. Waitaki Valley and Alps of North Otago, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Prog. Rep., 1881, pp. xxi-xxxii.

Hutton, F. W., 1885 On the Correlations of the “Curiosity Shop Bed” in Canterbury, N.Z., Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. 41, pp. 547–64.

McKay, A., 1882a. On the Waitaki Valley and Parts of Vincent and Lake Counties, Rep. Geol. Explor. during 1881, pp. 56–92.

—— 1882b. On the Younger Deposits of the Wharekuri Basin and the Lower Waitaki Valley, Rep. Geol. Explor. during 1881, pp. 98–105.

Marshall, P., 1915. Cainozoic Fossils from Oamaru, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 47, pp. 377–87.

Park, J., 1904. On the Discovery of Permo-Carboniferous Rocks at Mount Mary, North Otago, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 36, pp. 447–53.

—— 1905. On the Marine Tertiaries of Otago and South Canterbury, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 37, pp. 489–551.

—— 1918. The Geology of the Oamaru District, North Otago, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Bull. No. 20 (n.s.), pp. 1–124.

Thomson, J. A., 1915. Classification and Correlation of the Tertiary Rocks, 8th Ann. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., pp. 123–24.

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Art. XXIV.—Remarks on Bulletin No. 20 (New Series) of the New Zealand Geological Survey.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 6th December, 1919; received by Editor, 31st December, 1919; issued separately, 15th June, 1920.]





The “Two-limestone” Theory.


Description of the Hutchinsonian and Awamoan Stages as interpreted by Park.


Awamoan Beds.


Hutchinsonian Beds.


Hutchinsonian and Awamoan Localities.


All Day Bay.




Coast North of Kakanui Quarry.


Oamaru Rifle Butts.


Hutchinson's Quarry.


Target Gully.


Upper Target Gully.


Ardgowan Shell-bed.


Devil's Bridge.


Landon Creek and Flume Creek.


Bortonian and Waiarekan Localities.




Upper Waiarekan.


Kakanui South.


Boatman's Harbour.


Shirley Creek.


Awamoa Creek, near Deborah.


Grant's Creek.


Summary and Conclusion.

I. Introduction.

In Bulletin No. 20 (New Series) of the Geological Survey Branch of the Mines Department Professor Park has described the geology of the Oamaru district of North Otago. The present writer has examined this area in some detail, and his observations have been recorded in several papers read before this society. In several important matters he finds himself at variance with Professor Park, and some notes on the latter's recent work are given in the following pages. The paper deals with the “two-limestone” theory of Professor Park, with his classification of the fossiliferous tufaceous beds, and with his subdivision and correlation of the beds of north-eastern Otago. The evidence on which the present writer's conclusions are based has been detailed in former papers.

Park first formulated his “two-limestone” theory in an attempt to reconcile the differences of opinion that had long existed between Captain Hutton and other geologists as to the position of the so-called “Pareora fauna” The present writer (1916, p. 25) showed that the “two-1 mestone” theory was not tenable in the Oamaru coastal district, and that the Awamoan (Pareora) beds lie above the limestone and Hutchinson Quarry beds. In Bulletin No. 20 Park has accepted this interpretation in part, for he places the Awamoan (Pareora) beds at the top of the series; but the so-called Waitaki stone is now placed in the Upper Hutchinsonian,

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immediately below the Awamoan beds. The classifications adopted by Park (1905, p. 492) and later in Bulletin No. 20 indicate the change in his views.

1905. 1918.
Waitaki stone
Awamoan Awamoan beds Awamoan beds.
Hutchinsonian Hutchinson Quarry beds (a.) Upper Hutchinsonian = Waitaki stone. (b.) Lower Hutchinsonian.
Ototaran Ototara limestone Ototara limestone.

It will be seen that the Hutchinson Quarry beds (Hutchinsonian) have been subdivided, the Lower Hutchinsonian being the well-known Hutchinson Quarry greensands, which are said to lie beneath the so-called Waitaki stone (Upper Hutchinsonian).

That Park's latest view has not gained general acceptance is clearly indicated by the following quotation from the letter of transmittal to the Minister of Mines which prefaces Bulletin No. 20. Mr. P. G. Morgan, Director of the Geological Survey, writes: “Although quite agreeing with most of the conclusions reached, I cannot follow Professor Park in all respects, more particularly in his views regarding the relative ages of the Oamaru and Waitaki stones.” The present writer, has also found considerable difficulty in following Professor Park in his arguments for the differentiation of two-limestone horizons. In discussing the “two-limestone” theory, as formulated in Bulletin No. 20, it will be contended (1) that Park's Upper Hutchinsonian in the area between Kakanui and Target Gully, Oamaru, is really the base of the Awamoan; (2) that his Upper Hutchinsonian of the Landon Creek area is the equivalent of his Lower Hutchinsonian in the district between Kakanui and Target Gully; (3) that no evidence is brought forward to show that the Upper Hutchinsonian is present in the Flume Creek area; (4) that the correlation of the rocks called “Upper Hutchinsonian” in the Oamaru and Papakaio districts with the limestone of the Waitaki Valley (Waitaki stone) is not justified by the evidence brought forward in Bulletin No. 20. The discussion on the Bortonian and Upper Waiarekan of Park aims at showing that lists of fossils ascribed to these stages must be considerably reduced, as the horizons are very doubtful. References to Bulletin No. 20 will be made by quoting merely the pages of that publication.

II. The “Two-Limestone” Theory.

Park's “two-limestone” theory, as stated above, was an attempt to solve the problem of the “Pareora fauna.” This problem first presented itself to the New Zealand geologists when Haast submitted four collections of fossils from different localities to Hutton (1887, p. 430) for identification. The latter referred all the shells to the Pareora (Awamoan) horizon above the limestone. Haast himself was convinced that one of the collections had been obtained from beds which lay below the limestone. Other collections of fossils examined by Hutton were determined by him as “Pareora,” and in all cases he referred the beds to an horizon above the limestone. Haast and the officers of the old Geological Survey agreed with Hutton that some of his “Pareora” faunas came from above the limestone, but the field evidence convinced them that other collections of fossils determined by Hutton as “Pareora” came from below the limestone. Park (1905, p. 491) clearly recognized the difficulties, and attempted

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a solution by his theory that there were two limestone horizons, separated by the Hutchinson Quarry and Awamoan beds (Pareora); or, in other words, that there was but one “Pareora fauna,” lying between two limestones, the lower being called the Ototaran stone and the upper the Waitaki stone.

The present writer (refer to Thomson, 1915, p. 123), after an excursion to the Waihao district of South Canterbury, was convinced that, where the full series was developed, there was but one limestone present. An examination of the fauna beneath the limestone showed that it bore a remarkable resemblance to the fauna above the limestone in the Waihao district, where the beds occur in the same section. This view was supported by Thomson (1915, p. 123), who subsequently visited the Waihao district. Park, however (1905, p. 510), had given a section at Kakanui in which his two limestones were shown separated by the fossiliferous beds. The present writer (1916, pp. 22–25) sought to prove that this section had been misinterpreted, and that only one limestone was present, with the fossiliferous beds lying above it. Park in his latest work has evidently accepted this interpretation of the section, for the Awamoan beds are now placed at the top of the sequence in the Oamaru and Kakanui districts. As pointed out above, however, he still maintains that the limestone of the Waitaki Valley is distinct from the limestone of the Oamaru district.

III. Description of the Hutchinsonian and Awamoan Stages as Interpreted by Park.

Before discussing the sections described in Bulletin No. 20 it will be necessary to form a clear conception of Park's various subdivisions of the beds above the Ototaran. Correlation of beds is possible on palaeonto logical or lithological evidence, or by direct stratigraphical connection, and it seems to the writer that Park has relied mainly on the lithological evidence in establishing his Upper Hutchinsonian horizon. The following quotations will indicate his conception of the post-Ototaran beds.

(1.) Awamoan Beds.

“The Awamoan strata consist of blue or bluish-green marine sandy clays that in some places pass into bluish-green sea-muds, in other places into very soft sandstones. In most places they are interbedded at distant intervals with hard calcareous bands that are sometimes sandy, in others argillaceous and crowded with shells. In some places the hard bands are replaced by calcareous nodular concretionary masses and flaggy lenses, occurring in more or less well-defined horizons.”

It will be shown that these hard calcareous bands in the Awamoan are referred by Park to the Upper Hutchinsonian in the Target Gully locality.

(2.) Hutchinsonian Beds.

The Hutchinsonian is subdivided lithologically, in descending order, into—(a) Glauconitic sandstone (Upper Hutchinsonian); (b) Glauconitic greensands (Lower Hutchinsonian); (c) Conglomerate, mainly basaltic.

The glauconitic sandstone (a) is said to represent the Waitaki stone of Upper Hutchinsonian age. He describes this horizon as follows: “The glauconitic sandstone follows the greensands conformably… it consists of soft glauconitic sandstone interbedded with hard yellowish brown sandstone bands… it is a compact yellowish-brown calcareous

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glauconitic sandstone.” The glauconitic greensands (Lower Hutchinsonian) are described in the following extracts: “The glauconitic sandy beds at All Day Bay, Kakanui, Hutchinson's Quarry, and Grant's Creek are loose and incoherent, but at the upper end of Target Gully, at Landon Creek, and in the Waitaki area they form fairly compact glauconitic sandstones” (p. 78). Further, it is stated that “the fauna of this horizon [Lower Hutchinsonian] is distinguished by the abundance of the brachiopod Pachymagas parki (Hutt.), by the presence of the corals Isis dactyla Ten.-Woods and Mopsea hamiltoni (Thomson), and of the cup-shaped bryozoan Celleporaria nummularia Busk. Besides these there occur many pectens and other molluscs. Pachymagas parki (Hutt.) is present almost everywhere, but the other fossils mentioned may be abundant at one place and absent at another” (p. 78). “Pachymagas parki (Hutt.) occurs in great abundance in the Lower Hutchinsonian, usually to the exclusion of all other brachiopods except Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutt.), which is nearly always present with it” (p. 109). “The Lower Hutchinsonian is the most distinctive and persistent horizon of the Oamaruian system; it always overlies the Oamaru stone. In the Oamaru area it consists of calcareous glauconitic greensands that at Landon Creek and the lower Waitaki Valley are partly or wholly replaced by calcareous glauconitic sandstone. But whether greensands or glauconitic sandstone, the characteristic brachiopod Pachymagas parki (Hutt.) and the peculiar corals Isis dactyla Ten.-Woods and Mopsea hamiltoni (Thomson) are always present. The Waitaki stone is underlain by the greensands” (p. 110).

It will be shown that these sandstone bands in the Landon Creek area are referred to the Upper Hutchinsonian, although from Park's description of the characteristic fossils they should belong to his Lower Hutchinsonian (Hutchinsonian of Thomson).

As pointed out by the present writer (1916, pp. 20–21), the fossil Pachymagas parki (Hutt.) occurs in abundance in a well-defined band of hard glauconitic sandstone. In the present paper this band is called the “parki” band. It is ofter accompanied by Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutt.), to the exclusion of all other brachiopods. This hardened band is underlain in many places in the district by looser greensands, also glauconitic, but characterized also by a constant assemblage of fossils—Aetheia gaulteri (Morris), Terebratulina suessi (Hutt.), Isis dactyla Ten.-Woods, and Mopsea hamiltoni (Thomson), which are all very abundant. This bed usually contains many specimens of Pachymagas parki (Hutt.), but in these looser greensands the individuals of this species are on the average distinctly smaller than in the upper “parki” band, and their external characters are far more constant. In the hardened upper band, where it is usually accompanied by Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutt.), the specimens assigned to the “parki” species are extremely variable in external shape. As pointed out by Park in the extracts quoted, above, this greensand horizon is a most distinctive one; it is, the typical Hutchinsonian of the Oamaru system, and always lies above a nodular band (Park's conglomerate). Park, however, would term these “Isis” greensands, and the “parki” greensands Lower Hutchinsonian; and states that they are separated from the Awamoan by the Upper Hutchinsonian (Waitaki stone). The writer contends that the “Isis” greensands and the overlying “parki” greensands constitute the Hutchinsonian, and are followed directly by the Awamoan beds.

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In the localities discussed below an attempt is made to show that where the Awamoan beds are present, as in the Oamaru area, the hard calcareous bands at their base are called Upper Hutchinsonian; where the Awamoan beds are not present, as at Landon Creek (west branch), the “fairly compact glauconitic sandstone” (the “parki” band) is called Upper Hutchinsonian; where the “parki” band is absent, as in Landon Creek (Papakaio district), the upper glauconitic portion of the limestone is called Upper Hutchinsonian (p. 64). The various localities in which the post-Ototaran beds occur will now be discussed.

IV. Hutchinsonian and Awamoan Localities.

(1.) All Day Bay (p. 56).

The section in this locality has been described by the writer (1916, p. 20), and by Park in Bulletin No. 20. Both agree that the “darker and tougher greensands” (the “parki” band) are followed directly by the Awamoan beds. The section in this locality is most important, as it illustrates the typical character of the beds above the limestone. Here we have in one section, as shown by Park, the limestone much hardened towards its upper surface, which is corroded (nodular). This surface is immediately followed by the “Isis” greensands, capped by the hard “parki” band, which is directly overlain by the Awamoan beds. In this locality there is no Upper Hutchinsonian horizon, and Park's so-called Lower Hutchinsonian is conformably overlain by the Awamoan, which contains “hard sandstone layers.” Park does not recognize an Upper Hutchinsonian in this locality.

(2.) Deborah (p. 59).

In this section the highest bed exposed is the “parki” band, which is underlain by “6 ft. of greensands [which] contain many molluscs and brachiopods.” The braclfiopods present in these underlying greeensands are Terebratulina suessi (Hutt.) and Aetheia gaulteri (Morris), which are again accompanied by the same species of Isis and Mopsea. At the base of these greensands lies the nodular surface of the hard limestone which closed the Ototaran at All Day Bay. No Upper Hutchinsonian is present at Deborah.

(3.) Coast North of Kakanui Quarry (p. 70).

In this section Park shows the sequence of beds closed by a “hard semi-crystalline limestone.” The present writer has figured the complete section along the coast (1916, p. 23, fig. 2). The beds form a syncline, and to the north east this hard limestone is nodular at the surface, and followed by the “Isis” greensands, but the hard “parki” band has been denuded. The sequence is exactly similar to that at All Day Bay and Deborah. The surface of the hard limestone is nodular, and pieces of rolled volcanic rock occurs at the base of the “Isis” beds and represent Park's conglomerate at the base of the Hutchinsonian. In this coastal section the Upper Hutchinsonian is not stated to be present, though the limestone in this locality was formerly (1905, p. 510) called Waitaki stone (Upper Hutchinsonian).

(4.) Oamaru Rifle Butts.

In his discussion on the Hutchinsonian stage (chapter vii, p. 77) Park makes no reference to the Hutchinsonian beds at the Rifle Butts, but he

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gives a section (pl. ii, fig. A) in which are shown “the greensands with Pachymagas parki” followed by a glauconitic shell-bed (bed i), a hard brown limonitic sandstone (bed h), and soft glauconitic sands (bed g), and all these beds are classed as Hutchinsonian. These beds above the “parki” green-sands are Park's Upper Hutchinsonian. The Awamoan beds are said to lie above this so-called Upper Hutchinsonian. Now, the glauconitic sandy shell-bed (bed i) is crowded with molluscan casts and extremely fragile shells, and there is no doubt that it is similar to the shell-beds at Target Gully and Ardgowan, which all geologists recognize as Awamoan, and its position immediately above the “parki” band confirms this (compare Park's section at All Day Bay, p. 56). These beds (g, h, i, of pl. ii, fig. A) are undoubtedly Awamoan, and there is, therefore, no Upper Hutchinsonian at the Rifle Butts.

(5.) Hutchinson's Quarry (pp. 60–61).

In this locality the junction of the greensands with the limestone is not clear, although they undoubtedly overlie it. As the Upper Hutchinsonian is not stated to be present, it is unnecessary to discuss the section further.

(6.) Target Gully (pp. 79–80).

