List of Species still growing in the Region investigated.
The species named in the following list are still growing in the localities recorded by Laing or myself. Records by Riches were made prior to 1900. Other records are not given unless the exact habitat is mentioned.
Hymenophyllum rarum R. Br. Waikerikikeri (Hickory), R. M. L.; Le Bon's, W. M., D. G. R. This species was once common, but is now difficult to find.
Hymenophyllum sanguinolentum Hook f. Le Bon's Reserve. This fern may most easily be found by following up the stream-bed till it reaches the waterfall, where it is growing on the rock and on neighbouring tree-trunks.
Hymenophyllum flabellatum Lab. Peraki Reserve, R. M. L., W. M. This fern is easily found on the caudices of Dicksonia squarrosa, at Wainui, Akaroa, Takamatua, and Le Bon's.
Hymenophyllum peltatum Bearne (= H. unilaterale Willd.). Long Bay, D. G. R. and R. M. L.
Trichomanes venosum R. Br. Extremely common on the stems of treeferns in almost every valley, W. M.; Balgueri Valley, R. M. L.
Cyathea dealbata Swartz. Everywhere common, but less so from year to year.
Cyathea medullaris Swartz. Mr. Hooker and others at Wainui inform me that some half-dozen specimens exist about a mile towards the Heads from Wainui, but I have not seen them.
Hemitelia Smithii Hook. f. Akaroa and Wainui, R. M. L., W. M. Commonly met with all round the harbour.
Dicksonia squarrosa Swartz. Everywhere common.
Dicksonia fibrosa Col. Wainui, R. M. L.; Le Bon's, W. M.; Barry's Bay, E. F. Stead.
Alsophila Colensoi Hook. f. Common in bush above the Summit Road at the head of Stony Bay, near Akaroa. I have a doubtful record from Le Bon's.
Leptolepia novae-zelandiae (Col.) Kuhn. This and the last species do not appear to have been collected in the last thirty years. I have noted this fern at Peraki Reserve, Wainui, Grehan Valley, French Farm, Le Bon's, and head of Robinson's Bay in the little tongue of bush that lies between the road and the summit, where it may easily be obtained.
Adiantum affine Willd. Nikau-palm Gully, R. M. L. All valleys round Mount Bossu. Wainui, French Farm, Rowe's Bush Waterfall, Akaroa, and especially on the coastal cliffs north of Mat. Wight's Bay. This fern must formerly have been widely distributed.
Hypolepis tenuifolia Bernh. Top of ridge, Akaroa to O'Kain's, W. M.
Hypolepis distans Hook. Neighbourhood of Akaroa, D. G. R., W. M.
Cheilanthes Sieberi Kunze. Spurs on Lucas Bay, D. G. R. Evidently less common than formerly.
Pellaea rotundifolia Hook. Everywhere abundant both in the bush and in the open.
Pteridium esculentum Cockayne. Common near the margin of the bush; covering many acres of valuable land on the spurs above Wainui and Akaroa, and increasing rapidly.
Paesia scaberula Kuhn. Mount Bossu, Wainui; R. M. L., W. M.; head of Balgueri Valley, W. M. and G. P.
Histiopteris incisa J. Sm. Stony Bay near O'Kain's, R. M. L.; Le Bon's, Stony Bay near Akaroa, and Long Bay, W. M.
Pteris tremula R. Br. Potts records this fern from “Tikao Bay,” which is probably intended for Little Tikao Bay, where it is still growing, L. J. V., W. M.; foot of Peraki Reserve, W. M.; near top of range at Hickory and Stony Bay, D. G. R.
Blechnum Patersoni Mett. Peraki, Le Bon's, Balgueri and Grehan Valleys, Akaroa, Wainui; always at the higher levels and in damp bush.
Blechnum discolor Keys. Common in bush above 1,000 ft.
Blechnum lanceolatum Sturm. Common in bush.
Blechnum penna marinum Kuhn. To be met with at all levels from sea-level, as at Maori Kaik, to the summit. This is a most abundant fern on open hillsides; 300 ft. is given as the lowest level by Laing, but I have seen it almost on the sea-shore at Maori Kaik and at Wainui.
Blechnum Banksii Mett. Squally Bay and Stony Bay, D. G. R.; light-house, Akaroa, L. Cockayne; Stony Bay, W. M.
Blechnum capense Schlecht. Common, especially in bush above 1,000 ft. level.
Blechnum fluviatile Lowe. Common near bush-streams
Blechnum membranaceum Mett. Brough's Bay, D. G. R., G. P. I have not visited this locality, but have reason to believe it still exists there.
Blechnum vulcanicum Kuhn. This fern has eluded collectors and investigators for many years. It is growing freely on some rocks in a piece of bush bordering a small tributary of the main stream in Grehan Valley. Elsewhere on the peninsula it occurs in Kaituna Bush.
Asplenium flabellifolium Cav. A cosmopolitan fern in the district examined.
Asplenium obtusatum Forst. f. On coastal cliffs. Within the harbour this fern presents all manner of intermediate gradations between A. obtusatum and A. lucidum. Wall (see Laing, 1919, p. 376) considers the coastal fern of Lyttelton Harbour to be a form of A. lucidum rather than of A. obtusatum. I hold the same view in respect to the Asplenium of Akaroa Harbour.
Asplenium lucidum Forst. f. Wainui, French Farm, Barry's Bay, Pigeon Bay, Akaroa, Little Tikao Bay. The typical form is met with flanking the streams for a few chains from their entry into the harbour wherever these are shaded by bush. Fronds 5 ft. 6 in. long were recently exhibited by me in Christchurch from Barry's Bay. On Adam's Point a gradual transition towards A. obtusatum may be noted, the pinnae becoming more and more oblique and erect, more coriaceous, and shorter, and the fronds more dwarf and compact. An examination of these localities leads me to think that the most potent factors in causing this transition are the degree of exposure and the degree of salinity at the roots. The degree of shade and moisture are also factors of importance.
Asplenium Lyallii (Moore) Cockayne. I obtained two specimens of this fern within a chain of typical A. lucidum and the fern here called A. obtusatum on Adam's Point. Head of Duvauchelles, W. M.
Asplenium Hookerianum Col. Three very distinct forms of this composite species exist in the locality. The typical form is abundant in Akaroa itself, at Maori Kaik, and at Wainui; it is well distributed generally. Superficially, a second form, found in Balgueri Valley, almost exactly matches the plate given by Field for A. umbrosum var. parvifolium. Var. Colensoi is found at Tikao Bay, D. G. R.
Asplenium bulbiferum Forst. f. The commonest bush-fern, but, like a number of others, it may often be seen growing in a crevice in a rock exposed to the full effects of sun and wind, in which situation it becomes extremely coriaceou.
Asplenium Richardi Hook f. Waikerikikeri, R. M. L.; coastal cliffs on the seaward side, D. G. R.
Asplenium flaccidum Forst. f. This fern is everywhere abundant.
Polystichum vestitum Presl. Very common in the upper regions of the bush—i.e., above 1,000 ft. Where the bush has been cleared this fern often continues to thrive in the open.
Polystichum Richardi J. Sm. A very hardy cosmopolitan type, thriving equally well on the coastal cliffs, open pasture, and dense bush. It thrives at all levels. The Aspidium oculatum of the Handbook (Hooker) does not seem to be a fixed type, as considerable variation in the disc of the involucre and in the margin of the scales occurs sometimes in a single clump of P. Richardi.
Polystichum hispidum J. Sm. Maori Kaik, Newton's Valley, Balgueri Valley, Le Bon's, W. M. Nowhere common.
Polystichum adiantiforme (Forst.) J. Sm. Regarded by Laing as “probably an erroneous identification,” but undoubted specimens may easily be obtained on the caudices of Dickonsia squarrosa about a mile up Grehan Valley. I have obtained it in Newton's Valley, and also in the valley below the Jubilee Road, a quarter of a mile above McDonald's, at Wainui, where it was growing luxuriantly, though only two specimens were seen.
Dryopteris glabella C. Chr. Balgueri Valley, R. M. L., W. M.; Maori Kaik, Newton's Valley, Grehan Valley, and Rowe's Bush on Adam's Point, W. M.
Dryopteris punctata C. Cr. Common on the margins of the bush.
Dryopteris pennigera C. Chr. Common in shaded stream-beds below 1,000 ft.
Dryopteris velutina O. Ktz. This handsome fern still grows where it was discovered by Raoul. Akaroa, Rowe's Bush, Maori Kaik, W. M.
Polypodium Billardieri (Willd.) C. Chr. (= P. australe Mett.). Common on rocks and tree-trunks all round the summit.
Polypodium pustulatum Forst. f. Long Bay, D. G. R.; Stony Bay, W. M.
Polypodium grammitidis R. Br. Common on tree-trunks and on rock near the summit from Stony Bay to Wainui. Specimens from Le Bon's measured 12 in. in length.
Polypodium diversifolium Willd. Everywhere abundant.
Cyclophorus serpens C. Chr. Akaroa, Peraki, Island Bay, W. M.
Leptopteris hymenophylloides Presl. Abundant in the denser areas of bush, as at Peraki, Le Bon's, Stony Bay, &c. It also grows in the beech forest at the head of Balgueri Valley, facing full to the sun.
Ophioglossum coriaceum A. Cunn. Hills behind Wainui, ridge between Le Bon's and Hickory, R. M. L.
Botrychium australe R. Br. Grehan Valley. Mr. G. Penlington conducted me to a spot where it formerly grew abundantly, and we were fortunate enough to find a specimen about 400 ft. above sea-level. Brasenose (lower levels), G. P., D. G. R.
Lycopodium varium R. Br. Waikerikikeri, R. L. M.; head of Le Bon's and Barry's Bays, W. M. Specimens superficially resembling L. Billardieri Spring were obtained by me growing as epiphytes both at Stony Bay and at Le Bon's. At first I could find no fertile fronds; and, referring to barren fronds sent to him, Dr. J. E. Holloway wrote me, “Almost certainly L. Billardieri.” Writing later, after I had secured fertile fronds, he says,” I agree with you that the fertile plants you send are more of the form of L. varium than of L. Billardieri. These two species grade into one another so that it is quite possible to speak of an intermediate form as being a variation of the one as much as of the other. Seeing that they are recognized as two distinct species… and judging from the fertile specimens they deserve the name L. varium.” The barren fronds were obtained from Griselinia littoralis and Podocarpus totara, while the fertile plants were epiphytic on Dicksonia fibrosa. All had a tendency to upward or erect growth, but the longer fronds drooped by reason of their weight.
Lycopodium Billardieri Spring (?). See preceeding note.
Lycopodium scariosum Forst Head of Long Bay and Stony Bay, D. G. R.; W. M.
Lycopodium volubile Forst. f. Wainui hilltops, above Le Bon's Bay, near Hilltop Hotel, R. M. L., W. M.
Tmesipteris tannensis Bernh. This pteridophyte grows plentifully in the stream-valleys at Akaroa, and more sparingly at Le Bon's and Peraki. Plants over 1 ft. in length are not uncommon on the tree-fern stems in Newton's Valley at Akaroa.
Azolla rubra R. Br. Pigeon Bay, W. M. This little floating water-fern frequents the surface of fairly stationary water, which is seldom provided in the Akaroa area, hence the probable reason for its not having been reported previously.