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Volume 53, 1921
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Wellington, 22nd January, and Palmerston North, 24th January 1921.

The annual meeting of the Board was held in the Dominion Museum Library on Saturday, the 22nd January, 1921, at 10 a.m.

Present: Professor T. H. Easterfield, President (in the chair); Mr. B. C. Aston, Professor Charles Chilton, Dr. L. Cockayne, Dr. F. W. Hilgendorf, Professor H. B. Kirk, Dr. P. Marshall, Professor H. W. Segar, Professor A. P. W. Thomas, Dr. J. Allan Thomson, Ven. Archdeacon H. W. Williams, and Mr. A. M. Wright.

The Hon. Secretary called the roll, which—the Government nominees, Messrs. Chilton and Ewen, having been reappointed—was the same as at last year's meeting.

Apologies for non-attendance were received from Mr. C. A. Ewen on account of illness, and from Professor J. Malcolm and Mr. H. Hill.

On the motion of Dr. Chilton, it was resolved to send a letter o sympathy to Mr. C. A. Ewen, Hon. Treasurer, hoping for his speedy restoration to health.

Incorporated Societies' Reports and Balance-sheets, except those of Hawke's Bay, Poverty Bay, and Wanganui, were laid on the table. Professor Marshall mentioned that the Wanganui report had been sent to the Editor in error.

Address of the Hon. the Minister of Internal Affairs.—At this stage the Hon. G. J. Anderson, Minister of Internal Affairs, entered the room and was received by the President. The Hon. Minister addressed the meeting and welcomed the Governors to Wellington. He spoke briefly on the subject of the importance of scientific and industrial research, but stated that, after consulting his colleagues, he would deal with the intention of the Government in the matter when he addressed the Congress at Palmerston North.

Standing Committee's Report.—The annual report of the Standing Committee was read, and adopted as amended.

Report of the Standing Committee for Year ending 31st December, 1920.

Meetings.—Sixteen meetings of the Standing Committee were held during the year, the attendance being as follows: Professor Easterfield (President), 15; Professor Kirk, 8; Dr. Cockayne, 5; Hon. G. M. Thomson, 6; Mr. C. A. Ewen, 5; Dr. J. Allan Thomson, 12; Mr. A. M. Wright, 1; Mr. M. A. Eliott, 1; Mr. B. C. Aston (Hon. Secretary), 15.

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Hutton Award.—The award for 1919 was made to Rev. Dr. J. Holloway; and at a meeting of the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury held on the 2nd June, 1920, Dr. Chilton, in the absence of Professor Easterfield, President, presented to Dr. Holloway the Hutton Memorial Medal, and stated that the award was made in recognition of his researches in connection with New Zealand botany. Dr. Chilton said that the recipient's work in this direction had made his name well known throughout New Zealand, and his works were also read in England and elsewhere.

Hector Award.—The award for 1920 was made to Mr. S. Percy Smith, F.R.G.S., of New Plymouth, for research in Polynesian ethnology. On the 19th June, 1920, there was a large and representative gathering of citizens in the New Plymouth Carnegie Library, when the presentation of the Hector Medal was made by the Mayor of New Plymouth, the late Mr. James Clarke, who, together with Mr. W. T. Jennings, M.P., and Mr. W. H. Skinner, eulogistically referred to Mr. Smith's valuable work in connection with Polynesian research.

Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, volume 52, was issued to the societies in bulk in September, 1920, and to the exchanges in October. Copies of volumes 51 and 52 were laid on the tables of the Legislative Council and the House of Representatives on the 24th August, 1920.

Publications.—The following have been placed on the mailing-list by the Standing Committee, and will in future receive the Transactions as published:—

  • Forestry Department, Wellington.

  • Geological Survey Office, Dublin.

  • The Library, Advisory Research Council, Ottawa.

  • Consulate-General of the Czecho-Slovak Republic, Sydney.

  • National Herbarium of Victoria.

  • The Director, Brooklyn Botanical Gardens, New York.

  • University of Illinois.

  • The Director, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires.

  • The Director, Volcano Observatory, Hawaii Islands.

  • Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University, Jamaica Plains, U.S.A.

  • Natal Museum, Africa.

  • Director, Royal Gardens, Kew, England.

Resolutions of the Standing Committee adopted during the year and not otherwise mentioned in the report:—

1. On the 27th May it was resolved to circularize all late enemy exchanges to ascertain those which desired to continue receiving the publications of the Institute. Several societies have since signified their desire to resume relations.

2. On the 27th May it was resolved to leave the appointment of an assistant secretary in the hands of the President, with power to act. In August, Miss M. Wood, of Wellington, was appointed to this position.

3. On the 27th May it was resolved to combine with the Board of Agriculture and other interested bodies and Departments in forming a deputation to the Hon. Minister with reference to the establishment of a technological library, to include the books of the Institute under suitable safeguards so as to ensure that members should have access to them. It has not yet been possible to take action in this matter.

4. On the 27th May it was resolved to remind the Agricultural Department of the necessity for some work on New Zealand grasses, and suggest that the Department, with Mr. Petrie, again take up the matter, which had been interrupted by the war. This was done, and the Committee was informed on the 1st October that it was proposed to refer the matter to the Science and Art Board for action.

5. On the 27th May it was resolved that the President should write inviting the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science to meet in Wellington in 1923, the organization of the meeting to be left with the Wellington Philosophical Society. According to newspaper reports this invitation has been accepted.

6. On the 24th June it was resolved to appoint Professor Charles Chilton and Dr. J. Allan Thomson as delegates to the Pan-Pacific Science Congress, to be held in Honolulu in August, 1920.

7. On the 18th August it was resolved that it be a recommendation to the annual meeting that in future the description of each nominee for the Fellowship of the New Zealand Institute shall not exceed twenty lines of typewritten matter, and that the best method of obtaining this information be considered by the annual meeting.

8. On the 4th October it was resolved to thank Major Wilson for his offer to report on the wapiti of George Sound, and to accept same.

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9. On the 4th October it was resolved to appoint Professor H. B. Kirk as representative of the New Zealand Institute at the meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science to be held in Hobart in 1921. On the 29th October Dr. Cotton was appointed in place of Professor Kirk, who reported that he was unable to attend the meeting.

10. On the 4th October it was resolved that it be a recommendation to the annual meeting that the separate publication of the proceedings of the annual meeting be discontinued.

11. That it be a recommendation to the annual meeting to affirm the principle of the Standing Committee that when refusing to recommend a grant for research no reasons for doing so be given.

Amendment of New Zealand Institute Act.—On the 29th March the President wrote to the Hon. Minister of Internal Affairs laying before him the facts of the New Zealand Institute's financial position, and asking that the Government amend the New Zealand Institute Act to enable £1,000 to be paid annually, instead of £500. On the 28th July a copy of the Bill amending this Act was received, and, it having been passed and become law, the £1,000 has since been paid in to the credit of the Institute's account at the Bank of New Zealand.

Annual Reports and Balance-sheets.—The annual reports and balance-sheets of the following societies have been received. and are now laid on the table:—

  • Wellington Philosophical Society, for year ending 30th September, 1920.

  • Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, for year ending 31st October, 1920.

  • Otago Institute, for year ending 31st December, 1920.

  • Manawatu Philosophical Society, for year ending 31st October, 1920.

  • Auckland Institute, for year ending 20th February, 1920.

  • Nelson Institute, for year ending 31st December, 1920.

Donation of Partial Sets of Transactions has been made to the following:—

  • Library of Hillside Railway Workshops.

  • Library of United States Department of Agriculture, Washington.

  • Forestry Department, Wellington.

  • Director, Brooklyn Botanical Gardens, New York.

  • Director, Volcano Observatory, Hawaii Islands.

Fellowship of the New Zealand Institute.—A committee consisting of Dr. Thomson (convener), Professor Easterfield, Professor Segar, Dr. Adams, and Mr. C. A. Ewen was appointed to draw up rules for the election of Fellows of the New Zealand Institute. The original recommendations of this committee did not meet with the approval of the Standing Committee. Professor Sommerville was added to the committee, and the following rules were subsequently agreed upon, and it is suggested that these should now be gazetted as regulations for conducting future elections of Fellows:—

1. Each voter arranges all the candidates' names in order of preference.

2. The voter may bracket any number of names in any place.

3. If the voter omit the names of any of the candidates from his list these names shall be added by the returning officer, and bracketed in the last place on the voter's paper.

4. On receipt of the ballot-papers the returning officer enumerates all the preferences. In the case of a small electorate this may be done conveniently in the following way: A schedule is prepared for each candidate on computing-paper, containing in the top row the names of the candidates, or the letters representing them, and in the left margin the numbers denoting the different ballot-papers. The spaces are then filled, entering “2” for a preference as against the candidate whose name stands at the top of the column, and “1” in the case of a bracket (Table II).* The columns are then summed, and the numbers transferred to another schedule (Table III), in which the names of the candidate are placed both in the top row and in the left margin. Table III then gives for each pair of candidates—e.g., A and B—the number of times A is preferred to B and B to A, each multiplied by 2. It is most convenient to arrange the table so that A's preferences are in a column. The numbers may be checked by noting that A's preferences against B plus B's preferences against A are always equal to the number of voters multiplied by 2.

5. The columns in Table III are then summed. The sums are checked by summing the sums, the total of which should be equal to np (p1), where p is the number of candidates and n the number of voters.

[Footnote] * It is more usual to enter “1” for a preference and “½” for a bracket, but by taking the numbers 2 and 1 the awkward fractions are eliminated, and the final results are the same.

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6. The candidate with the lowest total is then rejected and his row is struck out. The columns are again summed, or, more conveniently, the numbers in the cancelled row are subtracted from the previous sums. The results are checked again by summing to the total n (p1) (p2).

7. The candidate who now has the lowest total is rejected, and the process is continued until the number left is equal to the number of vacancies.

8. If at any stage two or more candidates are equal with the smallest totals they must be rejected together, provided that the number of candidates left is not less than the number of vacancies. In the latter case the candidate or candidates for the last place should be decided by drawing lots.*

Professor Sommerville has worked out a hypothetical election, and has supplied an example of the calculations (to be exhibited at the meeting).

The following references may be consulted: E. J. Nanson, “Methods of Election,” Trans. Roy. Soc. Victoria, 1882; G. Hogben, “Preferential Voting in Single-member Constituencies, with Special Reference to the Counting of Votes,” Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 46, p. 304, 1914; D. M. Y. Sommerville, “A Problem in Voting,” Proc. Math. Soc. Edinburgh, 1910, p. 23.

The Standing Committee suggest, in addition to these rules, one making it obligatory on the society which forwards nominations to certify that it has obtained consent of every nominee.

All the incorporated societies were circularized on the 12th April, 1920, to send in nominations, to be accompanied by a statement of the candidates' qualifications. Wellington, Auckland, Canterbury, and Otago Societies sent in twenty nominations, which were issued to the Fellows for them to make a selection of eight. On the 18th August Professor Segar was appointed by the Standing Committee to act as honorary returning officer, and on the 23rd October he forwarded the results of the selection, which was communicated to every Governor on the 27th October, 1920. It now remains for the Board of Governors to elect from these the number of Fellows it is decided to elect, up to four Fellows, to accord with Regulation 23 of the regulations governing the Fellowship of the New Zealand Institute.

Catalogue of New Zealand Fishes.—The Hon. G. M. Thomson and Dr. J. Allan Thomson were appointed a committee to compile an estimate of the cost of such a catalogue. Their estimate of £1,725 was forwarded to the Hon. Minister of Internal Affairs, who replied on the 22nd October, 1920, that the matter was being dealt with by the Marine Department, and the Minister of Marine had directed that it was to be held over for consideration with next year's estimates.

Resolutions of the Science Congress, Christchurch, 1919.—Some further information in regard to these had come to hand:—

1. (a.) The Hon. Minister of Lands replied on the 15th November, 1920, that his Department fully recognized the importance of establishing bench-marks and tide-gauges. In 1908 permanent bench-marks connected to tide-gauges were established at Auckland, Wellington, Lyttelton, Port Chalmers, Nelson, and Westport. In 1918 two additional bench-marks connected to mean sea-level were established at New Plymouth and Dunedin, and other bench-marks and tide-gauges will be erected at various places on the coast from time to time when the importance of the records obtained from them for useful or scientific purposes warrants their establishment. Precise levelling connecting the bench-marks is contemplated in the near future.

(b.) An electrograph recording the variations of the electrical state of the atmosphere had been suggested by Dr. Chree, F.R.S., of Kew Observatory, and had been ordered from England.

2. The Hon. Minister of Mines had reported on the 2nd November, 1920, that Mr. J. Marwick, M.A., with first-class honours in geology, had been appointed to the position of Assistant Geologist, to specialize in palaeontology.

3. (a.) The Hon. Minister of Internal Affairs replied on the 13th November, 1920, that legislation was introduced this session to give effect to the recommendation to alter the standard time from eleven hours and a half to twelve hours in advance of Greenwich mean time, but it was not possible to place it upon the statute-book.

(b.) The matter of introducing fresh legislation to preserve the native fauna, and also of taking measures to promote education on the subject in the schools, will be considered during the recess.

(c.) Regarding the offer of Yale Observatory, it has been decided that Dr. Adams, Government Astronomer, should visit Otago and report on suitable sites for the establishment of an observatory.

[Footnote] * The alternative to this is to take a fresh ballot with these candidates alone; but, as it is evident that in this case the preferences of the voters as a whole must be very indifferent as regards these candidates, it is quite fair that it should be decided by lot and thus avoid the vexation of a second ballot.

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Collection of New Zealand Coleoptera.—On learning of the desire of the New Zealand Institute to have Major Broun's collection of coleoptera retained in New Zealand for a time in order to give entomologists an opportunity to refer to it and determine authentic specimens of as many species as possible, the British Museum authorities wrote, on the 17th March, 1920, agreeing that the collection should be housed in the Dominion Museum for a period of two years. A copy of their letter was forwarded to the Hon. Minister of Internal Affairs, who replied on the 23rd June, 1920, that if the British Museum authorities would agree to extend the period of deposit from two to five years he would agree to find fireproof storage and skilled attention for the collection, and give a permit to export the collection at the end of that period.

Index to Last Ten Volumes.—The index to the last ten volumes of the Transactions,. which had been compiled by a returned soldier paid to do the work by Major R. A. Wilson, D.S.O., had been approved by the Standing Committee after referring it to Professor Kirk and Dr. Cotton, and is in course of publication.

Dixon's Bulletin of Mosses.—It was resolved that the Publications Committee be authorized to proceed with the publication of Dixon's bulletin on the mosses of New Zealand, the cost not to exceed £60.

Scheme of Scientific and Industrial Research.—A proposal of the Science and Art Board for a Board of Trustees to control the Dominion Museum, Turnbull Library, Scientific and Technological Library, Dominion Art Gallery, and the publication of scientific and historical papers, including also the control by the same Board of the organization of scientific and industrial research, was considered by the Standing Committee. The committee could not support the association of the organization of scientific and industrial research with the control of the Dominion Museum, &c., and agreed that in case the Government could not see its way to expend the sum recommended by the Efficiency Commissioners the following scheme should be approved:—

1.

That the annual sum to be appropriated for scientific and industrial research be £6,000, to be divided as follows: (a) £1,000 should be distributed in small grants to investigators working in the Dominion who were unable to devote their whole time to research; (b) £4,000 to £5,000 should be distributed in salaries and travelling and other expenses to those who are able to devote their whole time to carrying out research under approved supervision.

2.

That the distribution of the £6,000 be effected by the New Zealand Institute, subject to such safeguards as the Minister thought best. The salaries paid to investigators to be of sufficient amount to enable them to live.

3.

That the scheme of local advisory committees described on page 57 of Mr. Hogben's scheme (National Efficiency Board's Report, Schedule II) should be given effect to.

4.

That the President should make it clear to the Minister that only the smallness of the amount available had necessitated the modification of the original scheme of the Institute as set forth in the National Efficiency Board's report.

It was left with the President to put the above matter before the Hon. Minister.

Contoured Topographical Map.—A resolution passed at the last annual meeting urging the necessity of a contoured topographical map was forwarded to the Hon. Minister of Lands, who replied on the 25th October, 1920, that he regretted that owing to interruptions and delays occasioned by the war it had not been possible to organize a staff or to obtain the necessary equipment to undertake this pressing work.

Catalogue of Scientific Literature.—The resolution of the last annual meeting expressing the view that the catalogue would be of little value without the subject-index, and offering to urge the Government to subsidize a subscription for three further copies of the catalogue, was forwarded to the Royal Society. The society held a conference in September, 1920, to discuss the future of the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature, and the Standing Committee asked Professor Dendy to represent the New Zealand Institute at that conference. Unfortunately, Professor Dendy was able to attend only the opening meeting of the conference, but he forwarded the agenda paper, reports, and balance-sheets which were presented at the conference, and since then the report of the conference has come to hand.

Regulations to be gazetted.—A committee consisting of Professor Easterfield, Dr. J. Allan Thomson, Mr. C. A. Ewen, and Mr. B. C. Aston was appointed to formulate resolutions of the Institute which have the force of regulations, in order that where advisable they might be gazetted.

Yellow-leaf Disease in Flax.—A resolution from the last annual meeting urging the Government to take steps to investigate the yellow-leaf in flax, and suggesting that this could best be done by assisting the Cawthron Institute to obtain a plant pathologist, was forwarded to the Hon. Minister of Agriculture, who replied on the 14th July

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that officers of the Department of Agriculture had carried out extensive investigations into the cause and treatment of yellow-leaf disease in New Zealand flax, and some experimental work initiated by them was still in progress; and that, as it was intended to continue the investigations, it was not considered necessary to provide funds for the Cawthron Institute to deal with the matter.

Thermal Regions of New Zealand.—A resolution passed on the 31st January, 1914, at the twelth annual meeting, to the effect that the Government be urged to undertake the preparation of a complete scientific report on the thermal regions of the North Island, and that the matter of choosing a time for approaching the Government be left in the hands of the Standing Committee, with power to act, has not yet been put into effect, as the Standing Committee has not considered the time opportune for approaching the Government on the matter.

Kapiti Island.—A committee was last year set up by the Hon. Minister of Lands, who asked that a member to act on that committee be appointed by the Standing Committee to represent the Institute. Professor Kirk was accordingly appointed by the Standing Committee to represent the New Zealand Institute. It is to be regretted that the clause in the “washing-up” Bill empowering the Government to purchase the native interests in this island was thrown out by the Native Committee.

Science Congress, Palmerston North.—The invitation of the Manawatu Philosophical Society to hold a Science Congress in Palmerston North in 1921 having been accepted, it was decided to place the Manawatu Society on the same footing as the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury had been placed when the Congress was held in Christchurch, with the exception that certain officers were appointed by the Standing Committee to be Presidents and Secretaries of the various sections, and on these officers devolved the responsibility of carrying out the arrangements and work of their particular sections. Dr. J. Allan Thomson was also appointed Hon. Secretary of the Scientific Programme. It was resolved, too, that twenty guests, to be entertained by the Manawatu Philosophical Society, should be invited by the Institute.

Hamilton Prize.–Negotiations between the Standing Committee and representatives of the Wellington Philosophical Society had been entered into with a view to formulate the rules and regulations which should govern the yearly award of the Hamilton Prize. A draft of the rules which have been drawn up by the President in consultation with Mr. Von Haast is as follows:—

“Rules and Regulations made by the Governors of the New Zealand Institute in relation to the Hamilton Memorial Fund.

“1. The fund placed in the hands of the Board by the Wellington Philosophical Society shall be called ‘The Hamilton Memorial Fund,’ in memory of the late Augustus Hamilton, Esq. Such fund shall consist of the moneys subscribed and granted for the purpose of the memorial and all other funds which may be given or granted for the same purpose.

“2. The fund shall be vested in the Institute. The Board of Governors of the Institute shall have the control thereof, and shall invest the same in the Common Fund of the Public Trust Office.

“3. The memorial shall be a prize to be called ‘The Hamilton Memorial Prize,’ the object of which shall be the encouragement of beginners in scientific research in New Zealand.

“4. The prize shall be awarded at intervals of not less than three years by the Governors assembled in annual meeting, but in no case shall an award be made unless in the opinion of the Governors some contribution deserving of the honour has been made. The first award shall be made at the annual meeting of the Governors in 1922.

“5. The prize shall be awarded for scientific research work carried out in New Zealand or in the islands of the South Pacific Ocean, which has been published within the five years preceding the 1st day of July prior to the annual meeting at which the award is made. Such publication may consist of one or more papers and shall include the first investigation published by the author. No candidate shall be eligible for the prize who prior to such period of five years has published the result of any scientific investigation.

“6. The prize shall consist of money. Until the principal of the fund amounts to £100, one-half of the interest shall be added annually to the principal and the other half shall be applied towards the payment of the prize. So soon as the said principal amounts to £100, the whole of the interest thereon shall be applied in payment of the prize, in each case after the payment of all expenses necessarily incurred by the Governors in the investment and administration of the said fund and the award of the said prize.

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“7. A candidate for the prize shall send to the Secretary of the New Zealand Institute, on or before the 30th day of June preceding the date of the annual meeting at which the award is to be made, an intimation of his candidature, together with at least two copies of each publication on which his application is based.

“8. Whenever possible the prize shall be presented in some public manner.”

Samoan Observatory Committee.—A committee consisting of Professors T. H. Easterfield, C. Coleridge Farr, E. Marsden, D. M. Y. Sommerville, and Mr. G. Hogben was set up to confer with the Government Astronomer and the Hon. Minister of External Affairs as to the best means to be adopted for the maintenance of the Samoan Observatory. On the 12th February this committee consulted with the Hon. Minister and the Government Astronomer. At a meeting of the Standing Committee held on the 25th June it was resolved that Dr. C. A. Cotton, Dr. C. E. Adams, and Mr. A. C. Gifford be added to the committee; that the scope of the committee be enlarged to allow it to make representations on all matters relating to earth physics and astronomy in New Zealand and dependencies, the committee to act strictly through the Standing Committee of the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute. It was resolved to ask the Observatory Committee to concentrate at present upon the following lines of work:—

(1.)

Investigation of the most suitable site for a central astronomical observatory.

(2.)

Consideration of the means of acceptance of the Yale offer.

(3.)

Reliable estimates of costs to be framed on all matters in connection with the above.

(4.)

Any report to take into consideration the desirability of retaining in their present sites any seismographs.

(5.)

To report on the desirability of instituting a vulcanological observatory in New Zealand.

The following resolutions of the Observatory Committee were forwarded to the Hon. Minister of Internal Affairs, who replied that the fullest consideration would be given to the report and recommendations:—

“That the Committee, having heard of the munificent offer of the Yale Observatory of astronomical instruments of the highest grade, strongly urges the acceptance of the offer by the Government. The committee is of the opinion that most advantageous use can be made of the offer by combining at one central spot the equipment of the Hector Observatory and the Christchurch Magnetic Observatory with the Yale instruments. The committee considers that some site in the highlands of Central Otago could be found offering astronomical and geophysical conditions that would be unique in the Southern Hemisphere. Further, the combination of the observatories in one locality would be a distinct economy compared with the present separate establishments. The increased facilities which would thus be offered to the scientific staffs for mutual discussion and co-ordination of work would of necessity tend to greater efficiency. If these suggestions meet with the approval of the Government the committee will be glad to aid by giving further advice as to the scope of the proposed single observatory and its cost.

“That this committee, having heard and considered Professor Marsden's report on the Samoan Observatory, cordially endorses the opinions and recommendations contained therein. The committee is of the opinion that the work being carried on in Samoa is of the very greatest scientific and economic importance, and strongly urges that an immediate decision be made to carry on the work of the observatory.

“That the committee, having considered Dr. Adams's letter to the President of the New Zealand Institute, is of opinion that the scope of the committee should be enlarged to cover matters relating to New Zealand's observatories, and that the committee should be empowered to make recommendations in the name of the Institute for unifying the work and control of such observatories. That in order to carry out such larger functions the committee be given power to co-opt other suitable scientific gentlemen to aid in their deliberations. That the permanency of such a committee be considered at the next annual meeting of the Board.”

The following is a report of the Observatory Committee, held on the 25th June:—

“A. Samoan Observatory.—The committee, having heard of Professor Angenheister's early retirement from the post of Director of Apia Observatory, deputes Drs. C. Coleridge Farr and C. E. Adams to approach the President of the Institute with a view of urging upon the Minister of External Affairs the urgent necessity of appointing a successor. The committee recommends that a committee of selection be set up, consisting of Sir A. Schuster, Dr. Chree, and G. W. Walker, F.R.S., such selection committee to consider the claims of Messrs. Kidson and Johnston. The committee further suggests that an Assistant Director is urgently required at Samoa, and that this assistant could probably be obtained in New Zealand.

“B. Yale Offer—The committee reiterates its original proposals of the 9th April, and is of the opinion that the acceptance of this offer, together with the concentration

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of the astronomical and geophysical activities in New Zealand, will not cost more than £1,000 per annum in addition to what is already spent. The committee desires the Institute to request the Hon. Minister of Internal Affairs to give leave of absence to Dr. C. E. Adams, so that he may undertake an investigation of suitable sites for an observatory, the investigation to commence with Central Otago. The committee suggests that, other things being equal, the farther south the proposed site is situated the better.”

“C. Vulcanological Observatory.—The committe considers that, although the matter of a vulcanological observatory is not as immediately urgent as the co-operation with Yale, it is in entire sympathy with its proposed establishment. Although this observatory would naturally not be situated at the same place as the proposed central observatory, it might come under the guidance of the same committee of visitors to be appointed by the Institute. The committee understands that there is a report from Dr. Jaggar, and after seeing that report it hopes to give further deliberation to the subject.”

The above report was forwarded to the Hon. Ministers of External and Internal Affairs, and the following reply was received from the latter:—

“Yale offer: The representations of your committee thereon are noted. Dr. Schlesinger was written to some little time ago and asked to supply further details in regard to the offer of telescopes, &c., and it had been decided that until a reply is received the question of the Government Astronomer proceeding to Central Otago or elsewhere to investigate the most suitable site for a Government Observatory has to stand over.” (The Minister subsequently stated that Dr. Adams was to visit Otago at once for the purpose of investigation as above.) “It is noted that the committee is in entire sympathy with the proposal to establish a vulcanological observatory in New Zealand. The Director of the Dominion Museum on his recent visit to Honolulu was instructed to report on the vulcanological observatory work being done there, and to make a recommendation on his return as to whether it is desirable or otherwise to establish an observatory on similar lines in this Dominion. In the meantime I have pleasure in forwarding herewith a copy of Dr. Jaggar's report.”

Dr. jaggar's report has since been published in the Journal of Science and Technology (vol. 3, pp. 162–67, 1920).

Method of electing Fellows.—It was resolved, on the motion of Dr. Cockayne, seconded by Professor Segar, that a committee be appointed to draw up rules for a simple method of voting.

It was resolved, on the motion of Dr. Cockayne, seconded by Professor Segar, that Professor H. W. Segar, Professor D. M. Y. Sommerville, Dr. J. Allan Thomson, and the President be a committee to draw up the simple rules for election.

It was resolved, on the motion of Archdeacon Williams, seconded by Mr. Wright, that the question as to whether in any one year the Governors shall be obliged to fill all the vacancies be submitted to the committee on voting, and that if necessary they recommend a method of procedure to meet the case.

Index to Last Ten Volumes.—On the motion of Professor Kirk, seconded by Dr. Thomson, it was resolved, That the Institute express its appreciation of Major Wilson's action in having a manuscript index of the last ten volumes of the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute prepared and handing over the index to the Institute for publication.

Scientific and Industrial Research.—The President read a copy of his letter of the 27th July to the Minister. On the motion of Dr. Chilton, seconded by Dr. Hilgendorf, the action of the President was approved.

Hamilton Prize.—The President made a statement as to the correspondence and conference with the Wellington Philosophical Society. The draft regulations for administering the prize as drawn up by Mr. Von Haast were read and approved. On the motion of the President it was resolved, That application be made forthwith to the Wellington Philosophical Society to hand over the moneys of the Hamilton Memorial Fund for administration by the New Zealand Institute, in conformity with the above rules.

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Circulation of Proceedings of this Meeting.—On the motion of Dr. Hilgendorf, seconded by Mr. Wright, it was resolved, That the issue of separate copies of the minutes of the annual meeting of the Board of Governors be discontinued, but that copies of an abstract of the minutes be sent to each incorporated society as soon as possible.

Finance.—On the motion of Professor Kirk, seconded by the Ven. Archdeacon Williams, it was resolved, That the Institute express to the Hon. Minister of Internal Affairs its appreciation of the action of the Government in forwarding the passing of the New Zealand Institute Amendment Act, 1920.

Election of Fellows.—Correspondence between the Standing Committee and Professor Park in connection with the election of Fellows was read and discussed. Professor Segar was appointed honorary returning officer, and it was decided that voting-papers could be handed in either at this meeting or in Palmerston North.

Hector Award.—The report of the Hector Award Committee, recommending that the award for 1921 be awarded to Mr. R. Speiglit, of Canterbury Museum, was read and adopted.

Report of Hector Memrial Award Committee.

The committee that was appointed to make the award of the Hector Medal for 1921 have unanimously decided to recommend to the Institute the name of Mr. R. Speight, M.A., M.Sc., F.G.S., F.N.Z.Inst.

The committee considers that there is no lack of geologists in New Zealand who are fully qualified by their ability and work to be recipients of the medal. We are unanimously of opinion that Mr. Speight has special claims to the honour in virtue of his valuable work in petrology, physiography, and stratigraphy, which has been carried on continuously with energy and zeal since 1892.

P. Marshall.

Annual Meeting.—It was resolved that the next annual meeting be held on Tuesday, 31st January, 1922.

The meeting at 3.30 p.m. adjourned to Palmerston North, to sit again on Monday, 24th instant, at 9 a.m.

The adjourned meeting was held in the High School, Palmerston North, at 9 a.m. on Monday, 24th January, 1921.

Present: Professor Easterfield (President), Mr. B. C. Aston, Dr. L. Cockayne, Professor Charles Chilton, Mr. M. A. Eliott, Hon. G. M. Thomson, Dr. J. Allan Thomson, Mr. A. M. Wright, and Ven. Archdeacon H. W. Williams.

Financial Statements.—Hon. Treasurer's reports: The statements of receipts and expenditure, and liabilities and assets, duly audited by the Auditor-General, were read and approved.

On the motion of Dr. J. Allan Thomson, seconded by Ven. Archdeacon Williams, it was resolved, That each year, unless otherwise provided for by resolution of the Board of Governors, the annual interest on the Endowment Fund be added to the capital of the fund,

On the motion of the Ven. Archdeacon Williams, seconded by Mr. M. A. Eliott, it was resolved, That for every copy of Volume 53 of the Transactions received by the incorporated societies a contribution of 2s. 6d. towards the cost of printing shall be made during the current year by such society.

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New Zealand Institute.—Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for the
Year ending
31st December, 1920.
Receipts. £ s. d. Expenditure. £ s. d.
Balance at 3lsfc December, 1919 1,818 4 8 Government Printer 83 19 0
Government statutory grant 1,000 0 0 Whitcombe and Tombs—stationery 1 2 9
Publications sold 108 3 9 Travelling-expenses of Governors 37 16 0
Affiliated societies' levy 116 0 0
Government grants for research 800 0 0 Petty cash, postages, and clerical 53 6 2
Assistant secretary-salary 69 6 0
Fire-insurance premium 5 0 0
Bank charge 0 10 0
Travelling - expenses, Professor Farr, Samoan Committee 7 11 6
Subantarctic Report par-chased 2 1 8
Whitcombe and Tombs—binding 4 5 0
Research grants, as per list 1,041 7 11
Balance, as under 2,536 2 5
£3,842 8 5 £3,842 8 5

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Balance in— £ s. d.
   Bank of New Zealand 479 17 9
   Post Office Savings-bank 2,056 4 8
£2,536 2 5
Made up as follows— £ s. d.
   Endowment Fund 56 4 8
   Balance Government research grants 1,268 5 1
   Institute's General Purposes Account 965 17 8
   Library Fund 245 15 0
£2,536 2 5

Chas. A. Ewen, Hon. Treasurer.

The Audit Office, having examined the balance-sheet and accompanying accounts required by law to be audited, hereby certifies the same to be correct.

R. J. Collins,
Controller and Auditor-General.

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New Zealand Institute.—Statement of Liabilities and Assets, at 31st December, 1920.
Liabilities. £ s. d. Assets. £ s. d.
To Hector Memorial Fund 1,062 0 0 By Balance in Public Trustee's hands—
   Hutton Memorial Fund 898 19 5
   Carter Bequest 4,780 5 9       Hector Memorial Fund 1,062 0 0
   Balance Government research, grants 1,268 5 1       Hutton Memorial Fund 898 19 5
      Carter Bequest 4,780 5 9
   Balance Endowmentz Fund 56 4 8    Outstanding accounts 13 0 7
   Bank of New Zealand 479 17 9
   Government Printer's Accounts—    Post Office Savings-bank 2,056 4 8
      Vol. 52, £870 0 0
      Extracts, &c. 33 4 5
903 4 5
   Unpaid accounts 43 18 0
   Library Fund 245 15 0
   Balance in hand 31 15 10
£9,290 8 2 £9,290 8 2
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New Zealand Institute.Government Research Grants.
Dr. Cr.
1920. £ s. d. £ s. d.
Jan. 1. By Balance on hand 1,509 13 0
May 14.    Government grant 200 0 0
July 7.    Government grant 150 0 0
July 28.    Government grant 200 0 0
July 28.    Government grant 50 0 0
July 28.    Government grant 50 0 0
Dec. 3.    Government grant 100 0 0
Dec. 3.    Government grant 50 0 0
Jan. 20. To Grant to Lancaster and Cornes 15 0 0
Jan. 24.    Grant to Dr. Allan Thomson 28 0 0
Jan. 28.    Grant to Mr. W. G. Morrison 40 0 0
Jan. 29.    Grant to Professor Marsden 50 0 0
Feb. 12.    Grant to Professor Easterfield 45 0 0
Feb. 13.    Grant to Dr. Thomson 30 15 0
Feb. 19.    Grant to Professor C. C. Farr 95 0 0
Feb. 24.    Grant to Professor Malcolm 35 0 0
Mar. 8.    Grant to Professor Farr 15 0 0
Mar. 30.    Grant to Dr. Adams 50 0 0
April 30.    Grant to Professor Malcolm 20 0 0
May 28.    Grant to Professor Evans 120 0 0
June 22.    Grant to Professor Easterfield 60 0 0
July 19.    Grant to Professor Malcolm 25 0 0
July 19.    Grant to Mr. H. D. Skinner 21 10 0
July 28.    Grant to Sir D. E. Hutchins 25 0 0
Aug. 12.    Grant to Mr. H. D. Skinner 43 0 0
Sept. 3.    Grant to Professor Malcolm 25 0 0
Sept. 6.    Grant to Mr. H. D. Skinner 41 10 0
Oct. 6.    Grant to Professor Evans 60 0 0
Oct. 15.    Grant to Miss K. M. Curtis 21 0 0
Nov. 5.    Grant to Mr. H. D. Skinner 69 0 0
Nov. 16.    Grant to Mr. G. S. Thomson 50 0 0
Nov. 15.    Grant to Mr. H. D. Skinner 21 10 0
Dec. 3.    Grant to Professor Marsden 20 0 0
Dec. 3.    Grant to Professor Marsden 14 14 5
1,041 7 11
Balance 1,268 5 1
£2,309 13 0 £2,309 13 0

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Hutton Memorial Research Fund.Statement of Account for the Year ending 31st December, 1920.
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
By Balance 856 14 5
   Public Trust Office—
      Interest to 31st December, 1920, at 4 ½ per cent. £ s. d.
38 11 0
      Bonus to 31st March, 1920 3 14 0
To Balance 898 19 5 42 5 0
£898 19 5 £898 19 5
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Hector Memorial Fund.Statement of Account for the Year ending 31st December, 1920.
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
By Balance 1, 057 3 11
   Public Trust Office—
      Interest of 31st December, 1920, at 4 ½ per cent. £ s. d.
45 4 1
      Bonus interest to 31st March, 1920 4 12 0
To New Zealand Institute Account— 49 16 19
      S. Percy Smith: Hector Prize for 1920 45 0 0
   Balance 1,062 0 0
£1,107 0 0 £1,107 0 0
By Balance £1,062 0 0

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Carter Bequest.Statement of Account for the Year ending 31st December, 1920.
Dr. Cr.
£ s. d. £ s. d.
By Balance 4,555 11 6
   Public Trust Office—
      Interest to 31st December, 1920, at 4 ½ per cent. £ s. d.
205 0 3
      Bonus on interest to 31st March, 1920 19 14 0
224 14 3
To Balance 4,780 5 9
£4 780 5 9
By Balance £4,780 5 9
Assets. £ s. d.
Balance as per accounts £4,780 5 9
Liabilities. £ s. d.
Legacy—Museum and New Zealand Institute 50 0 0
Public Trustee's commission At scale rates.

Public Trustee's reports on (a) Carter Bequest, (b) Hutton Memorial Fund, (c) Hector Memorial Fund, were received.

Hutton Research Grant Fund.—A report from Miss Mestayer was received.

Report of Grant from Hutton Research Fund.

Miss Mestayer, who was granted £10 from the Hutton Fund, reports that during the year she received the drawings of three new species of Amphineurs from Miss J. K. Allan, and of an established species needed for the purpose of comparison, the account for which was £4 5s. Miss Mestayer has been able to finish, and hand in to the Hon. Secretary of the Wellington Philosophical Society the paper relating to them. Another short paper, for which no drawings were required, was also handed to him. There is a balance of £5 on hand.

Government Research Grant Fund.—The report of the Research Grant Committee was received and considered. On the motion of Ven. Archdeacon Williams, seconded by Mr. Eliott, it was resolved, That all unexpended balances of research grants made prior to January, 1919, be refunded on or before 31st March in the present year, the grantee in each case being left free to apply for a renewal of the grant.

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The administration of the grants made to Dr. Adams and the question of the unexpended balance of the vote to the late Sir David Hutchins were left in the hands of the Standing Committee to deal with.

With regard to the grant to Mr. Morrison, on the motion of Dr. Cockayne, seconded by Dr. Thomson, it was resolved, That the Standing Committee be instructed to ascertain from the Forestry Department whether they are prepared to give Mr. Morrison facilities for carrying out his research and so relieve the Research Fund of this expense.

Report of Research Grant Committee, 1920.
(Dr. J. Allan Thomson, Mr. Furkert, and Mr. Aston.)

(For previous reports see Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 60, p. 333; vol. 51, p. 462; and vol. 52, p. 479.)

Professor J. Malcolm, who in 1919 was granted £275, and in 1920 £150, through the Otago Institute, for a research on the chemical composition and food value of New Zealand fishes, reported on the 3rd December, 1920, that Mrs. D. E. Johnson, B.Sc., had, under his supervision, continued this research throughout the year. Samples of groper and kingfish were analysed at fairly regular intervals from February to September to give some idea of the seasonal variations. Some new varieties were analysed—e.g., whitebait—and a detailed qualitative analysis of the edible parts of the groper had been commenced, and the results would be published in vol. 53, Trans. N.Z. Inst., as Part II of the series of papers on the subject. About £220 had been expended, and liability for apparatus ordered but not come to hand had been incurred up to about £50, leaving a balance of about £150. Professor Malcolm desires to continue the research next year.

Professor J. Malcolm, who in 1918 was granted £30 through the Otago Institute for a research on New Zealand plant poisons, reported on the 3rd December, 1920, that owing to the claims of University work and the research of the food values of fish he had been unable to complete the work, and, as there still remained about £14 unexpended, he would like to have the time extended for another year.

Dr. C. Chilton, who in 1918 was granted £50 through the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury for investigation on the New Zealand flax (phormium), reported on the 22nd November, 1920, that owing to Mrs. Dr. B. D. McCallum being still in Edinburgh, and it being impossible to find any one to continue the work, no progress had been made with this research. He hoped that one of the students now finishing their honours course would be able to take up the work; if not, the balance of the grant would be refunded.

Mr. H. D. Skinner, who in 1920 was granted £200 through the Otago Institute for work among the South Island Maoris, reported on the 15th November, 1920, that Mr. Beattle, his assistant, had been working in the field between the Bluff and Kaiapoi, and had secured a large amount of entirely new material relating to Maori life in Otago, Canterbury, Westland, and Nelson. In view of the scantiness of the material previously recorded from the South Island, Mr. Beattie's results are of very great importance. An amount of £3 10s. is still unexpended.

Messrs. R. Speight and L. J. Wild, who in 1916 were granted £50 through the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury for a research on the phosphatic limestones of Canterbury, reported on the 21st October, 1920, that it had not been possible to do any work in connection with this grant during the current year, and no further sum had been expended, so that the amount of £7 remaining from last year is still left over, and the grantees would be glad if the Board would consent to its being available for the ensuing year, when it is confidently expected that the investigation will be completed. It is still possible, though not probable, that one or two outlying masses of limestone not yet examined may furnish material in commercial amount, and their possibilities should be thoroughly determined before the research is discontinued.

Mr. R. Speight, who in 1919 was granted £225 through the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury for a geological survey of Malvern Hills, reported on the 21st October, 1920, that the work had been carried out during the year, and a complete examination had been made of Cordys Flat and the country adjoining it. This work had been facilitated by the recommencement of prospecting in the neighbourhood of Hill's old mine, and the results encourage the hope that payable coal may be located in the flat, but further prospecting, either by shafts or by boring, on some plan, will have to be resorted to before the existence of a payable field can be established. An investigation of other parts of the district is in progress, and may yet disclose the presence of large

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and payable deposits. The investigations carried on up to the present are of the nature of field-work, and it is hoped that during the ensuing year arrangements may be possible with the Chemical Laboratory at Canterbury College which will allow the chemical and physical properties of the sands and clays to be determined with accuracy. The work involved an expenditure of £15 3s. 6d.

Mr. L. J. Wild, who in 1918 was granted £30 through the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury for a research on soils, reported on the 10th December, 1920, that some of the material collected in connection with this grant had been used in a paper “On the Calcium-carbonate Content of some Canterbury Soils,” which had been published in the N.Z. Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 3, No. 2. The sum of 18s. only had been expended.

Messrs. Lancaster and Cornes, who in 1919 were granted £50 through the Auckland Institute for a research on the growth of New Zealand timber-trees, reported on the 30th October, 1920, that owing to Mr. Cornes's removal to Nelson and to a heavy University College session very little headway had been made with this research. Mr. Lancaster trusted, however, that he would soon be able to devote a considerable time to the growth of kauri, and he was engaged in making a careful analysis of microscope sections of the stems of young kauri to determine whether the kauri, particularly when young, produced one ring of wood per year. None of the grant had been expended.

The late Sir David Hutchins, who in 1920 was granted £60 through the Wellington Philosophical Society for research in forestry, reported on the 1st November 1920, that he had made journeys to Napier, to the Taupo Totara Timber Company, and to the King-country, making daily journeys into the bush with the bushmen and examining the trees as they were felled. At the same time collections of young planted trees of known ages were examined and measured up as opportunities offered. He had obtained sufficient figures to complete his growth-data for white-pine, rimu, and totara (kauri being already completed). He required only data for celery-top and a few minor timbers. Expenses amounting to £53 11s. had been incurred. A further application for a grant of £25 to Sir David had been approved by the Standing Committee, but his lamentable death rendered this grant unnecessary. Your committee learns with satisfaction that the whole of the notes and the manuscripts left by the late gentleman have been handed over unconditionally to the Forestry Department, the chiefs of which are anxious to have some use made of the material. It is suggested that a grant from the research vote should be made to some competent person working under the direction of the Secretary of the Forestry Department to collate the material left by Sir D. Hutchins in order that what is suitable should be finally edited by Mr. E. Phillips Turner and published.

Professor W. P. Evans, who in 1920 was granted a further £200 through the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury for a research on New Zealand coals, reported on the 10th December, 1920, that an analysis had been made of Avoca, Taratu, Coal Creek Mat, Puponga, and Charleston coals; distillation tests, producer runs, and extractions had been made of a number of coals; and calorific values had been taken of Homebush, Mossbank, Mount Somere, Inangahua, Taratu, Kaitangata, Coal Creek Flat, Puponga, and Charleston coals. An analysis of gas from Charleston, coals, an estimation of sulphuretted hydrogen in producer-gas, and experiments with residues from oils in Klaitangata, Avoca, and Charleston coals had also been completed. Experiments with coaldust had been postponed pending further more detailed reports of work in the United States of America. Mr. Grilling had been most assiduous in carrying on the experimental portion of the work. Professor Evans applied for a further grant of £200, as there remains only about £60 of the old grant. £150 is for the salary of an assistant and the remainder for the apparatus. This grant has been approved subject to the Hon. Minister's approval.

Mr. G. Brittin, who in 1919 was granted £100 through the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury for a research in fruit-diseases, reported on the 7th December that the work for the past twelve months had been very satisfactory in regard to the experimental portion, but, owing to the instruments and books indented not having arrived, very little could be done microscopically. Pruning had again been carried out on the same lines, and had again proved beneficial in regard to die-back of the fruit-trees. Spraying had also been conducted experimentally, and had proved very satisfactory in preventing bud-dropping. A paper on the research was now ready for publication, and is to be forwarded to the Journal of Agriculture. Experimental work had also been done in regard to Venturia inequalis (black spot) and Sclerotinia fructigena (brown rot). There remained a balance of about £97.

Professor C. Coleridge Farr, who in 1919 was granted £100, and in 1920 an additional £30, through the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, for a research on the

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porosity of high-voltage insulators, reported on the 19th November, 1920, that £110 had been expended in constructing a testing-vessel and the mechanical appliances necessary for manipulating the heavy masses of iron which were required in the construction of a vessel to stand such high pressure. The tests were entirely satisfactory. The testing-vessel stood a pressure of 2,000 lb. to the square inch for several days without serious leakage. The tests for porosity were made on complete unbroken insulators. These tests proved that the breakdowns upon the Lake Coleridge system were in a very large measure due to porous insulators, and a test was devised which was imposed upon recent tenderers for Insulators for the Dominion by the Public Works Department. It is hoped shortly to publish a detailed account of the tests and the results arrived at from them. An application from Dr. Farr for a farther grant of £75 for a research into the physical properties of gas-free sulphur has been approved subject to the Hon. Minister's consent.

Miss K. M. Curtis, who in 1920 was granted £100 through the Nelson Institute for a research in parasitic mycology, and in particular with reference to fruit-tree disease in New Zealand, reported on the 13th December, 1920, that the question being considered in connection with the black spot of apple and the brown rot of stone-fruits is that of Immunity to disease. The experiments are being run conjointly for the two diseases, and those so far carried out concern the determination of the optimum physical conditions for spore-germination, the selection of the most suitable media to secure the rapidity, the greatest percentage, and the virility of cultures following spore-germination, and the determination of the age-limits of the cultures within which infection of the host can be relied upon to take place. The sum of £21 has been received, and will cover the cost of certain books ordered.

Mr. George Gray, who in 1920 was granted £50 through the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury for an investigation on the waters of Canterbury, reported on the 14th December, 1920, that owing to delay caused by having to fit up a laboratory for the work, and the difficulty in obtaining suitable apparatus, the investigation had been in abeyance, and requested that the grant, of which no portion had been expended, should be available for next year.

Dr. C. E. Adams, who in 1919 was granted £55 through the Wellington Philosophical Society, reported on the 15th December that this amount had been forwarded to the British Astronomical Association, and out of it a micrometer eye-piece had been purchased and had been received here. The eye-piece had been adapted to the Wellington Philosophical Society's equatorial telescope at Wellington, and has been partly tested, but so far the weather has not permitted a systematic use of the micrometer. It is, however, available and ready for measurement of any comets, &c., that may be discovered. The British Association reports that owing to the high cost of the other apparatus it is desirable to postpone purchase at present, with which view Dr. Adams concurs; and the association has been asked to make inquiries for suitable second-hand apparatus. There is a balance of £36 12s. 2d.

Dr. C. E. Adams, who was further granted £150 through the Wellington Philosophical Society for a research on astronomical and geophysical sites, reported on the 16th December, 1920, that preliminary investigations had been carried oat in parts of Central and North Otago, and arrangements have been made with a number of voluntary workers to report on the weather conditions at various places in Otago. Part of the grant has been spent in obtaining thermometers, &c., for this work. Of this grant there is still an unexpended balance of £134 14s.

Mr. W. G. Morrison, who in 1919 was granted £100 through the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, reported on the 12th December, 1920, that owing to limited leave comparatively small progress had been made in the gathering of data. Without extended leave he could not visit exotic plantations and native forests other than those situated within easy reach of Hanmer, and in consequence his research work had been confined to the North Canterbury district only. Nevertheless, some useful data had been collected, and numerous photographs illustrative of natural seeding in various stages of development had been supplied to the Director of Forestry, who had described them as being “wonderful” and of superlative interest. A preliminary report on the native forests of the Hanmer district was compiled and forwarded to the Director of Forestry, who has acknowledged the work done as of great value. There is still an unexpended amount of £30.

Dr. J. Allan Thomson, who was granted £100 through the Wellington Philosophical Society for a research into the chemical characters of igneous rocks, reported on the 5th January, 1921, that in his original application he stated that there was reason to believe the superior analysis of igneous rocks, conforming to the standards selected, would number about three thousand, of which he had previously calculated one

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thousand. On receipt of Washington's second edition of Superior Analysis of Igneous Rocks it was found that the number greatly exceeded the three thousand estimated, and that the grant of £100 would not suffice to pay assistants to calculate them all. He therefore restricted the employment of the assistants to plotting the chief constituents against silica, and this has been completed for A12O3, Fe2O3, FeO, MgO, CaO, K2O, and Na2O. Owing to his absence from New Zealand during the latter part of 1920, Dr. Thomson has been unable to study the plots in detail and decide whether it is advisable to apply for a further grant for completing the calculations, or to publish the results deducible from the work already carried out. This he hoped to do during 1921. An amount, £15 12s. 6d., of the grant is unexpended, and Dr. Thomson applies for a renewal of this, in case it is found desirable to prepare the plots for publication.

Hon. G. M. and G. S. Thomson, who were in 1919 granted £50 through the Otago Institute for a research on the economic value of whale-feed, reported on the 11th November that owing to delay in obtaining apparatus required it had not been possible to make much progress as yet with the research. A considerable amount of material had been collected and observations made on the occurrence of the whale-feed, but no actual analytical work had yet been done. Advice had been received that the apparatus ordered had arrived in New Zealand, and £50 would be required on account, which would in all probability, owing to the increased prices, be considerably over £80, making it necessary to apply later for an increased grant.

Professor T. H. Easterfield, who in 1919 was granted £250 through the Wellington Philosophical Society for an investigation of New Zealand oils, waxes, and resins, reported on the 6th January, 1922, that £98 19s. had last year been spent in salaries of assistants, and a further £98 in the year following, leaving a balance of £53 Is. A paper embodying the results of the investigation will be read at the Palmerston North Science Congress. The research is being continued.

Publication Committee's Report.—The report of the Publication Committee was read and received.

Report of Publication Committee.

Thirty-seven papers, by twenty-six authors, were accepted for publication in volume 52 of the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, and the volume was issued on the 9th August, 1920. It is practically the same size as the previous year's volume, and contains xxx plus 544 pages (of which 78 are devoted to the Proceedings and Appendix). 30 plates (one coloured), and a large number of text-figures.

No extra publications were issued during the year, but two bulletins—viz., Dixon's Mosses and Broun's Coleoptera—and also the Index to volumes 41–51, are now in the printer's hand. For the Committee.

Johannes C. Andersen, Hon. Editor.

Library Report.—The report of the Library Committee was read and received, and, on the motion of Ven. Archdeacon Williams, seconded by Mr. Wright, it was resolved, That the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute desires to urge once more upon the Cabinet the paramount necessity for the erection, with the least possible delay, of a suitable building for the accommodation of the Museum and the library of the Institute, and in doing this would point out once more that the continued neglect of the Government in this respect is involving the risk of the irreparable loss of many unique and priceless specimens and volumes which are still housed in an. unsuitable wooden building.

On the motion of Dr. Cockayne, seconded by Mr. Eliott, it was resolved, That the Board of Governors are of the opinion that the Dominion Museum would be greatly benefited by being placed under the control of a National Board of Trustees; and that this resolution be forwarded to the Government.

Report of Library Committee.

No favourable change in the condition of the library during 1920 can be reported. The accommodation available is too small to house all the books of the library, and a large proportion of the older books are packed away in boxes in the Museum store-shed. During the coming year it will be necessary to store a further proportion to

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make room for the incoming exchanges, unless further shelf accommodation can be provided. This is not possible in the present room.

Owing to the absence of the Honorary Librarian during the latter months of 1920, no steps have been taken to secure fresh quotations for binding. With the prospect of falling prices this may be found expedient in 1921. The greater part of the £260 voted for this purpose by the Government in 1919 is still unexpended.

A list of the publications received during 1919 was published in the annual volume for 1920.

J. Allan Thomson, Hon. Librarian.

Regulations Committee Report.—The report of the Regulations Committee was read and received, and the committee was appointed for another year.

Report of Regulations Committee.
(Hon. Librarian, Hon. Editor, Hon. Treasurer, and Hon. Secretary.)

The committee reports that the minute-book and published reports have been carefully searched for matter which has the force of regulations, and the results have been classified in a schedule which has been prepared and which it is hoped to go into fully during the coming year. The committee therefore suggests that its term of office should be extended for another year.

Honorary Members' Roll.—There was no response to the President's invitation for any Governor to notify any vacancy in the roll of honorary members through death.

Election of Fellows.—The ballot for the election of Fellows resulted in the election of the following, as reported by the hon. returning officer: Dr. C. A. Cotton, Dr F. W. Hilgendorf, Rev. Dr. Holloway, Professor James Park.

Correspondence.—It was resolved to refer the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature Report to the Standing Committee to deal with Applications for publications were referred to the Standing Committee.

It was resolved, in connection with certain proposals brought before the Board by Mr. G. V. Hudson, That, as Mr. Hudson's proposals would involve altering the constitution of the Institute, with a corresponding amendment of the Act, no action be taken.

With reference to a letter dated 7th November, 1920, from the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, regarding the Carter library, permission was given the Standing Committee to house the Carter collection in the Turnbull Library if suitable arrangements for doing so could be made

In reference to a letter dated 23rd December, 1920, from the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, it was resolved, on the motion of Dr. Thomson seconded by Hon. G. M. Thomson, That a committee consisting of Professor D. M. Y. Sommerville and Mr. G. E. Archey be set up to frame a practicable scheme for a printed catalogue of scientific serials in the various libraries of the Dominion, and report to the Standing Committee.

In reference to a letter from Mr. Henry Woods, who wrote to say he had not received his certificate of membership, it was resolved to issue a plain honorary membership certificate, the supply of parchment forms being exhausted.

Election of Officers.—President, Professor T. H. Easterfield; Hon. Treasurer, Mr. M. A. Eliott; Hon. Editor, Mr. Johannes C. Andersen; Hon. Librarian, Dr. J. Allan Thomson; Hon. Secretary, Mr. B. C. Aston.

On the motion of Ven. Archdeacon Williams, seconded by Dr. Chilton, it was resolved, That the Board desires to place on record its appreciation of the valuable services rendered to the Institute by Mr. C. A. Ewen during the many years in which he has acted as Hon. Treasurer of the Institute.

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Election of Committees.—Library Committee: Dr. Thomson (convener), Dr. Cotton, Mr. Andersen, and Professor Sommerville.

Publications Committee: Professor Kirk, Dr. Cotton, Mr. J. C. Andersen, Dr. Thomson, and Mr. Aston (reappointed).

Research Grants Committee: Standing Committee and Mr. Furkert.

Hector Award Committee: Professor Easterfield (convener), Professor F. D. Brown, and Sir E. Rutherford.

Regulations Committee: Mr. Andersen, Dr. Thomson, Mr. Eliott, and Mr. Aston.

Observatory Committee: Professors Easterfield, Farr, Marsden, Dr. Cotton, Dr. Adams, and Mr. Gifford (reappointed).

Travelling-expenses.—It was resolved to pay travelling-expenses of the members of the Board of Governors.

Minutes.—Authority was granted to the Standing Committee to confirm the minutes.

Votes of Thanks were passed to the Palmerston North High School Board for the use of the school for this meeting, and to the honorary officers of the Institute for their work during the year.