In this locality the Awamoan and Upper Hutchinsonian are said to be present in the same section. From the description given it is difficult to judge exactly which beds are referred to the Upper Hutchinsonian. The following statement occurs on page 79: “The glauconitic sandstone [Upper Hutchinsonian] follows the greensands conformably at the shell-bed (Target Gully).” These greensands are Lower Hutchinsonian (p. 78). On the same page it is stated that “at the shell-bed, Target Gully, it [the glauconitic sandstone] consists of soft glauconitic sandstone interbedded with hard yellowish-brown sandstone bands.” In the section given on page 80 the horizons of the beds are not indicated; the fossiliferous greensands (bed c), which are the lowest greensands exposed in the section, must, according to Park's first statement quoted above, belong to his Lower Hutchinsonian, leaving a hard yellowish-brown glauconitic sandstone (2 ft. to 4 ft. thick) to represent the Waitaki stone (Upper Hutchinsonian). The fossils in this sandstone are in the form of casts, and no palaeontological or other evidence is offered to support the contention that the bed is at the horizon of the limestone in the Waitaki Valley (the so-called Upper Hutchinsonian). If Park refers all the greensands to his Upper Hutchinsonian, as would appear from the second statement quoted above, there is still no evidence to support this view. Of the seventy-two species of Mollusca listed from bed c, sixty-seven species occur in Park's list of Awamoan fossils (pp. 97–105), three forms are Recent, and the other two are not characteristic. The percentage of Recent species is said to be 40–3; and, as the percentage, of Recent species in the Awamoan of the Oamaru district is stated by Park to be 32.9, there would seem to be no justification for separating these beds from the Awamoan horizon. Pachymagas parki (Hutt.), however, is said to occur in the form of casts in bed d, and as the same fossil is recorded from bed c, and this is the characteristic fossil of Park's Lower Hutchinsonian, the beds might equally well be referred to his Lower Hutchinsonian. As a matter of fact, in the absence of a brachiopod fauna it is a difficult matter to distinguish the Hutchinsonian from the Awamoan. As Park says (p. 53), “the relationship existing between the Hutchinsonian and Awamoan is generally so close that it is difficult to define where the one ends and the other begins.”

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If, however, in addition to a molluscan fauna the brachiopods are present, the line of demarcation is a sharp one in the Oamaru and Papakaio districts, the close of the Hutchinsonian being marked by a glauconitic band crowded with Pachymagas parki (Hutt)., which is often accompanied by Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutt.). The writer believes that the “parki” beds in the present locality are followed directly by the Awamoan, and, as the former beds are Park's Lower, Hutchinsonian, it follows that there is no Upper Hutchinsonian in the Target Gully locality. Yet Park states (p. 25) that “on palaeontological grounds the Hutchinsonian might be divided into two sub-stages—the lower or true Hutchinsonian including the glauconitic greensands, the upper comprising the glauconitic calcareous sandstone that forms the Waitaki stone or Waitakian.” The writer has been unable to find in Park's latest work these palaeontological grounds.

When the writer examined the Target Gully section the junctions of the various beds were obscured by slope deposits, in which were collected fossils from the shell-bed (Awamoan), specimens of Pachymagas parki (Hutt.), and Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutt.), and this would indicate that the true Hutchinsonian (Park's Lower Hutchinsonian) is present below the shell-bed. Putting aside this obscurity of the section, however, it is contended that no evidence has been adduced to justify any bed in the section being differentiated as a separate Upper Hutchinsonian horizon. The fossils from bed c are Awamoan, and the hard glauconitic sandstone is exactly similar to the bands that occur in Park's Awamoan at All Day Bay.

(7.) Upper Target Gully (p. 82).

Two sections are exposed in this locality. In fig. 37 a “rusty-brown glauconitic sandstone; 9 ft. exposed; contains Pachymagas parki (Hutt).” In fig. 38 a glauconitic sandstone is shown. It is said to be crowded with Pachymagas parki (Hutt). According to Park's definition of the beds, neither the Awamoan nor the so-called Upper Hutchinsonian is present.

(8.) Ardgowan Shell-bed (p. 81).

The section in this locality (fig. 36) shows the Ardgowan shell-beds resting directly on a “soft brown sandstone,” from which twelve fossils were collected; eleven of which are found in typical Awamoan localities. The other fossil, Lima suteri Dall, is apparently not found elsewhere in the Oamaru district. Park's Lower Hutchinsonian is not present in the section, and no reason is assigned for separating this “slightly glauconitic sandstone” from the Awamoan. As pointed out above, these sandstone bands are characteristic of the Awamoan, and there is no evidence to show why they should be placed at an Upper Hutchinsonian horizon.

(9.) Devil's Bridge (pp. 62, 82).

The section at the outlet end of Devil's Basin shows “a soft friable glauconitic sandstone, 12 ft. thick, crowded with Pachymagas parki (Hutt.),” and accompanied by Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutt.), overlain directly by a brown calcareous glauconitic sandstone, 30 ft. thick, from which seventeen forms, were obtained, thirteen of which occur in the Awamoan, one is not found elsewhere, two are recorded from the “Lower Hutchinsonian” elsewhere (that is, from the “parki” greensands), while Emarginula wannonensis Harris occurs in the Ototaran. This so-called Upper Hutchinsonian cannot be separated from the Awamoan, particularly as it rests hard upon the “parki

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greensands, its normal position as shown by Park in his section at All Day Bay (p. 56). The writer (1918b, p. 121) described this locality, and showed that the “parki” band lay some distance above the limestone, which was nodular at its surface, and according to Park the upper part of the limestone is “a hard semi-crystalline limestone from 2 ft. to 4 ft. thick.” The sequence is similar to that at All Day Bay, although the small exposure of looser greensands between the nodular surface of the limestone and the “parki” band has not yet proved fossiliferous. The sands above the “parki” band are glauconitic, and in this respect are similar to the Awamoan at All Day Bay. In the present locality no reasons have been adduced to show that the Upper Hutchinsonian is present.

All the localities in the Oamaru district where Park has described the Hutchinsonian have now been discussed, and the writer has attempted to show that the band of glauconitic sandstone (the so-called Upper Hutchinsonian of Park) is part of the Awamoan. The description in Bulletin No. 20 of the Awamoan beds shows that they may assume the character of an indurated sandstone. In the absence of palaeontological evidence, the placing of a thin band of sandstone in an Upper Hutchinsonian is unwarranted. The fossils that have been recorded by Park are Awamoan, as shown above. In his classification of the beds of north-east Otago, Thomson (1916, p. 35) defined the Hutchinsonian as the beds lying between the Ototara imestone and the shell-bed at Target Gully. This shell-bed undoubtedly forms the base of the Awamoan at the Rifle Butts, but from its very nature t is not likely to be a widely extended horizon (it is known to occur at only three places—Rifle Butts, Target Gully, and Ardgowan). These shell-beds appear to be the remains of shell-banks of the Awamoan seas, and, although confined to the lower part of the Awamoan, they may not always represent the basal bed. At All Day Bay the basal bed of the Awamoan, which lies directly on the “parki” band (Hutchinsonian), contains similar fossils to the shell-bed, but no shell-bed occurs in the locality. As pointed out above, the, “parki” band marks a definite horizon, the close of the Hutchinsonian, and it seems preferable to make this band the upward limit of this stage. This would mean that Park's Waitaki stone (Upper Hutchinsonian) would be driven into the Awamoan, but it would not in any way lower the value of the evidence he has brought forward to prove that this limestone is at a different horizon from the Ototaran stone.

(10.) Landon Creek and Flume Creek.

The Awamoan beds are not present in these localities, but certain hard glauconitic bands are present in the upper beds. Some of these are referred to the Upper Hutchinsonian horizon. The present writer contends that these so-called Upper Hutchinsonian bands represent the “parki” band, in other cases lower beds, and are therefore, according to Park's definition, his Lower Hutchinsonian. As the “parki” band is the highest horizon in the Landon Creek and Flume Creek areas, the so-called Upper Hutchinsonian cannot be present.

In fig. 25 (p. 63) a section is given showing “rusty-brown glauconitic greensands crowded with Pachymagas parki (Hutt.)” at the top of the sequence. According to Park's definition, this is his Lower Hutchinsonian horizon, and the Upper Hutchinsonian cannot be present. We must note, however, that a “brown calcareous glauconitic sandstone” 6 ft. thick is said to lie 4½ ft. below the “parki” bed. This band of sandstone is again shown in fig. 26, where the “parki” band is not shown. In both figures

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this glauconitic sandstone lies directly on the Oamaru stone (Ototaran), and in fig. 25 is separated from the “parki” band by nodular greensands. In fig. 27 (p. 64) the “parki” band is not present, but 24 ft. of glauconitic sandstone is shown lying above the limestone and classified as Hutchinsonian, but whether Upper or Lower is not stated. In figs. 26 and 27, then, this glauconitic sandstone cannot represent the Upper Hutchinsonian.

In fig. 15 a section is given in Landon Creek showing at the top of the Hutchinsonian a “hard brown calcareous sandstone, thickness of 6 ft. exposed,” from which were obtained the brachiopods Pachymagas parki (Hutt.) and Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutt.). This is Park's Lower Hutchinsonian, and the Upper Hutchinsonian is therefore absent. Fig. 15 is important, as it enables us to correlate the beds in the Landon Creek area with those in the Oamaru area. It will be noted that the upper part of the Oamaru stone is a bed of “hard semi-crystalline limestone,” which is overlain by looser greensands containing Isis dactyla Ten-Woods, and these are capped by “a hard brown calcareous sandstone containing Pachymagas parki (Hutt.) and Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutt.).” The sequence is the same as at All Day Bay, only in the present locality the nodular surface of the hard limestone is not so evident.

On page 46 Park gives a classification of the beds in Landon Creek, and shows that the limestone beneath the “hard semi-crystalline limestone” is glauconitic. This is the case in the whole of the Landon Creek area, and it is extremely probable that bed b of fig. 25, bed b of fig. 26 (both of which underlie nodular greensands), and bed b of fig. 27 represent this upper glauconitic portion of the limestone. The nodular greensands (”Isis” beds) just referred to contain Isis dactyla Ten.-Woods, Aetheia gaulteri (Morris), and Terebratulina suessi (Hutt.), and they lie immediately beneath the “parki” band. The fossils collected by the writer from these beds have already been published (1918b, pp. 122, 123), and, although these lists are incomplete, they indicate that the sequence is similar to that of the Kakanui district. In the Landon Creek area, then, the highest beds present are the “parki” beds (Park's Lower Hutchinsonian of the Oamaru-Kakanui areas discussed above), and his Upper Hutchinsonian is non existent.

The writer has attempted to show that in the coastal district, where the Awamoan beds occur above the greensands, the base of the Awamoan is termed Upper, Hutchinsonian; that in the Landon Creek area, where the “parki” band is the highest horizon present, either this bed or underlying beds are termed Upper Hutchinsonian. In other words, the Hutchinsonian greensands with Pachymagas parki are overlain directly by the Awamoan beds, and the “Upper Hutchinsonian” of Park is applied to different horizons in different parts of the district, and is therefore inadmissible in classification.

On page 48 a section is given in which the Oamaru stone is shown capped by a bed of hard semi-crystalline limestone, which represents the upward limit of the Ototaran. The sequence is similar to that at All Day Bay (p. 56), west branch of Landon Creek (p. 46), Deborah (p. 59), Kakanui (p. 70). In the present locality and in the localities just mentioned the overlying greensands contain Isis dactyla Ten.-Woods, Mopsea hamiltoni (Thomson), Aetheia gaulteri (Morris), Terebratulina suessi (Hutt.), and there is no doubt that these greensands are all at the same horizon—the base of the Hutchinsonian. Now, these greensands (bed m of fig. 17) are said to be the same as bed g of fig. 28, and the latter bed is said to be Upper Hutchinsonian (Waitaki stone), which is impossible, as the fossils are the fossils of

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Park's Lower Hutchinsonian of the coastal area (see p. 78). Further, from Park's description of the beds at Big Flume Creek on page 48 and page 65, bed m of fig. 17 should be correlated with bed f of fig. 28, not bed g, as both lie hard on the “band of semi-crystalline limestone” and represent the “Isis” greensands, and the fossils of the latter horizon also occur in the lower portion of bed g. The writer was unable to find the glauconitic sandstone overlying these “Isis” beds, and after visiting the Big Flume Creek during the present year was only confirmed in his own interpretation of the section as given in a former paper (1918, p. 123). As indicated there, the section is a discontinuous one, and the beds are probably faulted. The highest beds exposed in the section, which crop out on the right bank of the creek between the water-race and the Oamaru-Kurow main road, are the “Isis” greensands capping the “hard semi-crystalline limestone,” and the writer found no beds above them.

In regard to this section Park (p. 65) says, “This section is important, as it shows not only the relationship of the Oamaru stone to the Hutchinsonian, but also—what is of greater significance—the relationship of the Oamaru stone to the Waitaki stone.” Even if the glauconitic sandstone (bed g of fig. 28) does occur as shown in section above the “Isis” beds (the present writer was unable to find it), no evidence has been presented to show that it is the equivalent of the limestone of the Waitaki Valley near Duntroon. A section is given on page 83 of the rocks near Duntroon, where Park's typical Waitaki stone is shown overlying a fossiliferous glauconitic greensand. From the description of this stone in the legend it would appear that the rock is a very impure limestone, but it is as pure in many parts as the typical Ototaran limestone; it is certainly arenaceous and glauconitic in places, but it is undoubtedly a limestone. The analyses given on page 115 (especially analysis No. 4) confirm this.

Park gives a list of brachiopods from the glauconitic sandstone at the base of the Waitaki stone (p. 83). These brachiopods have also been collected from the upper part of the glauconitic limestone of Landon Creek. Wherever the limestone becomes very glauconitic the brachiopods appear. The upper glauconitic part of the limestone in the Landon Creek area and in the Flume Creek area increases considerably in thickness, and it is this portion that yields fossils similar to those at the base of the limestone near Duntroon. As pointed out in a former paper, these fossils are not restricted to this base. At White Rocks and at Duntroon the lower glauconitic part of the limestone increases considerably in thickness, and these brachiopods are found a considerable distance above the base of the limestone. Detailed correlation is not possible until we know the downward range of this brachiopod fauna in the Oamaru limestone, and its upper range in the rocks of the Waitaki Valley. At present all we can state is that the brachiopod fauna of the limestone in the Waitaki Valley and in the limestone of the Landon Creek area is undoubtedly Ototaran.

V. Bortonian and Waiarekan Localities.

(1.) Bortonian.

In his table of the Oamaruian Mollusca (p. 97) Park states that sixty-four species were obtained from the Bortonian and sixty-four species from the Upper Waiarekan (Waiareka tuffs). This subdivision of the Waiarekan of Thomson into a Lower Waiarekan (Bortonian) and an Upper Waiarekan has much to recommend it. In many places in North Otago the coal-grits are overlain by fine micaceous quartzose greensands, and near their base hardened calcareous concretionary bands occur in which fossils are

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very abundant, but unfortunately mainly in the form of casts. From this horizon at Black Point, McKay and Park made extensive collections, and forty-three species were determined by the late Mr. Henry Suter, and referred by Park to his Bortonian. In another paper in this volume the writer has given a list of fossils, also determined by Suter, which were collected from an horizon about 30 ft. above the coal-grits, and almost certainly represent the Bortonian horizon. At Ngapara a similar fossiliferous bed is found lying a short distance above the coal-rocks. In the bed of the Kakanui River, near Gemmel's crossing, this fossiliferous horizon occurs beneath glauconitic greensands, which dip beneath the Waiarekan tuffs of the Oamaru district. The introduction of a Bortonian horizon should be favourably received by geologists. Park has stated that “for a classification to be a trustworthy standard of reference it is an essential requirement that the subdivision shall be made in a district where the component subdivisions are in such intimate association that their relationship to one another can never be in doubt.” All will accord hearty approval to this dictum; but we may also add that, if an attempt is being made to work out a distinctive fauna for each of these component subdivisions, it is also an essential requirement that the fossils shall be definitely ascertained to have come from a definite horizon. This does not mean that fossil lists should be discarded merely because their horizon is doubtful, but it does mean that these doubtful fossils should be rejected, temporarily probably, when lists typical of the various stages of a system are being compiled. The species listed by Park as Bortonian and Upper Waiarekan call for some comment in the light of the principles just enunciated. The fossils from the beds at Black Point number forty-three species (p. 34), and were gathered from Park's typical Bortonian locality, and the horizon is undoubted. On page 35 a fist of thirteen species of Mollusca is given from brown sandstones which lie “about 80 ft. above the lignitic quartzose beds of the Ngaparan stage, and may represent a somewhat higher horizon than the Bortonian.” On the same page is given a list of fossils gathered from fossiliferous blocks, but “these masses could not be traced to their source.” As the horizon of the first collection is doubtful, and as the second was derived from rocks that were not in situ, these fossils cannot be included in the typical Bortonian. The list of sixty-four species must therefore be reduced to forty-three species.

(2.) Upper Waiarekan.

The writer (1918a, p. 107) attempted to define the horizons of the volcanic rocks in the Oamaru district, and concluded that there was a period of volcanic activity prior to the deposition of the Ototaran limestone, represented by the Waiareka tuffs (Upper Waiarekan of Park), and that there was a later period—perhaps two later periods—of activity represented by the volcanic rocks that occur interbedded with the Ototaran limestone near Oamaru. Park recognizes three periods, the second and third being Ototaran, while the first period is Upper Waiarekan. These volcanic rocks form fragmental tufaceous beds for the most part, and were probably all accumulations from submarine eruptions; they are often fossiliferous, Fossils gathered from tufaceous rocks may therefore be either Ototaran or Waiarekan, and before the fossils are assigned to either of these horizons the position of the bed must be indisputable. The fossils listed as Upper Waiarekan by Park have in nearly all cases been gathered from beds interbedded with limestone, and the writer believes that they belong to the limestone period—that is, they are of Ototaran age. Park himself indicates

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that his Waiarekan tuffs at Cape Wanbrow may be partially Ototaran, for he states that in this locality the Waiarekan tuffs are “over 600 ft. thick—though it is possible that a portion of the latter may belong to the Ototaran.” The writer is in accord with this statement, and would assign to the Ototaran the interbedded tuffs and limestone bands in the Shirley Creek section near the Rifle Butts, which form the top of Park's Upper Waiarekan. The beds immediately below the lower pillow-lava near Boatman's Harbour should also be Ototaran. The various localities where the Waiarekan tuffs are said to occur will now be discussed.

(a.) Kakanui South.—In Bulletin No. 20, section 19, page 52, shows the tuffs lying beneath the Ototaran limestone, and they are doubtfully referred to the Waiarekan. Above them lie 71 ft. of limestone, 24 ft. of marly clays, and tufaceous matter is plentiful throughout the section. The limestone (bed a) is evidently at or near the base of the Ototaran. If so, the under-lying tuffs are probably Waiarekan, but they have yielded no fossils.

(b.) Boatman's Harbour, Cape Wanbrow.—Park in a measured section (pl. ii, sec. B) shows the beds in excellent detail. A well-marked break is shown below bed h2. Discussing this unconformity, Park says that it is “apparently due to contemporaneous erosion.” He further states that the Oamaru building-stone “is absent, and, if not wholly, is partly represented by the fossiliferous tuffs and limestones at Boatman's Harbour [i.e., by the beds above the lower pillow-lava]. The brachiopods from the upper of the two limestone bands at that cove are mostly those of the Kakanui limestone horizon of the Ototaran [i.e., Upper Ototaran], as also are the brachiopods from the lower of the two limestone bands underlying the pillow-lava.” The beds referred to are shown in plate ii, section B, but in the legend these lower limestone bands and interbedded volcanic rocks are not referred to any horizon, although from the title of the section they are probably to be placed in the Waiarekan; yet the description of the beds does not indicate where the upper limit of the Waiarekan should be placed. From the quotation given above it is clear that the lowest fossiliferous band in the section contains characteristic Ototaran brachiopods, and underlying this band unconformably is a great thickness of volcanic tuffs which have not yielded any fossils. The fauna from this locality cannot be referred to the Waiarekan.

(c.) Shirley Creek (see pl. ii, fig. A).—Park states that “at Shirley Creek the Waiarekan tuffs are overlain unconformably by the Oamaru stone and associated beds…. The unconformity cannot be regarded as other than intra-formational.” When the writer examined this section he formed the opinion that the beds above and below this so-called unconformity had the same dip (1918a, p. 110/fig. 2). It is true that the upper bed (pl. ii, fig. A, bed c) is a limestone band containing masses of volcanic rocks, as shown by the writer in the paper just referred to; but this is a common feature in the limestone bands interbedded with tuffs, as shown by Park on page 37, where he writes in reference to the two bands below the pillow-lava that “these limestone beds are brecciated with angular blocks of vesicular basalt.” The beds referred to the Waiarekan at Shirley Creek are calcareous tuffs interstratified with polyzoan limestone bands, and they contain the typical Ototaran brachiopod Liothyrella oamarutica (Boehm), and there would appear to be no reason for separating the beds between bed q and bed w from the Ototaran. At the top of bed w there is an undoubted physical unconformity, which probably represents the break at Boatman's Harbour below bed h2 of plate ii, fig. B, as the beds that lie beneath these unconformities are unfossiliferous tuffs of similar composition.

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(d.) Awamoa Creek, near Deborah (p. 41).—The base of the section (fig. 5) is a basalt showing pillow-structure similar to the lower pillow-lava at Boatman's Harbour. The two rocks have been described by the writer (1918a, p. 113), and there is little doubt that they are at the same horizon. The rock at Boatman's Harbour has been shown to be almost certainly Ototaran, and the pillow-lava in the present locality must be referred to the same stage. The highest bed of the section is a brecciated pillow-lava exactly similar to the highest bed in the section at Boatman's Harbour, while the intermediate beds are calcareous fossiliferous tuffs and limestones. The fossils recorded from the tufaceous beds above the lower pillow-lava in the present locality are in rather poor condition, and the percentage of Recent species as determined by Suter is 37.5. The evidence is scareely sufficient to warrant these rocks being classed as Waiarekan.

(e.) Grant's Creek (p. 45).—In fig. 14 a section is given on the east bank of Grant's Creek, near Oamaru. It shows the Oamaru stone with interbedded bands of basaltic conglomerate, and the soft friable greenish glauconitic calcareous tuffs underlying are called Waiarekan. These beds are horizontal, and it is stated that “less than 50 yards higher up the stream, and on the same side, the Oamaru stone is followed by the Hutchinsonian greensands crowded with Pachymagas parki (Hutt.).” The maximum thickness of the rocks above the tuffs is 21 ft., and, as the rocks are horizontal, and the Hutchinsonian beds occur a short distance away capping the limestone, these tufaceous beds are certainly not Waiarekan. The development in the present section is very similar to the section exposed lower down the stream and described by the writer (1918b, p. 121, fig. 3). In that section 20 ft. of limestone separates the volcanic rocks of Oamaru Creek from the Hutchinsonian greensands, and Park rightly considers these volcanic rocks as Upper Ototaran (see geological map, Bulletin 20). The tufaceous beds in the present locality are therefore Ototaran. These beds mapped by him in the basin of Grant's Creek as Waiarekan are similar to those developed at Upper Target Gully which he has mapped as Upper Ototaran. A comparison of the sections shown on page 82 at Upper Target Gully (figs. 37 and 38) will indicate the similarity of the rocks in the basin of Grant's Stream to those at Upper Target Gully. Similar sections occur at Hutchinson's Quarry (1918a, p. 111) Lower Target Gully (Bulletin 20, p. 80), and Eden Street, Oamaru (Bulletin 20, p. 60). The present writer, in his description of the Hutchinson Quarry and neighbourhood (1918a, p. 112), showed that the fossiliferous beds at Boatman's Harbour which lie beneath the brecciated pillow-lava are certainly not Hutchinsonian, as contended by former geologists, and Park in his latest work has reached the same conclusion, as his geological map clearly shows. The writer's argument was based solely on the correlation of the upper volcanic rocks at Boatman's Harbour and Oamaru Creek near the junction of Grant's Stream, and as Park also correlates these volcanic horizons there can be no doubt that the volcanic horizon in the present section is not Waiarekan but Ototaran (Upper Ototaran).

In the localities that have been discussed, if these so-called Waiarekan tuffs are Ototaran tuffs, then Park's fauna of the Upper Waiarekan is reduced from sixty-four species to the seventeen species detailed on pages 43 and 44 of Bulletin No. 20. The brachiopods quoted there are characteristic Ototaran fossils, four of the Mollusca are new species, Clio annulata (Tate) is not found elsewhere in New Zealand, Amusium zitteli (Hutt.) is not recorded from any other locality in North Otago, and the remaining

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fossils are either found in higher beds or are Recent. The horizon of these tuffs is doubtful, but the association of these calcareous tuffs with chalky clays and marls is similar to the beds near the base of the Ototaran in the section exposed on the right bank of the Kakanui River (p. 57, fig. 19). The writer has also observed these marly beds and tuffs near the base of the limestone in the old quarry at Fortification Hill, near the village of Alma.

VI. Summary and Conclusion.

It has been contended that the sequence and subdivision of the Tertiary beds of North Otago as detailed in Bulletin No. 20 requires certain modifications, and the following conclusions have been reached by the writer:—

(1.) Park's Lower Hutchinsonian is the true Hutchinsonian of Thomson, and is characterized by the fossils Pachymagas parki (Hutt.), Aetheia gaulteri (Morris), Terebratulina suessi (Hutt.), Isis dactyla Ten.-Woods, and Mopsea hamiltoni (Thomson).

(2.) No evidence has been brought forward in the bulletin for the establishment of an Upper Hutchinsonian horizon in the area lying between All Day Bay and Upper Target Gully. The beds referred to this horizon are Awamoan, and lie immediately on the “parki” greensands.

(3.) The highest beds present in the Landon Creek area are the “parki” greensands, and in the Flume Creek area the “Isis” greensands, which constitute Park's Lower Hutchinsonian; there cannot, therefore, be an Upper Hutchinsonian horizon in these localities.

(4.) No evidence is presented in Bulletin No. 20 to show that the Ototaran limestone in the Oamaru and Papakaio districts correlates with the beds below the limestone in the Waitaki Valley. Both limestones contain several brachiopods which are restricted to the Ototaran of the typical Oamaru district, and must be classed as Ototaran.

(5.) The nature of the limestone (polyzoan limestone) interbedded with the tuffs beneath the lower pillow-lava at Boatman's Harbour and Shirley Creek, and the brachiopods obtained from these bands, strongly suggest that their age is Ototaran, not Waiarekan.

(6.) The occurrence of Awamoan fossils in the beds (Otiake beds) above the limestone of the Waitaki Valley, and the fact that the Awamoan and Hutchinsonian are “part and parcel of the same series,” as Hutton, McKay, and Park have asserted, further strengthens the argument that this limestone is Ototaran.

(7.) Nevertheless, the brachiopod fauna of the greensands in the Oamaru coastal district enables a clear line of demarcation to be drawn in that area between the Hutchinsonian and Awamoan.


Hutton, F. W., 1887. Note on the Geology of the Valley of the Waihao, in South Canterbury, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 19, pp. 430–33.

Park, J., 1905. On the Marine Tertiaries of Otago and South Canterbury, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 37, pp. 489–551.

Thomson, J. A., 1915. Classification and Correlation of the Tertiary Rocks, 8th Ann. Rep. N.Z. Geol. Surv., pp. 123–24.

—— 1916. On Stage Names applicable to the Divisions of the Tertiary in New Zealand, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 48, pp. 28–40.

Uttley, G. H., 1916. Geology of the Neighbourhood of Kakanui, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 48, pp. 19–27.

—— 1918a. The Volcanic Rocks of Oamaru, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 50, pp. 106–17.

—— 1918b. Geology of the Oamaru-Papakaio District, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 50, pp. 118–24.

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Art. XXV.—Examples of Readjustment of Drainage on the Tararua Western Foothills.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 8th October, 1919; received by Editor, 31st December, 1919; issued separately, 15th June, 1920.]

Plate XI.


  • Introductory.

  • The Major Physiographic Features of the Tararua Range.

  • Topography of the Arapaepae Ridge and of “The Heights” Basin.

  • Changes of Drainage in “The Heights” Basin.

  • Changes of Drainage on the Poruriri Ridge.

1. Introductory.

In the long-settled and more-closely-studied countries of the Northern Hemisphere the processes and events of physiographic history genetically connected with the present geographical regime have been more or less thoroughly worked out, but in New Zealand the subject has been dealt with in detail in only a comparatively few isolated areas. During the last few years, however, New Zealand physiography has attracted ever increasing notice, and has come to be regarded here as elsewhere as being of considerable importance in the deciphering of the detailed geologic history of a country. I have therefore been led to contribute the following notes on the physiography of an area which has hitherto received but scant attention. While it is not claimed that the course of events outlined in section 4 is in any way unique, the constricted area in which the diverse changes took place may be deemed somewhat remarkable, comparable to some slight extent with the classical instance of drainage-readjustment in the district round Chur, in Switzerland (Heim).

2. The Major Physiographic Features of the Tararua Range.

The Tararua Range is that portion of the structural axis of the North Island extending from the headwaters of the Hutt River to the Manawatu Gorge, a distance of fifty-seven miles. The range consists of a series of parallel and subparallel longitudinal ridges so disposed that they collectively form an obtuse angle or wide arc convex to the west; thus it is that from south to north their trend changes from north-north-east to north-east by north. In addition to the longitudinal ridges there is a subsidiary series of transverse ridges which link the former together.

Another feature of the Tararua Range is its asymmetry. The highest ridge—that bearing the peaks of The Mitre and Mount Holdsworth—lies well to the eastern side of the range, and on that side the altitudes of the foothill ridges decrease more abruptly towards the subjacent lowlands than on the west. In general, both towards east and west, the longitudinal ridges decrease in height in succession as the respective piedmont lowland areas are approached, the outermost foothill ridge on either side being usually the lowest of the respective series. The whole is suggestive of a high-standing tilted earth-block, having a steep eastward-facing scarp and a back-slope declining towards the west. The initial intense compression and crumpling of the Trias-Jurassic (Marshall, 1912, pp. 127–29, 208) strata (the post-Hokonui deformation) was probably succeeded by peneplanation (Cotton, 1916, p. 246; Thomson, 1917, pp. 399–400), and

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this was followed by secondary folding (the Kaikoura deformation) accompanied by block-faulting on a large scale, and also by the deep dissection of the penultimate erosion-cycle. The secondary folding corrugated the Tararua earth-block into broad anticlinal and synclinal forms, and these appear to have determined the trend of the principal drainage-lines, and to have guided the agents of erosion in the production of the high relief of the present topography. The initial drainage-pattern is thus considered to be mainly consequent on the secondary deformation, and only to a very slight extent due to adjustment to the original structure.

With reference to the hills near Wellington City, which may be regarded as a south-western extension of the Tararua Range, and perhaps also to the main range itself, the longitudinal ridges have been explained (Cotton, 1918, pp. 213–14) as being bands of resistant rock reinforced by a network of secondary mineral matter sealing the joints; and the valleys between the longitudinal ridges as belts of shattered rock—shattered by the ancient folding of the strata—along which the erosional action of the streams has been more effective.

While this hypothesis of resistant reinforced bands of rock is accepted as a probable contributory cause of the development of the longitudinal ridges,* it appears to be inadequate when confronted by the notable linear persistence of the longitudinal ridges of the Tararua Range, and also by the associated physiographic features thereof—viz., the subsidiary transverse ridges, and certain arresting characteristics of the hydrography. The present writer's explanation of the genesis of these land-forms may be presented in detail later, and it will suffice to state here that there are numerous and seemingly sound reasons for the belief that orogenic folding and uplift, synchronizing with the production of the existing stream-sculptured relief, is the most satisfactory explanation of the origin of the longitudinal and transverse ridges, and also of the notable peculiarities of the present hydrographical regime. Under this explanation the principal rivers must be classed as anteconsequent and in part antecedent.

3. Topography of the Arapaepae Ridge and of “The Heights” Basin.

On the western side of the Tararua Range the outermost foothill ridge is divided into sections by the vents of the rivers that issue from the mountains on to the plain. Locally the ridge-sections bear names usually corresponding to the trigonometrical stations situated on their highest points. The Arapaepae Ridge, on which is situated the more striking of the two examples of drainage-readjustment that form the subject of these notes, lies between the vents of the Ohau and Mangaore Streams, which cross the plain near Levin and at Shannon respectively.

Towards its northern end the Arapaepae Ridge is markedly asymmetrical. On its western side the spurs are deeply truncated, the hillside presenting a steep face composed of short blunted salients. These features mark the position of a former coast-line, they being ancient sea-cliffs (Adkin, 1911, p. 509; 1919, p. 109). On the eastern side of the ridge a different

[Footnote] * The topographic details as etched out by erosion are undoubtedly due to the presence of bands and patches of rock of varying resistance.

[Footnote] † The transverse ridges are not mere erosional features occurring at haphazard intervals. In some cases they extend from lowland to lowland right across the mountain-system, and therefore must be attributed to a more profound causation. Nor can it be due to mere chance that the principal transverse ridge of the Tararuas, if produced eastward across the Wairarapa lowland, there coincides with the water-parting from which the drainage of the lowland and adjacent mountains is directed north and south respectively.

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Fig. 1.—“The Heights” basin and adjacent lateral valleys of the Arapaepae Ridge at the present time, showing the readjustment of drainage at “The Heights” basin by piracy and by diversion by alluviation.

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set of land-forms occur: long fully-developed lateral spurs run out from the main divide like great buttresses for a mile or more, and between them lie broad, open stream-valleys, all diversified by a dendritic drainage-pattern. One of these broad valleys, locally known as “The Heights” basin, is situated at the junction of the Arapaepae Ridge with the transverse ridge that connects it with the inner ridges of the range. By virtue of its situation, this basin possesses such change-favouring features as superior altitude and shallowness to a greater degree than the adjacent eastward-facing lateral valleys of the Arapaepae Ridge.

“The Heights” basin, in which the changes of drainage took place, lies near the crest of the Arapaepae Ridge, its flat alluvial bottom (Plate XI, fig. 1) having an average altitude of 1,015 ft.—only 200 ft. below the trigonometrical station, Arapaepae No. 3, 1,210 ft., located at its north-western corner. The basin is roughly rectangular in shape, and about a mile and a half across from north to south. Forming its rim are hilly ridges, varying in height from a few feet to more than 400 ft. above the alluvial flat: on the west the Arapaepae Ridge, on north and south two lateral buttressing spurs of the same, and on the east the western end of the transverse connecting-ridge. To the north lies the catchment area of the Mangaore Stream; to the south and south-east that of the Makahika, a tributary of the Ohau River; and to the west that of the Koputaroa. Formerly “The Heights” basin had only one outlet; now there are no less than three.

4. Changes of Drainage in “The Heights” Basin.

Originally the whole of the drainage of “The Heights” basin was discharged through a comparatively narrow outlet situated at its south-east corner, by a single stream, tributary to the Makahika River. The origin of the basin is, in the present state of knowledge, somewhat problematical; but a tentative hypothesis is that it was formed by the denudation, first by the subaerial agencies in general and afterwards principally by stream erosion, of the crest of a broad anticlinal structure of crumpled strata possessing but little primary variation in hardness. Under this conception the weakened crest of the anticline was widely opened, while the limbs retained a sufficient degree of compactness to restrict erosion to narrower limits. This hypothesis conforms to the conception of the orogenesis of the Tararua Range briefly outlined in section 2; the general topography of the Arapaepae and adjacent ridges is also favourable to its adoption.

An identical origin must be ascribed to the neighbouring eastward-facing lateral valleys of the Arapaepae Ridge (fig. 1)—the Waireka (Plate XI, fig. 2), Wainui, & c. All these valleys are of the basin-like, bottle-neck type, being gorge-like and narrow at their outlets, and broad and open above. Valleys of similar form occur in the Blue Mountains* due west of Sydney (Taylor, 1919, p. 177).

It may be suggested that in the case of the Tararua foothills the broad arching of the secondary folding would be quantitatively insufficient to produce so sharp a distinction in the resistance to erosion of the crest and limbs of a fold as to determine the ultimate form of the bottle-necked valleys. For the present this may remain an open question, though the

[Footnote] * Professor David's and Griffith Taylor's explanation of the Blue Mountain bottleneck valleys appears to be applicable to those of the Tararua foothill ridge, though in the former locality this particular type of land-form was produced by a single rock stratum in the limb of a large anticlinal fold, and in the latter by the compacted and stronger strata of the anticlinal limb itself as compared with the weaker crest.

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Fig. 1.—“The Heights” basin, looking north-east, showing topography and present distribution of drainage. Remnant of original stream in foreground (centre to right), outlet of same on right beyond margin of view. Spill-over outlet on left. Gorge and trenches of pirate stream in distance (right to centre). Trig. station, Arapaepae No. 3, 1,210 ft, in distance on left. Fig 2—The valley of the Waireka Stream, looking east towards its narrow outlet. The old alluvial flat is now trenched by the slight rejuvenation of the stream.

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Fig. 2.—“The Heights” basin and the adjacent lateral valleys of the Arapaepae Ridge, showing the direction and probable character of the drainage towards the conclusion of alluviation. Approximate scale, 2 in. = 1 mile.

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available evidence appears to indicate that it was sufficient. There was, however, a contributory cause. The rejuvenated Makahika River has cut its present trench-like channel at the foot of the long eastward-trending lateral spurs of the Arapaepae Ridge, truncating them; and to maintain accordant junctions the Wainui and Waireka Streams were thereby forced to cut shorter, deeper gorges than they would have done had the Makahika River cut its present trench in the middle or on the opposite side of its former widely-opened valley. Of itself the action of the Makahika was quite insufficient to produce the bottle-neck, basin-like valleys of the tributary streams referred to, but, in conjunction with the broad arching of the secondary deformation, conditions came into existence that were favourable to the production of the tributary valleys in their present form.

When “The Heights” basin had been opened to nearly its present extent a period of alluviation followed. This alluviation covered the former valley-bottom to a considerable depth, and ultimately formed a wide alluvial flat (Plate XI, fig. 1) having a very gentle surface slope to the south-east. The alluvium consists of stiff cream-coloured and yellow clays resting on a thick mass of fine gravel. Towards the close of the deposition of alluvium many of the exposed ends of the half-buried spurs round the rim of the basin were levelled off by lateral corrasion, and the flat was thus further enlarged. The current of “The Heights” stream was at this time extremely sluggish, flowing in meanders of small radius, and the surface of the flat must have been diversified by cut-off ox-bows and deserted swampy channels (fig. 2). On the whole, the topographic form of the basin at this stage was one of late maturity or even old age.

Alluviation of a somewhat similar character took place also in the Waireka, Wainui, and other adjacent bottle-necked valleys. Thick masses of clay containing scattered angular fragments of rock, often of large size, were laid down, the master streams became sluggish and winding, and the topography reached an advanced stage of maturity.* The alluviation of these tributary valleys took place in harmony with the alluviation of their trunk valley, that of the Makahika: this is proved by the corresponding accordant levels of the surfaces of the valley-fill in the several parts of the valley-system. The alluviation of the large river-valleys of the Tararua Range was caused by the failure of the rivers to transport the excessive amount of waste derived from the then more extensive alpine and subalpine areas in which these rivers took their rise during the “glacier period,” the snow-line (and consequently the timber-line) being at that time, by reason, in part, of the greater elevation of the country, relatively very much lower than now. In my previous papers (Adkin, 1911, pp. 497–98, 520; 1919, p. 112) it was shown that the building of the valley-plain of the Makahika and Ohau Valleys, and also the construction of the Ohau fan, took place during that period of great elevation of the North Island—viz., in the early Pleistocene (Park; 1910, pp. 156–57, 250; Marshall, 1912, p. 210). The initial opening - out by rosion of “The Heights” basin and the other adjacent bottle-necked valleys is therefore of some antiquity—certainly of not later date than middle or perhaps late Tertiary times.

The alluviation of “The Heights” basin was followed by further changes. The sources of a tributary of the Mangaore Stream, situated on

[Footnote] * The last physiographic event in each of these valleys except that of “The Heights” was rejuvenation, by which their alluvial bottoms were trenched to depths up to 100 ft.

[Footnote] † For fuller reference to this subject see “The Discovery and Extent of Former Glaciation in the Tararua Ranges, North Island, New Zealand,” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 44, p. 315, 1912.

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the northern side of “The Heights” basin, were actively extending their sources headward into the outer slopes of its rim. One of these streams finally cut back completely through the rim, and tapped a portion of “The Heights” stream. Invigorated by this success, it still further extended its course within the confines of the basin, ultimately capturing half of the drainage-lines therein. Proof of this act of piracy and the consequent reversal of drainage is furnished by the fact that the stream now flows in a direction contrary to the slope of the area it drains, as shown in fig. 1. (Note altitudes—corrected aneroid readings—of the surface of the old alluvial flat.)

Simultaneously, or approximately so, a further change took place, this time in the south-west part of “The Heights” basin. There, one of the aggrading streams so far raised its bed that it at last overtopped a low place in the main Arapaepae divide, and a spill-over course resulted, by which its waters were diverted westward into the catchment area of the Koputaroa Stream. This type of stream-diversion has been described by Gilbert as “diversion by alluviation” The alternative possibility, that the spill-over course at “The Heights,” and also that on the Poruriri Ridge (described in section 5), were caused through capture by the headwater erosion of streams rising outside the basins of the diverted streams, is rejected on the following grounds: (1.) Both the Arapaepae and Poruriri Ridges have fairly even, unnotched crest-lines, and headwater erosion of the streams draining their western slopes does not now, or at any previous period, appear to have caused, or even tended to cause, diversion by piracy. (2.) The original surfaces of the alluvial flats in the basins of the two diverted streams referred to above still overtop the former low parts of the Arapaepae and Poruriri ridge-crests respectively. In each case the notch cut by the spill-over course can be differentiated from the low part of the ridge-crest.

In this manner the former coalescent drainage of “The Heights” basin became divided into three distinct parts, each of which possesses either inherited or newly-acquired topographic characteristics. The remaining undiverted portion of the original drainage bears all the signs of advanced age, and still pursues a meandering course on the surface of the alluvial flat before flowing south-east to join the Makahika River. The streams captured by the pirate stream flow in narrow youthful trenches at a depth of from 15 ft. to 100 ft. below the old alluvial surface, and then plunge into the deep and narrow gorge that forms the breach in the northern rim of the basin, and join the Mangaore. In one place part of this entrenched drainage lies only about 7 chains from the old meandering stream, and further captures are thus imminent. The stream diverted by alluviation has also entrenched itself to a slight extent into the alluvial flat, and then cascades down the steep western face of the Arapaepae Ridge to augment the waters of the Koputaroa. The changes described bear the marks of extreme youth, and further adjustments must eventuate before even a moderate state of stability is attained.

5. Changes of Drainage on the Poruriri Ridge.

The Poruriri Ridge is another section of the outermost western foothills, lying between the vents of the Mangaore and Tokomaru Rivers; and linearly it is the northward continuation of the Arapaepae Ridge. The diversion of drainage which took place on the Poruriri Ridge was similar to but less complex than that at “The Heights,” since in the former locality the act of piracy was not committed. In the former locality the change was due to diversion by alluviation causing a spill-over course (now known as the

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Fig. 3.—The topography of the present and former catchment areas of the Mangaharakeke Stream, near Tokomaru.

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Mangaharakeke Stream: fig. 3) which produced the highest waterfall* yet recorded in the Tararua Range, and a ravine exhibiting all the criteria of extreme youth—precipitous, crumbling rocky sides, and a narrow ungraded stair-like bottom down which the stream plunges in a series of falls and cascades. The main fall is situated at the head of the ravine, and descends the 300 ft. of its height in three leaps, separated by narrow rock ledges.

The northern end of the Poruriri Ridge is even more asymmetrical than the Arapaepae Ridge, its spurs being so deeply truncated on its western side as to present an almost unbroken face, the exceptions being the gash-like Mangaharakeke ravine and some minor gullies. Like the Arapaepae Ridge in the vicinity of “The Heights,” the Poruriri has long branching lateral spurs on its eastern side, and physiographically the two ridges have much in common.

Considered as a single feature, the former and present catchment areas of the Mangaharakeke Stream have a topographic form intermediate between that of the Waireka Stream (Plate XI, fig. 2) and that at “The Heights” (Plate XI, fig. 1). Some of the topographic details of this dismembered catchment area are of considerable interest, but only one which has a direct bearing on my argument can be touched on here. The sudden spilling-over of a fair-sized stream like the Mangaharakeke liberated an enormous amount of erosive power, with the result that the spurs on either side of the ravine were shorn away longitudinally, leaving them as half-spurs—i.e., having a concave precipice on the one side and the normal form on the other. None of the spurs enclosing any of the neighbouring minor gullies possesses a similar configuration, a fact emphasizing the special origin of the ravine.

Formerly, the Mangaharakeke Stream took its rise on the northern side of the Poruriri Trigonometrical Station, and flowed north and north-east into the upper valley of the Tokomaru River. By the excessive alluviation of the upper part of its course a state of great instability ensued, and while swinging to and fro on its alluvial flat the stream found a low place in the main Poruriri ridge-crest and flowed down the western slope, there producing the ravine and falls described above. A sluggish shrunken remnant of its former trunk, tributary to the Tokomaru, still drains the eastern part of the deserted alluvial flat.

List of Papers cited.

Adkin, G. L., 1911. The Post-Tertiary Geological History, of the Ohau River and of the Adjacent Coastal Plain, Horowhenua County, North Island, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 43, pp. 496–520.

—— 1919. Further Notes on the Horowhenua Coastal Plain and the Associated Physiographic Features, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 51, pp. 108–18.

Cotton, C. A., 1916. The Structure and Later Geological History of New Zealand, Geol. Mag., dec. 6, vol. 3, p. 246.

—— 1918. The Geomorphology of the Coastal District of South-western Wellington, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 50, pp. 212–22.

Heim, A. Quoted by Lord Avebury, 1902, in The Beauties of Nature, pp. 159–62 and maps.

Marshall, P., 1912. Geology of New Zealand.

Park, J., 1910. The Geology of New Zealand.

Taylor, Griffith, 1919. The Physiographic Control of Australian Exploration, Geog. Journ., vol. 53, p. 177.

Thomson, J. A., 1917. Diastrophic and other Considerations in Classification and Correlation, & c., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 49, pp. 397–413.

[Footnote] * From the Wellington-Manawatu Railway line just south of Tokomaru this fall is a conspicuous and striking object.

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Art. XXVI.—The Influence of Salts of the Alkali and Alkaline-earth Metals on the Solubility in Water of Calcium Carbonate (a) in the Presence of Air free from Carbon Dioxide, (b) in the Presence of Excess of Carbon Dioxide.

[Abstract communicated by W. P. Evans, M.A., Ph.D., to the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 6th August, 1919; received by Editor, 31st December,. 1919; issued separately, 15th June, 1920.]

The series of experiments herein described was carried out in order to determine how the solubility in water of calcium carbonate was affected by the presence of small quantities of the salts of the alkali and alkaline-earth metals, the temperature and pressure being approximately constant.

The quantities added varied from 0.0005 to 0.1 mole per litre, while the temperature lay between 11° and 12° C.


The apparatus employed in the first series of experiments consisted of a number of wash-bottles connected in series. The air was sucked through these at a constant head, the flow being adjusted by a micrometer-screw in parallel with a pressure-gauge.

The air was freed from carbon dioxide by means of soda-lime followed by a solution of caustic potassium hydroxide.

In the second series of experiments carbon dioxide was passed through the wash-bottles direct from a cylinder the needle-valve of which replaced the screw-tap of the previous apparatus.



The solubility of calcium carbonate in water increases regularly with the addition of increasing small amounts of (a) ammonium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium sulphates; (b) ammonium and sodium nitrates; (c) ammonium and magnesium chlorides.


The solubility of calcium carbonate in water decreases regularly with the addition of increasing small amounts of (a) ammonium, sodium, and potassium carbonates; (b) potassium nitrate; (c) potassium chloride; (d) disodium hydrogen phosphate.


The solubility in water of calcium carbonate exhibits irregularities in the presence of small quantities of sodium chloride.


The solubility in water of calcium bicarbonate increases regularly with the addition of increasing small quantities of (a) ammonium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium sulphates; (b) ammonium, sodium, and potassium nitrates; (c) ammonium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium chlorides.


The solubility in water of calcium bicarbonate decreases regularly with the addition of increasing small quantities of (a) ammonium, sodium, and potassium bicarbonates; (b) calcium chloride; (c) disodium hydrogen phosphate.


As regards the alkalies, calcium carbonate appears to be most soluble in the ammonium salt of a given acid and in the sulphate of a given base.

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Art. XXVII.—Studies in the New Zealand Species of the Genus Lycopodium: Part IV—The Structure of the Prothallus in Five Species.

[Read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 3rd December, 1919; received by Editor, 31st December, 1919; issued separately, 23rd June, 1920.]

Plates XII-XV.

In three previous papers (6, 7, 9) I have given general descriptions of the form and the manner of occurrence of the prothalli of eight New Zealand species of Lycopodium. In the last of these papers I also noted, without figures, certain details in the structure of the prothalli which bore upon the general subject of the great variability of the New Zealand species of Lycopodium. The eight species whose prothalli were described are L. Billardieri Spring, L. Billardieri var. gracile T. Kirk, L. varium R. Br. Prodr., L.cernuum Linn., L. laterale R. Br. Prodr., L. ramulosum T. Kirk, L. volubile Forst., L. fastigiatum R. Br. Prodr., L. scariosum Forst. These prothalli are representative of four out of the five known types. It is a striking fact that these eight species introduce no new types of prothallus beyond those which have become known through the researches-especially of Treub and Bruchmann, but they present some very interesting variations from those types. The prothallus of L. cernuum has been, of course, known to science since Treub's papers on several tropical species studied by him in Java were published, but the other seven mentioned above have only recently become known. Two other workers have published the results of their investigations on the prothalli of several of the New Zealand species—namely, Miss Edgerley (4) and Professor C. J. Chamberlain (3)—the former's paper dealing with L. volubile, L. scariosum, and L. Billardieri, and the latter's with L. volubile, L. scariosum, and L. laterale.

The present paper is on the structure of the prothallus of the five species L. Billardieri, L. Billardieri var. gracile, L. varium, L. cernuum, L. laterale, and L. ramulosum. I hope to publish a similar account with regard to L. volubile, L. fastigiatum, and L. scariosum in a fifth part.

The literature dealing with the various other species—European, Tropical, and American—which have been described is enumerated below at the beginning of the sections to which they respectively belong. Several of these papers I have not had access to, but have had to depend for my knowledge of them on brief summaries and figures copied from them in various standard books of reference. This is, of course, unfortunate, as it has made less possible for the purpose of this paper a full comparative study of the different types of Lycopodium prothalli.

I am glad to record my thanks to Dr. Charles Chilton, Professor of Biology at Canterbury College, for the interest he has always shown in my work, and for his kind permission to use the biological laboratory of Canterbury College from time to time. I desire also here to recall and acknowledge the guidance of Professor A. P. W. Thomas, who first suggested to me, when working under him in the biological laboratory at Auckland University College, the study of the New Zealand species of Lycopodium.

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Section Phlegmaria.

L. Billardieri Spring; L. Billardieri var. gracile T. Kirk; L. varium R. Br. Prodr.


The first papers published on the prothalli of this section were those of Treub (14, 15) dealing with the four tropical species L. Phlegmaria Linn., L. carinatum Desv., L. Hippuris Desv., and L. nummularifolium Blume. In a paper on the stem-anatomy of certain New Zealand species of Lycopodium I gave a very brief description of the prothallus of L. Billardieri, stating that it corresponded to the Phlegmaria type (6), and Miss Edgerley a few years later (4) described it more fully, with figures. In two papers of the present series (7, 9) I have given certain details concerning the external form and the structure of this same prothallus and of the two allied forms L. Billardieri var. gracile and L. varium. Literature dealing with two species of prothallus belonging to the closely related Selago section must also be mentioned—viz., Bruchmann's two accounts (1, 2) of the prothallus of L. Selago Linn., and a very brief description, with one figure, of that of L. lucidulum Michx. by Spessard (11).

General Form of the Prothallus.

The complete mature prothallus of all these three New Zealand forms, similarly to those of the four tropical epiphytic species described by Treub, consists essentially of a central body of tissue, which may be either bulky or more or less elongated, and a number of branches which arise adventitiously from this central body. In fig. 1 is shown such a complete mature prothallus of L. Billardieri var. gracile in external view, the natural size being also indicated in the illustration. The central body of the prothallus as here shown is somewhat slender and elongated, a condition which I have found generally to be the rule in this variety. It possesses two complete, and also two broken, thin vegetative branches; a young, stouter branch; and also, nearer the forward end, a short club-shaped “resting” process. The two complete branches on the left side of the figure have begun to put forth secondary branches, while one has also commenced to expand at its growing end preparatory to there bearing sexual organs. The oldest end of the prothallus is intact, and shows clearly the original cone form with which the prothallus of the epiphytic type always begins. At the apex of the cone the cell first formed from the spore still persists. The main prothallial body shows the presence of fungus in its internal tissues, this fungal inhabitant occupying the whole of the tissues in the dark basal cone-like region, but being more irregularly distributed farther forward. The fungus is also present in the vegetative branches, being there also somewhat irregularly distributed, and the single club-shaped resting process is very dark with it. The ends of the branches are all quite free of fungus and are translucent in appearance. The forward end of the main prothallial body is slightly more bulky than the rest, and is quite clear of the fungus. This is the main generative region of the prothallus, and bears paraphyses, archegonia, and also a young plant. The whole prothallus is covered with long rhizoids inclining forward towards the growing apices, except on the terminal bulky region, which is wholly devoid of them, and on the basal cone-like region, from which they have decayed away, leaving only short, stubby projections. The description of this particular prothallus in its external

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appearance will suffice to illustrate the general features of the three New Zealand epiphytic species here dealt with.

L. Billardieri var. gracile grows abundantly throughout Westland on stems of the tree-fern Dicksonia squarrosa, and it has also been reported from various other parts of New Zealand in the same situation. The

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Fig. 1.—L. Billardieri var. gracile. Complete mature prothallus in general view, showing basal cone intact, lateral branches, and plantlet. × 13. The small figure represents this prothallus at ¾ natural size.

prothalli and young plants occur more especially on the younger stems of the Dicksonia in between the bases of the stipites, which in this tree-fern run down the stem a considerable length before they begin to be overgrown by the mass of hard brittle aerial rootlets. It is in this more open part

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Figs. 2–5.—L. Billardieri. Central body of mature prothalli in general view, complete except for basal cone, with old and also young branches, bearing sexual organs and paraphyses. Figs. 2, 3, and 5, × 25; fig. 4, × 10.
Fig. 3a.—L. Billardieri. Old antheridium in surface-view.

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of the tree-fern stem-surface that the prothalli and plantlets of both L. Billardieri var. gracile and of Tmesipteris occur. As the tree-fern grows in height the covering of aerial rootlets spreads up the stem, and so plantlets of increasing age have to be carefully dissected out from the mass of the brittle rootlets. The prothalli of this species of Lycopodium are often to be found adhering closely to the hard black surfaces of the stipites, and are there readily found by tearing away the humus and the debris of old tomentum which collects between the bases of the stipites. Their rather delicate, attenuated form is probably the result of this particular position of growth.

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Fig. 6.—L. varium. Prothallus in general view, showing central body and branches, and a young plant. × 10.
Fig. 7.—L. varium. Prothallus in general view, showing basal end, and young embryo in the generative region. × 10.
Fig. 8.—L. varium. A branched “resting” process in general view. × 10.

The prothalli of L. Billardieri, on the other hand, occur for the most part in masses of humus on elevated positions in the forks of the forest trees and of their main branches. The central prothallial body is generally more bulky than that of L. Billiardieri var. gracile, but otherwise the prothallus is identical both in appearance and in structure. With regard to the tropical forms studied by him, Treub states that the prothalli of L. Hippuris are much larger and thicker than-those of L. Phlegmaria, while those of L. nummularifolium are exceedingly thin. These epiphytic prothalli have very much the appearance of a mass of root-ends, but a little

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experience in dissecting soon leads one to detect the presence of a central region and so distinguish the prothalli from rootlets. Moreover, the root-ends and vegetable fibres so commonly to be met with in the humus are more dead-white or yellowish in appearance, the prothalli in their fungus-free regions being somewhat translucent. Figs. 2–5 show the central bulky region of four prothalli of L. Billardieri, from all of which the oldest basal region is absent. The distribution of the fungus is indicated in these figures by dark shading. It will be seen that the forward region of the central prothallial body is the most bulky, and is wholly free from fungus. It is also quite devoid of rhizoids. It bears on one surface—the upper—paraphyses in large numbers, and also sexual organs. The archegonia and antheridia are not intermingled, but occur in clearly defined zones arising immediately behind the growing apex of the prothallus. The surface appearance of an old antheridium is shown in fig. 3a, the triangular opercular cell being a very distinct feature. The under-surface of the generative portion of the prothallus is always quite naked and smooth.

Lycopodium varium is closely allied to L. Billardieri, but grows terrestrially and has a somewhat different habit of growth. Its prothalli are in every respect identical with those of L. Billardieri. Three prothalli are shown in figs. 6–8. That in fig. 6 bears a young plant; its basal end is not seen. That in fig. 7 shows the basal end dark and withered, and a very young embryo can be seen through the tissues of the forward generative region. In fig. 8 is shown a branched “resting” process. In none of these figures is the distribution of the fungus indicated.

Position in the Soil

The prothalli belonging to these three forms have apparently no regular position relative to the surface of the soil in which they grow. The branches of the prothallus extend in any direction. Frequently they are inclined forward in the same direction as that of the growth of the main body, but this is not always the case. Bruchmann has shown that in the case of L. Selago the more deeply growing, elongated, cylindrical forms of prothallus extend in a vertical direction towards the surface. This is not the case with the prothalli of the terrestrially-growing L. varium, which are quite similar both in their form and in their indefinite position of growth to those of the ordinary epiphytic species. The prothalli of L. Billardieri and of the two other allied New Zealand forms are, however, quite markedly dorsiventral in structure. The paraphyses and sexual organs are to be found only along the uppermost side of the prothallus, whether they occur on the central region or on the lateral branches.

Early Stages in the Development.

The youngest prothallus found by me belonged to the form L. Billardieri var. gracile, and is shown in fig. 9. This prothallus consisted of the first-formed, conical region, which was entirely infested with the fungus and was covered with the old bases of broken-off rhizoids, and a forward translucent region showing several young paraphyses and an antheridium immediately behind the apex. This younger portion of the prothallus also bore the usual long rhizoids. The fungus entirely occupied the main portion of the prothallus except in its epidermal cells. It also bore a young lateral process, on which rhizoids were beginning to arise by the outward growth

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of epidermal cells. This lateral process was free of the fungus, except in certain isolated subepidermal cells which lay at the bases of the young rhizoids. From this latter fact it is apparent that, at any rate when the extension in length of a branch is rapid, infection may take place from without through the rhizoids, and that the distribution of fungus throughout the prothallus does not take place simply through its forward extension from the older regions. The original apex of the oldest conical region

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Fig. 9.—L. Billardieri var. gracile. A young prothallus complete, in general view. × 60.
Fig. 10.—L. Billardieri var. gracile. Longitudinal section of the basal cone of the prothallus illustrated in fig. 1, showing remains of spore on the first-formed cell. × 170.
Fig. 11.—L. Billardieri var. gracile. Longitudinal section of central body of mature prothallus, showing general arrangement of tissues, and also foot of young plant. × 47.

was intact, and the first-formed cells were clearly to be traced. Most of the mature prothalli of these epiphytic species which I found were incomplete in their basal region, probably on account of the decaying-away of these oldest tissues through age; but I also found several mature prothalli both of L. Billardieri and of the variety gracile in which the original end was intact. This was the case with that shown in fig. 1. A highly

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magnified view of the lower portion of the conical region of this particular prothallus is given in fig. 10, in which the remains of the original spore can be seen still attached to the basal cell of the cone. Whether or not a filament ever is formed from the germinating spore, as is known to occur in the prothallus of Tmesipteris, cannot be here stated. The presence of the fungus in these basal cells serves to keep the latter from collapsing for a considerable period, and if a filament is ever formed in the epiphytic Lycopodium prothalli one would expect that, as in the case of Tmesipteris, it would not easily be lost. It is clear, at any rate, from fig. 10 that in some cases at least the germinating spore gives rise immediately to the cone-shaped tissue body. In his description of the prothalli of L. Selago and L. complanatum Bruchmann figures a single cell at the basal point of the prothallus.

Main Body of the Prothallus.

The main body of the prothallus consists essentially of two regions, the hinder vegetative and the forward generative region. There is no such differentiation in structure in the fungus-bearing tissues of the central

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Fig. 12.—L. Billardieri var. gracile. Transverse section of basal cone of mature prothallus, showing fungus throughout, also first branch in longitudinal section × 108.
Fig. 13.—L. Billardieri var. gracile. Transverse section of mature prothallus above basal cone, showing initial development of the central strand. × 108.

body of this prothallus as is found in those of the clavatum and complanatum types. In these latter prothalli the fungal tissues are clearly marked off into cortical and palisade zones, and in the case of the New Zealand species L. volubile and L. fastigiatum there is also a wide and very characteristic zone in which the fungal hyphae are also intercellular. The particular type of structure found in these deeply-growing terrestrial types can be put in connection with the general habit of growth of the prothallus. This is the opinion expressed by Bruchmann in his description of the prothalli of L. clavatum, L. annotinum, and L. complanatum (1, pp. 18, 58). As will be seen below, even the prothalli of the Cernua section have attained to a certain degree of differentiation in their fungus-bearing regions. The fungus-infested cells in the main prothallial body of the three New Zealand species which belong to the Phlegmaria type are all practically similar to one another in their form and contents. In longitudinal section it is apparent that transverse divisions have taken place in them so that

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they are more equidimensional than are the adjacent cells (fig. 11). It is rather the centrally-placed, fungus-free cells which have become changed in form. They are always considerably elongated, and are somewhat narrower than the cells of the fungal zones (fig. 11). This is, of course, quite in accordance with the function of translocation which they are called upon to perform in these elongated prothalli. Certain of the epidermal cells grow out as rhizoids, a transverse wall separating the rhizoid proper from its parent cell. The width of the fungal zone in the main prothallus body varies in different parts, but, generally speaking, it diminishes towards the growing region. However, if lateral branches are borne well forward on the prothallus the fungus will be found well forward also. The fungus is always massed around the base of a branch, but in those portions of the main body which lie in between the branches

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Fig. 14.—L. Billardieri. Transverse section of the prothallus shown in fig. 3, at the point c. × 60.
Fig. 15.—L. Billardieri. Transverse section of the prothallus shown in fig. 5, at the point a. Compare also fig. 2, c. × 60.
Fig. 16.—L. Billardieri. Transverse section of the prothallus shown in fig. 3, at the point a. × 135.

the fungal zone may be no more than one or two cells in width. In the basal cone-like region the cells, which are all equidimensional, are all infested with the fungus, there being here no centrally-placed conducting strand. At the actual base of the prothallus even the epidermal cells show the presence of the fungus (fig. 10). Fig. 12 is a transverse section of the basal cone, showing the first-formed lateral branch in longitudinal section. It will be seen that in the central region in this figure the fungus is inter-cellular as well as within the cell-cavities, and the cells here consequently appear roundish in shape. Farther forward still the centrally-placed cells are free from fungus and represent the beginning of the conducting-strand (fig. 13). Fig. 14 is a transverse section of the prothallus which is shown in fig. 3 taken at the point marked c. In this region of the main body the fungus has extended forward so that it underlies the old antheridia. The rhizoids are here ventrally borne, and the fungus is aggregated along the ventral side so that the prothallus-shows a dorsiventral structure. Fig. 15

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is a transverse section of the prothallus shown in fig. 5 at aa, and represents the most forward position occupied by the fungus in this prothallus. It will be seen that the fungus in the lateral branch which is also included in this figure is not in connection with that in the main body. The same figure would also represent in transverse section the appearance of the prothallus shown in fig. 2 at cc.

The generative portion of the central prothallial body is always the most bulky, and shows no differentiation of its tissues whatever Immediately behind the growing apex of the prothalli shown in figs. 2, 3, and 5 young antheridia are being produced. Fig. 16 represents a transverse

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Fig. 17.—L. Billardieri. Transverse section of the prothallus shown in fig. 3 at the point b. × 135.
Fig. 18.—L. Billardieri. Transverse section of the dorsal side of the prothallus shown in fig. 2 at the point b. × 135.
Fig. 19.—L. Billardieri. Oblique section through the prothallus shown in fig. 2 at the point a. × 135.

section of the prothallus shown in fig. 3 at a. Fig. 17 is a transverse section through an older antheridial zone of the same prothallus at b, while fig. 18 shows the grouping of the archegonia in amongst the paraphyses on the prothallus illustrated in fig. 2 at bb. The sexual organs occur in large numbers in distinct zones. The close grouping of the antheridia, for example, is shown in fig. 19, which is an oblique section taken through the point of the prothallus illustrated in fig. 2 at aa. The generative region in transverse section bears evidence of repeated cell-divisions, and the cell nuclei and contents are very prominent, as if there had been extensive translocation of food material to this region of the prothallus. A longitudinal section of the generative region shows that the extensive development of sexual organs and paraphyses along the dorsal surface brings it about that

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the actual apical meristem is somewhat ventrally placed. Fig. 20 shows this forward region of a prothallus in longitudinal section, but the older vegetative region is not included, as the prothallus was curved in shape. The generative region in longitudinal section is also shown in figs. 11 and 34, both of which prothalli bear a young, developing plant.

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Fig. 20.—L. Billardieri. Central body of the prothallus, showing generative region in longitudinal section, and also a lateral branch. Basal cone of prothallus not included. × 70.

The Lateral Branches.

The lateral branches or vegetative processes arise from the main central body when the vegetative region of the latter is ceasing to cope with its main function of nourishing the growing generative region. The examination of such prothalli as those given in figs. 1, 9, and 10 shows both that the rhizoids on the older portion of the main body have decayed away and that the fungal coils in the cells of this older region have given place to the fungal “spores.” The cells are full of these spores, which in all the old prothalli that I have examined do not seem to disintegrate further. The lateral branches are thickly covered with rhizoids, and show the presence of a fungus distributed in the cells more or less along their entire length.

The tissues of the branch are similar to those in the vegetative region of the main body, except, of course, that in accordance with the smaller girth of the branch both the fungal zone and the centrally-placed con-ducting-strand are there correspondingly less in width. Fig. 21 shows a well-developed branch in transverse section, and fig. 22 in longitudinal section. In transverse section there is seen to be a central group of six fungus-free cells, surrounded by a single layer of larger fungus-bearing

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cells, some of which have divided. Outside this again is another single layer of somewhat smaller cells which may or may not contain the fungus, bounded peripherally by the epidermal layer, whose external walls are cuticularized. These same layers can also be distinguished in fig. 22 in longitudinal section. Thinner branches show less cell-multiplication in the fungal zone. In longitudinal section it is apparent that the fungus-containing cells have divided transversely, so that they are more nearly equidimensional than those either of the central strand or of the epidermis. The fungus is present in the form of hyphal coils or clusters of oval dark-staining “spores.” The fungus also extends between the cells, so that the latter are frequently roundish in shape.

Sooner or later a branch will show a thickening of its tissues at the apex, and on this swollen region paraphyses and sexual organs will arise (figs. 6, 23, 24). Such a swollen region will be free from the fungus, but the hyphal coils are often aggregated very thickly in that portion of the branch which lies immediately behind it (fig. 24). It is always antheridia which are first formed in such branches, the archegonia occurring only on the main central region of a prothallus. However, a branch may thicken and develop to such an extent that it practically becomes a new prothallus. Probably not a few mature prothalli have arisen not from the germination of a spore, but by a branch having become detached from an older prothallus and having gone on growing in thickness. Such a branch will put forth lateral branches, and will eventually bear archegonia as well as antheridia on its main body. This will account for the fact that most of the mature prothalli found by me did not show the typical cone-like basal region. They are in fact prothalli which have arisen adventitiously. Fig. 27 shows in external view the terminal region of a stoutish branch of L. Billardieri var. gracile which has begun to develop antheridia and paraphyses. Some of the detached branches which are dissected out of the humus are imperfect at both extremities, a fact which indicates that they may persist in the humus and remain self-nourishing for a considerable time.

In dissecting out prothalli of these species of Lycopodium from the substratum in which they lie, one frequently comes across detached prothallial branches which have probably arisen by the decaying-away of the parent prothallus. Three such branches of L. Billardieri var. gracile are shown in figs. 28–30. In this particular species these branches are frequently very long and thin, and they may show the presence of paraphyses along extended portions of their length. Lateral branches frequently bear short club-shaped processes, sometimes in great numbers (fig. 30), which are quite dark with the fungal inhabitant. These processes are to be regarded as “resting” processes, and they may occur also on mature prothalli of the ordinary kind (figs. 1, 11). They are frequently met with detached in the humus, and are either of a simple nature or are branched (figs. 8, 25). The actual apex of the resting process is white and clear of fungus, but the rest is very dark, being thickly infested with it. Fig. 31 represents such a resting process in transverse section, from which it will be seen that the central cells contain the fungus as well as those more medianly situated, and that the fungus is intercellular as well as intracellular. The apex of one of the branches of the stout resting process shown in fig. 25 is given in longitudinal section in fig. 32. Immediately behind the apex the fungus is hyphal only and does not penetrate between the cells. Farther back, however, the hyphal coils have to a large extent been replaced by the “spores,” and the fungus is also intercellular. Instances may be met with

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Fig. 21.—L Billardieri. Transverse section of lateral vegetative branch. × 170
Fig. 22.—L. Billardieri var. gracile. Longitudinal section of a lateral vegetative branch. × 170.
Figs. 23, 24.—L. Billardieri var. gracile. Swollen ends of lateral branches, bearing antheridia and paraphyses, in general view. × 22.
Fig. 25.—L. Billardieri var. gracile. Branched detached “resting” process, in general view. × 22.
Fig. 26.—L. Billardieri var. gracile. Detached “resting “process in general view, showing initiation of renewed growth. × 22.

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Fig. 27.—L. Billardieri var. gracile. Growing end of lateral branch in general view, showing apical meristem, young antheridia, and paraphyses. × 80.
Figs. 28–30. —L. Billardieri var. gracile. Detached branches in general view, bearing paraphyses and club-shaped “resting” processes, and showing disposition of fungus. × 7

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in which a resting process is resuming its extension in length. Generally it proceeds immediately to form paraphyses and antheridia (fig. 26), and probably develops ultimately into a large prothallus. Thus these species are able to propagate themselves vegetatively. In this connection it will be remembered that Treub has described a rather different mode of vegetative propagation in the prothallus of L. Phlegmaria.

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Fig. 31.—L. Billardieri var. gracile. Transverse section of a “resting” process. × 135.
Fig. 32.—L. Billardieri var. gracile. Longitudinal section of one of the apices of the “resting” process shown in fig. 25. × 135.
Fig. 33.—L. Billardieri. Longitudinal section of a very young lateral branch. × 135.
Fig. 34.—L. Billardieri var. gracile. Longitudinal section of the generative region of the main prothallial body, showing suspensor, foot, and first root of plantlet in longitudinal section. × 42.

Position of the Meristem.

In the young prothallus of L. Billardieri var. gracile shown in fig. 9 it is apparent that the meristem is confined to the actual apex, and that more than one of the apical cells are meristematic. This position and form of the meristem holds throughout the life of the prothallus of this particular type. In fig. 27 are shown the growing tips of lateral prothallial branches. However irregular in shape the central body of the prothallus may be, there is always a forward growing end to be found where the meristem is localized. In the prothalli shown in figs. 2–5 the growing apex is easily to be distinguished, but it is not always so apparent. As I have mentioned above, the rapid formation of sexual organs behind the growing apex generally brings it about that the meristematic cells are somewhat displaced from the actual apex of the prothallus and lie slightly towards the underside, this being apparent in the longitudinal section shown in fig. 20. Again, I must add

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that in this particular figure the hinder region of the prothallus is not cut longitudinally, so that although the fungal tissue in the figure seems to bear some relation to the meristem this is really not the case. In the branches in which the fungus is found almost throughout the entire length it is absent from the whole of the tip of the branch, even in the case of the “resting” processes which are so packed with fungus (fig. 32). Thus the growing tips always appear clear and translucent. A lateral branch arises adventitiously on the central prothallial body by one or more of the externally-placed cells of the latter setting up a local meristem. This can be seen from fig. 33, which shows in longitudinal section a very young lateral branch being formed alongside some old paraphyses. At first the process extends in length by the activity of a single triangular apical cell (fig. 33), but probably very early the apex broadens and more than one cell becomes meristematic. Miss Edgerley states that at the tips of the branches she found two initials (4, p. 105).

Relation of the Young Plant to the Prothallus.

In the epiphytic species, whereas the antheridia are frequently borne on certain parts of the lateral branches as well as on the central body of the prothallus, the archegonia are borne on the latter only. At the same time, it will be remembered that this central body may not have grown directly from the germinating spore, but may have originated by the development of a detached branch. This central body of the prothallus, as has been described, consists of a hinder vegetative region and a forward more bulky generative region, and it is to the latter that the young plant is attached (figs. 1, 6, 7, 11, 34, 36, 37) Not infrequently more than one developing plantlet is attached to the same prothallus (fig. 37).

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Figs. 35–37.—L. Billardieri var. gracile. Prothalli bearing one or more young plants, in general view. Fig. 35, × 3; figs. 36 and 37, × 6.

The prothallus, being placed well below the surface of the humus, is called upon to nourish the young plant altogether until the latter can reach the surface and produce its first leaves. The naked stems of the developing plantlets are sometimes as much as ½ in. long before they reach the light. In accordance with this considerable degree of dependence of the young plant upon its parent prothallus, that part of the base of the plant which is in contact with the prothallial tissues functions as an absorbing “foot.” This foot is a well-marked feature in the plantlets of the epiphytic species, although it does not there assume so large a size as it does in the plantlets

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which are borne on the clavatum and complanatum types of prothallus. In these latter species the prothallus is still more deeply buried, and the leaves on the young stem are also no more than scales, so that the prothallus functions as the source of food-supply for a lengthy period. The size of the foot in the New Zealand epiphytic species can be seen from figs. 11 and 34, the foot being in transverse-section in the former figure and in longitudinal section in the latter. There is a well-defined epithelial cell-layer around the periphery of the foot where the latter is in contact with the prothallus, and the outer walls of these epithelial cells are strongly defined, staining darkly. The adjoining prothallial tissue is small-celled and contains abundant protoplasm and darkly-staining nuclei, extensive cell-division having taken place here contemporaneously with the development of the plant. The central cells in the foot are large, with their long axes directed towards the stem-apex. All of these features, of course, point to the fact that there is a well-established translocation of food material from the prothallus into the developing plantlet, and that the epithelial layer functions as an absorbing tissue.

The first root develops comparatively late. It may be recognized as a conical outgrowth at the base of the stem on the side which lies away from the prothallus even before the stem-apex has reached the surface of the soil, but it never seems to develop farther until the first leaves are being produced. Fig. 34 shows the first root in longitudinal section, it being apparent from this figure that the main vascular tissues of the stem lead down bodily into the root, while just a few narrow conducting-elements connect the former with the central tissue of the foot. Fig. 34, which is a drawing of the young plant of L. Billardieri var. gracile is strikingly similar to the figure which Bruchmann gives of the young plant of L. Selago (1, pl. 7, fig. 43). I have observed a number of young plants of the New Zealand epiphytic species in this condition, so that it may be taken as representing characteristically this stage in the development of the young plant and its mode of dependence upon the prothallus in both the Selago and Phlegmaria sections.

Treub stated that in the young plant of L. Phlegmaria he had found an indication of a swelling which he regarded as a rudimentary protocorm. Bower, however, has questioned this, and Treub's statement has never been established. I have found no indication of a protocorm in any of the three New Zealand species which belong to this section of the genus. In his Origin of a Land Flora Bower says that he regards the Selago and Phlegmaria type of embryo plant as being the primitive type for the genus, as it certainly is the most simple. The clavatum and complanatum type of embryo, he says, is not very dissimilar to it, but has become more modified through the large development of the foot consequent on the deeply subterranean habit of the prothallus. The cernuum-inundatum type of embryo stands rather by itself. The intraprothallial swelling called the “foot” is here practically absent, but instead there is the extra-prothallial swelling which Treub called the “protocorm.” Bower and others hold strongly that the protocorm is not a primitive character, as Treub had supposed, but merely a physiological modification.

Details of the Fungal Symbiont.

A symbiotic fungus occurs very commonly throughout the Pteridophyta in the subterranean forms of prothallus, and it has been carefully studied in most of those species of Lycopodium of which the prothalli are known.

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In the three New Zealand species dealt with above it is present at the actual base of the prothallus, having entered probably very early in its development. It occupies the whole of the tissues in the basal cone except at the meristematic apex, being found even in the epidermal cells at the basal point (figs. 1, 9). At first the fungus is in the form of hyphal coils which are in actual connection with the mycelium in the outside soil by means of hyphae which are to be found running through the rhizoids. As these rhizoids die off from the older parts of the prothallus, each being cut off at its base by a strongly thickened transverse wall, the fungus in these older regions becomes isolated from that in the soil, and probably ceases to function. The fungal coils soon disappear in many of the cells, their place being taken by clusters of darkly-staining oval “spores” (fig. 10). I do not know whether or not the fungus is at all used up by the growing prothallus, but I should say not, as in even mature prothalli the cells in the basal cone are still occupied either by the coils or by the “spores.”

A little forward from the basal cone the fungus has begun to penetrate between the cells as well as occupying their cavities, so that the cells appear roundish in section. It is especially present in this intercellular position at the centre of the prothallus, and produces its spores there also (fig. 12). A little higher up the prothallial body the fungus becomes more localized, avoiding the central core of cells which has begun to function in the translocation of food material. The cells of this fungal zone throughout the vegetative portion of the main prothallial body preserve their ordinary form and are in no way altered by the presence of the fungus. Their nuclei also appear large and healthy, showing that the fungus has exercised no harmful effect. I have not been able to distinguish in these prothalli the multinucleate vesicles which have been described as occurring in the fungal zone in the prothalli of the clavatum and complanatum types. All that are here apparent are the dense hyphal coils and the clusters of spores. As the prothallus grows, the fungus pushes forward, always occupying its particular zone, except that at length when the sexual organs and paraphyses are initiated it is confined to the ventral side of the prothallus body (fig. 14). In the forward, bulky, generative region the fungus is altogether absent. Its most forward position is shown in (fig. 15), and it will be observed that even here the coils have begun to be transformed into the spores.

The fungus is also present in the lateral branches, being confined there also to a particular zone, avoiding the centrally-placed conducting-cells and the epidermis. Here, too, it is intercellular as well as intracellular, and the clusters of spores are a well-marked feature (figs. 2022). The distribution of the fungus in some of the long thin branches is discontinuous (fig. 1), from which it would appear that fresh infection can take place from without through the rhizoids (see also fig. 9). In those stouter branches which have begun to form sexual organs and paraphyses the fungus is only present along the opposite side of the branch (figs. 28–30), the branches thus being bilateral. Sometimes it is to be noticed that when a branch is beginning to swell at the apex preparatory to the formation of antheridia the fungus is thickly aggregated immediately behind this point, there occupying the whole of the tissues of the branch (fig. 24). The “resting” club-shaped branches are always very densely infected, there being no long narrow central conducting-cells (figs. 1, 25, 26, 30). The actual apex of the resting process is of course, clear of the fungus, but the latter reaches right up behind the apex, being found there as dense

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fungal coils (figs. 31, 32). Throughout the greater portion of these resting processes the coils have given place to the clusters of spores, as takes place also in the other parts of the prothallus.

I have not been able to trace how the spores are formed, or even what is their exact nature. It seems unlikely that they are used up by the developing prothallus as food, for they are more thickly present in the oldest parts of the prothallus than elsewhere. Nor have I observed the presence of oil globules in the fungal tissues, which is so well known a feature in the prothalli of the clavatum and complanatum types. Probably the prothallus benefits from the fungus only when the latter is in the form of hyphal coils, these coils being in direct connection with the external mycelium. The rapid growth in length of the prothallus and its branches accounts for there being no storing-up of food material in any of its vegetative parts. Even in the bulky generative region I have not been able to discover the presence of starch, although it is possible that it may there be present at certain stages in the development of the sexual organs or young plant, but there is abundant protoplasm and the nuclei are very large in the cells around the growing apex. The younger regions of the lateral branches are probably self-nourishing, in this matter being quite independent of the older parts of the prothallus. In fact, isolated branches or portion of branches are capable of continued growth, this being a very common method of propagation in these epiphytic species. The central conducting-strand in the branches functions in the translocation of food material from the younger regions of the branches down into the main prothallial body, the food being there needed in the forward generative region.

Miss Edgerley figures the clusters of spore-like bodies, stating that she found them very commonly in L. Billardieri, but that she observed no nucleated vesicles (4, p. 109).

Comparison of L. Selago and L. Billardieri (& c.).

In his description of the prothalli of L. Selago, Bruchmann (1, pp. 87 et seq.) shows that the more compact surface-growing forms which are found in this species possess a ring-like marginal meristem. This bears a close resemblance to that which is found in the prothallus of the clavatum and complanatum types. The elongated prothalli of L. Selago are found in deeper soil, and possess, according to Bruchmann an erect position of growth, as if striving to reach the surface. Bruchmann derives the peculiar growth of the latter from the ring-like marginal growth of the former, stating that the apparently apical meristem of the elongated forms represents a part of the margin which has grown forward. It will be necessary to compare this manner of elongated growth with that which takes place in the prothalli belonging to the Phlegmaria section.

The prothallus of both L. Selago and L. Billardieri (& c.) starts with the cone form, the cone being from the first richly occupied by the fungus. Judging from the arrangement of cells at the lowest part of the cone, growth at first takes place from a single apical cell, but this probably soon gives place to a group of apical meristematic cells. The girth of the cone is also probably increased by cell-divisions taking place in all the body-cells stimulated by the presence of the fungus. From this point onwards the further growth of the prothallus could either result in the extension of the cone form or the prothallus could pass out of the cone form into an elongated, cylindrical form. The first of these methods seems to

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be the normal rule in L. Selago—at any rate, in its surface-growing forms— and the latter in the prothallus of the Phlegmaria section. It is significant to note that both these methods of growth are represented in those New Zealand species which belong to the Cernua section, and which are described later in this paper, although in these species they are not so clearly differentiated as in the former. The prothalli of the Phlegmaria section represent the extreme attained within the genus by the elongated, cylindrical type of growth, and the prothalli of the clavatum and complanatum sections represent, on the other hand, the extreme attained by the continued cone-like manner of growth. The prothalli of L. Selago, as Lang has pointed out (10, p. 305), show that these two main types are not fundamentally dissimilar, for they both here occur in the same species. In saying this, however, it must clearly be remembered that, according to Bruchmann's account, the elongated, cylindrical forms of the L. Selago prothallus do not altogether correspond to the elongated prothalli of the Phlegmaria section, for growth in them is not truly apical, but is rather a one-sided marginal extension from the cone. The elongated prothallus of L. ramulosum, as will be shown, is really more comparable to the prothallus of L. Phlegmaria, & c., although, even here, the comparison is not an exact one. The elongated bilateral extensions from the basal cone in L. Selago are better compared with the flattened extension from the margin which Bruchmann described and figured in L. annotinum (1), being of the same nature but much more pronounced.

The more compact surface-growing form of the L. Selago prothallus is nearer to a self-nourishing, chlorophyllous type of prothallus, which must certainly be regarded as more primitive than a wholly saprophytic one. The very young prothallus, as has been said, begins with the cone form, and next has to set apart a central conducting-core which reaches up behind the actual growing apex. The apex, of course, will be more or less conical in shape, and at this stage is certainly not broad. If the prothallus does not proceed to elongate rapidly, the stimulation to increase in size will be largely confined to increasing its girth, and this will take place not only by a broadening of the apical mersitem, but also by divisions taking place in the body-cells generally. At the same time the fungus-free central core will extend in width as the apex broadens and the prothallus slowly extends in length, until it assumes above the form of a cushion of tissue. If chloropyhll is developed in it, this upper cushion will contain a general distribution of starch. In proceeding to explain how the original apical meristem could become transposed to a marginal ring it seems not unnatural to suppose that as the upper fungus-free tissue becomes more bulky, and so loses the tendency to a localized concentration of food material, the stimulation exerted by the supply of food is felt more in those parts of the prothallus where the fungus is youngest and therefore in its fullest functioning power. This will naturally be along the upper margin of the enveloping fungal zone which extends as a ring around the prothallus. Here, then, the meristematic activity of the prothallus will be localized, As the prothallus still continues slowly to increase in size the fungus will push forward bit by bit into the more newly formed cells, the prothallus still retaining the original cone form.

In the surface-growing prothallus of L. Selago this is what happens, and the sexual stage is fairly early initiated, the antheridia and later the archegonia arising from the meristem. A comparative study of the prothalli of the different species of Lycopodium shows that the cone type of

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structure exhibits modifications in the different sections of the genus which are quite in accord with the conditions under which the prothalli of those sections live. There is no need for the surface-growing prothalli of L. Selago to increase in length, for they soon reach the light. Nor is there any great storing-up of food in their tissues, for the young plant when formed can quickly attain independance. Again, it is probably the inherited tendency towards the chlorophyllous, self-nourishing condition, which is strong in the prothallus of this species, which causes the more deeply buried individuals to adopt the peculiar and extensive prolongation of the upper margin of the cone into the cylindrical, bilateral, erect branches in the effort to reach the light. In the altogether subterranean humusloving prothalli of the Phlegmaria section the chlorophyllous habit has been completely lost, and the direction of growth of the prothallus bears no relation to thè surface of the soil. These prothalli are greatly elongated and branched, and the extensive development of long rhizoids, as in the case of the humus-growing prothalli of Tmesipteris and Psilotum, shows that it is necessary for the fungus in the prothallus to be brought into intimate contact with as large an area as possible of the humus for its nourishment. The method of elongation is here altogether different from that adopted by the underground prothalli of L. Selago. Starting from the cone form, the prothallus quickly passes into the cylindrical form without increasing its girth, the meristem continuing in the original apical position throughout the life of the prothallus. In this way the main prothallus body is formed, that of L. Billardieri var. gracile being more elongated than that of the other species examined. The somewhat bulky nature of the forward generative portion of this body of tissue goes hand in hand with the need for the prothallus to support the young plant for a longer period than in the case of the prothallus of L. Selago, owing to the correspondingly greater depth at which the former is buried. The-lateral branches arise adventitiously from any part of the main prothallial body and grow from an apical meristem. They are primarily vegetative, the sexual organs being borne normally on the central body. The latter in its generative region possesses a bilateral structure which is always dorsiventral, the sexual organs being borne only on the upper side. Here again this is not strictly comparable with the bilateral structure of the processes of the L. Selago prothallus, for in the latter it is, according to Bruchmann, simply carried over from the margin of the original basal cone and always bears evidence of this. Thus the modification of the original cone form in the epiphytic prothalli, as in those of L. Selago, is best explained in the light of the conditions under which the prothalli live.

The structure of the prothallus in the New Zealand species belonging to the Cernua section, and the modifications which there occur, will be considered in the next section of this paper, and a general comparative survey, including also the structure of the prothallus of the clavatum and complanatum types, will be instituted in the concluding remarks.

Section Cernua.

L. cernuum Linn.; L. laterale R. Br. Prodr.; L. ramulosum T. Kirk.


In 1884 Treub (13) published his account of the prothallus of L. cernuum. Goebel's (5) account of the prothallus of L. inundatum followed next in 1887, and in the following year Treub (15) described his laboratory cultures of

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the prothallus of L. salakense. In 1902 Thomas (12) published a preliminary account of the prothallus of Phylloglossum. In 1910 (6) I noted the fact that I had found the prothalli of both L. cernuum and L. laterale in New Zealand, and stated that the latter was of the cernuum, type. In Part I of the present series of papers (7) I described and figured the external form of the prothalli and the structure of the young plant of

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Fig. 38.—L. cernuum. Prothallus showing in general view lower part of shaft with two fungal regions. × 32.
Fig. 39.—L. cernuum. Longitudinal section of prothallus shown in fig. 38. × 32.
Fig. 40.—L. cernuum. Longitudinal section of prothallus, showing double basal tubercle and thick, short shaft. × 50.
Fig. 41.—L. cernuum. Longitudinal section of upper fungal region of a prothallus, with lateral group of lobes. × 50.

both these species, and also of L. ramulosum, noting especially the variations in form to be found in the prothallus of the latter. In 1917 Chamberlain (3) gave a brief description, with figures, of the prothallus and young plant of L. laterale from material which he had obtained in New Zealand. Lastly, in a third Part (9) I have enumerated the main results of my study of the three New Zealand species which belong to the Cernua section in connection with the plasticity to be observed in the genus as a whole.

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General Form of the Prothallus.

L. cernuum.—The typical prothallus of L. cernuum consists, according to Treub, of a basal “primary tubercle,” a longer or shorter shaft, and a crown of lobes, immediately beneath which lies the meristem and the sexual organs. The prothallus is radial in build, erect in growth, and situated at the surface of the soil, being green in its lobes and in the upper portion of the shaft. It is the most delicate and the smallest of all the types of Lycopodium prothalli, the allied L. salakense possessing a still more

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Fig. 42.—L. cernuum. Longitudinal section of prothallus of intermediate length, × 50.
Fig. 43.—L. cernuum. Longitudinal section of basal fungal region of prothallus, showing lateral extension. × 50.
Fig. 44.—L. cernuum. Longitudinal section of prothallus of thick, short form. × 32.
Fig. 45.—L. cernuum. Longitudinal section of meristematic region of prothallus, with a fertilized archegonium. × 50.

filamentous prothallus. Some of the prothalli of this species which I have found are comparatively long (7, fig. 17, and fig. 38 in the present paper). That shown in the latter of these two illustrations was broken at its upper extremity, so that I do not know its complete length. In others, again, the shaft is short and thick, and the general appearance of the prothallus more massive (7, fig. 20, and figs. 40 and 44 in the present paper). Forms of intermediate length are shown in a previous paper (7, figs, 18, 19, and 21) and in fig. 42 of the present paper. I have also found a considerable amount of variation in the distribution of the fungus, and, since the fungal regions are always more or less swollen, there is a corresponding variation in the

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general form of the prothallus. There is sometimes a single basal tubercle of rounded form (7, figs. 17–20); or this basal fungal region may be extended laterally for a distance up one side of the shaft, thus giving to the prothallus a somewhat lop-sided appearance (7, fig. 21, and figs. 42–44 in the present paper). Again, there may be a second fungal region quite unconnected with the first and situated higher up the shaft (figs. 38, 39, 41). Lastly, there may be two distinct fungal regions situated side by side, the two constituting the basal portion of the prothallus and giving it a markedly thickset appearance (fig. 40). I have sectioned several prothalli which showed this latter form. Rhizoids are borne on both fungal swellings in those cases in which two are present. The lobes which are borne at the crown of the prothallus are flattened extensions (7, figs. 17–21), being generally not more than one to three cells thick in transverse section (figs. 40–42). In one or two instances I noticed from my serial sections that there was a group of lobes situated laterally on the shaft of the prothallus. In fig. 41, this is seen to be associated with the uppermost fungal region, as if the formation of this second fungal zone had initiated a meristematic activity in the adjoining regions of the shaft. The thickest part of the prothallus is always that situated at the base of the crown of lobes. Here is the meristem (figs. 42, 45) from which the lobes have arisen, and by whose continued activity the shaft of the prothallus can be extended in length and its upper region in width. Here, too, the sexual organs are to be found and the young plantlets (figs. 40, 44, 45). I have never found the chlorophyll extending much more than half-way down the shaft. Sometimes the lobes are bright green, or they may show a very slight tinge of colour or be quite colourless, this variation possibly depending simply upon the age of the prothallus.

L. laterale.—The prothallus of this species corresponds very closely with that of L. cernuum. I have not found that there is such a marked variation in the length of the shaft as is to be found in the latter species, the majority of the prothalli of L. laterale being more of the intermediate length (7, figs. 13–16, and pl. 17, fig. 3). The longest prothallus I have found is that shown in fig. 46. One prothallus of a very large size is shown in fig. 48. It was exceedingly massive in form, and of irregular growth. Its greatest length was in a horizontal direction, and it possessed a crown of irregular short lobes all along the top. It was almost colourless, though perhaps this was the result of its age. It bore a young plant which was of a bright-green colour, the foot of the plant also being bright green and showing very conspicuously through the prothallial tissues. Chamberlain (3, p. 57) states that in the prothalli of this species examined by him he found no sharply differentiated primary tubercle like that described by Treub in L. cernuum. From his figures it would appear that this was because his prothalli are rather of the short, thickset form. The basal tubercle is always more distinct when the shaft is well developed. I have found that, as in L. cernuum, the basal, fungal region may extend laterally for a short distance up one side of the shaft, thus giving a lop-sided appearance to the prothallus as a whole (7, fig. 13). Also, as in the other species, there is sometimes a second fungal region higher up the shaft and quite distinct from the basal tubercle (fig. 47). The leafy expansions on the crown of the prothallus of L. laterale are more filamentous and less lobe-like than those of L. cernuum (7, figs. 13–16, and pl. 17, fig. 3, and figs. 46 and 47 in the present paper). This appears also from Chamberlain's figures. A large proportion of the prothalli examined by me showed

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Fig. 46.—L. laterale. Longitudinal section of prothallus and young plant. × 42.
Fig. 47.—L. laterale. Longitudinal section of prothallus, showing lobes and shaft, with an upper fungal region. × 42.
Fig. 48.—L. laterale. Large massive prothallus with young plant in general view. Also a very young prothallus entangled in the rhizoids of the former. × 16.
Fig. 49.—L. laterale. The very young prothallus shown in fig. 48. × 70.

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a lateral group of lobes borne on the shaft. I previously thought that this was a distinguishing feature between the two species L. cernuum and L. laterale, but have since found it also in the prothalli of the former. In one of the figures given in Part I of this series of papers (7, fig. 16) I showed that a long, thin, club-shaped process is sometimes to be found attached to the basal tubercle of the prothallus of L. laterale, and I there expressed the opinion that this was the first-formed part of the prothallus, as it so often is also in the prothallus of L. ramulosum. My serial sections of this prothallus unfortunately do not make this satisfactorily clear, but none the less I feel confident that this is the right interpretation. The base of this first - formed process (7, fig. 16) shows the presence of the fungus, and it may be compared with the corresponding parts of L. ramulosum illustrated in the present paper in figs. 52–54. As in L. cernuum, the prothallus of L. laterale is normally short-lived, having decayed away by the time that its plantlet has developed two or three protophylls. Probably the large size of the prothallus in fig. 48 was due to the fact that for a considerable time no embryo was formed on it. Moreover, in this case, on account of its large size, the prothallus would persist attached to the young plant for a much longer time than usual.

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Fig. 50.—L. ramulosum. Complete mature prothallus of elongated form in general view, showing several swollen fungal regions. × 30.

L. ramulosum.—The prothalli of this species vary very remarkably, both in form and structure. I have discovered these prothalli in several different localities and in considerable numbers, and so am able to give a fairly complete account of their typical form and of the variations of it. The prothalli, as in the other species belonging to the cernuum type, are more or less green in their upper regions, being situated at the surface of the ground. Some of the prothalli of this species are very similar to those of L. cernuum, while others show on the one Hand the elongated and on the other hand the compact, massive habit which I have described as occurring both in L. cernuum and in L. laterale, but here to a much more marked extent. Figs. 50–55 illustrate prothalli of the elongated form

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Lycopodium ramulosum. Complete prothallus of elongated form, in general view. × 33.

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Lycopodium ramulosum. Complete prothallus of elongated form, in general view. × 33

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Lycopodium ramulosum. Prothallus of elongated form (incomplete at basal end), in gereral view. × 33.

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Lycopodium ramulosum. Longitudinal section of prothallus of massive form and young plant. × 46.

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and figs. 56–60 prothalli of the compact, massive build. Some of these figures were given in Part I of the present series of papers, but are here reproduced in greater detail. Photos of three elongated prothalli of this species in general view are also given in Plates XII, XIII, and XIV, and

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Fig. 51.—L. ramulosum. Complete mature prothallus of elongated form in general view, showing several fungal regions and a young plantlet. × 30.

a photo of a more massive prothallus with its young plantlet is given in longitudinal section in Plate XV. The prothallus shown in Plate XII is the same as that given in fig. 50.

In the elongated forms the fungal regions may be swollen so as to present the form of rounded tubercles, or, again, they may be scarcely swollen at all. Each fungal region invariably bears a group of rhizoids. In the massive forms the prothallus may be compact and show a certain

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similarity in general appearance to the surface-growing forms of the L. Selago prothallus, or they may be so irregularly extended in length that their build is difficult to distinguish. In the elongated forms, along with the development of a number of fungal areas, there goes a corresponding development of several distinct generative regions bearing sexual organs and filamentous or lobe-like processes. Frequently, in this latter form of prothallus, the first-formed generative regions are brown and withered, suggesting that the prothallus had resumed growth on one or more occasions at the close of a dry period or on account of there being no embryo developed. I have always found that a young plant when present was borne on the last-formed region of the prothallus, so that growth in length is apparently not continued after the development of a young plant. The prothalli sometimes persist attached to the developing plant for a much longer time than in L. cernuum. I have found several instances of a healthy prothallus still attached to a plantlet which showed as many as seven or eight protophylls along an extended protocorm. The lateral processes are sometimes filamentous, and at others short and lobe-like. Owing to the fact that the prothallus of L. ramulosum is so variable in form, it is impossible to give many details in a general description of it. I will now proceed to enter more into detail in connection with the particular individuals figured in this paper.

The prothallus shown in fig. 50 and in Plate XII possessed five fungal areas, quite distinct from one another, each being swollen and rounded in form and bearing a group of rhizoids. There are two generative regions showing the presence of archegonia and bearing filamentous processes. The basal fungal swelling bore no evidence of any original filamentous stage, and was probably formed immediately on germination of the spore. As will be described later, a first-formed filamentous stage is frequently to be observed in the prothalli of this species. The uppermost fungal region is, of course, the youngest. It occurs at the base of the meristematic apex of the prothallus, and it is evident that both this growing apex and its fungal region have just begun to form. Both from the figure and from the photo it will be seen that here, curiously enough, the fungus lies internally to the epidermal cells. There is no special apical cell or group of cells, the whole apical region of the prothallus being meristematic. The succession of five swollen fungal regions shows very clearly that it is the fungus which causes the swelling in the tissue of the prothallus, and that, at any rate in this prothallus, the primary tubercle is in no wise different from any of the later-formed tubercles.

The prothallus shown in fig. 51 illustrates some interesting points in comparison with that just described. There are six distinct fungal areas, and the four lowest are closely approximated and are scarcely, if at all, swollen. There is a well-developed filament at the base of the prothallus, and the prothallus as a whole increases quite gradually in girth from this upwards. Even the first-formed fungal region is practically unswollen. I should judge that the extension in length of the prothallus in these early stages had been comparatively rapid, there being no cessation in growth in length consequent on the formation of a first generative region or of the storing of food material. This state of things can bear close comparison with what takes place normally in the cylindrical much-elongated epiphytic prothalli, in which growth is continuous and rapid and there is an entire absence of swellings in the fungal regions. The adoption, or rather the preservation, of the definite apical meristem in the epiphytic type is probably only the result of this habit of growth. The prothallus

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of L. ramulosum shown in fig. 51 may best be described in its entirety as a gradually widening filament. The young plantlet borne at its upper extremity was peculiarly diminutive in size. There were no antheridia

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Figs. 52–54.—L. ramulosum. Complete mature prothalli of elongated form in general view. a is the basal fungal region; a′ and a″, secondary fungal regions; b′ and b″ are generative regions bearing lobe-like outgrowths. In fig. 52 there is a lateral outgrowth (b) associated with the basal fungal region. The shading on b′ and b″ represents browning due to withering. × 20.
Fig 55.—L. ramulosum. Complete mature prothallus of elongated form in general view, showing branching above the second fungal region. × 20.

either on this prothallus or on that in fig. 50. The photo of the prothallus given in Plate XIII also illustrates the nature of the elongated manner of growth with the formation of several fungal regions.

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The four prothalli outlined in figs. 52–55 show at their base a distinct fungal tubercle, that in fig. 53 bearing evidence of an original filament. The prothallus in Plate XIV shows a lower fungal region, which was, however, not the first-formed portion. The shaft is long, and bears a lateral process and also a terminal broad generative region which is associated with a second fungal area. In figs. 52 and 54 there is a fungal swelling located behind the growing end, it being evident also that in both these prothalli the apex is at the point of renewing its growth. A large number of prothalli of this species which I found were of the peculiar step-like form shown in figs. 52–54. Here the generative regions are sometimes of considerable extent, and, relatively to the long axis of the prothallus, lie horizontally. The position of these elongated prothalli in the soil is always vertical. The older generative regions are frequently brown and withered, either as the result of a dry spell in the weather or because they have ceased to be supplied with food and have begun to decay. These generative regions are frequently fairly bulky. It is probable that the irregularly massive forms of prothallus described next have acquired their form through an exceptionally bulky development of one or more of these successive generative regions, the intermediate shaft-like stages of growth having been suppressed. Sometimes these massive prothalli show the remains of the lowest shaft and first-formed tubercle still attached to them. Those prothalli of L. laterale which bear club-like processes attached to the primary tubercle, as described in a previous paper (7, fig. 16), probably come under this category. Fig. 55 shows a prothallus which has branched in its middle region, the two branches being borne on a particularly large fungal swelling. These two branches are clearly not to be regarded as processes of the kind usually borne on the generative regions. One of them showed a fungal region with rhizoids near its apex. Both are browned at the tip. It is certainly interesting to find that along with its power of cylindrical elongation the prothallus of this species is able also to branch, these variations suggesting that the Lycopodium prothallus is very plastic in character and that the several main types are by no means so fixed as has been supposed.

I pass now to the description of the massive and compact prothalli. Some of these show a very regular build (figs. 56, 57, 60, and Plate XV), being comparable with the surface-growing forms of L. Selago (see 1, pl. 6, fig. 37). They do not, however, show the same internal structure as the latter. The prothallus illustrated in fig. 56 possesses one fungal region only, which occupies the whole of the base. This leads up into a short, massive shaft and a wide, upper, generative region. The whole of the uppermost region is meristematic, there being no localized marginal, ring-like meristem as is the case in the compact prothallus of L. Selago. At the base of this prothallus there is a filament consisting of one long cell bent in the middle (fig. 56a) which does not show the presence of fungus. It leads up into a swollen region which can be described as the basal tubercle, this latter passing gradually again into a higher and more swollen region. The prothalli shown in figs. 57 and 60 and Plate XV are also of this same form, there being but one large basal fungal region. That in Plate XV is in longitudinal section, but the section does not pass medianly through either the base or the shaft, nor does it show the full width of the prothallus. This massive form of the prothallus of L. ramulosum is similar to that sometimes adopted by the prothallus of L. cernuum and L. laterale, howbeit in a more marked degree.

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Fig. 56.—L. ramulosum. Complete mature prothallus of compact, massive form in general view, bearing young plant. × 27.
Fig. 56a.L. ramulosum. Original end of prothallus shown in fig. 56 in general view. × 73.
Fig. 57.—L. ramulosum. Complete half-grown prothallus of massive form, in general view. × 35.
Figs. 58–60.—L. ramulosum. Mature prothalli of massive form, in general view. Those shown in figs. 58 and 59 have grown irregularly. × 14.

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Another type of massive prothallus is that shown in figs. 58 and 59, where the continued bulky growth has resulted in a very irregular form. The oldest part of the prothallus can be recognized in both these figures, although whether or not this part represents the actual original basal end of the prothallus cannot be said. In fig. 58 there are two distinct generative regions, the uppermost of which is divided by a deep constriction. The foot of a young plant has been torn from one portion of this upper region. This particular prothallus is similar in its continued growth to those shown in figs. 52–54, except that the great bulkiness has rather obscured the typical cylindrical radial build. In fig. 59 the prothallus has grown still more irregularly, and there are apparently two growing regions, one of which is broken. The sexual organs are distributed along the whole of the top of the prothallus, and are in this case archegonia only. This particular prothallus is best compared with the basal portion and first generative region only of those shown in figs. 53 and 54. These massive, irregularly-grown prothalli usually show abundant chlorophyll.

Position in the Soil.

All the prothalli in these three species are situated at the surface of the soil and possess more or less chlorophyll. Their position in the soil is always erect. The chlorophyll is never present in the basal regions, but always in the lobes, and generally also in the upper part of the shaft. Consequent on this vertical position of growth, the prothalli never show such an elongated habit as do those of the epiphytic, subterranean type, but certain individuals, especially in L. ramulosum, show a marked tendency in this direction. I cannot say whether or not the more elongated forms in this species are more deeply buried in their basal part than the massive forms. They were all dissected out of humus consisting for the most part of a decaying short moss. In any case, the total length of even the most elongated forms is too small to have much significance in this respect. Probably the function of continued apical growth is due simply to the postponement of the formation of the embryo, the food-supply being maintained by the fungus through the infection of newer regions of the prothallus. The typical radial build is maintained by all these three species, although in some prothalli, more particularly in L. ramulosum, this is almost obscured by the adoption of a secondary, irregular manner of growth.

Early Stages in the Development.

I have been fortunate to secure several very young prothalli-of the two species L. laterale and L. ramulosum. No doubt the only perfectly satisfactory way of obtaining the youngest stages of growth in any prothallus is by the experimental germination of the spores in the laboratory under close observation. Even this method, however, is not above suspicion, for one can never be sure to what extent the artificial conditions influence the form of the young prothallus. Very young prothalli dissected out of soil collected in the field are open to the criticism that they may belong to some plant other than the one under consideration. I can only say that with regard to the young prothalli now to be described I am quite satisfied that they belong to the particular species of Lycopodium to which I have ascribed them, and the reasons will be stated.

In the case of L. cernuum, I have found no young stages. Treub has, however, described the germination of the spore in this species, having successfully carried this out in the laboratory. His figures, which I have

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seen only in certain standard books of reference, show that a tubercle is at once initiated, which is apparently at first devoid of fungus. This tubercle was called by Treub the “primary tubercle,” and he supposed that it was a characteristic feature of the Lycopodium prothallus. He was also successful in experimentally cultivating the prothalli of L. salakense. This also begins with a globular body, the “primary tubercle,” from which several thin filamentous branches arise, one of the latter eventually thickening and producing the sexual organs. This prothallus remains altogether free from a symbiotic fungus. Treub also germinated the spores of L. curvatum Sw., from which he obtained “primary tubercles,” but he was unable to induce them to develop farther. All the mature prothalli of L. cernuum which I have found show the rounded basal tubercle, although in some instances this is somewhat pointed below (see 7, figs. 17–21, and figs. 3844 in the present paper).

I have dissected out a number of young prothalli of the species L. ramulosum along with the more mature forms, and some of these are shown in figs. 61–65. I judge these to belong to this species since they are of the typical Lycopodium form and no other species of Lycopodium were present in the two localities from which they came. No other kind of prothallus was ever found by me in the turves from which I dissected out those of L. ramulosum, nor was any species of fern present in the near neighbourhood, except Gleichenia dicarpa. Finally, the individuals which are shown in figs. 61–65 form a series which leads on to the more mature prothalli which undoubtedly belong to L. ramulosum. The youngest prothallus was that shown in fig. 61. In it there was no basal swelling, nor was there any indication of the presence of a fungus. The lower half consisted of a single linear row of cells, whilst in the upper half there was a gradual increase in the number of cells and in the girth of the filament towards the apex. This upper half was not a flat expansion of cells as in the usual fern prothallus, but was radial in build. The cells at the apex were smaller than those farther back, and evidently functioned as the meristem. The whole filament contained chlorophyll corpuscles. The original spore-case was still attached to the basal cell. In fig. 62 is shown a prothallus in which the first-formed filamentous stage was very short, passing almost immediately and suddenly into a globular mass of cells which could be called the “primary tubercle.” This prothallus also was quite free of fungus, being green throughout. The apical region consisted of small-celled tissue, and a young sexual organ was developing near by. A group of rhizoids was borne on the basal tubercle. In the formation of a fungusless primary tubercle this young prothallus corresponds very closely to those early stages in L. cernuum, L. salakense, and L. curvatum described by Treub. With regard to the mature prothallus of L. ramulosum, the conclusion I arrived at was that any swelling in the fungal regions was primarily due to the localized presence of the fungus. From these other three species, however, it is apparent that there may be at first a primary tubercle quite apart from the presence of the fungus, and this also appears in such a young prothallus of L. ramulosum as that shown in fig. 62. However, this is not always the case, as in the particular prothallus shown in fig. 61. The three young prothalli shown in figs. 63–65 all possessed a primary tubercle, which was infested by fungus.

Are we to consider that a primary tubercle is a fundamental feature in the structure plan of the Lycopodium prothallus, or is it to be regarded as an added feature? Possibly we are to regard the radially-built filament

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as being the original typical condition, this filament being drawn out, or short and bulky, according to whether growth has taken place rapidly or slowly. The basal tubercle of the mature prothallus when present would, according to this view, be the result largely of secondary cell-divisions

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Fig. 61.—L. ramulosum. Very young prothallus, in general view, with spore still attached. × 75.
Fig. 62.—L. ramulosum. Young prothallus, in general view, showing basal tubercle with no fungus. × 45.
Figs. 63, 64.—L. ramulosum. Young prothalli, in general view, showing basal tubercle with fungus. × 30.
Fig. 65.—L. ramulosum. Young prothallus, in general view, showing first-formed lobes and the initiation of a second fungal region. × 45.

which had taken place in the first-formed basal cells owing to the stimulus excited by the storing of food material. Prothalli cultivated under artificial conditions seem generally to develop slowly, and this may explain why it is that none of Treub's prothalli showed a first-formed filamentous

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stage. There can be no doubt that the symbiotic association of a fungus with the Lycopodium prothallus is a further added feature, the mature form of the Lycopodium prothalli being determined mainly by the nature of this association.

I found one very young prothallus of L. laterale which was entangled in the rhizoids and lobes of the large prothallus shown in fig. 48. This young prothallus is shown in fig. 49. It consists of a filament of cells which is green throughout, the filament being one cell in width in its lower half and two cells in width in its upper. At the apex there is a single small cell which is clearly functioning as the apical cell. In this species also, as in L. ramulosum, the primary tubercle is thus not invariably present.

Main Body of the Prothallus.

L. cernuum.—The main body of the prothallus of this species consists, as has been described above, of one or more basal fungal regions, a longer or shorter shaft, and a crown of lobes, at the base of which lies the meristem and the generative region. Sometimes there is present also a lateral group of lobes. As I have not seen Treub's original papers, I do not know whether or not he has given in his description any indication of a differentiation of structure in the fungus-bearing tissue, but, judging from the short summaries of his results in various standard books of reference, this does not seem to be the case. In the prothallus of this species as it occurs in New Zealand. I have observed that there is in this tissue a well-marked differentiation. The fungal coils are invariably confined, so far as their intracellular position is concerned, to the epidermal cells in the fungal area, but the fungus always extends also in between the cells of the adjoining tissue. This will be apparent from figs. 3944, which show the fungal area in longitudinal section, and from figs. 66 and 67, which represent the basal tubercle in transverse section. Moreover, this layer of cells which shows the presence of the fungus in an intercellular position is always modified in structure, the cells being very narrow, with their long axes arranged at right angles to the peripheral fungal layer. A portion of the fungal region shown in fig. 41 is given in greater magnification in fig. 68. In describing the “palisade” fungal zone in the prothalli of L. clavatum and L. annotinum, Bruchmann (1, p. 18) suggests that its main function is to serve as a brace to the prothallus. This would seem to be the case also in L. cernuum. In this latter species its peculiar structure is more particularly developed in those fungal regions which extend up the shaft, and where the need of a strengthening-tissue is felt. In those prothalli in which a well-formed, rounded primary tubercle is present the whole of the internal tissue of the tubercle shows the intercellular fungus, but its cells are not so markedly differentiated (figs. 38, 39). In the elongated prothalli of L. ramulosum, in those cases in which the fungal areas are not much swollen, the tissue in which the fungus is intercellular does not show much modification in form. The fungus is chiefly apparent at the angles between the cells, but it also seems to enwrap the cells generally (figs. 66–68). I have not observed the presence of starch, as a rule; in the palisade cells, but it is frequently thickly accumulated in the adjoining part of the shaft. In the primary tubercle the cells are small and numerous (figs. 38, 39), and the rounded form of the tubercle is probably due mainly to the extensive cell-divisions, induced by the fungus, which there have taken place. In this species the intercellular fungus never spreads up the shaft to any great extent: As has been described above, in this species there

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