Art. 27.—A Preliminary Revision of the Crane-flies of New Zealand (Anisopodidae, Tanyderidae, Tipulidae).
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 26th October, 1921; received by Editor, 31st October, 1921; issued separately, 30th April, 1923.]
(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.)
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|Key to the Families of Nematocera||265|
|General Remarks on the New Zealand Crane-fly Fauna||267|
It is hoped to make this paper the first of a series dealing with the Nematocerous Diptera of New Zealand. The three families treated in this contribution are not particularly closely related, but are treated together because they all (except perhaps the genus Anisopus) come under the heading of crane-flies.
Key to the Families of Nematocera.
In the following key an attempt has been made to utilize several recent suggestions as to relationships of the families of Nematocera; but to produce a workable key which, while not burdened with exceptions and qualifications, will yet group the families in a natural manner is no easy task. This one will perhaps be useful for the time being, until a more satisfactory one can be framed. The least satisfactory character used is that of the ocelli. Although these are absent in the Cecidomyiinae and present in the Anisopodidae, the first of these groups is certainly nearly allied to the Mycetophilid series, which possess ocelli, and the second to the Tipulid-Culicid series, which have no ocelli. The Simuliidae, again, though without ocelli, show many points of resemblance to the Blepharo-ceridae (e.g., in having wings folded and bent over in the pupa, a remarkable feature which is found only in these two families, and probably in the recently discovered Deuterophlebiidae). Wingless forms are inevitably excluded from the key.
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|1.||Wings with a network or fanlike arrangement of creases, due to the folding of the wing in the pupa||2|
|Wings without such creases, contracted but not folded over in the pupa (except in Simuliidae)||3|
|2||Ocelli, mouth-parts, and true venation absent||Deuterophlebiidae|
|Ocelli, mouth-parts, and true venation present||Blepharoceridae|
|3||Venation very much reduced, the media entirely lacking||Cecidomyiidae|
|Venation less reduced, at least one branch of the media remaining||4|
|5||Radial sector forking far beyond the radio-median cross-vein, or not at all||6|
|Radial sector forking close to or before the radio-median cross-vein (as in the Tipulid series)||11|
|6||Antennae placed close to the oral margin, below the compound eyes||Bibionidae|
|Antennae placed far from the oral margin, at or above the middle of the compound eyes||7|
|7||Tibiae without distinct spurs; thorax without well-marked bristles differentiated from the pubescence||8|
|Tibial spurs well developed; thorax nearly always with distinct even if small bristles||9|
|8||Very bare flies, the supra-antennal portion of the eyes broad Scatopsidae|
|Very pubescent flies, the eyes connected above the antennae by a narrow bridge only||(Cecidomyiidae, subfam) Lestremiinae|
|9||Anterior branch of radial sector little if any shorter than the long sector itself||(? Mycetophilidae, subfam) Ditomyiinae|
|Anterior branch of radial sector short or absent (when distally placed it is less than half as long as the sector; in some genera it is retracted towards the base of the sector, but is then very short)||10|
|10||Coxae moderate; eyes nearly always connected above antennae by a narrow bridge||Sciaridae|
|Coxae elongate; eyes generally widely separate and at most slightly emarginate||Mycetophilidae|
|11||Second anal (axillary) vein reaching the wing-margin; mesonotum with a well-marked suture (? Anisopodidae, subfam) Trichocerinae|
|Second anal vein not reaching the wing-margin; mesonotal suture not developed||12|
|12||Lower branch of cubitus more or less concave above||Anisopodidae|
|Lower branch of cubitus convex above||(? Mycetophilidae, subfam) Pachyneurinae|
|13||Two anal veins distinctly reaching the wing-margin; mesonotum with complete V-shaped suture||Tipulidae|
|At most one anal vein reaching the wing-margin; mesonotal suture generally indistinct or absent||14|
|14||First antennal segment well developed, generally longer than the second, which is not conspicuously enlarged||15|
|First antennal segment reduced to a narrow ring or absent, the second much enlarged||18|
|15||Wings very broad, the venation much reduced, media and cubitus fainter than the radius||Simuliidae|
|Wings with the venation less reduced, all veins equally strong||16|
|16||Anal vein very short or absent; small, densely hairy flies||Psychodidae|
|Anal vein long, reaching to middle of wing or nearly; large, comparatively bare, long-legged flies||17|
|17||Radius five-branched, media three-branched; no fold connecting the anal vein with Cu2||Tanyderidae|
|Radius four-branched, media two-branched or simple; a fold connecting the anal vein with Cu2||Ptychopteridae|
|18||Venation little reduced, radius four-branched||19|
|Venation more reduced, radius at most three-branched||20|
|19||Veins and wing-margin with fine hair only; R2+3 arched and forming an angle with the sector||Dixidae|
|Veins and wing-margin fringed with long scales; R2+3 straight and generally continuous with the sector||Culicidae|
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|20||Subcosta indistinct; radius generally forking near middle of wing; basal flagellar segment of antennae not swollen and conical||Chironomidae|
|Subcosta distinct and reaching costa; radius forking near base of wing; basal flagellar segment of antennae swollen and conical||Orphnephilidae|
General Remarks on the New Zealand Crane-fly Fauna.
The material on which this paper is based consists of (1) a collection presented by Mr. G. V. Hudson to the British Museum in 1920–21, consisting of duplicates of nearly all the species in his own unrivalled collection: (2) a further lot presented by Mr. Hudson to the Cambridge Museum in 1911, part of which has since been presented to the British Museum by Dr. H. Scott and Mr. C. G. Lamb; (3) a few specimens, including several cotypes, presented to the British Museum by the late Captain F. W. Hutton; (4) other material in the old collection of the British Museum, including Walker's types, chiefly collected by Dr. A. Sinclair, R.N., about 1850: (5) a small collection made in the neighbourhood of Auckland by Mr. Albert E. Brookes, and presented by him to the British Museum in 1919; (6) the Osten-Sacken collection in the Berlin-Dahlem Entomological Museum, lent by Dr. W. Horn, containing Osten-Sacken's and Alexander's types; (7) a considerable collection received on loan through Dr. C. P. Alexander, sent to him by Messrs. D. Miller, A. Philpott, and C. Speight: (8) the types (in the Cambridge Museum) of three species described by Mr. C. G. Lamb from Mr. Hudson's Auckland Islands collection; (9) a small collection made by C. M. Wakefield about 1880, now in the Oxford Museum, and including one of Westwood's types, lent by Professor E. B. Poulton; (10) a few specimens from Loew's collection in the Berlin Zoological Museum, lent by Dr. G. Enderlein.
I wish to tender my best thanks to all those who have assisted me in the ways indicated, particularly to Mr. G. V. Hudson, to whose generosity the British Museum is indebted for by far the greater part of its collection of New Zealand crane-flies. The total amount of material examined was so considerable, and included such a large proportion of the previously known forms, some of which, however, were very imperfectly known, that it seemed desirable to make this paper a preliminary revision of the crane-fly fauna of New Zealand.
Up to the end of 1920 there were sixty-seven species of these families known from New Zealand (I have sunk three names as synonyms and revived three others). Of these species I have been able to recognize all but twelve in the collections examined, and have added no fewer than ninety-two new ones, an increase of nearly 150 per cent. About half a dozen of the new forms are of somewhat doubtful validity as species, but, even if in the future all these are sunk as synonyms or varieties, their places will certainly be far more than filled by future discoveries: among the smaller and more obscure forms especially it is safe to assume that large accessions of new species have still to be made known. Meanwhile it may be remarked that the number of known species is even now nearly as great as in the British Islands, and very nearly half as great as the whole number of New Zealand Diptera recorded by Hutton in his Index Faunae Novae Zealandiae in 1904.
The crane-fly fauna as a whole shows some very interesting features. Not the least striking are some negative points—namely, the absence of
the genus Tipula, which is so abundantly represented in the Northern Hemisphere, as well as in South America, though it is absent from Australia; also of the genus Eriocera, so abundant in the Oriental and Neotropical regions. Other groups which, so far as our present knowledge goes, appear to be absent from New Zealand are the Ptychopteridae, the Mycetobiinae, the Cylindrotomini, the Pediciini, the Ctenophorini, and such widely distributed genera as Limnobia, Rhipidia, Erioptera, and Nephrotoma. Some of these gaps will doubtless be filled in time.
Apart from the Tanyderidae, which seem to be more strongly represented here than in any other region, the number of highly archaic forms in these families is not very great. The representatives of the Limnophilini and the Tipulinae, however, are clearly of an early type, and less advanced than the majority of the species of these groups in the rest of the world (Australia excepted). The genus Cerozodia is of special interest, as it appears to form a connecting-link between the Limnobiinae and the Tipulinae.
So far as can be ascertained at present, almost every species is endemic. The two possible exceptions are Anisopus neozelandicus and Trimicra sp., the former of which may occur in Australia, while the latter may not be distinct from the cosmopolitan T. pilipes.* The genera Rhamphophila, Tinemyia, and Hudsonia, and the subgenera Aphrophila and Astelobia, are also endemic, so far as our present knowledge goes.
In regard to relationship with other faunas, the crane-flies give much the same indications as would be expected, in view of our knowledge of other groups of animals. The strongest resemblance is naturally to the Australian fauna, as indicated by the species of Molophilus and the genera Amphineurus, Gynoplistia, and Cerozodia, as well as by Limnophila subinterventa and some other species of this genus. Certain groups are common to Australia, New Zealand, and South America, such as Orolimnophila, Macromastix, and perhaps the hudsoni group of Limnophila. Other species seem to be nearer to South American forms than to any known from Australasia; these are the Tanyderus, Holorusia, and perhaps the Nemopalpus. Yet other forms seem to show definitely Holarctic relationships—for example, Dicranomyia vicarians, the genus Discobola (especially D. tesselata), Elephantomyia zealandica, and Longurio dux. There do not appear to be any species indicating any connection with the Oriental or Ethiopian faunas. Some further remarks on the affinities of the species will be found in the body of this paper.
A point which deserves special mention is that, of the 160 species now known, only nineteen are definitely known from both North and South Islands, while of the remainder over seventy are recorded only from North Island and about forty only from South Island. A considerable number of species seem to be represented by closely allied forms in the two Islands. The great difference which these facts appear to indicate is no doubt in part due to the still very incomplete state of our knowledge and the small number of individuals of most species which have been collected, but there can be very little doubt that there is a strong line of demarcation.
A very interesting feature of the fauna is the number of species which are semiapterous in the female sex—a number which is probably greater than would appear from this paper, since so many species are known from
[Footnote] * A New Zealand specimen was identified by Osten-Sacken as Trimicra pilipes in 1886.—G. V. H.
males only. These semiapterous females follow the usual rules of being either inhabitants of mountains at high altitudes (the species of Cerozodia and Gynoplistia) or else winter insects (Macromastix zeylandiae and Hudsonia heterogama), or else inhabitants of oceanic islands (Zaluscodes). In this last case, as would be expected, the male is also semiapterous.
Family Anisopodidae (Rhyphidae).
Following Alexander, and in accordance with recent researches on the larvae and pupae, three subfamilies of the Anisopodidae may be recognized—
Mycetobiinae.—Radius three-branched; media two-branched.
Anisopodinae.—Radius three-branched; media three-branched.
Trichocerinae.—Radius four-branched; media three-branched.
No representatives of the Mycetobiinae are known as yet from New Zealand. The genera Nervijuncta Marshall, Arctoneura Hutton, and Casa Hutton, which have been referred to the Mycetobiinae, really belong to the subfamily Ditomyiinae of Mycetophilidae, as I have shown in a recent publication.
The only genus of this subfamily at the present known from New Zealand is Anisopus, but it is not at all improbable that the related Olbiogaster will eventually be found there.
Genus Anisopus Mg., 1804 (Rhyphus Latr., 1805).
As I have recently shown, the name Anisopus must replace Rhyphus, if the International Nomenclature Rules are to be strictly followed. Since our conception of the relationships of the genus has undergone a radical revision during the last few years, and the limits of the family have been extended to include Mycetobia and Trichocera, it will possibly be of advantage rather than otherwise that a change of name should be made at the same time. Two species of the almost cosmopolitan genus Anisopus are known from New Zealand, one of which apparently occurs also in Australia.
Anisopus neozelandicus (Schin.). (Fig. 3.)
Rhyphus neozelandicus Schiner, Reise der “Novara,” Dipt., p. 49. Rhyphus phaleratus Walker (nom. nud.), List Dipt. Brit. Mus., vol. 50, p. 124, 1848.
Flagellum of antennae yellow except towards tip. Thoracic markings indistinct, margin of mesonotum not darkened. Wing-tip darkened, but some pale areas included, the darkening being most distinct on veins; cell R1 dark brown except at base; tip of costal cell dark brown; vein R2+3 moderately sinuous. As in the following species, the female wing is broader than that of male. Length of body, 7 mm.; wing, 9 mm.
North Island: Auckland (Sinclair); Mount Albert, Auckland (A. E. Brookes). South Australia: Moonta, 16th November, 1904 (W. Wesché); one female in British Museum. As Mr. Wesché also collected in New Zealand, and the species is not otherwise known from Australia, it seems possible that a mistake in labelling has occurred.
Anisopus notatus (Hutton). (Figs. 1, 2.)
Rhyphus notatus Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 34, p. 191, 1902. Rhyphus undulatus, Lamb, Subantarctic Is. N.Z., p. 131, 1909.
Flagellum of antennae all black. Mesonotum with dark border, and with three more or less distinct praescutal stripes. Wing-tips uniformly darkened; cell R1 dark brown at tip, before which is a large yellow spot extending into tip of cell C; vein R2+3 strongly sinuous.
North Island: Auckland (Suter); Hawera (Wesché); Wellington (Hudson). South Island: Christchurch (Hutton); Nelson (Wesché). Auckland Island (Hudson). This species rather closely resembles the European A. fenestralis, but differs in the contigous eyes of male and in other points. Colour of thorax and of scape of antennae is variable, as are wing-markings to a slight extent.
Genus Trichocera Mg.
A single species has been recorded from the region under consideration, all the others occurring in temperate and cold regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The venation is almost identical with that of the Limno-philini, in which tribe the genus was till recently placed. The extreme shortness of vein Ax forms a ready means of identification, but it may be noted that certain true Limnophilini found in Australia also have this vein very short.
Trichocera antipodum Mik.
Trichocera antipodum Mik., Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, vol. 31, p. 200, 1882.
A small dark species with unmarked wings, which differs from the other species in the shortness of the ovipositor (approaching the allied genus Diazosma in this respect) and in the rather different venation, vein Cu1 having only a punctiform contact with the discal cell before the middle, and Cu2 being slightly concave above as in Anisopus. These points are of considerable interest as confirming the relationship with Anisopus, which the larval and pupal morphology proves to be real.
Auckland Island (Krone).
Genus Tanyderus Philippi.
This extremely interesting primitive genus is apparently confined to the Southern Hemisphere. The closely allied Protoplasa, which differs chiefly in its short neck and in the shape of cell R, is represented by three species in North America, and it is probable that the species Tanyderus beckeri, recently described by Riedel from the Caucasus, is more properly a Protoplasa, since in the two characters mentioned it agrees with the American species, though differing from them in having no cross-vein in cell M3. The fossil species Macrochile spectrum Lw., from the Oligocene amber of the Baltic, hardly differs from Protoplasa.
The other species of Tanyderus are from South America (two), New Guinea (one), and Amboina (one). These differ from one another and
from the New Zealand species in the number of antennal joints, and the number and position of the extra cross-veins on the wings. I do not follow Handlirsch in treating these differences as of generic value. The New Zealand species all have sixteen-jointed antennae and two accessory cross-veins, these being situated in cells R3 and R4. The neck is elongate in all, though less so in T. varipes.
The structure of the aedoeagus of Tanyderus has not hitherto been described. In the three species of which I have seen males it is very remarkable, the penis being formed like Neptune's trident, each of the three prongs having a terminal opening; the whole organ has thin outer and thick inner walls. There are no parameres and no anal cerci. This structure is far from being primitive, and is very different from what occurs in any of the Ptychopteridae, in which Tanyderus was till recently included.
Tanyderus annuliferus Hutton. (Figs. 4, 5.)
Tanyderus annuliferus Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 48, 1900.
Wing-markings distinctly ocellate, especially in male, in which sex the markings are lighter than in female; veins are yellow in light parts of wing; the two accessory cross-veins rather widely separated, the one in cell R3 much beyond base of R3; discal cell closed by two nearly equal veins. Legs yellow, the femora with a blackish pre-apical ring, other joints black-tipped. The trifid penis has a rather short stalk; lateral branches are turned outwards slightly at tips. Length of body, ♂ 13mm., ♀ 17 mm.; wing, ♂ 15 mm., ♀ 18 mm.
North Island: Wellington district (G. V. Hudson, No. 102).
Tanyderus forcipatus Osten-Sacken. (Fig. 7.)
Tanyderus forcipatus Osten-Sacken, Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, vol. 39, p. 520, 1879.
Tanyderus forcipatus Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 49, 1900.
Mischoderus forcipatus Handlirsch, Ann. Hofmus. Wien, vol. 23, p. 263, 1909.
Apart from darker colour, different wing-markings, dark veins, and black antennae, this species differs from T. annuliferus in several structural points: the hair on veins is much shorter; the cross-vein in cell R3 is nearer base of R3; the discal cell is differently shaped; and the tarsi are relatively shorter, those of the hind legs scarcely and longer than the tibiae. The tibiae and the tarsal joints are much more narrowly tipped with brown, not black.
The two specimens I have examined (both females, in the Oxford Museum) differ from one another in some respects. The one of which a figure of the wing is given appeared to agree very well with Osten-Sacken's description. The other had the legs somewhat shorter and stouter, apparently somewhat more densely pubescent; the oblique wing-fascia connected in the discal cell with the curved fascia; vein M3 somewhat more approximated to Cu1. There is no doubt, however, that both belong to the same species.
South Island: Otago (Hutton). Osten-Sacken's type male, and two females in Oxford Museum, were all collected by C. M. Wakefield, probably from Canterbury. Hutton's record from Wellington requires confirmation, as it may have referred to T. neptunus.
Tanyderus neptunus n. sp. (Figs. 6, 123.)
Differs from T. forcipatus chiefly in wing-markings, the dark areas being more extensive and confluent; apart from this the veins are much stouter than in female of T. forcipatus (Osten-Sacken's figure also appears to indicate slender veins for the male of his species), axillary cell narrower, especially on apical portion, and stem of halteres is almost entirely dark. Prongs of the penis straighter than in T. annuliferus, and borne on longer stalk.
North Island: Wainuiomata, Wellington, 2nd December, 1898 (G. V. Hudson, No. 114B); type male in British Museum.
Probably the North Island representative of T. forcipatus; it may be a mere individual or sexual variation, but by analogy with T. annuliferus and T. varipes one would not expect to find male wings so much darker than those of female.
Tanyderus varipes n. sp. (Figs. 8, 9.)
Allied to T. forcipatus, but smaller, and of stouter build, antennae, neck, legs, wings, and halteres being shorter than in T. forcipatus, this being especially noticeable in female sex. Front much broader in both sexes than in T. forcipatus, nearly one-quarter as broad as head. Pronotum with a pair of blackish-brown spots, which are at most faintly indicated in T. forcipatus. Female cerci black (in T. forcipatus they are yellow). Prongs of penis straight and almost sessile. Femora with black pre-apical ring, preceded by an indistinct ochreous ring; tibiae broadly black at tips, a well-marked ochreous ring between the dark-brown basal portion and the black tip; first three tarsal joints ochreous, broadly black at tip, last two all black. Wings resembling those of T. forcipatus, but markings rather different, ground-colour of costal and subcostal cells yellowish, and M3 curved downwards, so that cell M3 is very narrow on margin. Wing-markings of male somewhat lighter, and veins much thicker than those of female. Length of body, ♂ 10 mm., ♀ 14 mm.; wing, ♂ 10 mm., ♀ 13 mm.; hind leg, ♂ ♀ 19 mm.
South Island: Bold Peak, Lake Wakatipu, 3,600 ft., near waterfall, 8th January, 1921 (G. V. Hudson, No. 114); type male and one female in British Museum.
Genus Nemopalpus Macq.
Dr. C. P. Alexander informs me that he possesses a wing of a new species of this genus from New Zealand. It is otherwise known only from Recent and fossil species in the Palaearctic region, but may have been overlooked elsewhere. The allied genus Bruchomyia has recently been described by Alexander from South America, and made the type of a new sub-family.
To assist in the identification of the genus in New Zealand I reproduce my figure of the fossil species N. molophilinus (Edw., 1921) from Baltic amber (text-fig. A).
The two subfamilies may be separated as follows:—
|Vein, Sc1 present; fusion of Cu with M3 nearly always long; free part of Cu1 generally almost in a line with M||Limnobiinae.|
|Vein Sc1 usually absent; fusion of Cu1 with M3 nearly always very short or punctiform; free part of Cu1 far from being in a line with M||Tipuliae.|
The tribes occurring in New Zealand may be separated as follows:—
|1.||Tibiae without spurs||2|
|Tibiae with spurs, sometimes very small||Limnophilini.|
|Antennae sixteen-jointed, twelve-jointed in Ceratocheilus||3|
|3.||Rostrum greatly elongated (in New Zealand genera)||Antochini.|
|Rostrum not elongated||Eriopterini.|
Only two genera of this tribe occur in New Zealand: Discobola, with a cross-vein in cell An, and Dicranomyia, without this cross-vein.
Genus Dicranomyia Stephens.
A large genus, with numerous representatives in all parts of the world. The species do not, as a rule, show much structural diversity, but such of their life-histories as are known are surprisingly varied. The majority of the New Zealand species show no special modifications, but the eight species treated below as Division I form a distinct group, distinguished principally by the structure of the male antennae. A species of this group has been described by Skuse from Australia, but I know of no other outside New Zealand. The somewhat elongate proboscis of several species of this group must not be taken as indicating any very close relationship with Geranomyia, since the palpi and the general facies of the insects are quite different; Geranomyia has no doubt been derived from quite a different group of Dicranomyia.
The New Zealand species may be separated by the following key:—
|1.||Joints of flagellum of male antennae with distinct necks||2|
|Joints of flagellum of male antennae without necks||9|
|2.||Stigma faint, at least for the greater part||3|
|3.||Femora with pre-apical dark ring||sublacteata n. sp.|
|Femora without trace of ring||4|
|4.||Legs rather slender||flavidipennis n. sp.|
|Legs stouter||decincta n. sp.|
|5.||A dark cloud along Cu in cell M||6|
|No such cloud||7|
|6.||Wing-tip scarcely darkened||cubitalis n. sp.|
|Wing-tip distinctly darkened||crassipes n. sp.|
|7.||A large dark spot over base of Rs||huttoni n. name.|
|A minute dark spot over base of Rs||8|
|8.||Pleurae with a distinct blackish stripe||melanogramma n. sp.|
|Pleurae not striped||octava n. sp.|
|9.||Wings with distinct markings, at least the stigma obvious||10|
|Wings unmarked, even the stigma scarcely perceptible||19|
|10.||A large dark spot near middle of cell R||fasciata Hutton.|
|No such spot present||11|
|11.||A large dark band on apical fourth of costa||repanda n. sp.|
|No such marking||12|
|12.||Wings mainly dark; a broad pale band before the stigma||fumipennis Butler.|
|13.||Cross-veins at least slightly clouded||14|
|Cross-veins perfectly clear||18|
|14.||Abdomen uniformly dark above||15|
|Abdomen with distinct ochreous bands||17|
|15.||Base of Rs distinctly clouded||16|
|Base of Rs practically clear||conulifera n. sp.|
|16.||Praescutum dull||hudsoni n. sp.|
|Praescutum shining||tenebrosa n. sp.|
|17.||Hairs of veins towards tip of wing scarcely noticeable||vicarians Schin.|
|These hairs fairly obvious||insularis Mik.|
|18.||Femora light brown; stigma small and round||aegrotans n. sp.|
|Femora dark brown with a yellowish pre-apical ring||brookesi n. sp.|
|19.||Sc1 ending close to base of Rs||20|
|Sc1 ending much before base of Rs||24|
|21||Flagellar joints oval||nigrescens Hutton.|
|Flagellar joints globular||kroni Mik.|
|22.||Discal cell absent, media with only one free branch||conveniens (Walk.).|
|23.||Whole body pale ochreous||sulphuralis n. sp.|
|Palpi and abdomen brownish||luteonitens n. sp.|
|24.||Larger, yellowish-brown||monilicornis Hutton.|
|Smaller and darker||25|
|25.||Flagellar joints globular||gracilis n. sp.|
|Flagellar joints oval||weschei n. sp.|
Flagellar joints with distinct necks, at least in male. Proboscis as long as the head or a little longer. Ninth tergite of male hypopygium with conspicuous black bristles on the lobes.
Dicranomyia flavidipennis n. sp. (Figs. 10, 124.)
Head dark greenish-grey; front narrow, scarcely one-sixth as broad as head. Proboscis ochreous, labella and palpi black; length of proboscis about one-half greater than that of head, reckoning from extreme base to tip of labella. Antennae with scape brown, flagellum blackish; flagellar joints with short necks in both sexes, necks less than one-half as long as joints, scarcely any longer in male than in female. Thorax uniformly ochreous, somewhat shining. Abdomen ochreous, with blackish median dorsal stripe, much more conspicuous in male than in female. Hypopygium—ninth tergite with pair of slender projections, laterally placed; rostrum with two short curved spines. Ovipositor—anal valves reaching slightly beyond genital valves; the former rather long, curved upwards, the latter long, nearly straight, black at base. Legs moderately slender, uniformly ochreous, only tips of tarsi darker. Wings with a uniform yellowish tinge: the only darkening is a blackish border to marginal cross-vein, apart from which stigma is scarcely perceptible. Sc1 ending a little beyond base of Rs, Sc [ unclear: ] close to its tip. Halteres ochreous. Length of body, 5–7 mm.; wing, 7–8 mm.
South Island: Bold Peak, Lake Wakatipu, 3,600 ft., 10th January, 1920 (G. V. Hudson, No. 192); type male and two females in British Museum.
Dicranomyia decincta n. sp. (Figs. 12, 125.)
Differs from D. flavidipennis as follows: Necks of flagellar joints fully half as long as joints. Legs somewhat stouter. Wings with stigma more distinct, though not very conspicuous. Veins in apical half of wing darker. Processes of ninth tergite shorter, broader, more rounded, and more bristly; rostrum more pointed, with two long, outwardly-directed spines.
South Island: Bold Peak, Lake Wakatipu, 3,600 ft., 10th January, 1920 (G. V. Hudson, No. 192); type male (unique) in British Museum.
Dicranomyia sublacteata n. sp. (Figs. 11, 126.)
Head greyish-ochreous, front and middle of occiput sometimes brown; front narrow, scarcely one-sixth as broad as head. Proboscis ochreous, about half as long again as head, labella and palpi dark brown. Antennae with scape brown, flagellum blackish; flagellar joints with distinct necks; in male the necks are nearly as long, in female only one-third as long, as joints themselves. Thorax ochreous, scarcely shining; praescutum with indications of three darker stripes; pleurae somewhat dusted with grey. Abdomen ochreous, with narrow median and lateral blackish lines; these lines are more conspicuous in male than in female, in which segments 6–8 are almost entirely black. Hypopygium—ninth tergite with a pair of rounded processes, placed close together; rostrum with two long, slightly curved spines. Ovipositor—anal valves reaching slightly beyond genital valves; the former rather long, curved; the latter long, straight, black at base. Legs moderately slender, brownish-ochreous, tibiae and tarsi somewhat darker, femora with a rather ill-defined blackish ring just before tip. Wings creamy-tinged, slightly opaque (whence the specific name); stigma scarcely perceptible; in female there is a dark cloud along Cu in basal half of cell M, which is only very faintly indicated in male; veins round tip of wing dark. Halteres ochreous, tip of knob blackish. Length of body, 7–8·5 mm.; wing, 8–9 mm.
South Island: Bold Peak, Lake Wakatipu, 3,600 ft., 10th January, 1920 (G. V. Hudson, No. 192): type male, two other males, and three females, in British Museum; also one male and one female in Cambridge Museum.
Dicranomyia cubitalis n. sp. (Figs. 14, 127.)
Head dark-greyish, front and median line on occiput brown. Proboscis (including labella) dark brown, scarcely longer than head; labella and palpi black. Antennae with scape dark brown, flagellum blackish; necks of flagellar joints as long as joints in male, only one-quarter as long in female. Thorax brownish-ochreous, slightly dusted with grey; praescutum with indications of three darker stripes. Abdomen brownish-ochreous, with black median and lateral stripes, broader in male, segments 6–8 mostly black (more so in male). Hypopygium—ninth tergite with two large rounded projections, close together, with V-shaped excavation between them; rostrum bent, with two spines, rather widely separated, one being longer than the other. Ovipositor as in D. sublacteata. Legs moderately slender, dark brown, femora somewhat lighter towards base, and with blackish ring near tip, preceded by a slightly paler ring not always distinguishable; tips of tibiae blackish. Wings nearly colourless; stigma conspicuous, blackish; cross-veins narrowly dark-margined; small brown dot over base of Rs; dark cloud along Cu in cell M, more distinct in female
veins all dark; wing-tip in female with a scarcely perceptible darkening. Rs sometimes obtusely angulated. Halteres ochreous with dark knob. Length of body, 5·5–8 mm.; wing, 7–9 mm.
North Island: Tamaki, 10th August, 1917 (A. E. Brookes), type male and one female; New Plymouth, 23rd September, 1906 (W. Wesché), one female; Wellington (?) (G. V. Hudson, No. 73E), one female — all in British Museum; Te Wairoa, 15th November, 1919, one male and one female, in Mr. Miller's collection. South Island: Otago (Osten-Sacken), three females, in Berlin-Dahlem Museum, labelled “monilicornis O.-S.,” in Osten-Sacken's handwriting.
Dicranomyia crassipes n. sp. (Fig. 16.)
♀. Differs from D. cubitalis as follows: Head without dark median line. Proboscis (including labella) more than half as long again as head. Thorax and abdomen darker, abdomen without distinct lateral and median lines. Legs, especially femora, considerably stouter. Wing-tip distinctly darkened. Base of Rs thickened.
North Island: Karori, Wellington, in bush, November, 1920 (G. V. Hudson, No. 73); type female (unique) in British Museum.
Dicranomyia huttoni n. name. (Fig. 15.)
Geranomyia annulipes Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 35, 1900 (nec Dicranomyia annulipes Skuse, 1889).
A female specimen which I take to be this species shows the following diagnostic points: Proboscis fully half as long again as head. Necks of flagellar joints about half as long as joints. Praescutum ochreous, with three dark stripes, lateral pair very short. Pronotum, scutellum, postnotum, and mesopleurae entirely dark brown. Coxae and propleurae pale ochreous. Hind-margins of abdominal segments conspicuously pale. Ovipositor with anal valves only half as long as last segment; genital valves curved, slender. Dark pre-apical rings of femora very distinct. Rs strongly angulated near base, a stump arising from angle, and a rather large brown spot covering it. Stigma distinct; cross-veins distinctly clouded; spot over the tip of Rs; wing-tip and cell M clear.
I have seen only the wing of a male specimen, so can give no characters for the hypopygium, but the species is undoubtedly distinct from any of the seven new ones described in this group.
North Island: Wellington (Hudson [according to Hutton]); Te Wairoa, 11th November, 1919, one female and wing of male, in Mr. D. Miller's collection.
Dicranomyia melanogramma n. sp. (Figs. 13, 128.)
Head dark-greyish. Front very narrow, not one-tenth as broad as head. Proboscis, palpi, and antennae blackish-brown, scape lighter. Proboscis nearly half as long again as head. Flagellar joints in male with long necks, slightly longer than joints, which, however, are very prominent ventrally, with rounded tips directed somewhat forwards; the verticil-hairs on upper surface of each joint somewhat longer than the whole joint, including neck, those on under-surface are short; last joint long and slender, as long as the two preceding joints together. In female antennae are shorter, necks less than half as long as the more oval joints. Thorax ochreous-brown, somewhat shining: an indistinct median dark stripe on
mesonotum; a rather broad and conspicuous blackish stripe on pleurae, extending from neck to base of abdomen. Abdomen dark brown, lighter beneath; hind-margins of the segments broadly ochreous. Hypopygium —ninth tergite with a median suture; a pair of small bristly projections in middle, on each side of which are three or four strong bristles; rostrum blackened, with two rather short spines, one longer than the other. Ovipositor—anal valves shorter than segment bearing them, strongly curved, reaching slightly beyond tips of genital valves, which are slender, curved, and black at base. Legs brown, femora lighter, with a distinct black ring at tip in male, a dark-brown ring slightly before tip in female. Wings with a slight uniform brownish tinge; stigma conspicuous, dark brown; cross-veins slightly clouded; base of Rs slightly thickened, practically clear. Halteres blackish, base of stem ochreous. Length of body, 6 mm.; wing, 7·5 mm.
North Island: Karori, Wellington, in bush, November, 1920 (G. V. Hudson, No. 73); type male and one female in British Museum.
Dicranomyia octava n. sp. (Fig. 129.)
♂. Head blackish-grey. Front narrow, about one-tenth the width of head. Proboscis scarcely longer than head, basal portion dark brown, labella ochreous. Palpi black. Antennae blackish, scape brown; flagellum as in D. melanogramma. Thorax almost uniformly ochreous, scarcely shining; an ill-defined darker spot in middle of pleurae. Abdomen mostly blackish; hind-margins of first two segments light. Hypopygium—ninth tergite with a broad, shallow, V-shaped terminal emargination; ventral lobe of side-piece stout; rostrum with two rather long spines, greatly swollen at their bases. Legs slender, brownish; femora lighter, with narrow, ill-defined darker ring just before their tips. Wings colourless; veins dark; stigma distinct, dark brown; very slight cloudings at base of Rs and over cross-veins, noticeable only with a lens; wing-tip and cell M clear. Halteres with ochreous stem and dark knob. Length of body, 5·5 mm.; wing, 7 mm.
South Island: Mount Grey, Canterbury, 11th April, 1917; type male (unique) in collection of Canterbury Museum.
Flagellar joints without necks. Proboscis hardly as long as head. Ninth tergite of male hypopygium without conspicuous black bristles apically.
Dicranomyia fasciata Hutton.
Dicranomyia fasciata Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 34, 1900.
“Greyish-brown; coxae and lower surface lighter. Wings hyaline; a large fuscous spot near middle of anterior basal cell, just inside the origin of second longitudinal vein, another in centre of marginal cell, and a small spot at origin of third longitudinal vein. Inner and outer margins of discal cell and posterior cross-vein bordered with fuscous. Auxiliary vein ends slightly outside origin of second longitudinal; posterior cross-vein lies inside base of discal cell. Rostrum shorter than head. Joints of flagellum submoniliform. Length, ♀ 7 mm.; wing, ♀ 9 mm. Male unknown.”—(Hutton).
South Island: Christchurch (Hutton).
Dicranomyia repanda n. sp. (Fig. 17.)
Limnobia repanda Walker (nom. nud.), List. Dipt Brit. Mus., vol. 1, p. 57, 1848.
♂. Head black; front somewhat dusted with grey, nearly one-quarter as wide as head. Proboscis ochreous, shorter than head. Palpi black. Antennae black, first scapal joint brownish; flagellar joints oval, becoming gradually more slender towards apex of antennae; verticils not longer than joints. Thorax reddish-brown, mesonotum somewhat shining; praescutum with three obscurely darker stripes; pleurae grey-dusted. Abdomen ochreous-brown, hypopygium somewhat darker; ninth tergite with two large rounded lobes; fleshy claspers very large, nearly four times as long as side-pieces (pleurites); rostrum very short, with two short spines. Legs ochreous-brown, tarsi darker; femora with an obscure dark ring before the tip. Wings slightly milky, with broad dark band over the cord, and another from stigma to tip of wing, continued, though more faintly, from wing-tip to tip of Cu2. Small dark spot in base of cell R; dark dot over Sc2, and another over base of Rs. Sc1 ending slightly beyond, Sc2 placed far before base of Rs. Rs shorter than first section of R2+3. Discal cell elongate, nearly three times as long as its breadth at apex. Halteres brownish-ochreous. Length of body, 9–11 mm.; wing, 11–12 mm.
North Island: Karori. Wellington (G. V. Hudson, No. 72); type male presented in 1906, a second male in 1920. Walker's specimen (now very much damaged) was collected by Dr. Andrew Sinclair, but no locality is recorded.
Dicranomyia fumipennis (Butler). (Fig. 18.)
Limnobia fumipennis Butler, Cistula Entomologica, vol. 1, p. 355, 1875.
♀. Head and appendages blackish. Proboscis as long as head. Flagellum shrivelled, joints apparently nearly round, apical ones more oval. Thorax and abdomen almost uniformly dark brown. Ovipositor with anal valves long, slender, almost straight, reaching far beyond end of genital valves. Legs dark brown. Wings brownish-tinged over greater part of surface, stigma and seam over cord very little darker; a rather broad whitish band just before stigma, extending from R to Cu; cell 2nd M1 mostly whitish. Sc1 ending immediately before base of Rs; Sc2 close to tip of Sc1; discal cell scarcely twice as long as broad. Halteres brownish. Length of body, 10 mm.; wing, 13 mm.
I know this species only from Butler's type female, which is in fairly good condition, in British Museum. Its exact locality is unknown.
Dicranomyia hudsoni n. sp. (Fig. 19.)
Head blackish, somewhat grey-dusted, front almost silvery in certain lights, about one-quarter as broad as head. Proboscis black, shorter than head. Palpi and antennae black. Basal flagellar joints shortly oval, outer joints becoming gradually more slender; verticils shorter than joints. Thorax dark brown, mesonotum dusted with ochreous, pleurae with grey, propleurae and margin of mesonotum and of scutellum ochreous. Abdomen brownish, hypopygium somewhat lighter; venter pale ochreous, at least in male. Hypopygium similar to that of D. repanda, but the fleshy claspers somewhat shorter, scarcely three times as long as side-pieces. Ovipositor—both pairs of valves slender and nearly straight, and valves as long as last
segment. Legs brownish, tarsi darker apically; extreme tips of tibiae black. Wings slightly brownish-tinged, a little darker at tip, a little clearer before and beyond stigma and in discal cell. Stigma distinct, elongate. Dark seam over the cord and apex of discal cell; distinct dark spot over base of Rs, and dark spot over Sc2. Sc1 ending distinctly beyond, Sc2 considerably before base of Rs. Discal cell two to three times as long as its breadth at apex. Halteres ochreous. Length of body, 8 mm.; wing, 11–12 mm.
South Island: Bold Peak, Lake Wakatipu, near waterfall, 3,600 ft. (G. V. Hudson, No. 271); one male and one female presented to British Museum in 1921; another male (the type of the species) presented by the collector to Cambridge Museum in 1911, and by Dr. H. Scott to British Museum in 1920.
Dicranomyia tenebrosa n. sp. (Fig. 20.)
♀. Head dark-brownish-grey, front dusted with pale grey, about one-fifth as broad as head. Proboscis black, scarcely as long as head. Palpi black. Antennae black; basal flagellar joints rounded, last six or seven joints oval; verticils somewhat shorter than joints. Thorax—praescutum shining blackish-brown, with small ochreous areas on shoulders. Scutum shining blackish-brown at sides, grey-dusted in middle. Scutellum greydusted in middle, ochreous at sides and on hind-margin. Postnotum blackish, somewhat shining. Pleurae dark brown, heavily dusted with pale grey. Abdomen uniformly dark brown, somewhat shining. Anal valves of ovipositor very slender, straight, as long as last segment. Genital valves moderately long and stout, not blackened at base. Legs dark brown, femora somewhat lighter at base, their apices somewhat clubbed but not blackened. Wings with very faint brownish tinge; stigma conspicuous, dark brown; cross-veins, apex of discal cell, and extreme tip of wing slightly clouded. Sc1 about as long as Rs, its tip slightly beyond base of Rs. Discal cell scarcely twice as long as broad, shorter than cell M1. Halteres with ochreous stem and dark-brown knob. Length of body, 8 mm.; wing, 9 mm.
South Island: Kinloch, Lake Wakatipu, January, 1921 (G. V. Hudson; No. 304); type female in British Museum, other examples in Mr. Hudson's collection.
Dicranomyia conulifera n. sp. (Fig. 21.)
♀. Head brownish, heavily dusted with grey; front about one-eighth as broad as head. Proboscis light brown, about as long as head. Palpi dark brown. Antennae dark brown, scape somewhat lighter. Flagellar joints scarcely longer than their greater breadth, which is near apex, the joints therefore being somewhat conical in shape, though without distinct pedicels or necks; joints decrease only slightly in size to the penultimate: last joint elongate, as long as two preceding joints together. Thorax brownish-ochreous, mesonotum dusted with ochreous, pleurae with grey; praescutum with three separate and rather distinct dark-brown stripes. Abdomen rather dark brown, unmarked, last segment and ovipositor red dish Anal valves of ovipositor slender, straight, a little longer than last segment; genital valves rather stout at base, more slender on their apical half. Legs moderately slender, light ochreous-brown, tips of femora slightly clubbed and slightly darkened. Wings with a slight milky-greyish tinge, veins brown. Stigma light brown, almost entirely internal to marginal
cross-vein. A very faint clouding over cross-veins. Sc1 about twice as long as Sc2, ending above or immediately before base of Rs. Rs nearly straight, more than half as long as R2+3. Discal cell about half as long again as broad. Halteres ochreous. Length of body, 6 mm.; wing, 6·5 mm.
North Island: Mount Albert, Auckland, 29th May, 1915 (A. E. Brookes); type and one other female in British Museum.
Dicranomyia vicarians Schiner. (Fig. 130.)
Limnobia vicarians Schiner, Reise der “Novara,” Dipt., p. 46, 1868. Dicranomyia vicarians, Mik., Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, vol. 31, p. 196, 1881.
Dicranomyia annulata Lamb, Subantarctic Is. N.Z., p. 129, 1909.
Limnobia chorica Walker (nom. nud.), List Dipt. Brit. Mus., vol. 1, p. 44, 1848.
Head blackish. Proboscis about half as long as head. Antennae black, the flagellar joints oval, last four or five and especially last one rather elongate. Thorax ochreous, somewhat shining; praescutum darker in middle. Abdomen ochreous, apical half of each segment dark brown. Hypopygium—lobes of ninth tergite rather densely hairy apically. Fleshy clasper large, about twice as long as side-piece; rostrum with two short spines, one much thicker than the other. Ovipositor much as in D. aegrotans and D. conulifera. Legs slender, brownish, tips of femora darker, Wings nearly hyaline; stigma rather dark brown; distinct brown spot over base of Rs; cross-veins, vein Cu, and tip of Ax somewhat clouded. Sc1 about two-thirds as long as Rs, ending close to base of Rs, either slightly before or slightly beyond it. Halteres with pale-ochreous stem and dark-brown knob. Length of body, 5·5–7 mm.; wing, 6–7·5 mm.
North Island: Auckland (Schiner); Tamaki, 10th August 1917 (A. E. Brookes), one male in British Museum; Titirangi, 30th December, 1915 (A. E. Brookes), one damaged specimen. Also two males and one female in Walker's series of L. chorica, without locality. South Island: Otago (Osten-Sacken); one female in Berlin-Dahlem Museum. Auckland Islands (Krone, Hudson): Type male and female of D. annulata in Cambridge Museum.
Dicranomyia insularis Mik.
Dicranomyia insularis Mik., Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, vol. 31, p. 197, 1881.
♂. Differs from D. vicarians Schin. in the slightly longer hairs on veins towards apex of wing, and in structure of male hypopygium; rostrum rather longer and more slender, the two spines on it rather longer, and both of about same thickness; the fleshy clasper much shorter and of more irregular shape.
Auckland Islands (Krone).
Dicranomyia aegrotans n. sp. (Fig. 22.)
Limnobia aegrotans Walker (nom. nud.), List. Dipt. Brit. Mus., vol. 1, p. 45, 1848.
♀. Head heavily dusted with light ash-grey; front apparently about one-fifth as broad as head. Proboscis and palpi dark-brown, about half as long as head. First antennal joint grey-dusted, remainder blackish;
flagellar joints rounded, the last six or seven shortly oval; verticils slightly longer than joints. Thorax brown, heavily dusted with pale grey; praescutum with three stripes of brown ground-colour. Abdomen dark brown, last segment and ovipositor reddish. Anal valves of ovipositor slender, curved, slightly shorter than last segment; genital valves somewhat narrowed on apical half. Legs rather light brown, tips of femora slightly darker. Wings rather narrow, with slight milky tint; base of wing and veins Sc and R white, the rest dark; Cu slightly clouded; stigma dark brown, small, roundish, bisected by the cross-vein. Sc1 ending slightly beyond the base of Rs, scarcely twice as long as Sc2, which is oblique. Rs gently curved, about twice as long as basal section of R4 + 5 and nearly two-thirds as long as R2 + 3. A distinct fold crossing the r-m cross-vein. Discal cell fully twice as long as broad, open to cell M1 on one wing. Halteres light ochreous. Length of body, 5 mm.; wing, 6 mm.
Known only from Walker's female, now made the type of the species, which is still in good condition in British Museum. The species is so distinct that it seems worth describing, even though the locality of the type is unknown.
Dicranomyia brookesi n. sp.
Head blackish; front slightly grey-dusted, rather narrow, apparently less than one-sixth as broad as head. Proboscis dark brown, about half as long as head. Palpi and antennae black; flagellar joints all oval, last six rather elongate, verticils slightly longer than joints. Thorax shining dark brown; an ochreous band on each side of mesonotum. Abdomen uniformly dark brown above, including hypopygium; venter pale ochreous. Hypopygium—ninth tergite with two rounded lobes. Fleshy claspers extremely large, fully three times as long as side-pieces; rostrum with two short spines, well separated, the outer (or more apical) one slightly shorter and distinctly stouter than the inner (or more basal). Horny claspers strongly and uniformly curved. Ovipositor—anal valves slender, straight, slightly longer than last segment; genital valves rather stout, evenly tapering. Legs slender, dark brown; femora each with a narrow, rather sharply defined yellowish ring just before tip. Wings uniformly and rather strongly tinged with brown; veins dark brown; stigma distinct, rather dark brown; a scarcely perceptible dark seam over cross-veins. Sc1 ending opposite or slightly beyond base of Rs, a little more than half as long as Rs. (Sc2 absent in one specimen.) Rs about half as long as R2+3. Discal cell about half as long again as broad. Halteres blackish, base of stem ochreous. Length of body, 5–6 mm.; wing, 7–8·5 mm.
North Island: Hunua Ranges, 1st January, 1916 (A. E. Brookes), four males (including type) in British Museum; Karori, Wellington, 14th April, 1913 (G. V. Hudson, No. 296B), one female in British Museum.
Dicranomyia nigrescens Hutton.
Dicranomyia nigrescens Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 34, 1900.
“Dark fuscous, almost black, ovipositor reddish. Wings unspotted, dark fuscous. Rostrum about as long as head in female. Joints of flagellum of antennae oval. Auxiliary vein ending slightly beyond origin of second longitudinal. Posterior cross-vein in a line with base of discal cell. Length, ♀ 8 mm.; wing, ♀ 11 mm. Male unknown.”— (Hutton.)
North Island: Wellington (Hudson). Mr. Hudson writes that the specimen of D. nigrescens in his collection is slightly larger and more slender than D. brookesi, femora are without the pale ring, and stigma not so dark.
Dicranomyia kronei Mik.
Dicranomyia kronei Mik., Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, vol. 31, p. 199, 1881.
♂. Almost uniformly blackish - brown. Flagellar joints globular. Hypopygium—fleshy claspers scarcely longer than side-pieces; rostrum rather short and blunt, without spines; horny clasper long, slightly curved and evenly tapering. Wings brownish, without markings, stigma faint. Sc1 about twice as long as Sc2, ending a little beyond the base of Rs. Rs quite two-thirds as long as R2+3. Discal cell about half as long again as broad. Length of body, 6 mm.; wing, 8 mm.
Auckland Islands (Krone). The above characters are drawn from Mik's description.
Dicranomyia luteonitens n. sp. (Fig. 24.)
♂. Head dull greyish-ochreous, paler on front, which is about one-sixth as broad as head. Proboscis pale-yellowish, shorter than head. Palpi brown. Antennae with scape ochreous, flagellum black; flagellar joints mostly globular, last few shortly oval; verticils slightly longer than joints. Thorax considerably shining, rather light ochreous, slightly darker in middle of mesonotum, middle of pronotum brownish. Abdomen light brown, hypopygium lighter, in structure much resembling that of D. conveniens, but the horny upper clasper not at all contracted in middle, and inner lobes of parameres are very broad, rounded apically. Legs uniformly brownish-ochreous. Wings hyaline; stigma absent; veins light brown. Sc1 longer than Rs and ending immediately before base of Rs. Discal cell small, not much longer than broad. Halteres with ochreous stem and dark knob. Length of body, 4·5 mm.; wing, 6 mm.
North Island: Mount Albert, 11th December, 1916 (A. E. Brookes), one male (type) in British Museum; also a second damaged specimen from the same place, 20th November, 1915.
This seems to be near Hutton's D. monilicornis, but is smaller, and, the localities being widely separated, the two are not very likely to be the same.
Dicranomyia conveniens (Walker). (Figs. 23, 131.)
Limnobia conveniens Walker, List Dipt. Brit. Mus., vol. 1, p. 57, 1848.
♂. Entirely pale ochreous, including palpi and wing-veins. (Flagellum of antennae missing in both specimens.) Front about one-quarter as wide as head. Proboscis shorter than head. Thorax scarcely shining, mesonotum a little darker than pleurae. Hypopygium with large fleshy claspers, nearly twice as long and about twice as broad as side-pieces; rostrum short, with two short spines near base, both equally stout. Horny upper clasper somewhat narrowed in middle. Inner lobes of parameres very slender. Wings hyaline, stigma absent. Sc1 ending slightly before base of Rs, only about twice as long as Sc2. Discal cell absent; only one free branch of media present.
North Island: Titirangi, 30th December, 1915 (A. E. Brookes); one male in British Museum. Walker's type male, also in British Museum, is still in recognizable condition, but there is no record of where it was obtained.
The reduced venation renders the species an easily recognizable one so far as the New Zealand fauna is concerned, though it is certainly very closely related to D. luteonitens. The same reduction of the media occurs in a few Malayan and American species.
Dicranomyia sulphuralis n. sp. (Fig. 132.)
Body entirely pale ochreous, almost sulphur-yellow, only eyes and flagellum of antennae black, knob of halteres somewhat darkened. Hypopygium—fleshy claspers very large, quite three times as long as side-pieces. Horny upper claspers small, curved, not narrowed in middle. Rostrum short, its two spines short and placed so close together that in the dry specimen they appear as a single spine. Parameres rather broad, but somewhat pointed. Ninth tergite with very broad V-shaped emargination. Wings hyaline, veins all pale, stigma absent. Sc1 twice as long as Rs, its tip slightly before base of Rs. Rs slightly shorter and more curved than basal section of R4+5. Discal cell about half as long again as broad. Length of body, about 4·5 mm.; wing, 6 mm.
North Island: Te Wairoa, 16th November, 1919 (D. Miller); one male.
Dicranomyia monilicornis Hutton.
Dicranomyia monilicornis Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 34, 1900.
“Yellowish-brown; rostrum, coxae, and lower surface of body lighter; antennae and palpi darker. Wings unspotted, slightly fuscous, the costa yellowish-brown; veins fuscous. Rostrum about the length of head in female, shorter in male. Flagellum of antennae submoniliform in both sexes. Legs hairy. Auxiliary vein ends some distance inside origin of second longitudinal; posterior cross-vein in line with base of discal cell. Length, ♂ 6–7 mm., ♀ 6–7 mm.; wing, ♂ 8–9 mm., ♀ 9 mm.”—(Hutton.)
South Island: Christchurch (Hutton).
Although the specimens in the Berlin-Dahlem Museum (see note under D. cubitalis) show that this was not the species for which Osten-Sacken had intended the name monilicornis, Hutton's name must be used for it.
Dicranomyia gracilis n. sp. (Figs. 25, 133.)
Limnobia gracilis Walker (nom. nud.), List Dipt. Brit. Mus., vol. 1, p. 44, 1848.
Head dark greyish-ochreous, with black hairs rather longer than usual. Front about one-fifth as broad as head. Proboscis brownish, slightly shorter than head. Palpi and antennae dark brown. Flagellar joints globular, last four or five rather shortly oval; verticils a little longer than joints. Thorax moderately dark brown, scarcely shining, but without obvious dusting. Praescutum with broad, slightly darker central stripe, confluent behind with pair of short lateral stripes. Abdomen uniformly rather dark brown. Hypopygium—ninth tergite narrow; with very shallow rounded emargination; side-pieces very long and narrow; claspers modified from usual type, upper horny one reduced to small pale bristle, lower one more slender and hairy and less fleshy than usual, folded inwards, without spines, but with tuft of rather long hairs at tip. Ovipositor—anal valves slender, straight, slightly longer than last segment; genital valves rather short and stout, straight. Legs uniformly brown. Wings slightly and uniformly tinged with greyish-brown, stigma no darker, veins rather dark. Sc1 about
twice as long as Sc2, ending before base of Rs, much more so in male than in female; in male base of Rs is at about two-thirds of wing-length, in female a little nearer base of wing, and the vein is consequently rather longer. Discal cell about half as long again as broad. Halteres rather dark brown. Length of body, 5 mm.; wing, 6–6·5 mm.
North Island: Wellington (G. V. Hudson, No. 103B), one male type, in British Museum. I think Walker's female specimen is probably the same species, in spite of the differences of venation indicated above. It is probably related to Hutton's D. monilicornis, but seems to be smaller and darker; there are evidently a number of related species in this group, and an examination of Hutton's type will be necessary before it can be satisfactorily identified.
Dicranomyia weschei n. sp.
Head blackish; front rather heavily dusted with pale grey, apparently about one-fifth as broad as head. Proboscis brownish, shorter than head. Palpi dark brown. Antennae black, flagellar joints all rather shortly oval; verticils a little longer than joints. Thorax ochreous-brown, praescutum and scutum blackish-brown, except for shoulders and small area on each side just in front of suture. Pleurae slightly dusted with grey. Abdomen dark brown, last segment and ovipositor reddish. Anal valves of ovipositor slender, almost straight, little longer than last segment; genital valves rather short and stout. Legs dark brown; coxae and bases of femora lighter. Wings faintly and uniformly brownish-tinged, rather strongly iridescent; stigma darker brown, but not very conspicuous. Sc1 about as long as Rs and ending well before base of Rs, which is short and originates just before two-thirds of wing-length. Halteres rather long, dark brown, base of stem light. Length of body, 6 mm.; wing, 7·5 mm.
North Island: New Plymouth, 23rd September, 1906 (W. Wesché); type female (unique) in British Museum.
Genus Discobola O.-S., 1865 (Trochobola O.-S., 1869).
A small genus, principally developed in New Zealand, but with representatives also in Europe (two), North America (two), and Australia (one). None are known from the Oriental region, where the type appears to be represented by the allied genus Libnotes.
The New Zealand species at present known may be distinguished by the following key:—
|1.||Wings with numerous dark dots over the greater part of the surface; no distinct ocellate markings||2|
|Wings with markings more or less ocellate, without numerous dark dots||4|
|2||A dark streak along costal margin of wing from base to tip||striata n sp|
|A triangular dark area surrounding the stigma||3|
|3||Discal cell elongate and irregularly shaped||picta Hutton|
|Discal cell not elongate||venusta O-S|
|4||Distinct ocellate markings in the neighbourhood of the stigma||5|
|A large dark patch surrounding the stigma||6|
|5||Light-ochreous species||tesselata (O-S)|
|Darker species; pleurae shining black||gibbera n sp|
|6||Only two light areas on the costa||fumipennis (Hudson)|
|Three light areas on the costa||7|
|7||Wings with an uninterrupted central dark fascia||ampla (Hutton)|
|Wings with central fascia interrupted||8|
|8||A complete ring round base of Rs||dicyla n sp|
|Ring round base of Rs incomplete||dohrni (O-S)|
Discobola striata n. sp. (Figs. 32, 134.)
Head dark grey, with blackish central stripe; frons more ochreous, strongly dusted. Proboscis about as long as head, black. Palpi black. Antennae rather light ochreous, first scapal and first flagellar joints darker. First two or three flagellar joints almost globular, separated by short necks; remaining joints gradually more oval and more slender. Thorax rather pale ochreous-grey. Pronotum dark at sides and with dark-brown central stripe extending backwards nearly whole length of praescutum. Mesonotum with rather broad dark-brown stripe on each side, between which and narrow central stripe are some minute brown dots. Scutellum dark brown at sides; postnotum light-brownish, greyer in middle. Pleurae with rather irregular dark-brown stripe, reaching from front coxae to sides of postnotum. Abdomen rather dark brown, somewhat shining. Hypopygium with single pair of claspers which are somewhat square, with projecting lobe at each corner; those on outer and inner basal corners apparently represent the horny clasper and rostrum of Dicranomyia; inner apical lobe beset with numerous minute spines; parameres divided into two elongate lobes. Legs pale ochreous, dark-brown ring just before tip of each femur; last three tarsal joints dark. Wings (see fig. 32) very distinctive on account of dark-brown stripe extending along costal margin from humeral cross-vein to tip of wing, broadening out on apical half. Below this stripe is a nearly clear streak, the rest of wing being filled with dark dots. Cross-vein m situated far beyond base of M3, giving discal cell a peculiar shape, as in D. picta. Halteres long, pale ochreous, knob and narrow ring at base of stem blackish. Length of body, 7·5–8 mm.; wing, 10–11 mm.
North Island: Karori, Wellington (G. V. Hudson, Nos. 79c and 791); type and one other male in British Museum. Rare.
Discobola picta (Hutton). (Fig. 31.)
Trochobola picta Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 37, 1900.
Does not differ much from D. striata except in wing-markings, but in this is so distinct that the two must be treated as distinct species. Shape of discal cell the same in both. Differences may be found in male hypopygium.
North Island: Wellington (Hudson). I have seen two female specimens, one in British Museum and one at Cambridge.
Discobola venusta (Osten-Sacken). (Fig. 30.)
Trochobola venusta Osten-Sacken, Berlin ent. Zeitschr., vol. 34, p. 265, 1894; Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 34, p. 190, 1902.
Nearly related to D. striata and D. picta, but with different wing-markings (see fig. 30), and with quite differently shaped discal cell, which is closed by two straight veins of equal length. Hypopygium similar to that of D. striata, but there are a number of small differences—e.g., spine at outer basal corner of clasper is stronger and projects outwards. In both these species the clasper contains a curious internal vesicle.
South Island: Greymouth (Helms), recorded by Osten-Sacken. I have seen specimens from Tisbury, 28th November, 1915, and Mount Grey, November, 1914.
Discobola tesselata (Osten-Sacken.) (Figs. 33, 34.)
Trochobola tesselata Osten-Sacken, Berlin. ent. Zeitschr., vol. 39, p. 266, 1894.
Trochobola variegata Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 36, 1900.
Limnobia tesselata Walker (nom. nud.), List Dipt. Brit. Mus., vol. 1, p. 45, 1848.
This species differs from all the others as yet known from New Zealand in the predominating light-ochreous colour of thorax and abdomen. Praescutum has four dark stripes, middle pair narrow and widely separated; postnotum has a blackish band down middle. Hypopygium has claspers resembling those of Dicranomyia—a slender, curved, horny upper pair, and a fleshy lower pair provided with an inwardly-projecting rostrum; rostrum does not bear spines, but there is a pair of straight slender rods on the fleshy clasper itself near base of rostrum. Quite distinct from D. australis; it has not the strongly produced praescutum of that species, and differs in many details of coloration.
The name tesselata must be attributed to Osten-Sacken, who gave a very brief diagnosis of Walker's specimen; this was just sufficient to validate the name, and necessitates sinking Hutton's T. variegata as a synonym. The species is extremely similar to the North American D. argus and the European D. annulata—more so than to any other New Zealand species.
North Island: Wellington district (G. V. Hudson, No. 229). Walker's specimen (a male) is unlabelled as to locality. There are also two females in British Museum, presented by Mr. Hudson.
Discobola gibbera n. sp. (Fig. 29.)
Head blackish, heavily dusted with dark grey; front narrow, not more than one-tenth as broad as head. Probiscis and palpi blackish, about half as long as head. Antennae dark brown, second scapal joint light brown. Flagellar joints all about same length, but becoming gradually more slender; basal joints very shortly oval; terminal joints rather elongate oval. Thorax—pronotum green. Praescutum strongly humped, arching forwards over pronotum more than in any other New Zealand species, brown, somewhat dusted with greyish-brown, with short dark-brown stripe on each side. Scutellum and postnotum shining blackish-brown. Pleurae mostly shining black, a small ochreous spot in middle, and a greenish area over hind-coxae. Abdomen dark brown, with narrow pale rings extending over apices and bases of segments. Ovipositor with anal valves curved, slightly shorter than last segment; genital valves stout, rather blunt-ended, evenly tapering. Legs ochreous; femora with a narrow black ring at tip; extreme tip of tibiae and last two tarsal joints dark. Wings with a faint ochreous tinge; venation and markings as in fig. 29. Halteres ochreous at extreme base, then with rather broad blackish ring; apex of stem and base of knob pale ochreous, apex of knob blackish. Length of body, 9 mm.; wing, 9 mm.
South Island: Tisbury, 31st October, 1915 (A. Philpott); one female. Type in Cawthron Institute collection.
Most nearly allied to D. australis Skuse, differing in leg-markings and some other points. From D. tesselata it differs in the more humped thorax, colour of pleurae and postnotum, femoral markings, & c.
Discobola dicycla n. sp. (Fig. 28.)
Similar to D. dohrni and D. ampla, and perhaps a variety of one or other, but shows the following differences: Flagellar joints all about equal in length, but becoming slightly and gradually more slender towards apex; last joint under four times as long as broad; hairs on upper surface rather conspicuous somewhat longer than joints. Pronotum rather bright ochreous, strongly contrasting with dark head and thorax. Abdomen also conspicuously paler than thorax. Wing-markings resembling those of D. dohrni, but those in centre separated from those at base and from those towards apex; a complete ring surrounding base of Rs and another below this, the two forming central fascia. Discal cell somewhat longer than in the other two species. Length of body, 9 mm.; wing, 11 mm.
South Island: West Plains, 4th March, 1906 (A. Philpott); one female. Type in Cawthron Institute collection.
Discobola dohrni (Osten-Sacken). (Fig. 27.)
Trochobola dohrni Osten-Sacken, Berlin. ent. Zeitschr., vol. 39, p. 264, 1894; Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 34, p. 189, 1902.
The last six or eight joints of flagellum distinctly elongate, especially last joint, which is about six or seven times as long as broad; hairs on upper surface are inconspicuous, shorter than joints. Pronotum and abdomen dark brown, like the remainder of body. Base of Rs covered by small brown spot, this being surrounded by an incomplete dark ring, broken outwardly below Rs. Basal two-thirds of the cell M practically filled by an undivided dark patch. Length of body, 12–16 mm.; wing, 13–23 mm. (according to Osten-Sacken).
South Island: Recorded by Osten-Sacken from Christchurch (Hutton) and Greymouth (Helms). I have seen a male and female from White Rock, 26th October, 1920, from Canterbury Museum, and a female without definite data in British Museum.
Discobola ampla (Hutton). (Fig. 26.)
Trochobola ampla Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 36, 1900.
This was regarded by Hutton as identical with D. dohrni, but according to the specimens I have examined there are certain differences, which may be only varietal, but ought not to be disregarded. In D. ampla the flagellar joints are all about equal in length, though they become gradually more slender towards apex; last joint is only about four times as long as broad; hairs on upper surface somewhat shorter than joints. Pronotum somewhat lighter than rest of thorax, though not conspicuously so. Wing-markings more extensive and more consolidated than in D. dohrni; in particular, there is an uninterrupted band across middle of wing, including base of Rs and tip of An. Cell M dark except for two pale spots near apex. Length of body, 11–14 mm.; wing, 14–20 mm.
North Island: Wellington (G. V. Hudson); one female in British Museum, from Wilton's Bush, 11th October, 1914; also one male in Cambridge Museum.
Discobola fumipennis (Hudson).
Tipula fumipennis, Hudson, Man. N.Z. Ent., p. 48, pl. v, fig. 2, 1892.
Given by Hutton as a synonym of D. ampla, but, although it may be a Discobola, it seems incredible that the very different wing-markings shown
in Hudson's figure can represent the same species. If it is really the same, Hudson's name must be used in place of Hutton's, since the figure and descriptive matter are sufficient to validate the publication of it.
Genus Elephantomyia O.-S.
Antennae fifteen-jointed, the basal flagellar joint not much swollen, the remaining joints oval and all with moderately long hairs. Proboscis about as long as the abdomen or longer, with minute palpi inserted at its tip. Praescutum not noticeably produced over the neck. Sc1 ending far beyond the base of Rs. R2 long, nearly parallel with R4+5, and ending not far from tip of wing. An straight, not closely approximated to Cu at base.
A small but more or less cosmopolitan genus. Five species are known from the Ethiopian region, two or three from the Oriental region, two from Austro-Malayan islands, one from the West Indies, and one from North America, which is said to occur also in central Europe. The New Zealand species rather closely resembles this last.
Elephantomyia zealandica n. sp. (Fig. 35.)
♀. Head dark ochreous-brown; front grey-dusted, about one-eighth as broad as head. Antennae dark brown, first scapal joint ochreous. Flagellar joints all about equal, except the first, which is somewhat swollen, and the second, which is small and indistinctly separated from the first. Proboscis dark brown, twice the length of thorax. Thorax dull ochreous-brown, without grey dusting. Praescutum with blackish median line in front. A dark-brown vertical stripe on pleurae just in front of wing-base, extending over middle coxae. Abdomen ochreous, apical three-fourths of each tergite blackish-brown. Legs slender, dark brown, front and hind coxae and trochanters ochreous. Wings with slight brownish tinge, stigma and veins dark brown. Venation normal for the genus. Halteres blackish, stem ochreous towards base. Length of body, about 7·5 mm.; wing, 7·5 mm.; proboscis, about 4 mm.
South Island: Lake Wakatipu, 1906 (G. V. Hudson); type female in British Museum.
Genus Ceratocheilus Wesché.
Antennae twelve-jointed, the basal joint of the flagellum swollen, the remaining joints small; the last few joints with long hairs, the remainder nearly bare. Proboscis nearly or quite as long as abdomen, with minute palpi inserted at its tip. Praescutum conically produced over the neck. Sc1 ending near base of Rs. R2 short, more or less waved, divergent from R4+5, ending in costa far before wing-tip and close to tip of R1. An bent just before the middle, basal portion almost in contact with Cu.
This is a small genus of wide distribution in the tropics, with about six species in the Ethiopian, two in the Oriental, and two in the Neotropical region. None are recorded as yet from Australia. The Ethiopian species differ from the others in having spotted wings and a long projection (corniculus) on the front of the head a little above the antennae; there is no trace of this in the New Zealand species.
Ceratocheilus levis (Hutton). (Fig. 36.)
Rhamphidia levis Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 38, 1900.
♀. Antennae entirely black. Proboscis nearly twice as long as thorax. Head mostly dark brown, grey round eyes. Mesonotum dark grey, with slight ochreous tinge, heavily dusted; three blackish-brown praescutal stripes, not quite confluent, leaving two narrow lines of greyish groundcolour. Pleurae and postnotum black, heavily dusted with dark grey. Abdomen blackish-brown, somewhat grey-dusted. Legs very slender. Wings rather dark-greyish. Sc1 ending a short distance beyond, Sc2 placed a similar distance before the base of Rs. R2 gently waved. Cu1a very slightly beyond base of discal cell. Length of body, 7·5 mm.; wing, 7 mm.; hind leg, 14 mm.; proboscis, 4·5 mm.
North Island: Wellington district (G. V. Hudson, No. 161). I have seen two females, one from Wilton's Bush, 1st December, 1920. They are precisely alike.
Ceratocheilus ochraceum n. sp. (Fig. 37.)
♂. Scape of antennae ochreous-brown. Proboscis considerably less than twice the length of thorax. Head more extensively grey than in C. levis, the middle blackish. Mesonotum ochreous on borders, praescutal stripes absolutely confluent, dull dark brown. Pleurae ochreous, without distinct dusting. Postnotum ochreous at sides, slightly shining dark brown in middle. Abdomen brownish-ochreous, incisures and seventh segment darker. Hypopygium—ninth tergite with two bluntly triangular points, rather widely separated; outer claspers very short. Inner claspers bent inwards near base, a triangular marginal tooth beyond the bend; side-pieces with small dark basal tubercle. Legs longer and somewhat stouter than in C. levis. Wings tinged with ochreous-grey; Sc1 not longer than Sc2, ending a little before base of Rs; R2 somewhat shorter than in C. levis and practically straight. Cu1a well beyond base of discal cell. Length of body, 7 mm.; wing, 6·5 mm.; hind leg, 15·5 mm.; proboscis, 3·2 mm.
North Island: Wilton's Bush, Wellington, in forest, 1st December, 1920 (G. V. Hudson No. 161B); type male in British Museum. Although this was taken at the same place and on the same day as a female of C. levis, the differences are so considerable that I feel bound to recognize two distinct species. Sexual dimorphism does not occur in any species of Ceratocheilus known to me.
The following key will distinguish the genera found in New Zealand:—
|1.||Radius three-branched; Sc ending near base of Rs||Gonomyia, subgenus Lipophleps.|
|Radius four-branched; Sc ending at or beyond the apex of Rs||2|
|2.||Middle legs considerably shorter than the others||3|
|Middle legs as long as the front ones||Gnophomyia.|
|3.||Wings hairy, either on veins or membrane; cell Sc widened apically||4|
|Wings with bare membrane; hair on veins inconspicuous; cell Sc not widened apically||Trimicra.|
|Wing-veins densely hairy, membrane practically bare||Molophilus.|
Genus Gonomyia (Mg.) O.-S.
Subgenus Lipophleps Bergroth, Psyche, vol. 22, p. 55, 1915.
(New name for Leiponeura Skuse, preoccupied by Liponeura Lw.)
This subgenus has rather numerous representatives in most tropical countries, the first known being Gonomyia manca O.-S., from North America. Recently Alexander has recognized that the two species of Leiponeura described from Australia by Skuse are referable to Gonomyia, and has adopted Leiponeura as a subgenus, describing many new species. The name Leiponeura cannot stand, in view of the previous existence of Liponeura, the difference being merely one of transliteration. I follow Alexander in regarding Lipophleps as a subgenus of Gonomyia, rather than as a distinct genus, as Bergroth claims it should be regarded.
Owing to the loss of the vein R2 members of this subgenus are liable to be confused with Dicranomyia, to which they have actually very little affinity. The sixteen-jointed antennae, the strongly divergent veins R3 and R4+5, and the structure of the male hypopygium will distinguish them. As in Gonomyia (s. str.), yellow or orange coloration is of frequent occurrence on the sides of the thorax and abdomen. The New Zealand species does not appear to be particularly closely allied to any of those described from Australia.
Gonomyia (Lipophleps) nigrohalterata n. sp. (Fig. 38.)
♀. Head light ochreous; proboscis more orange; palpi and antennae black. Flagellar joints rather elongate oval, the first five distinctly stouter than the rest, and with more numerous and rather shorter hairs; verticils on outer joints rather longer than joints. Thorax ochreous-orange, somewhat shining, without grey dusting; praescutum, and scutum except for middle quarter, dark brown. Pleurae with blackish line (not very conspicuous) running from neck to base of halteres. Abdomen brown above, more orange below. Ovipositor with anal valves slender, curved, a little longer than last segment. Legs dark brown, coxae and trochanters ochreous. Wings with slight greyish tinge; unmarked; stigma hardly perceptible. Sc1 ending opposite base of Rs. Rs nearly straight, about equal in length to R2. Cu1a just before base of small discal cell. Halteres rather long, black, tip of knob lighter. Length of body, 5 mm.; wing, 5·5 mm.
North Island: Auckland, 16th September, 1906 (W. Wesché); type female in British Museum.
Genus Amphineurus Skuse (emended).
This name was proposed by Skuse (as a subgenus of Rhypholophus) for two Australian species which showed a striking peculiarity of venation in having the discal cell absent and cells M1 and M3 equal in length. I now propose to use the name in a full generic sense, and to include in it two New Zealand species having the same venation as those described by Skuse, and also three or four others with different venation. The differences between the species in venation are very striking, and might be thought to be of generic or subgeneric value, but the remarkable structure of the hypopygium is similar in all, and there can be no doubt that they are in reality closely related. It is equally certain that they are not so
closely related to any of the species of Rhypholophus and Ormosia found in Europe, and this fact will further justify their treatment as a single group. Whether this group is given generic or only subgeneric rank is immaterial; for convenience I prefer the former plan, particularly as I have regarded the two European groups as distinct genera. I know of no other representatives of this genus outside Australia and New Zealand. No members of the group of genera (Amphineurus, Rhypholophus, and Ormosia) have been described from the Neotropical region. In all three genera (or subgenera, if the term be preferred) the male hypopygium has undergone permanent torsion, so that the ninth tergite lies on the ventral side. The same occurs in Molophilus, and may indicate a closer relationship between these genera than any of them have to Erioptera, where the torsion does not occur.
Owing to the inclusion of these additional species, Skuse's definition of Amphineurus will require remodelling as follows: Discal cell present or absent; cell M3 either sessile on M (as in the typical species) or stalked, owing to the long fusion of M3 with Cu1; M3 never arising from M1, as in nearly all the species of Rhypholophus and Ormosia found in the Northern Hemisphere. Ax long and sinuous (as in Rhypholophus). Side-pieces of male hypopygium with a long, finger-like terminal process.
The New Zealand species may be distinguished as follows:—
|1.||Discal cell present; abdomen and wings densely scaly||perdecorus n. sp.|
|Discal cell absent; abdomen moderately hairy||2|
|2.||Cell M3 sessile||3|
|Cell M3 stalked||4|
|3.||Femora black with two narrow yellow rings||bicinctus n. sp.|
|Femora with black, white, and brown rings||hudsoni n. sp.|
|4.||Dull, dark species without ornamentation||horni n. sp.|
|Light species, or else with distinct ornamentation||5|
|5.||Legs all ochreous||insulsus (Hutton).|
|Femora with two yellow rings||fatuus (Hutton).|
Of these species, A. horni shows an approach to Erioptera, and A. perdecorus to Molophilus; the other four are much more closely allied.
Amphineurus perdecorus n. sp. (Figs. 41, 42, 135.)
Head black, with long whitish scaly pubescence. Antennae about as long as head and thorax together, brown; the flagellar joints rather darker in middle, all about equal in length, elliptical, with rather short fine pubescence and one or two long hairs on dorsal surface of each joint. Thorax with black integument, clothed in patches with long narrow creamy-white scales forming a rather indefinite pattern; just anterior to the mesonotal suture are two roundish tufts of dark-brown scales. Pubescence of pleurae of same colour but rather more hair-like. Abdomen densely covered with scales, pale-brownish at sides, dark in a median dorsal line; about half of the light scales are of peculiar form, like minute bladders, the remainder, as well as all the dark ones, very long and hair-like. Hypopygium—tips of side-pieces drawn out into long, very hairy processes, attenuated apically; three pairs of claspers, one situated at base of side-pieces, long, slender, serrate towards tip; the other two pairs short, stout, black, curved in opposite directions, lower one slightly bifid, at tip. Parameres long, bent in middle, outer half black, pointed. Legs densely covered with long hair-like scales, mostly black, but the femora are paler on basal third and have narrow yellowish ring beyond middle;
tibiae each have two yellowish rings, before and beyond middle; front metatarsi have yellowish ring near base, and mid and hind metatarsi a narrower ring at base. Front tarsi very long, nearly twice the length of tibia; tarsi of mid legs slightly longer, of hind legs slightly shorter, than respective tibiae. Mid legs extremely short, femora being hardly more than half as long as hind femora. Wings densely clothed on whole surface with hair-like scales of two colours, pale brownish-yellow and dark brown. The dark ones occur chiefly in a patch near base of costa; a small spot before one-third of wing-length just below radius, another small spot opposite this on hind-margin; a large irregular patch beyond middle extending from costa somewhat obliquely backwards more than half across wing; and an area round wing-tip, which includes several small pale spots on margin. Discal cell present; cross-vein m at tip of discal cell, equal in length to basal section of M2; Cu1 meeting M either at, or just before, or just beyond base of discal cell; Ax long and slightly arcuated. Cells R2 and R3 usually of almost the same length; often cell R2 is distinctly the longer, as in Molophilus; Rs angled and generally spurred at base. Halteres yellow.
North Island: Kaitoke, Wellington, in forest, November and December (G. V. Hudson, No. 159); two males (including type) and one female in British Museum; one male in Cambridge Museum. Swanson, 30th November, 1916 (A. E. Brookes); one male in British Museum. The wing-markings exhibit some slight variation. When resting with closed wings this insect has a decidedly spider-like appearance.
Amphineurus bicinctus n. sp. (Fig. 136.)
Head dark grey densely covered with yellowish hair. Proboscis and palpi black. Scape of antennae ochreous; flagellum dark brown, except at base. Flagellar joints of male about three times as long as broad, nearly cylindrical, verticils a little longer than joints, the whole antenna scarcely longer than thorax. Thorax—pronotum, shoulders, and narrow line at the edge of praescutum whitish. Praescutum with three bluish-grey stripes, conspicuously bordered with velvet-black, the lateral stripes and their black borders extending on scutum. Scutellum mainly ochreous. Postnotum greyish-brown. Pleurae black, with broad whitish stripe from front coxae to halteres. Abdomen dark brown, velvet-black along lateral borders; hypopygium and ovipositor ochreous-brown. Processes of male side-pieces long and slender, apex very slightly swollen; three pairs of claspers, the longest almost as long as the hairy processes, pointed at tip and serrate on inner margin; ninth tergite in middle with a long smooth black process trifid at tip. Anal segment of female swollen, hairy; anal valves of ovipositor short, stout, curved almost into a semicircle. Legs—coxae and trochanters whitish-ochreous. Femora blackish, lighter at base, and each with narrow yellow rings on apical half; tip broadly black. Wings with dark-brown hair, on upper surface with numerous small patches of pale-ochreous hair in all the cells, and a small patch of deep-black hair at tip of Sc1. On under-surface all the hair is dark brown. Discal cell absent; cells M1 and M3 of equal length, both square at base; Cu1a joining M well before the fork. Halteres ochreous, with brown ring on stem. Length of body, 5 mm.; wing, 7 mm.
North Island: Karori, Wellington, in forest, November, 1920 (G. V. Hudson, No. 373); two males (including type) and one female in British Museum.
Amphineurus hudsoni n. sp. (Figs. 43, 137.)
Head dark grey, with some black hair. Proboscis and palpi black. Scape and base of flagellum of antennae ochreous, remainder dark brown. Antennae alike in the two sexes; flagellar joints about three times as long as broad, slightly thicker in middle, with verticils little longer than joints. Thorax—pronotum, a spot on the shoulders and another in front of wing-base yellowish. Mesonotum mainly occupied by three brownish-grey stripes, narrowly separated in front by dark-brown lines. Pleurae pale grey with some dark-brown markings. Postnotum brownish-grey with whitish spot on each side near base. Abdomen as in A. bicinctus, but male hypopygium has only two pairs of claspers, the third (middle) pair being represented by minute rudiments; upper pair longer and more slender than in A. bicinctus, smooth except for tip, which is blunt and serrated; ninth tergite has two large black pointed lobes. Legs—coxae pale ochreous, dusted with grey; trochanters ochreous. Femora ochreous-brown, with blackish ring close to base, and two other rather broad blackish rings, bordered on each edge with white; tip rather broadly ochreous-brown. Tibiae brownish-ochreous, with blackish ring near base, bordered with white; tip broadly black, preceded by narrow white ring. Tarsi blackish. Wings much as in A. bicinctus, but the pale hairs more numerous, especially in region of cord. Halteres ochreous. Length of body, 5 mm.; wing, 7 mm.
North Island: Karori, Wellington, November, 1920 (G. V. Hudson, No. 20); two males (including type) and one female in British Museum; also a second female (G. V. Hudson, No. 92B).
The larva feeds in the soft, wet, decayed portions of the fallen leaves of the nikau-palm (Rhopalostylis sapida).
Amphineurus insulsus (Hutton). (Figs. 39, 138, 139.)
Rhypholophus insulsus Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 34, p. 188, 1902.
A very distinct species, on account of the almost uniform light-ochreous colour of the whole body, as well as wings and legs; palpi, cross-veins, and tips of most of veins being blackish. The male antennae are considerably longer than the whole body, all the flagellar joints elongate (especially the first) and provided with long pubescence, nearly as long as joints; in female the antennae about half as long as body. Male hypopygium has long finger-like processes to side-pieces; two pairs of claspers, upper ones black, trifid almost to base, middle branch as long as hairy processes, strongly serrate on inner margin; the other two branches slender, sinuous, sharp-pointed; the lower pair short, brown. The wing-hair is all ochreous and evenly distributed over the surface. Length of body, 5 mm.; wing, 9 mm.
North Island: Wellington district (G. V. Hudson, No. 97); Te Wairoa, 15th November, 1919 (D. Miller). South Island: Mount Grey, Canterbury, November, 1917.
Amphineurus fatuus (Hutton). (Figs. 40, 140.)
Rhypholophus fatuus Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 34, p. 188, 1902.
Also a very easily recognized species, on account of general dark-brown colour of body and two yellow rings on the black femora, the second ring being apical. Antennae in both sexes only about as long as thorax, but in male the flagellar joints are somewhat more swollen at bases than in female, and are covered with very long pubescence, three times as long as each joint. Male hypopygium essentially similar in structure to that of last three species, but very remarkable on account of its asymmetry. The side-piece of one side (the right in actual, left in morphological position)
has only one clasper, and this is of quite a different structure from either of those on the left side; the aedoeagus is also of remarkable construction and very asymmetrical. All the specimens are exactly alike, so that there can be no question of an accidental deformity. Although some species of Gonomyia have an asymmetrical aedoeagus, this is the first Nematocerous Dipteron I have seen with asymmetrical claspers. The wing-hair is all dark, but varies in density in different parts, and there are areas in basal, anal, and axillary cells which are devoid of hair. Length of body, 6 mm.; wing, 9 mm.
North Island: Karori and Wainuiomata, Wellington (G. V. Hudson, No. 135); three males and one female in British Museum.
Amphineurus horni n. sp. (Fig. 44.)
Whole body rather dark brown; back of head darker; coxae, anal segment, and ovipositor lighter. Antennae missing. Thorax heavily dusted with brownish. Anal segment swollen and rather short. Anal valves of ovipositor about as long as the segment, rather stout, curved almost into a semicircle, scarcely reaching beyond tips of genital valves. Middle legs dark brown (front and hind legs missing). Wings with membrane and veins greyish, hair dark brown. All veins rather densely clothed with long hair; hairs of an equal length are also scattered rather thinly over whole surface. Venation almost as in Erioptera: r-m and Cu1a both meet M almost exactly at fork, and therefore form an obtusely-angled line. R2+3 strongly arched, a little longer than r-m and about two-thirds as long as stem of cell M3. Ax rather short, very slightly arcuated, ending much before Cu1a. Length of body, 3·5 mm.; wing, 5·2 mm.
North Island: Wellington (G. V. Hudson, No. 111A); type female in Berlin-Dahlem Museum. I have pleasure in naming the species after Dr. W. Horn, to whom I am indebted for the loan of several collections.
The position of this species in Amphineurus is somewhat uncertain, the venation approaching closely to that of Erioptera, and the long dense hair on the veins also suggesting an affinity with that genus. The somewhat hairy wing-surface, however, excludes it from Erioptera, and, as the ovipositor has the same structure as in A. bicinctus, it is probably correctly placed in Amphineurus.
Genus Molophilus Mg.
This genus is readily distinguished by two peculiarities of venation—the cell R2 being considerably longer than R3, and the cross-vein r-m being placed far beyond the first fork of the media; in addition the long dense hair on the wing-veins will distinguish it from other New Zealand genera, though not from Erioptera. In regard to the first point, an approach is made to Molophilus by Amphineurus perdecorus, but no confusion need be caused on that account. The genus is a cosmopolitan one.
The New Zealand species show some affinity—not, however, very striking—with those of Australia; they are of quite a different type, in regard to markings and hypopygial structure, from those of the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions. The following table will separate the known New Zealand forms:—
|Legs not ringed||4|
|2.||Legs yellow with black rings||variegatus n. sp.|
|Legs dark with white rings||3|
|3.||Metatarsi with a white ring||multicinctus n. sp.|
|Metatarsi (at least on middle legs) without white ring||infantulus n. sp.|
|4.||Legs and wings uniformly dark||inornatus n. sp.|
|Legs yellow; wings spotted||pulcherrimus n. sp.|
Molophilus pulcherrimus n. sp. (Fig. 45.)
♀. Head dark-brownish; proboscis and palpi black; antennae brown with black hair. Flagellar joints nearly cylindrical, about twice as long as broad, verticils about twice as long as joints. Thorax brownish-ochreous; praescutum with four dark-brown stripes and a few yellow hairs; pleurae with broad black stipe from neck to base of abdomen; sternopleura below this line dusted with light grey, as also coxae. Abdomen ochreous-brown, darker at sides. Anal valves of ovipositor moderately stout, strongly curved, as long as last segment, which is hairy and has a pair of little conical projections. Legs yellowish; front femora except at base with very dense blackish pubescence, rather longer than the yellow pubescence on the rest of the legs; front tibiae and tarsal joints also with black pubescence at tips. Wings with the membrane greyish-tinged, except for nine rounded spots round apical margin, between tips of veins. Hair on veins black, except on basal three-fifths of costa, Sc, R1, Rs (except base), tip of Ax, and a space just before tip of An, where it is yellow. The hairs overlapping whitish spots on membrane are also yellow. Denser aggregations of black hair occur at base of Rs, along cord, and at tips of all veins. Some hairs on wing-membrane all round the apical border of wing. Tips of R1, R2, and R3 turn upwards; those of M1, M2, Cu1, and Cu2 downwards. Ax long and sinuous, ending slightly beyond level of Cu1a. Cu1a joining M just beyond fork, short, nearly vertical, hairy. Halteres yellowish, stem darker. Length of body, 4 mm.; wing, 5 mm.
North Island: Wilton's Bush, Wellington, December (G. V. Hudson, No. 115B); type female in British Museum.
Molophilus multicinctus n. sp.
♂. Head dark grey, antennae and palpi brown. Antennae a little shorter than thorax; flagellar joints rather shortly oval, with long fine pubescence (about twice as long as joint) on under side, and two or three very long hairs (about four times as long as joint) on upper side. Thorax rather dark greyish-brown or buff; pleurae greyer; margin and interspaces of praescutum dark brown; postnotum and lateral sclerites darker. Abdomen dark brown, with long pale pubescence. Hypopygium yellowish; terminal process of side-piece very long, nearly twice as long as the short side-piece itself; claspers long, slender, whitish, with darkened tips; both pairs about equal in length, one pair pointed, the other with bulbous expansion close to rounded tip. Legs blackish, bases of femora lighter; each leg with five conspicuous white rings placed as follows: at two-thirds of length of femur; at femoro-tibial joint; before and beyond middle of tibia; and at base of first tarsal joint. The second of these rings is narrower than the others. Wings clothed mostly with dark hair, without distinct markings, but the hair is darker over the cord, and lighter before and beyond it. Numerous hairs on membrane in cell R1. Cu1a very oblique, hairy, reaching M just beyond fork, longer than stem of cell M3. Ax long, sinuous, reaching hind-margin opposite base of M3. Halteres yellowish, knob somewhat darker. Length of body, 4 mm.; wing, 4–5 mm.
Two males, without exact data (C. M. Wakefield, 1880); one cotype in Oxford Museum, one in British Museum.
Molophilus infantulus n. sp.
♀. Head brownish. Palpi black. Scape of antennae brown, flagellum black, joints nearly cylindrical, all about equal; verticils nearly three
times as long as joints. Thorax ochreous-brown, scarcely shining, with some black hair; no markings; pronotum yellow. Abdomen blackish, with brown pubescence; ovipositor ochreous-brown, anal valves strong, curved, slightly longer than anal segment, which is slightly hairy. Legs (middle leg alone present) dark brown, tibia with two rings of whitish pubescence, a very narrow one near base and a somewhat broader one near tip. Wings with slightly greyish membrane and dark hair. Cu1a curved, hairy, less than half as long as stem of cell M3. Ax nearly straight, ending a little beyond tip of Cu1a. Halteres yellow. Length of body, 2·5 mm.; wing, 3 mm.
North Island: Titirangi, Auckland, 30th December, 1915 (A. E. Brookes); type female in British Museum. If the male of this species is smaller than the female (as is usually the case in this genus) it must be one of the very smallest members of the family.
Molophilus variegatus n. sp. (Fig. 46.)
Head shrivelled, apparently dull blackish-grey. Proboscis, palpi, and antennae dark brown. Flagellar joints all rather shortly oval, two or three at base somewhat swollen; verticils about three times as long as joints. Thorax somewhat shining, yellow, with black markings; hairs scanty, concolorous with integument from which they arise. Praescutum has four large, more or less semicircular black spots, all in contact, round margin, the whole central portion being yellow. Scutum with four black spots, the outer ones nearly semicircular and in contact with those of praescutum, the inner pair larger. Scutellum black. Postnotum black, yellow at base. Pleurae yellow, with small dark spot in middle and larger blackish area on lateral sclerites of postnotum. Abdomen light-brownish, hind-margins of segments yellowish; pubescence pale. Hypopygium black, the two pairs of claspers widely separated by membrane; one pair placed at bases of side-pieces and reaching just to their tips, base straight except for hooked tip; the other pair subapically placed, short, curved, pointed at tip. Legs yellow, with black rings at tips of all joints, before middle of the front femora, and near base of front and middle tibiae (hind legs missing). Wings with the membrane hyaline; hair mostly black; patches of yellow on Rs and on costa above it, in middle of R2 and R3, before tips of M3, Cu1, and An, and round fork of M. Membrane hairy in region of stigma. Cu1a bare, moderately oblique, scarcely half as long as stem of cell M3. Ax nearly straight, ending opposite Cu1a. Halteres with yellow stem and long black knob. Length of body, 2·5 mm.; wing, 3·2 mm.
North Island: Titirangi, Auckland, 30th November, 1915 (A. E. Brookes); type male in British Museum.
Molophilus inornatus n. sp. (Fig. 141.)
♂. Whole body, including antennae, legs, and wings, dark brown, without markings; only coxae somewhat lighter. Antennae about as long as body. Flagellar joints elongate, bottle-shaped, necks narrow and bare: verticils irregular, about twice as long as joints: last joint blunt-ended, without neck. Abdomen with yellowish pubescence. Hypopygium with two pairs of claspers widely separated by membrane, one pair basal, elongate, longer than side-pieces, with a fringe of hair apically and a protuberance bearing bristles before middle; the other pair subapical, short, curved, blunt-tipped. Penis very long and slender. Front legs long and
slender (others missing). Venation: Ax long and straight, ending below middle of stalk of cell M3. Cu1a hairy, nearly vertical, slightly beyond fork of M. R3 and M1 both somewhat approximated to R4+5 at the tip. Length of body, 3·5 mm.; wing, 5·5 mm.
North Island: Hamurana, 19th November, 1919 (D. Miller), one male. Type in collector's possession.
Notwithstanding differences in antennal and colorational characters, this is evidently related to M. variegatus, the hypopygium of both having a similar and very peculiar structure.
Genus Gnophomyia O.-S.
This genus as at present understood includes a considerable number of species from all parts of the world, which show a rather extensive range of structural characters. I think there can be no doubt that a division into several genera will have to be made, but the species require further study in all their stages before this can be done very satisfactorily. The two New Zealand species are very dissimilar in appearance and habits, and each shows some peculiar features distinguishing it from most, if not all, other known species. I therefore propose a new subgeneric name for each of these species. The distinctions between these and true Gnophomyia can best be expressed by means of the following table, which includes all the genera and subgenera some species of which have recently been included in Gnophomyia; some or all of them will probably eventually be accorded full generic rank.
|1.||Rs rather short, almost or quite in a straight line with R4+5; R2+3 strongly arched; r-m at or close to the base of R4+5; r vertical, near base of R2; tip of R1 long; eyes widely separated||Gnophomyia s. str.|
|Rs generally longer; not in a line with R4+5 R2+3 not strongly arched; r-m well beyond base of R4+5||2|
|2.||R2 very short, much less than half as long as R3||3|
|R2 longer, more than half as long as R3||4|
|3.||Legs covered with scales; discal cell closed||Gymnastes Brun.|
|Legs without scales, but with long pubescence; discal cell coalescent with cell M3||Dasymallomyia Brun.|
|4.||Sc2 oblique, longer than Sc1; r placed about the middle of R2+3; discal cell coalescent with cell M1; front narrow||Aphrophila n. subgen.|
|Sc2 vertical, usually much shorter than Sc1; r joining R1 and R2; discal cell closed||5|
|5.||Head round, front very narrow; body and legs elongate; r oblique and longer than the tip of R1||Astelobia n. subgen.|
|Head broader, front not very narrow; body and legs much less elongate; r usually vertical and shorter than the tip of R1||6|
|6||An accessory cross-vein in cell R3||Furina Jaen.|
|No such cross-vein||7|
|7||Body shining, black and yellow||Psiloconopa Zett.|
|Body otherwise coloured: Gnophomyia luctuosa O.-S., G. elegans Wied., G. peramoena Alex., G. perelagens Alex., G. fascipennis Thomson, & c. (Also genus Trimicra.)|
Gnophomyia s. str. includes, besides the type species, G. ferruginea Will., G tripudians Bergr., G. orientalis Meig., G. nigrescens Edw., & c.
Dasymallomyia should perhaps include Gnophomyia hirsuta Alex., which has a closed discal cell. Alexander regards it as a subgenus of Gnophomyia, but the two species have a very different appearance from those of Gnophomyia s. str.
Gymnastes Brun., is regarded by Alexander, perhaps with reason, as a subgenus of Paratropeza.
Aphrophila and Astelobia are proposed respectively for Gnophomyia neozelandica n. sp. and G. rufa (Hudson); in neither case is any other species known.
Gnophomyia (Aphrophila) neozelandica n. sp. (Fig. 47.)
♀. Body short and stout, blackish, more or less dusted over with dark grey; a small shoulder-spot, an area round the wing-base, and the ovipositor ochreous. Front very narrow, about one-tenth as broad as head. Palpi and antennae black. Flagellar joints about twice as long as broad, with very short pubescence, and short verticils, shorter than joints. Ovipositor peculiar: anal valves very short, strongly curved, less than half as long as the long anal segment, which bears apically a pair of tufts of hairs; genital valves also short, not reaching apex of anal segment. Legs dark brown, coxae and femora lighter; hind tarsi as long as tibiae. Wings longer than the body, greyish-tinged, stigma sharply defined, black. Sc2 oblique, slightly longer than Sc1. Cross-vein r vertical, shorter than tip of R1, joining R2+3 well before base of R2. Discal cell confluent with cell M1. Halteres ochreous. Length of body, 10 mm.; wing, 13 mm.; hind leg, 19 mm.
South Island: Otira Gorge, resting on boulders close to water's edge amongst the foam. Warnock's Creek (G. V. Hudson, No. 232). The habits suggest that the species has an aquatic larva; if this is so, it would confirm the separation of the species from Gnophomyia.
Gnophomyia (Astelobia) rufa (Hudson). (Fig. 48.)
Tipula rufa Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 27, p. 294, 1894.
Gnophomyia rufa Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 39, 1900.
Gnophomyia rufa Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 52, p. 32, 1920.
A large and very conspicuous orange-yellow species, remarkably distinct in coloration from all other known members of the genus. The front is even narrower than in G. neozelandica, the thorax and abdomen both unusually elongate. Male hypopygium with only a single pair of claspers, which are, however, deeply toothed on their outer margin, and bear a small fleshy lobe at their base, which perhaps represents the second pair; penis very large, strongly chitinized, with single terminal opening. Ovipositor with anal valves moderately long and slender, nearly straight. Legs longer than in G. neozelandica, but hind tarsi much shorter than tibiae. Sc2 vertical, shorter than Sc1. Cross-vein r very oblique, much longer than tip of R1, joining R2 well beyond base. Discal cell closed. Length of body, ♂ 24 mm., ♀ 29 mm.; wing, ♂ 19 mm., ♀ 21 mm.; hind leg, ♂ 49 mm., ♀ 52 mm.
North Island: Wellington (G. V. Hudson, No. 60). South Island: Nelson (Hudson).
According to Hudson, the early stages are spent in semi-liquid detritus between the bases of the leaves of the epiphytic plant Astelia Solandri.* The larva and pupa figured by him differ very markedly from those of the genotype (G. tristissima O.-S.), and thus support the separation of this species from Gnophomyia s. str.
[Footnote] * Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 52, p. 32, pl. 1, figs. 8, 9, 1920.
Genus Trimicra O.-S.
Osten-Sacken mentions that he has seen a species of this genus from New Zealand. There is a single specimen in the British Museum from Titirangi, Auckland, 30th December, 1915 (A. E. Brookes), which is too damaged to determine specifically; it may or may not be the cosmopolitan T. pilipes. If it is, it is the only species of crane-fly so far discovered in New Zealand which is not endemic to the country. (See text-fig. B.)
The terminal joints of the antennae do not seem to be quite as small as in T. pilipes, and are scarcely differentiated from the others.
Leaving out of account for the moment the genera of the Gynoplistia group, the members of this tribe are exceedingly difficult to classify, because, although the numerous species exhibit an extensive range of structure, there are few obvious diagnostic characters on which genera can be defined. Most of the generic and subgeneric names which have been proposed have been founded on very unsatisfactory characters, many of which are certainly variable in closely related species; such characters are the presence or absence of accessory cross-veins in different positions, the spurring of Rs, and the length of the male antennae. It is very probable that the early stages will afford a much more satisfactory basis of classification than the adults, but until this has been discovered * t seems inadvisable to go much further in the subdivision of the old genus Limnophila.
In endeavouring to discover characters which may be useful in defining the genera of this tribe in a natural manner I have found one which I believe may be of considerable value: this is the condition of the base of the median vein. In Gynoplistia, Cerazodia, Orolimnophila, and Limnophila skusei (text-fig. C) the media is connected with both R and Cu at the base; the connections with R I have spoken of in this paper as the “arcular cross-vein,” although it is quite possible that is really not a true cross-vein, but the base of the media itself. This, at any rate, appears to be the interpretation which Tillyard places upon it; but it seems easier to regard as the actual base of the media the short vein which arises from R still nearer the base of the wing, and fuses with Cu for some distance before separating as the main stem of the media. This condition is found also in the great majority of Palaearctic and Nearctic Limnophilini (Ephelia, Idioptera, Dicranophragma, Lasiomastix, Limnophila sensu O.-S., Prionolabis, Eutonia, Poecilostola, Pseudolimnophila, Neolimnophila, Pilaria, Adelphomyia). On the other hand, in all the remaining Limnophilini found in New Zealand the media arises from Cu a good deal farther from the base of the wing (the above-mentioned fusion with Cu being longer) and has no connection with R at this point. I believe this is likely to be a more primitive condition, and have expressed it (perhaps wrongly) by saying that the arcular cross-vein is absent (see text-fig. D). A similar condition to this is found in Epiphragma, and also in Limnophila ochracea Mg., and in Dactylolabis. It is worth noting that Epiphragma and L. ochracea are wood-feeders, like the New Zealand Rhamphophila.
Another character which may be found to be of generic value when fully understood is the presence or absence, before the middle of most of
[Footnote] * Dr. C. P. Alexander informs me that he has attempted a classification of the Limnophilini on the larvae and pupae in the second part of his monograph on the crane-flies of New York. At the time of writing this work has not appeared in print.
Text-Fig. B.—Trimicra sp. (New Zealand specimen), to explain notation of wing-veins. The cells take the name of the vein bordering their upper margin.
Text-Fig. C.—Limnophila skusei Hutton. Base of wing, showing origin of media, A2 arcular cross-vein. Sq = squama.
Text-Fig. D.—Limnophila oculata n. sp. Note absence of arcular cross-vein and presence of bristles on squama.
the abdominal tergites, of a pair of transverse, shining, impressed areas. These are very conspicuous in Epiphragma, as pointed out by Osten-Sacken, and occur in all the New Zealand species of Limnophila and allied genera, except L. skusei. This appears to be another indication of the affinity of the New Zealand Limnophilines with Epiphragma. Similar impressed areas occur in Limnophila ochracea and in Poecilostola and Pseudolimnophila.
A third point of which it may eventually be possible to make some use is the presence or absence of distinct bristles on the squama. These bristles are characteristic of one group of New Zealand species, and their presence seems to be correlated with certain characters of the venation and hypopygium.
The following is a more or less artificial key to the New Zealand genera of Limnophilini provisionally recognized in this paper:—
|Flagellum pectinate, or at least some of the joints enlarged beneath||7|
|2.||Wings rudimentary in both sexes||Zaluscodes.|
|Wings fully developed in both sexes||3|
|3.||R2 short and joining costa a short distance beyond tip of R1; r absent||Orolimnophila.|
|R2 long, extending to nearer tip of wing; r present, though sometimes faint||4|
|4.||Rostrum longer than the head||5|
|Rostrum at most as long as the head||6|
|5.||Rostrum only slightly longer than head; Cu1a at base of discal cell||Rhamphophila.|
|Rostrum twice as long as head and thorax together; Cu1a about middle of discal cell||Tinemyia.|
|6.||Wing-membrane pubescent over nearly the whole surface||Ulomorpha.|
Genus Zaluscodes Lamb.
“Wings much abbreviated, with no distinct veins. Antennae with sixteen joints. Palpi with four joints, the last orbicular and attached to the side of the small third joint. Tibial spurs present on all the legs.”—(Lamb.)
This genus is evidently to be regarded as a Limnophila which has lost its wings. Lamb states that “the male genitalia appear to be somewhat as shown for Zalusa in Dr. Enderlein's paper,” but there is really no close resemblance: Zaluscodes has a hypopygium of the ordinary Limnophiline type, while Zalusa, in this organ as in other parts of its structure, is clearly a near relative of Dicranomyia.
Zaluscodes aucklandicus Lamb.
Zaluscodes aucklandicus Lamb, Subantarctic Is. N.Z., p. 130, 1909.
An almost uniformly brown, long-legged species, which is remarkable for having the wings of both sexes extremely reduced, much shorter than the thorax.
Auckland Islands: “This remarkable species was common in damp places in forest, Carnley Harbour. It runs rapidly over the ground, like a small harvestman spider. An extremely fragile insect. The colour is white when alive.”—(G. V. Hudson.) Type male and female in Cambridge Museum.
Genus Orolimnophila Alex.
Oromyia Alexander, Jour. N.Y. Ent. Soc., vol. 21, p. 203, 1913 (preocc. by Orosmya Rondani).
Orolimnophila Alexander, Ent. News, vol. 32, p. 178, 1921.
?Lachnocera Philippi, Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, vol. 15, p. 615, 1865.
This genus at present contains two South American species described by Alexander. The new species described below, together with the two obviously allied Australian species Limnophila lawsonensis Skuse and L. australasiae Skuse, differs from the genotype (O. lloydi Alex.) in the longer vein Sc; in the absence of a lyriform plate on the ninth sternite of the male; and in the extremely short tibial spurs (this at least in the New Zealand species). I had at first intended creating a new genus for these three species, but have refrained from doing so, as the second species just described by Alexander (O. argentinicola) seems intermediate as regards the length of Sc and the structure of the hypopygium, and has short tibial spurs. Orolimnophila must therefore be regarded as common to the Australasian and Neotropical regions.
It was suggested by Bergroth (Wien. Ent. Zeit., vol. 9, p. 123, 1890) that L. lawsonensis and L. australasiae might belong to Philippi's genus Lachnocera. This opinion may eventually prove to be correct; there are certainly some strong resemblances, but Philippi's figure shows remarkably elongate scapal joints in the male antennae, whereas in Orolomnophila these joints are very short. A final decision on this point cannot be made until Philippi's L. delicatula has been rediscovered.
Orolimnophila eluta n. sp. (Figs. 49, 142.)
♂. Head dark grey, moderately hairy. Front about a quarter as broad as head. Palpi rather long, black. Antennae about one and a half times as long as the whole body; scape ochreous, first joint scarcely longer than second, both very short and somewhat swollen; flagellum fourteen-jointed, the joints gradually decreasing in length, all provided with dense, evenly distributed pubescence, which is about twice as long as the width of a joint, or rather more. Thorax uniformly ochreous, bare, slightly shining, rather short and rounded. Abdomen dark brown; hypopygium ochreous, constructed as in figure; outer clasper blackened, serrate on outer margin, inner one longer, pale; no trace of any appendage of ninth sternite. Leys slender, uniformly ochreous; tibial spurs extremely short, only about half as long as diameter of slender tibia. Wings slightly milky, quite unmarked, veins pale ochreous. Sc ending above apex of Rs, Sc1 about twice as long as Sc2. Arcular cross-vein well marked. Halteres long, pale ochreous. Length of body, 8·5 mm.; antennae, 12 mm.; wing, 10 mm.
South Island: Mount Arthur, 3,500 ft., January, 1920 (G. V. Hudson, No. 50), one male in British Museum; Otira (G. V. Hudson, No. 50), type male in British Museum, a second male in Cambridge Museum; Mount Grey, Canterbury, 13th April, 1917, one male in Canterbury Museum.
The specific name has allusion to the “washed-out” wings, the two Australian species of the genus both having conspicuous wing-markings.
Genus Rhamphophila n. gen.
Head rounded, not produced behind, front moderately broad, eyes contiguous beneath. Rostrum slender, somewhat longer than head, the
rather long palpi inserted at its tip. Antennae sixteen-jointed; first joint rather long; verticils sparse and moderately long. Thorax very high and narrow; tuberculate pits and pseudosutural foveae both absent. Abdomen with transverse impressed areas distinct. Male hypopygium large and complex; side-pieces produced into two or three finger-like lobes apically; two pairs of hairy claspers; a separate more or less lyriform plate on ventral side, perhaps representing the true ninth sternite; ninth tergite with small median projection; aedoeagus large and complicated, provided with two rounded lobes at tip of penis in addition to the two large parameres. Tibial spurs rather long and stout. Venation: Basal fusion of M and Cu long; arcular cross-vein absent or very faintly indicated. Sc long; Sc1 longer than vertical Sc2. Tip of R1 shorter then r. Rs long, more or less angled at base; R2+3 short. Cell M1 present. Cu1a oblique, meeting M at base of discal cell. Squama without bristles.
Genotype: Limnophila obscuripennis Hudson (sinistra Hutton).
The produced rostrum, and the position and obliquity of Cu1a seem sufficient to warrant the establishment of a new genus for this species. According to Alexander (in litt.), “it is obviously closer to Epiphragma then to Limnophila, and probably also to Tinemyia, which may represent the maximum development of the group. Hudson's rearing of R. sinistra proves that it has little in common with Limnophila, although close to Epiphragma. The immature stages of both forms are wood-dwellers, a habitat that I have to believe as being very characteristic of generalized forms.”
Apart from the genotype and the new species described below, I know of no others belonging to this genus.
Rhamphophila obscuripennis (Hudson). (Figs. 51, 145, 146, 147.)
Tipula obscuripennis Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 27, p. 294, 1895.
Limnophila sinistra Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 40, 1900; Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 52, p. 33, 1920.
The wing-markings of this conspicuous fly will at once distinguish it from all other New Zealand crane-flies, except R. lyrifera, described below; the Australian Limnophila antiqua Skuse has similar wing-markings, but is certainly not at all closely allied. In hypopygium, the upper apical lobe of side-piece is rather long and with a short stump dorsally some distance before tip; the lower lobe is short; ventral plate broad at base, with nearly straight lateral horns scarcely as long as the basal portion, between the horns being a small median projection. Femora have a narrow and very oblique pre-apical dark ring.
North Island: Auckland (W. Wesché); Wellington district (G. V. Hudson, No. 17); Te Wairoa (D. Miller); Papatotara, 26th February, 1911.
According to Hudson, this species “is fairly common in most dense forests throughout the country. The larva inhabits fallen tree-trunks in an advanced state of decay, forming burrows between the soft decayed portion and the harder part of the wood.”
Hudson's name obscuripennis is preoccupied in Limnophila, but (in my opinion) becomes valid when transferred to a new genus. I propose to restrict the name to what is evidently the commoner of the two New Zealand species. Among the eight males I examined there was no variation in hypopygial structure.
Rhamphophila lyrifera n. sp. (Figs. 52, 148, 149.)
♂. Differs from R. obscuripennis as follows: Pre-apical dark ring of femora considerably broader and less oblique. Ventral plate of hypopygium lyriform, basal part narrow, no median projection. Median projection of ninth tergite longer. Main apical lobe of side-piece split to base into two nearly equal fingers.
South Island: Routeburn, Lake Wakatipu (G. V. Hudson, No. 17n); type male in the British Museum. Mount Grey, Canterbury, November, 1917; one male in Canterbury Museum. The wing of the type (fig. 52) shows some slight differences from R. obscuripennis, but these are not to be seen in the second specimen.
Genus Tinemyia Hutton.
This genus is to doubt related to Rhamphophila, from which it differs chiefly in its more slender build; in the much longer rostrum; in the position of Cu1a; and in the different and much simpler structure of the hypopygium. Only the one species is known.
Tinemyia margaritifera Hutton. (Figs. 50, 144.)
Tinemyia margaritifera Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., p. 44, 1900.
This species may easily be known by the remarkably elongate rostrum, and by wing-markings, which are strongly reminiscent of those of Epiphragma. Little need be added to Hutton's description, except that front is very narrow, and arcular cross-vein is absent, as in the majority of New Zealand Limnophiline groups. The male resembles female except that antennae seem to be a little longer. The hypopygium is very distinctive. Side-pieces not lobed apically, but have large ventro-basal hairy lobes, and narrow transverse membranous area in middle of dorsal surface. Claspers are somewhat as in Ulomorpha nebulosa, the resemblance being particularly noticeable in the stiff bristles on inner side of inner clasper near tip. The parameres are long, stout, and sharp-pointed; penis simple and arched.
North Island: Wellington (G. V. Hudson, No. 139); one male in British Museum; “very rare.”
Genus Ulomorpha O.-S.
Five species of this genus are at present known, all from North America. I have some hesitation in referring two New Zealand species here, because Alexander's figure of the wing of U. pilosella (the genotype) shows a well-marked arcular cross-vein. Apart from this possibly fundamental difference, the New Zealand species do not exhibit any very definite character by which they can be separated generically. The fact that they both possess cell M1 is of no particular importance, since one of the North American species also has this cell.
The two new species are most easily distinguished by the striking difference in the width of the axillary cell.
Ulomorpha nebulosa n. sp. (Figs. 53, 143.)
♂. Head rounded, without distinct neck, dull, rather light brown; front somewhat greyer, less than one-eighth as broad as head at its narrowest part. Palpi and rostrum short, ochreous, the latter less than half as long as head. Scape of antennae ochreous, first joint fully twice as long as
second. Flagellum rather dark brown, joints oval, slightly over twice as long as broad, verticils equalling diameter of joint. Thorax brownish, mesonotum slightly shining; three large confluent praescutal stripes, not much darker than ground-colour. Tuberculate pits absent. Abdomen slender, dark brown dorsally, hind-margins of basal tergites narrowly paler; venter much more extensively pale. Hypopygium—ninth tergite deeply bilobed. Outer claspers hairy, with bare flattened tip. Inner claspers nearly straight, somewhat spatulate at tip, with two or three long stiff hairs directed inwardly. Parameres broad and flat except at base. Penis deeply bilobed at tip. Legs very slender, uniformly rather dark brown, except for ochreous coxae. Tibial spurs very short, only about half as long as diameter of tip of tibia. Wings greyish-tinged, with rather dense macrotrichia over nearly the whole surface, except basal to origin of Rs. Five cloudy brown spots along costa—near base, at origin of Rs (the largest), and over tips of Sc, R1, and R2; brown clouds also over cord, apex of discal cell, base of cell M1, and along vein R4+5. Sc ending just beyond apex of Rs; Sc2 oblique, longer than Sc1; cell R2 shortly stalked; Cu1a before middle of discal cell; cell Ax rather broad. Two or three bristles on squama, one rather long. Halteres long; stem dark brown, apex of knob paler. Length of body, 9–10 mm.; wing, 10–11 mm.
North Island: In forest, Karori, Wellington, April (G. V. Hudson, No. 245); type and one other male in British Museum; a third male in Cambridge Museum.
Ulomorpha fuscana n. sp. (Fig. 54.)
♂. Differs from U. nebulosa as follows: Head dark-greyish, front fully quarter as broad as head. Palpi and antennae all black. Thorax and abdomen somewhat darker. Parameres slender, not flattened. Legs darker. Wings more strongly tinged with brownish, the dark markings smaller, no dark spot near base; Sc a little longer; Cu1a nearer base of discal cell; cell Ax much narrower. Halteres all black. Length of body, 7 mm.; wing, 8·5 mm.
North Island: Karori, Wellington, amongst Piper excelsum, April (G. V. Hudson, No. 302b); type male in British Museum.
Genus Limnophila Macq.
It is perhaps unlikely that any of the sixteen species now included here will eventually be regarded as belonging to this genus, at least in the strict sense. However, it would require an exhaustive investigation into the whole group in order to arrive at a nomenclature which would express in a satisfactory manner the relationships of the different species, and this I am unable to undertake. I therefore confine myself to the suggestions made above (see under the tribe heading). So far as published subgenera are concerned, most of the New Zealand species (and also many of the Australian forms described by Skuse) would appear to approach most nearly to Alexander's groups Austrolimnophila and Limnophilella, both of which are supposed at present to be exclusively Neotropical. In neither case has Alexander stated whether or not the arcular cross-vein is present, but Bigot's coloured figure of L. (Austrolimnophila) eutaeinata shows it as absent (though his sketch of the venation, on the other hand, indicates it as present). Nothing has been noted concerning the impressed areas on the abdominal tergites in these subgenera, but from Alexander's description of the abdominal markings of L. (Limnophilella) epiphragmoides it would seem that they are most probably present.
We may probably conclude, therefore, that in Limnophila, as in most other genera, the New Zealand crane-fly fauna shows the strongest affinities with that of Australia, and secondly with that of South America. The species may be identified by means of the following key:—
|1.||cell M1 absent; body all black||bryobia Mik.|
|cell M1 present; body not all black||2|
|2.||Arcular cross-vein present; pseudosutural foveae very large; no impressed areas on abdominal tergites 3–7||skusei Hutton.|
|Arcular cross-vein absent; pseudosutural foveae very small or absent; pairs of distinct impressed shining areas on abdominal tergites 2–7||3|
|3.||Wings hyaline, unmarked; Cu1a at or slightly before base of discal cell||delicatula Hutton.|
|Wings with distinct markings; Cu1a near or beyond middle of discal cell||4|
|4.||Wings with numerous small dark dots in the cells; macro-trichia on veins in apical part of wings unusually long; side-pieces of male hypopygium produced apically into a long horny point||leucomelas n. sp.|
|Wing-markings and hypopygium otherwise; macrotrichia of veins short||5|
|5.||Praescutum much swollen; femora yellow with the tips narrowly black||subinterventa n. sp.|
|Praescutum normal; femora darker or with two dark rings||6|
|6.||Squama with bristles; Sc2 oblique and longer than Sc1; wing-markings more or less ocellate||7|
|Squama without bristles; Sc2 vertical and generally shorter than Sc1; wing-markings not ocellate||11|
|7.||Rs strongly spurred; antennae black, the first flagellar joint orange||geographica Hutton.|
|Rs not spurred; antennae otherwise coloured||8|
|8.||Wings pale-brownish, with indistinct whitish rings||crassipes Hutton.|
|Wings with light ground-colour and conspicuous dark rings||9|
|9.||Abdomen all dark||oculatus n. sp.|
|Small yellow spots over the impressed areas of the abdominal tergites||10|
|10.||Cu1a at middle of discal cell; an ocellate spot about middle of cell Ax||argus Hutton.|
|Cu1a near apex of discal cell; no ocellate spot in cell Ax||lambi n. sp.|
|11.||A dark spot or cloud about the middle of cell M||12|
|No such spot present||13|
|12.||Sc2 before apex of Rs||marshalli Hutton.|
|Sc2 much beyond apex of Rs||chrysorrhoea n. sp.|
|13.||Sc2 level with r-m||umbrosa Hutton.|
|Sc2 beyond the level of r-m||14|
|14.||A conspicuous black vertical girdle on thorax||nigrocincta n. sp.|
|Thorax not girdled with black||15|
|15.||Very large species; dark spots over bases of M and Rs reaching costa||cyatheti n. sp.|
|Medium-sized species; costal cell clear||hudsoni n. sp.|
The first four or five of these species occupy rather isolated positions, and might perhaps be placed in as many distinct subgenera; the remainder fall into two natural groups by the characters given above.
Limnophila bryobia Mik.
Limnophila bryobia Mik., Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, vol. 31, p. 205, 1882.
The following are the chief characters mentioned by Mik:—
♂. Body wholly black, somewhat shining, with slight brown dusting. Antennae black, as long as head and thorax together, flagellar joints elliptical. Legs black, with fairly long and dense pubescence; coxae and base of femora brown; each tibia with two strong spurs. Wings very broad,
brown-tinged; stigma elongate, fuscous, not sharply defined; veins black, except R and Cu, which are brown. Cell M1 absent. Ax with its tip somewhat hooked, bordered with blackish for its whole length, especially towards tip. Length of body, 9 mm.; wing, 10 ♂ 3·3 mm.
Auckland Islands (Krone). The specimen flew out from a sod of moss, the box containing which was not opened by Krone for over four years after the collection was made. Krone and Mik believe that the pupa or larva had lived in the moss for this period.
Type in the Vienna Museum (presumably).
Limnophila skusei Hutton. (Figs. 68–70, 150.)
Limnophila skusei Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 34, p. 190, 1902.
Limnophila novae-zelandiae Alexander, Insecutor Inscitiae, vol. 8, p. 121, 1920.
The wing-markings of this species are rather variable (see figs, 68–70), but form a ready means of identification, apart from the structural characters mentioned in the key. The male has not hitherto been described; it has the antennae distinctly longer than those of the female (fully twice as long as thorax), flagellar pubescence also longer, but the sexes are otherwise similar. Male hypopygium (fig. 150) remarkable for having three pairs of claspers (including a nearly globular one which is just possibly the modified tip of the side-piece), and the complicated aedoeagus, with three sets of paired appendages. There is a pair of transverse, impressed, shining areas near base of second tergite, but the remaining tergites are devoid of such areas. The tibial spurs are about as long as diameter of tip of tibia. Venation: Sc2 short, vertical, only about a quarter as long as Sc1. Cross-vein r vertical, about half as long as the nearly straight tip of R1. Cross-vein m usually longer than basal part of M3 (in other words, the lower of the two veinlets closing the discal cell is usually longer than the upper). One specimen has an accessory cross-vein present in both wings in cell R4+5, placed near the base of M1 in such a way as to make this vein appear to be a branch of R4+5. There are no bristles on squamae. Length of body, ♂ 11–13 mm., ♀ 16–18 mm.; wing, 12–16 mm.
North Island: Wellington district, in swampy places (G. V. Hudson, No. 8); type female in Canterbury Museum, three males and three females in British Museum. South Island: Mount Grey, Canterbury, November, 1917, one male in Canterbury Museum; Tisbury, 7th November, 1915 (A. Philpott), one female in Cawthron Institute collection; Otago (Osten-Sacken), Alexander's type female in Berlin-Dahlem Museum.
Mr. Hudson informs me that the type of L. skusei bears his number 8, and is undoubtedly the same as other specimens sent to me under this number. The synonymy with L. novae-zelandiae is therefore certain.
Limnophila delicatula Hutton. (Figs. 66, 151.)
Limnophila delicatula Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 42, 1900.
An extremely distinct species on account of the hyaline wings, devoid of markings except for the pale-brownish stigma. Head dark grey; front narrow, not one-eighth as broad as head. Antennae alike in both sexes, a little longer than the small thorax; first scapal joint rather long, whitish-ochreous, second rounded, dark-ochreous; flagellum dark brown,
joints slender, nearly cylindrical, verticils a little longer than joints. Thorax brownish; praescutum and scutum somewhat shining; postnotum and pleurae heavily dusted with grey. Abdomen slender, with the usual impressed areas on tergites 2–7. Male hypopygium very small, constructed as in figure; the aedoeagus peculiarly complicated. Legs uniformly brownish, very long and slender; tibial spurs shorter than diameter of tibia. Wings as in figure; Cu1a is either exactly at base of discal cell or a short distance before it. Sc2 rather oblique, as long as Sc1; r rather oblique, as long as tip of R1. Rs not spurred. Squama without bristles. It is worth noting that in most specimens macrotrichia are present on Cu1a as well as on both veinlets which close the discal cell. Since one at least of these must be a true cross-vein, this species forms an exception to Tillyard's rule that macrotrichia are confined to the longitudinal veins. This is by no means the only such exception which has come under my notice. Length of body, 9–12 mm.; wing, 9–12 mm.
North Island: Wellington district, in forest, March (G. V. Hudson, No. 160); two males and three females in British Museum.
This species is probably referable to the subgenus Limnophilella Alex., but in the two described South American species r is much farther from the tip of R1.
Limnophila leucomelas n. sp. (Figs. 55, 152.)
Head rather dark brownish-grey; front nearly a quarter as broad as head. Rostrum scarcely half as long as head, blackish. Palpi black. Antennae in female about as long as head and thorax together, in male nearly twice as long; scape brownish-ochreous, the first joint moderately long; flagellum black, first six or seven joints yellow at base, joints cylindrical, verticils about as long as joints in female, shorter in male. Thorax with mesonotum ochreous-brown, praescutal interspaces darker brown posteriorly, a dark-brown line round margin. Pseudosutural foveae small. Pleurae with a narrow ochreous line above, then broadly dull black, this colour extending on to apex of postnotum, and including base of halteres; below the black area pleurae are almost silvery-white, and coxae similarly coloured. Abdomen dark brown, segments lighter apically, especially on venter. The usual impressed areas are present, but inconspicuous. Hypopygium as in figure; side-pieces with tips drawn out into long curved horns, no basal lobes; outer claspers hooked at tip; parameres very short and broad, blackened. Legs (except for the whitish coxae) rather dark brown, tips of femora pale, preceded by an ill-defined dark ring. Wings with a slight brownish tinge, and with numerous small dark-brown dots crowded over greater part of surface; larger spots at base and apex of Rs and at tips of most of veins. Macrotrichia unusually long and dense on most of veins in apical half of wing. Sc2 vertical, shorter than Sc1 Tip of R1 longer than r. Cu1a and upper of the two veinlets closing the discal cell without macrotrichia. Cu1a about middle of discal cell. Halteres rather short, dark brown. Length of body, 6–8 mm.; wing, 8–9 mm.
North Island: Wilton's Bush, Wellington, November, 1920 (G. V. Hudson, No. 211); one male (type) and two females in British Museum. A third female from Karori, Wellington, November, 1912, among ferns (G. V. Hudson, No. 211a), differs from these in having a continuous and rather broad dark seam along Rs. The thoracic coloration is not at all unlike that of L. geographica.
Limnophila subinterventa n. sp. (Figs. 67, 153, 154.)
Head rather dark-brownish, dusted with whitish-grey round the eyes. Front broad, about one-third as broad as head; eyes widely separated below. Rostrum less than half as long as head. Palpi long, ochreous. Antennae about twice as long as thorax in female, as long as abdomen in male; scape brownish-ochreous, first joint short and rather broad; flagellum dark brown in male, pale ochreous in female; joints gradually decreasing in length, pubescence and verticils, as usual, longer in male than in female; hairs of the verticils more numerous in female. Thorax pale ochreous, dusted with whitish-grey; middle area of mesonotum darker; scutellum and postnotum (median sclerite) rather dark brown, somewhat shining, a dull black patch extending from wing-base to above front coxae, broadening out in front. Praescutum swollen, covering pronotum and extending partly over head. Tuberculate pits and pseudosutural fovae absent. Abdomen slender, ochreous; in male the apical halves of segments blackish; in female there are black lateral patches on tergites immediately behind impressed areas, connected by a brown shade across dorsum, hind-margins of segments being also darkened. Hypopygium as in figures; structure of penis, with a serrated area some distance behind sharply pointed tip, is rather remarkable. Legs ochreous, tips of femora and extreme tips of tibiae black. Tibial spurs slightly shorter than diameter of tip of tibia. Wings slightly yellowish-tinged, veins mostly pale; small black clouds over cross-veins and cord, bases of cells M, R2, M1, and M2, and at tip of R2. Sc1 a little longer than vertical Sc2; r vertical, a little shorter than slightly upturned tip of R1. Discal cell unusually large. Two or three minute bristles on squama. Halteres long and slender, stem pale ochreous in female, dark in male, knob dark brown. Length of body, ♂ 9 mm., ♀ 11–14 mm.; wing, 9–12 mm.; antennae, ♂ 7–5 mm., ♀ 3–4 mm.
North Island: Kaitoke, Wellington, 14th March, 1921, type male, and Wainuiomata, Wellington, 12th February, 1921, two females, in British Museum; also one other female without exact data (G. V. Hudson, No. 193) and another female, in Cambridge Museum.
This species is apparently related to the Australian L. antigua and L. interventa, which both have a gibbose praescutum. To the latter of these species L. subinterventa is very similar in coloration and venation, but differs in several details, such as the unicolorous antennae. It is just possible, though I think improbable, that the male and female here described are not conspecific.
Limnophila geographica Hutton. (Figs. 61, 155.)
Limnophila geographica Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 43, 1900.
The specimens I have seen of this species do not correspond in every detail with Hutton's description, but I think the determination must be correct. The following characters may be noted, additional to those mentioned by Hutton: Male antennae about as long as thorax; first scapal joint rather long; first flagellar joint somewhat swollen, longer than next two joints taken together; remaining joints slender, elongate oval, verticils nearly twice as long as joints. Pleurae with a conspicuous black stripe from propleurae to base of abdomen; below this the pleurae and also coxae are heavily dusted with white. Pseudosutural foveae present, but small. Abdominal tergites 2–7 each with one pair of impressed areas about middle. Hypopygium as figured; it is remarkable for the enormous
d evelopment of the dorsal plate of the aedoeagus. There are no membranous appendages of ninth tergite, such as characterize L. argus and its allies. Trochanters blackish. Femora pale at extreme tip, and with a very conspicuous pale-ochreous ring some distance before tip. Base of tibiae ochreous; spurs as long as the diameter of tip. Cu1a near apex of discal cell. Two bristles on squama.
North Island: Wilton's Bush, Wellington, in dense forest, 1st December, 1920 (G. V. Hudson, No. 287); one male in British Museum.
Limnophila crassipes Hutton. (Fig. 62.)
Limnophila crassipes Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 41, 1900.
A single damaged specimen has been presented to the British Museum by Mr. G. V. Hudson; it shows the following characters not mentioned by Hutton: Front about one-sixth as broad as head, with small but fairly obvious tubercle. Rostrum a little over half as long as head. Antennae brown, about as long as thorax (female?), flagellar joints rather elongate oval, verticils about as long as joints. Pseudosutural foveae and tuberculate pits absent. A rather narrow but conspicuous blackish stripe across pleurae extending from just below prothoracic stigma to base of abdomen. Tibial spurs slightly longer than diameter of tibia. Wing-venation much as in L. argus; in one wing there is an accessory cross-vein in cell R2 (an aberration which I have seen in many species of Limnophila). There are faint pale rings in all the positions occupied by the dark rings in L. lambi. Squama with two bristles.
North Island: Karori, Wellington, November, 1920, very rare (G. V. Hudson, No. 148a).
Limnophila oculata n. sp. (Figs. 63, 156.)
Head dark brown with slight grey mottling. Front about one-fifth as broad as head. Rostrum about half as long as head. Palpi long, dark brown. Antennae rather longer than head and thorax together; scarcely longer in male than in female, but more distinctly pubescent; colour dark brown, the first few flagellar joints narrowly ochreous at base. First scapal joint rather long; flagellar joints cylindrical, the first few somewhat stouter and rather shorter than the rest. Thorax rather dark brown, praescutum indistinctly striped, with grey lines along interspaces, margins darker brown; postnotum and pleurae dusted with greyish, without distinct markings. Pseudosutural foveae absent. Abdomen uniformly dark brown; two pairs of impressed areas on each of tergites 2–7, one close to base, the other just before middle. Hypopygium as figured: ninth tergite emerginate with a pair of fleshy, membranous appendages, sublaterally placed; parameres broad and rather flat, with a small hook on one side at tip. Legs rather dark brown; femora with rather distinct whitish ring some distance before tip, dark ring beyond this, extreme tips somewhat lighter, especially on under-side. No empodia. Wings with a slightly milky ground-colour (viewed by reflected light), except in cell M and towards tip, where it is darker; dark markings along costa and more or less ring-like dark spots at tips of nearly all veins, as in figure. Sc2 twice as long as Sc1, appearing as a continuation of Sc. Tip of R slightly upturned and a little longer than r. Three or four bristles on squama, one longer than the others. Halteres ochreous, knob darker. Length of body, ♂ 14 mm., ♀ 19 mm.; wing, 16 mm.
North Island: Karori, Wellington, in forest (G. V. Hudson), type male, 27th February, 1921 (No. 281), and one female, October, 1911 (No. 125k), in British Museum. This is evidently nearly allied to L. argus, but is perfectly distinct.
Limnophila argus Hutton. (Fig. 65.)
Limnophila argus Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 41, 1900.
Distinguished at once by the very conspicuous ocellate wing-markings, the two most conspicuous eye-spots being before middle and at tip of Ax. Sc2 is very oblique, and about twice as long as Sc1; r about as long as tip of R1; Cu1a at middle of the discal cell; squama with two bristles, both rather strong, but one much longer than the other. Antennae alike in the two sexes, flagellar joints rather elongate oval, verticils about as long as joints. Pseudosutural foveae absent. Postnotum dull-blackish at base, shining brown apically, some ochreous dusting at edge of black area. Each of the abdominal tergites 2–7 has two pairs of transverse shining impressed areas, one close to base, the other just before middle. Male hypopygium has almost precisely the same structure as in the following species. Tibial spurs distinctly longer than diameter of tip of tibia. The empodia absent in British Museum specimen.
North Island: Karori, Wellington (G. V. Hudson, No. 125g); one female in British Museum. South Island: Kennedy's Bush, 9th November, 1919, one male in Canterbury Museum; Tisbury, 15th October, 1916 (A. Philpott), one female in Cawthron Institute collection.
Limnophila lambi n. sp. (Figs. 64, 157.)
Differs from L. argus as follows: Postonotum almost uniformly brown. slightly shining. Discal cell much shorter, Cu1a quite close to its tip, None of the eye-spots on the wings with definite dark centres, and no ring at all in middle of Ax, the one at tip of Ax not particularly conspicuous.
As in L. argus, empodia absent, and male hypopygium shows the following characters: Ninth tergite slightly emarginate, with a pair of membranous, fleshy appendages, laterally placed. Outer claspers slightly hooked at tip. Inner claspers with a long, slender, bare, cylindrical terminal portion. Side-pieces with large, almost membranous, pubescent ventro-basal lobes. Parameres broad, rather flat, with a patch of fine hairs at tip on inner side, and a rather strong hook at tip on outer side. Length of body, 10 mm.; wing, 11 mm.
North Island(?): Locality uncertain, but probably Wellington district (G. V. Hudson, No. 125); type male in British Museum. This is possibly only a variety of L. argus, but seems so distinct that I describe it provisionally as a separate species. The type was presented to the British Museum by my friends Dr. H. Scott and Mr. C. G. Lamb, and is one of a number of specimens sent for determination by Mr. G. V. Hudson to the latter in 1911.
Limnophila chrysorrhoea n. sp. (Figs. 58, 158.)
Head dark greenish-grey, blackish on eye-margins in front. Front about one-fifth as broad as head, slightly swollen immediately above base of antennae. Rostrum and palpi blackish, the former a little shorter than
head. Antennae alike in the two sexes, about twice as long as thorax; scape ochreous, flagellum dark brown, base of the first and tips of first three or four joints ochreous; pubescence inconspicuous, rather shorter than diameter of joints; each flagellar joint with a single long hair and one or two shorter ones; joints almost cylindrical, all but first three slightly enlarged at base. Thorax ochreous-brown, darker in female than in male, mostly dusted with greyish-ochreous, except round margin of praescutum, which is somewhat darker; postnotum with dark median stripe. Tuber-culate pits and pseudosutural foveae absent. Abdomen brownish-ochreous, with narrow dark-brown lateral stripes, hind-margins of tergites narrowly pale; transverse impressed areas long and conspicuous; venter uniformly pale. Hypopygium—ninth segment forming a continuous ring, tergite with a median projection. Tips of side-pieces with rather long and dense golden hair. Claspers inserted just before tips of side-pieces, in shape resembling those of L. cyatheti. Side-pieces with pubescent ventro-basal lobes, somewhat as in L. cyatheti. There are apparently two pairs of strong parameres, though one pair might perhaps be regarded as dorso-basal lobes of the side-pieces. Legs rather light brown; femora with two dark-brown rings, the second one close to tip, leaving extreme tip pale, area between dark rings paler than ground-colour. Tibial spurs rather stout, as long as diameter of tibia. Wings brownish-tinged, with about twelve more or less light-brown spots, as in figure. Venation much as in L. cyatheti, but Sc1 and R2+3 are rather longer, and Rs is less distinctly spurred. No bristles on squama. Halteres dark brown, tip of knob paler. Length of body, 11 mm.; wing, 13 mm.
North Island: Karori, Wellington, January, 1896 (G. V. Hudson, No. 144d, 346a); type male in British Museum. South Island: Mount Grey, 7th November, 1916; one female in Canterbury Museum.
Limnophila marshalli Hutton. (Figs. 57, 159.)
Limnophila marshalli Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 42, 1900.
Differs from L. chrysorrhoea as follows: Median stripe of postnotum blacker, broader at base. Hypopygium with claspers rather differently shaped and inserted at tips of side-pieces, which are without dense golden hairs at tip; basal lobes of side-pieces not split; also other differences as in figure. Sc2 farther removed from tip of Sc, placed before apex of Rs; dark spots over Sc2 and tip of Sc1 separate and distinct.
North Island: Wilton's Bush, Wellington (G. V. Hudson, No. 144).
Limnophila umbrosa Hutton.
Limnophila umbrosa Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 43, 1900.
According to Hutton's description, this differs from L. chrysorrhoea in the following points: (1) Sc2 is in a line with, instead of far beyond, r-m; (2) four or five of the spots on wings are fused, forming a semicircular fascia from base of Rs through r-m to tip of Sc; (3) “spots at the tips of all the longitudinal veins”; (4) Hutton does not mention a spot in middle of cell An; (5) the last five joints of flagellum are oval.
North Island: Wellington (Hudson).
Limnophila nigrocincta n. sp. (Fig. 59.)
♀. Head dark reddish-brown. Front about one-quarter as broad as head; eyes well separated below. Rostrum lighter than vertex, about
half as long as head. Palpi blackish. Antennae about as long as thorax; scape and first flagellar joint ochreous, remainder dark brown; verticils a little longer than joints; joints almost cylindrical, very slightly enlarged at base. Thorax rather dark brown; scutellum and angles of pronotum whitish; an ill-defined smoky area over prothoracic stigma; a distinct black girdle extending across the base of postnotum, and from thence to mesosternum. Praescutal stripes indistinct; the usual black hair present along interspaces. Tuberculate pits and pseudosutural foveae both absent. Abdomen dark brown, paler beneath, without definite markings, impressed areas distinct. Legs moderately stout; coxae ochreous, front pair marked with dark brown in front; femora ochreous, each with two sharply marked black rings, the second well before tip; tibiae and tarsi dark brown. Tibial spurs as in L. chrysorrhoea. Wings with a slight brownish tinge, a dark-brown band across the cord, and numerous sharply marked roundish dark-brown spots, as in figure. Sc1 not much longer than Sc2, which is nearly vertical; r faint, about as long as the nearly straight tip of R1; Rs spurred at base; Cu1a at middle of discal cell. Halteres brownish, middle of knob darker. Length of body, 11 mm.; wing, 10 mm.
North Island: Wainuiomata, in forest, 15th December, 1920 (G. V. Hudson, No. 275); type and one other female in British Museum.
Limnophila cyatheti n. sp. (Figs. 60, 160, 161.)
♂. Head dark reddish-brown, with slight grey dusting. Front narrow, about one-seventh as broad as head, with a small bifid tubercle above antennae. Rostrum reddish-brown, with labella about as long as head. Palpi long, dark brown. Antennae more than half as long as body; scape reddish-brown, rather stout; flagellar joints cylindrical, with rather long and dense pubescence, the last few joints also with one or two long hairs; joints gradually decreasing in length; first three or four entirely ochreous-brown, remainder darkened at base. Thorax rather dark reddish-brown; mesonotum slightly shining, praescutal stripes somewhat darker; pleurae grey-dusted; tuberculate pits and apparently also pseudosutural foveae absent. Abdomen reddish-brown, unmarked. Hypopygium—ninth tergite with a rather long and narrow square-ended median projection. Side-pieces with very large pubescent basal lobes split at base into inner leaf-like and ventral cylindrical portions. Claspers hairy basally, tips bare; tip of outer pair somewhat hooked, of inner pair hammer-shaped. Two distinct pairs of strong parameres, penis small. Legs moderately stout, brown, tibiae and tarsi rather darker; femora with dark-brown tips, and with indistinct dark ring some distance before tip, most obvious on hind pair. Tibial spurs rather stout, as long as diameter of tip of tibia. Wings tinged with pale ochreous, veins rather light brown; brown markings as in figure. Sc1 ending much beyond base of R2; Sc2 almost vertical, about half as long as Sc1; r oblique, longer than the short upturned tip of R1; Rs spurred at base; cell M1 longer than its stalk, Cu1a about middle of discal cell. Basal fusion of M and Cu long; no arcular cross-vein. No bristles on squama. Halteres rather long, pale; knob elongate, darkened apically. Length of body, 19 mm.; antennae, 13 mm.; wing, 19 mm.
North Island: Wellington, forest gullies, four, 1915 (G. V. Hudson, No. 202); type male in British Museum; a second male in Cambridge
Museum. “A rare and handsome species, taken among tree ferns (Cyathea dealbata).”
This species is the largest member of the genus at present known from New Zealand. The somewhat produced rostrum shows an approach to the genus Rhamphophila, to which L. cyatheti is probably not distantly related. The pair of long cylindrical processes on ventral side of hypopygium may represent a divided ninth sternite, or the lyriform plate of Rhamphophila may perhaps be formed of fused basal lobes of the side-pieces. Whichever view be taken, it is quite probable that the two structures are homologous. *
Limnophila hudsoni n. sp. (Figs. 56, 162.)
Head dull brownish-grey. Front one-sixth as broad as head. Rostrum about as long as head. Palpi rather long, blackish. Antennae alike in both sexes, about as long as head and thorax together; scape ochreous; flagellar joints slightly enlarged at base, with short pubescence and rather short verticils, all black at base and ochreous towards tip, last few joints almost all black. Thorax dull-brownish, mostly grey-dusted; praescutum with indistinct darker markings; pronotum and scutellum lighter. No tuberculate pits; pseudosutural foveae very small, oval, close to margin of praescutum. Abdomen rather dark brown. Hypopygium as in figure; ninth sternite large, extending across ventral surface, and distinctly separate from tergite at sides, at least apically. Side-pieces with pubescent basal lobes, which are emarginate but not deeply split. Apparently two pairs of large parameres, of very different form; penis large and very broad. Legs brown; femora with dark-brown ring close before tip, and another one, rather feebly marked anterior to this. Tibial spurs as in L. cyatheti. Wings with ground-colour milky-white; cells C, R3, and M, and greater part of cells M1, M2, M3, and Cu1a, light brown; dark-brown markings as in figure; note that the first two spots do not reach the costa. Venation much as in L. cyatheti, but Sc1 is scarcely longer than Sc2, and the straight tip of R1 is about as long as r. No bristles on squama. Halteres with pale stem, knob blackish with tip pale. Length of body, 10–16 mm.; wing, 12–14 mm.
North Island: Wellington district (G. V. Hudson, No. 200); type and one other male and two females in British Museum. South Island: Arthur's Pass, January, 1920, one female in Canterbury Museum; Tisbury, 1st February, 1918 (A. Philpott), one male in Cawthorn Institute collection.
In spite of the very different structure of the hypopygium, this species is obviously nearly related to L. cyatheti.
Genus Gynoplistia Westw.
This large and fairly homogeneous genus is confined to the Australasian region, no species being known from west of Wallace's line. The variation in the number of antennal joints between the different species is great, but each species seems to be fairly constant. In view of this variation, it seems doubtful whether the South American Ctedonia should be kept distinct.
[Footnote] * In May, 1922, I bred a series of Limnophila cyatheti from pupae found in decayed wood. This pupa has very beautiful curved thoracic appendages, branched like antlers.—G. V. H.
The numerous New Zealand species already known may be distinguished in the following manner:—
|1.||Mesonotum dull, more or less dusted with grey||2|
|Mesonotum shining, without grey dusting||18|
|Wings nearly or quite as long as the abdomen||5|
|3.||Wings shorter than the thorax||pedestris n. sp.,♀.|
|Wings longer than the thorax||4|
|4.||First eleven flagellar joints with short projections||natata n. sp., ♀.|
|First seven flagellar joints with short projections||nebulosa n. sp., ♀.|
|5.||Conspicuous dark spots at tips of R2 and R3||6|
|These spots absent or very faint||7|
|6.||A small distinct dark spot in cell R just before base of Rs||magnifica n. sp.|
|This spot absent||notata n. sp.|
|7.||Three large dark blotches on hind-margin of wing, in cells Cu1a An, and Ax||nebulosa n. sp.|
|8.||Abdomen with a median dorsal dark stripe||9|
|Abdomen without such stripe||10|
|9.||Cross-vein r-m present||bona Alex.|
|Cross-vein r-m obliterated||conjuncta n. sp.|
|10.||Several dark dots in cell M||11|
|No dark dots in cell M||12|
|11.||Male antennae elongate, with long branches||sackeni Alex.|
|Male antennae shorter, with shorter branches||wakefieldi Westw.|
|12.||A small dark cloud at base of cell M1||13|
|Base of cell M1 quite clear||14|
|13.||Femora dark, with a conspicuous pale ring||arthuriana n. sp.|
|Femora lighter, pale ring inconspicuous||canterburiana n. sp.|
|14.||Eighth or seventh and eighth abdominal segments black, contrasting with remainder of abdomen||15|
|Abdomen uniformly coloured||16|
|15.||Wing-tip conspicuously darkened||fimbriata Alex.|
|Wing-tip not darkened||subfasciata Walk.|
|16.||Thoracic pits black||fuscoplumbea n. sp.|
|Thoracic pits rather light brown||17|
|17.||Wing-tip practically clear||glauca n. sp.|
|Wing-tip somewhat darkened||incisa n. sp.|
|18.||Thorax brown, flagellum with at least sixteen joints||19|
|Thorax black, or flagellum with only twelve or thirteen joints||23|
|19.||Hind tibiae with a pale ring beyond the middle||20|
|Hind tibiae without pale ring||21|
|20.||Abdomen metallic steel-blue||formosa Hutton.|
|Abdomen coppery-brown||speciosa n. sp.|
|21.||Legs long and slender||tridactyla n. sp.|
|Legs much shorter and stouter||22|
|22.||Lateral sclerites of postnotum normal||cuprea Hutton.|
|Lateral sclerite of postnotum produced into a conspicuous tubercle||tuberculata n. sp.|
|23.||Hind tarsi pale in the middle||violacea n. sp.|
|Hind tarsi all dark (or else unknown)||24|
|24.||Mesonotum all black, or almost so||25|
|Mesonotum largely brown||29|
|25.||A large dark spot at base of Rs||26|
|Only a minute dark spot at base of Rs||28|
|26.||Head dusted with grey||nigronitida n. sp.|
|Head shining, without grey dusting||27|
|27.||Base of cell M1 clear||speighti n. sp.|
|A dark spot at base of cell M1||anthracina Alex.|
|28.||Male antennae twenty-jointed||fulgens Hutton.|
|Male antennae fifteen-jointed||polita n. sp.|
|29.||Tibiae with white rings||albicinta n. sp.|
|Tibiae without white rings||30|
|30.||Upper half of pleurae black, lower half ochreous||trifasciata n. sp.|
|Pleurae with unicolorous integument||clavipes n. sp.|
Mesonotum more or less dull and grey-dusted. Front at most one-third as broad as the head.
Gynoplistia magnifica n. sp. (Fig. 71.)
Head dull greyish-brown; proboscis reddish-tinged; palpi blackish; trace of dark median line on vertex. Antennae with scape reddish-brown, flagellum sixteen-jointed, black. In male the first eleven flagellar joints have moderately long appendages, those on joints 4–8 a little longer, the longest scarcely four times as long as joint. In female the first eight flagellar joints have short ventral projections, those on joints 2–4 about as long as joints, others shorter. Thorax heavily dusted with rather light grey. Praescutum in front of sensory pits with a median dark stripe, behind the pits with four dark-brown stripes, middle pair narrower than others and approximated behind. Abdomen dark brown, slightly shining, with scarcely any grey dusting. Hypopygium—outer clasper straight, enlarged inwardly on basal half, bifid at tip, the two points about equal; inner clasper somewhat shorter than outer, simple, with rounded tip, twisted inwards at about half its length. Legs rather dark brown, somewhat stouter in female than in male, with an obscurely darker ring before tip of each femur. Wings with a slightly milky ground-colour and conspicuous dark-brown pattern as in figure. Sc2 very oblique, rather longer than Sc1, and appearing almost as a continuation of Sc. Halteres with ochreous stem and somewhat darker knob. Length of body, ♂ 16 mm., ♀ 26 mm.; wing, ♂ 14 mm., ♀ 17–5 mm.
North Island: Wellington district (G. V. Hudson, No. 252). Type male in British Museum, from scrubby hill-top near Wellington, February—March, 1921; also one female from Karori, March.
Gynoplistia notata n. sp. (Fig. 72.)
Allied to G. magnifica, but differing in the details of the wing-markings, and in the following points: Antennae of male with an appendage on twelfth flagellar joint; in female with short projections on flagellar joints 9–11 as well as 1–8. Praescutum with three rather ill-defined dark stripes. Outer clasper of male hypopygium less deeply bifid at tip, inner clasper less twisted. Dark rings of femora apical, preceded in male by an indistinct pale ring. Wings narrower, those of female abbreviated, less than half as long as abdomen. Sc2 shorter and less oblique. Length of body, ♂ 17 mm., ♀ 23 mm.; wing, ♂ 14 mm., ♀ 7 mm.
South Island: Bold Peak, Lake Wakatipu, 7th January, 1914, amongst logs on cleared slope, 2,500 ft. (G. V. Hudson, No. 308); type male and one female in British Museum.
Gynoplistia nebulosa n. sp. (Fig. 73.)
Head dark grey; proboscis reddish-tinged, palpi blackish; scape of antennae and extreme bases and tip of flagellar joints ochreous, remainder blackish. Flagellum of male sixteen-jointed, joints four or five times as long as broad, joints 1–12 each with a long appendage, the longest nearly five times as long as joint bearing it; each appendage with two or three stiff hairs. Flagellum of female fifteen-jointed, joints hardly more than twice as long as broad, the first seven with short triangular ventral
projections. Thorax dark brown, heavily grey-dusted on pleurae, slightly so on mesonotum, without distinct markings. Abdomen dark brown, slightly shining. Hypopygium practically as in G. magnifica. Legs rather long and dark brown in male, with an obscurely darker pre-apical femoral ring; much shorter and lighter in colour in female, femora stouter and with dark ring more distinct. Wings slightly milky, with seven brown blotches, three on anterior margin, one at tip, and three on posterior margin. Sc2 very oblique, about as long as Sc1. In female wings abbreviated, less than half as long as abdomen. Halteres with ochreous stem and brown knob. Length of body, ♂ 16 mm., ♀ 17 mm.; wing, ♂ 14 mm., ♀ 7 mm.
South Island: Otira, January, 1916 (G. V. Hudson, No. 335). Type male in British Museum; female in Mr. Hudson's collection.
Gynoplistia pedestris n. sp.
♀. Head light buff-coloured, with broad brown longitudinal median stripe; palpi and antennae dark brown. First scapal joint about three times as long as broad. First nine flagellar joints narrow at base, much swollen in middle, each with pointed conical projection on under-side, nearly as long as joint; projections on joints 2–5 of flagellum slightly longer than the others; all bearing short bristles. Joints 10–11 of flagellum rather abruptly smaller than preceding joints, without ventral projection (terminal joints missing). Palpal joints all about equal in length, the second and third obliquely truncate and swollen apically. Thorax brownish-ochreous, with pale-grey dusting specially noticeable on scutum, scutellum, and pleurae. Praescutum with there indistinct darker stripes; transverse pits very large, reddish. Suture ill defined except in middle; scutum practically flat. Abdomen buff, somewhat grey-dusted; a narrow median dorsal dark line. Ovipositor long, brownish (damaged at tip). Legs ochreous-brown, only tips of tarsal joints darkened; tibial spurs long, black. Femora rather thick, especially on apical half. Claws simple, slightly hairy at base, about twice as long as empodia. Wings vestigial, shorter than thorax, but distinctly showing normal venation; colour uniformly brownish. Halteres normal, ochreous with dark knob. Length of body, 17 mm.; wing, 2 mm.; hind leg, 14 mm.
One female, without exact data, but probably from Canterbury (C. M. Wakefield, 1880); type in Oxford Museum.
Gynoplistia subfasciata Walker. (Figs. 74, 163.)
Gynoplistia subfasciata Walker, List. Dipt. Brit. Mus., vol. 1, p. 74, 1848: Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 45, 1900.
??Cloniophora subfasciata Schiner, Reise der “Novara,” Dipt., p. 40, 1868.
Antennal flagellum fifteen-jointed in both sexes; in male the joints are about three times as long as broad, the first eleven bearing appendages, the longest of which are nearly five times as long as joint bearing them, those on joints 1 and 11 much shorter, that on joint 11 not much longer than the joint; in female joints 1–9 only bear projections, the longest of which are about twice the length of joint; some specimens show a very short conical projection on segment 10. Thorax greyish-ochreous, darker in male, praescutum with three fairly distinct dark stripes, sensory pits light brownish-ocherous. Abdomen in both sexes ochreous, somewhat shining, without grey dusting, eighth segment blackish; hypopygium as
in fig. 163; side-pieces have very large blackened spinose basal lobes, folded back inwards. Femora have distinct yellowish subapical rings. Wings as in fig. 74, taken from the wing of Walker's type female; in male they are slightly darkened at tip. In single male which I have seen halteres are black except for base of stem; but in the females the whole stem is pale. Length of body, ♂ 12 mm., ♀ 17 mm.; wing. ♂ 10 ♀ 2·5 mm., ♀ 12 mm.; hind leg, ♀ 25 mm.
North Island: Neighbourhood of Auckland (Dr. A. Sinclair), one male and one female: also three females, without definite locality, in Walker's original series.
It is almost certain that the specimens on which Schiner based his description of the genus Cloniophora must have belonged to another undescribed species; I have seen none with the exact antennal characters which he describes.
Gynoplistia glauca n. sp. (Fig. 164.)
Differs from G. subfasciata as follows: Appendage of eleventh flagellar joint of male antennae about twice as long as joint, sometimes also a short projection on twelfth joint. Abdomen in both sexes with more or less conspicuous bluish-grey dusting; ground-colour darker than in G. subfasciata, but eighth segment scarcely darker than the rest; hind-margins of segments rather indistinctly pale. Hypopygium—outer clasper with the two tips divaricate, the pointed one rather longer than the serrate one, side-pieces with a conspicuous swelling close to base, visible in dry specimen; also other differences as in figures; there is some slight variation between the four specimens examined.
North Island: Titirangi, 30th December, 1915 (A. E. Brookes), type male; Horopito, 8th March, 1917 (A. E. Brookes), one male; Wellington (G. V. Hudson, No. 16a), one male and two females: all these in British Museum. South Island: Mount Grey. Canterbury, 7th November, 1916; one male in Canterbury Museum.
Gynoplistia fuscoplumbea n. sp. (Fig. 165.)
♂ Differs from G. subfasciata as follows: Thorax darker, the mesonotum almost uniformly dark-greyish, very slightly shining, the three prae-scutal stripes only slightly indicated; sensory pits black. Abdomen dusted with grey. Hind femora somewhat stouter. Wings somewhat narrower (10 × 2–2 mm.). Hypopygium—outer claspers not distinctly bifid, with a small pointed projection some distance before tip; basal lobe of sidepiece not spinose; also other differences as in figure.
North Island: Wellington (G. V. Hudson, No. 126h); type male in British Museum.
Gynoplistia incisa n. sp. (Fig. 166.)
♂. Differs from G. subfasciata as follows: Middle praescutal stripe obsolete, greyish. Mesonotum rather distinctly ochreous on side-margins. Abdomen dusted with grey. Wing-tip more distinctly darkened; a much more conspicuous dark cloud over Cu1a; the dark cloud below An rather longer. Hypopygium—outer claspers not blackened apically, with a large pointed projection about middle; inner claspers with conspicuous notch before tip; side-pieces without distinct basal lobes; &c.
North Island: Wellington (G. V. Hudson, No. 16f); type male in British Museum.
Gynoplistia fimbriata Alexander. (Fig. 77.)
Gynoplistia fimbriata Alexander, Insecutor Inscitiae, vol. 8, p. 126, 1920.
The antennal flagellum was missing in Alexander's type male. It is fifteen-jointed, first twelve joints with long projections, the longest about six times as long as joint bearing them, the shortest (on joint 12) about twice as long as joint; the projections bear a few stiff hairs; outer flagellar joints are a little longer than those more basally situated. Mesonotum slightly shining, with a little greyish dusting between the darker praescutal stripes. Seventh abdominal segment black, rather strongly contrasted in colour with rest of abdomen. Ninth tergite of male hygopygium is much more pointed than usual; and the claspers are remarkable, the outer pair being very deeply bifid, the inner fork extremely long, sinuous, and pointed.
South Island: Greymouth (Helms); Alexander's type in Berlin-Dahlem Museum. North Island: Wainuiomata, Wellington, 11th February, 1921 (G. V. Hudson, No. 332); one male in British Museum; also another male (G. V. Hudson, No. 16b).
Gynoplistia arthuriana n. sp. (Fig. 75.)
♀. Head dark greyish-brown, with an ash-grey central line. Palpi blackish. First joint of antennae ash-grey, remainder blackish. Flagellum with fourteen joints, the first nine with somewhat conical ventral projections, the longest of which are a little shorter than joint bearing them. Thorax heavily dusted with grey, more brownish on sides of mesonotum; praescutum indistinctly striped; sensory pits black. Abdomen rather dark brown, heavily dusted with grey, broadened considerably in middle. Legs rather short and stout. Femora dark brown, lighter towards base, and with a conspicuous ochreous pre-apical ring. Tibiae and tarsi rather dark brown, tips of joints black. Wings rather short; markings practically the same as in G. excisa, but there is a small distinct dark cloud over base of cell M1, and another on hind-margin towards tip of cell Ax, which are absent in the other members of the subfasciata group. Halteres ochreous, the knob somewhat darker. Length of body, 14 mm.; wing, 9·5 mm.; hind leg, 19 mm.
South Island: Arthur's Pass, 3,000 ft., 7th February, 1920 (G. V. Hudson, No. 126); type female in British Museum. This is just possibly the female of G. incisa, but is more probably distinct.
Gynoplistia canterburiana n. sp. (Fig. 76.)
♀. Differs from G. arthuriana as follows: First few flagellar joints conspicuously pale at base, the ninth without a distinct projection (tip of flagellum beyond ninth joint missing). Mesonotum without distinct markings, sensory pits brown. Legs paler and rather more slender, the pale ring less conspicuous. Wings relatively longer; dark blotch in cell Ax more conspicuous. Length of body, 14·5 mm.; wing, 11·5 mm.; hind leg, 24 mm.
South Island: Mount Grey, Canterbury, 28th December, 1916; type female in Canterbury Museum.
Gynoplistia wakefieldi Westwood. (Fig. 81.)
Gynoplistia wakefieldi Westwood, Trans. Ent. