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Volume 53, 1921
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Art. X.—Some Tertiary Mollusca, with Descriptions of New Species.

[Read before the Wanganui Philosophical Society, 25th October, 1920; received by Editor, 31st December, 1920; issued separately, 27th June, 1921.]

Plates XIVXIX.
Melina zealandica Suter. (Plate XIV, figs. 1, 2.)

M. zealandica Sut., N.Z. Geol. Sur. Pal. Bull. No. 5: Marshall and Murdoch, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 52, p. 136, pl. 9, fig. 21; pl. 10, fig. 20.

Complete valves of this fine species were recently obtained. They are more oblique than appears in our figure of the restored valve, and there is also considerable difference between the young or medium-sized individuals and the large adult form. The latter is here illustrated by the photograph of a right valve, and shows the dorsal margin not markedly oblique to the body of the shell, while in some smaller individuals it is most pronounced and the posterio-ventral area considerably produced. But for the fact that intermediate forms occur and that they are all found together they might well have been regarded as distinct species. There also occurred an imperfect smaller valve, which is clothed with a thick periostracum, almost black.

Adult: Height, 150 mm.; length of hinge, 135 mm.; length of body across adductor-scar, 116 mm.

Locality: On the coast about three miles north of the Waipipi Stream, Waverley. This species also occurs in the Trelissick Basin, and at Target Gully, Oamaru.

Ostrea gudexi Suter. (Plate XV, fig. 1.)

N.Z. Geol. Sur. Pal. Bull. No. 5, p. 71, pl. 8, fig. 2.

Suter's paratypes from Kakahu show a considerable variation in the number of radial ribs; the typical form has seven to eight, others fifteen or more, excluding the small ribs on the posterio-dorsal area. Some specimens which appear to belong to this species have recently been found at Pahi. This (Pahi) form has nineteen to twenty ribs, with an additional five or six much smaller on the depressed posterio-dorsal wing.

Height, 30 mm.; length, 25 mm.

Locality: Pahi. Collected by Marshall. Material, two left valves.

Thracea magna n. sp. (Plate XV, figs. 2, 3.)

Description derived from right valves.

Shell large, oblong, inequilateral, beak at the posterior third, the umbo swollen and prominently curved inwards; the anterior dorsal margin long, slightly curved and declining, the end rounded; posterior dorsal margin

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short, excavated below the beak, thence almost straight and slightly declining, the end obliquely truncated, basal margin lightly curved, ascending a little more rapidly to the anterior end; the posterior area is defined by a broad subangular ridge which descends from near the beak to the lower margin of the truncation, a smaller ridge similarly proceeding unites with its dorsal margin. Sculpture consists of fine growth-lines, irregular in places, and more pronounced on the posterior area; there does not appear to be any radial sculpture. Hinge without teeth, but with a strong inward-projecting lithodesma; the pallial sinus and adductor impressions obscure, the posterior adductor apparently large and near to the end.

Length, 78 mm.; height, 49 mm.; diameter of a single valve, 14 mm. Another valve: length, 68 mm.; height, 44 mm.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

Locality: On the coast about three miles north of the Waipipi Stream, in brown sand and blue sandy clay.

The material consists of two right valves and one left, the latter rather fragmentary. In size it may be compared with Thracea sp. H. Woods, N.Z. Geol. Sur. Bull. No. 4, p. 34, pl. 19, figs. 4a, 4b. It shows even greater convexity than that species, and the beak is distinctly more posterior.

Miltha neozelanica n. sp. (Plate XVI, figs. 1, 2, and Plate XVII, fig. 1.)

Shell large, ovately subrotund, compressed, left valve distinctly more compressed than the right; beaks small, curved forward, and nearer to the anterior end; immediately in front of the beak is a small triangular area of the margin sharply inflexed to almost half the depth of the hinge-plate; the anterior dorsal area narrow and inconspicuous, the margin convex, declining, and forming a small distinct angle at the end, from this is a wide uniform curve continued around the ventral margin and terminating in a more pronounced angle at the posterior end; the posterior dorsal margin convex and regularly declining. On the posterior dorsal area of each valve one or two feeble corrugations following the curve of the margin. Sculpture consists of fine concentric threadlets, somewhat irregular towards the ventral margin, and rather more sharply raised on the posterior dorsal area; radiate striation is very obscure, indications of it in places only. The hinge-plate wide with two cardinals in each valve, the anterior small, separated by a narrow triangular pit; laterals consisting of a simple ridge on each side, the posterior almost obsolete; ligament and resilium deeply inset. Adductors, the posterior small ovate, the anterior large and much elongated, the lower end almost in a line vertical to the beak; pallial line impressed and distant from the margin, the latter smooth. The disc is more or less punctate and with small raised processes indicating attachment of the mantle; all valves have a rather broad oblique sulcus on the middle area.

Height, 94 mm.; length, 91 mm.; thickness of united valves, 32 mm. A right valve: height, 64 mm.; length, 68 mm.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

Locality: On the coast about three miles north of the Waipipi Stream, in brown sands and in blue sandy clay; also in the sea-cliff near to the Hawera County metal-pit, Whakina.

In the list of fossils occurring in the Waipipi beds this species is recorded as Dosinia magna Hutton (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 52, p. 124, 1920). In large specimens the anterior and posterior angles are more or less obscure

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but in medium-sized examples are very distinct, and frequently the length of the valve exceeds the height.

This is the first record of a species of Miltha in New Zealand. Its large size and the fact that the Lucinidae are poorly represented in this country make this occurrence noteworthy.

Miltha dosiniformis n. sp. (Plate XVII, figs. 2, 2A.)

Shell large, solid, subrotund, somewhat compressed, the left valve rather less inflated; beaks small, a little anterior, and slightly curved forward; the anterior dorsal area narrow and inconspicuous, the margin slowly declining, uniformly curved around the end and ventral margin; the posterior dorsal margin slightly convex, declining, lightly angled at its termination, the end subtruncate; the posterior dorsal area with a well-marked ridge. Sculpture consists of fine concentric threads, somewhat irregularly disposed; the specimen is slightly eroded, but there does not appear to be any radial sculpture. Valves united and filled with hard matrix.

Height, 78 mm.; length, 83 mm.; thickness of united valves, 29 mm. Another example: height, 79 mm.; length, 81 mm.

Type in the collection of the Geological Survey, Wellington.*

Note.—On the card accompanying a specimen it is recorded as “Dosinia sp. Age 4 to 6. Locality No. 257. Kawau Island.” In addition to the two complete specimens there is a large fragment with the valves partly united and showing the pallial line distant from the margin; also two smaller fragments of right valves, one of which clearly shows the small deeply inflexed area in front of the beak.

Miltha parki n. sp. (Plate XVII, fig. 3.)

Shell large and solid, ovately subrotund, compressed, the left valve more compressed than the right; beaks prominent, curved forward, nearer to the anterior end; excavate in front of the beak with the margin sharply inflexed, thence rounded, the end subangled on meeting the ventral curve; the posterior dorsal margin convex and declining somewhat sharply, the end apparently slightly angled. The posterior dorsal area faintly indicated. Sculpture consists of fine concentric and radiate threads of about equal strength, producing minute granules. All examples have the valves united and are filled with a hard matrix; no description of the interior can therefore be given.

Height, 77 mm.; length, 75 mm.; thickness of the united valves, 25 mm.; the diameter of the right valve about one-third greater than that of the left. Other examples: height, 70 mm.; length, 70 mm. Another: height, 64 mm.; length, 62 mm.

Type and co-types in the collection of the Geological Survey, Wellington.

Locality: No. 526, Okoko—Waipa—Kawhia Road.

The specimens were collected by Professor Park and listed as Dosinia sp. (Geol. Rep., vol. 17, p. 139, 1885).

Note.—The three species of Miltha described may be distinguished from each other by the following characters:—M. parki, by the prominence of the beaks and the radial sculpture: M. neozelanica, by the anterior position of the beaks and their marked forward curve; in large specimens the

[Footnote] * Fig. 2A is from the right valve of the type, prepared by Mr. J. Marwick.

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height is greater than the width and the marginal angles obsolete, though in medium-sized individuals the angles are very distinct; the left valve also is invariably much more compressed than the right: and M. dosiniformis by the submedian position of the beak, the more equal slope of the dorsal margins, and the more circular marginal contour. The two species are nearly allied, and closely approach Phacoides (Miltha) sanctaecrucis Arnold (U.S. Geol. Sur. Bull. 396, pp. 57–58, pl. vi, fig. 6, 1919) from the Coalinga District, California, recorded from Lower to Upper Miocene and perhaps Lower Pliocene.

A fragment of a Miltha was obtained by Dr. Thomson from the Mount Donald beds. It is too small to determine definitely, but is certainly very near to M. neozelanica.

A species of Miltha has recently (1919) been described by M. Doello-Jurado from the Tertiary beds of the Argentine in the Entrerienne formation, classed by von Ihering in the Miocene period.

Couthouyia concinna n. sp. (Plate XVIII, fig. 1.)

Shell minute, fusiform; whorls six, rounded and somewhat abruptly contracted at the sutures, apex minute, the two following whorls with fine spiral and axial threadlets, thence the axial riblets prominent, narrower than the interspaces, in places somewhat irregular and wrinkled, the spiral striae very indistinct, Aperture ovate, outer lip almost uniformly curved, basal lip very slightly produced; columella slightly curved, projecting, and with a small groove separating it from the body-whorl except on the upper third where the peristome is closely united.

Length, 2.6 mm.; width, 1.5 mm.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

Locality: Target Gully. Collected by Marshall.

There is a single example only; it is near to the Recent species C. corrugata Hedley.

Vermicularia ophiodes n. sp. (Plate XVIII, fig. 2.)

Shell small, apparently solitary, of about seven or eight volutions, which are irregularly and obliquely spirally coiled and attached, with the exception of about one-third of the last coil, which is free and projecting; the apical whorl is broken and there appear to be internal septa, but there is no indication of septa in the terminal free portion; the sutures undulating and in places deep; the dorsal surface of the coils except the last with small somewhat irregularly-rounded pustules, frequently perforate, and between these irregularly granose. Viewed from the base the last coil produces a deep and rather elongated umbilicus, the sculpture is small undulating longitudinal threads, somewhat irregular and distinctly granular in places; the aperture subcircular.

Greatest diameter of shell, 15 mm.; greatest diameter of aperture, 4 mm.

Locality: Target Gully. Collected by Marshall.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

Cymatium suteri n. sp. (Plate XVIII, figs. 3, 4.)

Shell small, fusiform, aperture and canal shorter than the spire; whorls six or seven, somewhat rounded, sutures impressed not deep, canal short;

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Figs. 1, 2.—Melina zealandica Suter.

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Fig. 1.—Ostrea gudexi Suter. Figs. 2, 3.—Thracea magna n. sp.

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Figs. 1, 2.—Miltha neozelanica n. sp.

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Fig. 1.—Miltha neozelanica n. sp. Figs. 2, 2A.—Miltha dosiniformis n. sp. Fig. 3.—Miltha parki n. sp.

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sculpture consists of axial and spiral cords forming nodules on the crossings; they are equal to or rather wider than the interspaces; on the body-whorl the axials are more distant and less marked especially towards the lip, there are about thirteen on the penultimate whorl, growth-striae are well marked in places and there are several prominent varices; of the spiral cords there are six or seven on the penultimate whorl and fourteen or fifteen on the last, with an occasional minute thread in the grooves, those on the base and canal smaller and crowded, on each whorl the two spirals immediately below the sutures are small and close together. Aperture ovate, slightly oblique, the outer lip with a stout varex, somewhat expanded and with several stout elongated denticles; columella almost straight, smooth, with a stout callus narrowing to the end of the beak, which is slightly twisted.

Length, 13 mm.; width, 6 mm.; length of aperture and canal measured on the angle, 7 mm.

Locality: Waikopiro.

Type in the Wanganui Museum.

This small species came to light in the Suter collection. It is labelled by him “n. sp.,” and it is only one of many with which he was unable to deal.

Cymatium pahiense n. sp. (Plate XVIII, fig. 5.)

The specimen is embedded in sandy clay, and the front only is visible.

Shell of medium size, stout, shortly fusiform, aperture longer than the spire; whorls about five or six, the last large and narrowed to the short anterior canal; apex missing, the lower spire-whorls convex, lightly angled above; sutures impressed, apparently not deep; the body-whorl with a prominent varex to the left of the aperture. Sculpture consists of axial and spiral cords, the latter more pronounced and forming rows of small nodules, the separating grooves in width about equal to the cords; on the penultimate whorl there are apparently four or five spiral cords. Aperture slightly oblique and somewhat narrow, the outer lip widely expanded, thick and with ten to a dozen stout lamellae, which curve into the aperture; inner lip with a broadly expanded thin callus not obscuring the spiral sculpture; the columella almost straight, a few small lamellae at the anterior end, four stout rounded plates on the middle area, and immediately above these narrowly and rather deeply excavated, thence curving outward to the lip with the nodular spiral cords continuing into the aperture.

Length, 40 mm.; width, 23 mm.; length of aperture and canal, 25 mm.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

Locality: Pahi. Collected by Marshall.

The apical whorls are missing, and therefore the proportional length of the aperture and canal to the total length is not as great as the measurements given above would indicate. It is a somewhat peculiar form, and placing it in Cymatium is not altogether satisfactory.

Cypraea sp. (Plate XVIII, fig. 6.)

Specimen very fragmentary. Spire concealed, aperture narrow above and strongly curved, outer lip thickened and extending above the spire, the margin incurved and dentate, inner lip with strong transverse teeth on the posterior area and perhaps continued to the anterior end.

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Length, approximately 30 mm.; width, approximately 20 mm.

Locality: Pahi. Collected by Marshall.

Appears to be distinct from other species recorded from our Tertiaries, but is too fragmentary to determine definitely. The specimen to be lodged in the Wanganui Museum.

Admete maorium n. sp. (Plate XVIII, figs. 7, 8.)

Shell small, shortly fusiform, spire short; whorls five or six, prominently shouldered, apical whorls smooth and rounded; sutures somewhat impressed. Sculptured with stout axial and spiral cords forming small nodules on the crossings, both distinctly narrower than the interspaces, the axials are the more distant and becoming more or less obsolete on the base, there are twelve on the last whorl; of the spiral cords there are two on the spire-whorls and eight on the last, the lower five small, gradually diminishing anteriorly, of the three prominent cords the second and third are the more widely spaced. Aperture ovate, slightly oblique, outer lip imperfect, the margin no doubt crenulated; columella almost straight, slightly twisted at the extremity, narrowly but strongly callused, and with three strong evenly spaced plates on the anterior half.

Longth, 8.5 mm.; width, 5 mm.

Locality: Target Gully. Collected by Marshall.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

Allied to A. suteri Marshall and Murdoch, but differs in the stronger sculpture, less number of axial cords, and the position of the plates on the columella.

Daphnella varicostata n. sp. (Plate XIX, fig. 1.)

Shell small, fusiform; spire lightly turreted, its length nearly equalling the aperture and canal; sutures somewhat impressed, narrowly margined below, usually more distinct on the higher whorls; whorls eight, the third and succeeding whorls convex, rising rather abruptly at the sutures, the last produced and gradually contracted to the beak; protoconch smooth; apex minute, whorls gradually increasing, thence with axial and spiral sculpture, the axials very irregular, close and distinctly raised, or almost obsolete in places, or broad and lightly rounded, usually feeble on the body, and the lines of growth well marked; the spirals small and variable, the grooves narrow, more strongly marked towards the beak; there are eight or nine spirals on the penultimate whorl. Aperture narrow, outer lip with sharp margin, the posterior sinus small, situated immediately below the suture, distinctly marked by the growth-striae; columella lightly curved, the anterior end slightly deflected to the left, thinly callused, and with small oblique threadlets corresponding with the adjacent spirals; canal short and fairly wide.

Length, 15 mm.; width, 6.25 mm.

Locality: Awamoa. Collected by Marshall.

Type and co-types to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

There are three examples each varying slightly in the axial sculpture. With these is another example having very minute close spiral lines, the axials very feeble, almost suppressed, the sutures apparently not margined, and the protoconch increasing in girth more rapidly. The two latter characters are of some importance, but meantime it appears better to record the form “var. A.”

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Fig. 1.—Couthouyia concinna n. sp.
Fig. 2.—Vermicularia ophiodes n. sp.
Figs. 3, 4.—Cymatium suteri n. sp.
Fig. 5.—Cymatium pahiense n. sp.
Fig. 6.—Cypraea sp.
Figs. 7, 8.—Admete maorium n. sp.

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Fig. 1.—Daphnella vancostata n. sp.
Figs. 2, 3.—Euthria subcallimorpha n. sp.
Fig. 4.—Eulimella awamoaensis n. sp.
Fig. 5.—Odostomia (Pyrgulina) pseudorugata n. sp.
Fig. 6.—Turbonilla awamoaensis n. sp.
Fig. 7.—Eulima aoteaensis n. sp.

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Euthria subcallimorpha n. sp. (Plate XIX, figs. 2, 3.)

Shell small, fusiform; spire equal to or slightly longer than the aperture; sutures impressed, fairly deep; whorls five, the apex missing, convex, the last rounded at the periphery, thence gradually contracted to the canal; sculpture—there are eight low rounded axials, more pronounced on the spire-whorls, feeble on the base of the last and vanishing towards the canal, they are rather narrower than the interspaces; the spirals consist of fine close incised lines, forming lightly raised threadlets on the upper spire-whorls, and with five or six on the canal more prominent. Aperture ovate, slightly oblique, narrowed above, below produced into a short open canal; outer lip sharp and with a number of small denticles within the margin, columella almost vertical, slightly callused, smooth, beak slightly twisted to the left.

Length, 12 mm.; width, 5.5 mm.; length of aperture and canal measured on the angle, 6 mm.

Locality: Target Gully. Collected by Marshall.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

The only example has the axial ribs somewhat rubbed. It may be distinguished from callimorpha by the absence of the keel on the spire-whorls, the shoulder not excavated, the finer spiral sculpture, and somewhat longer canal.

Hemifusus (Mayeria) goniodes Suter.

N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 5, p. 23, pl. 3, figs. 15, 16.

Two examples of this species were obtained at Pahi and agree well with Suter's description. The keel on the spire-whorls is well below the middle, the shoulder sloping and concave, the sutures somewhat impressed, sub-margined below and with a few small spiral threads, the spiral sculpture is distinctly developed on the anterior end only; growth-lines are somewhat prominent and appear to indicate a broad shallow sinus on the shoulder. It appears doubtful if the genus Hemifusus is best suited for the species, but better material is necessary to settle the question.

Length (imperfect specimen), 63 mm.; width, 27 mm.

Locality: Pahi. Collected by Marshall.

Eulimella awamoaensis n. sp. (Plate XIX, fig. 4.)

Shell small, subulate, straight, and polished; aperture about one-third of the total length; sutures distinctly channelled; whorls eight; the apex of the protoconch broken, it is apparently oblique; whorls flattened, narrowly subangled a little below the sutures, most marked on the higher whorls, the last narrowly curved on the periphery and convex below; sculpture consists of a number of irregularly-disposed feeble axial riblets, spiral striae very indistinct; aperture narrow above, outer lip straight, columella rounded, narrow and straight, basal lip imperfect, apparently somewhat produced.

Length, 7 mm.; width, 2.25 mm.; length of aperture, 2 mm.

Locality: Awamoa. Collected by Marshall.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

Note.—In general form the species is near to E. limbata Suter.

Odostomia (Pyrgulina) pseudorugata n. sp. (Plate XIX, fig. 5.)

Shell small, elongated, narrowly turreted; whorls seven, protoconch smooth, heterostrophe, nucleus lateral, succeeding whorls slightly convex,

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subangled a little below the sutures, the latter deeply impressed. Sculpture consists of about seventeen rounded and slightly inclined-forward axial ribs, extending across the base and rather narrower than the interspaces; these are crossed by fine spiral threads which form minute granules on the crossings, a stronger and more distinctly nodular cord on the subangle and a similar cord margining the sutures; there are about five spirals on the penultimate whorl. Aperture imperfect (outer lip broken), columella nearly vertical, callused and with a stout plate above the middle.

Length, 3 mm.: width, 1 mm. Aperture slightly more than one-third of the total length.

Locality: Target Gully. Collected by Marshall.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

Closely allied to O. rugata Hutton, from which it differs in its narrower form, slight but distinct nodular angle below the sutures, and the absence of a pronounced cord on the base; in O. rugata the basal cord is apparently always present, although the axials are frequently extended below it.

Turbonilla awamoaensis n. sp. (Plate XIX, fig. 6.)

Shell small, subulate, whorls ten, protoconch missing, flattened or slightly concave below the sutures, thence convex; sutures slightly impressed and, on the lower whorls, with one or two fine spiral threads above; whorls strongly axially ribbed, about fourteen ribs on the penultimate, including an occasional broader varex, the axials narrower than the interspaces, slightly flexuous and with a subnodular appearance immediately below the sutures, absent on the base; the last with a number of small undulating spiral threadlets towards the base, obsolete on approaching the columella; aperture oval, the basal lip slightly effuse, columella slightly curved, narrowly and stoutly callused.

Length, 10 mm.; width, 2.75 mm.

Locality: Awamoa. Collected by Marshall.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

The sculpture readily distinguishes it from our other Tertiary forms.

Eulima aoteaensis n. sp. (Plate XIX, fig. 7.)

Shell small, subulate, straight, and highly polished; varices very indistinct, without sculpture excepting the microscopic growth-lines; whorls eight or nine, almost flat, the sutures oblique and very lightly impressed; the aperture about one-third of total length; the apical whorl missing, the next a little more rounded than the succeeding whorls, the last narrowing and slightly produced at the anterior end; aperture slightly oblique, very narrow above, lip almost straight, base rounded and slightly effuse; the columella almost straight, with a well-defined callus slightly spreading on the middle area and narrowing to the anterior end.

Length, 6.5 mm.; width, 1.25 mm.; length of aperture, 2 mm.

Locality: Target Gully. Collected by Marshall.

Type to be presented to the Wanganui Museum.

This species had been submitted to Suter, and is labelled by him “Eulima n. sp.” The form of the aperture, together with the length of the last whorl, appears to distinguish it from other New Zealand species.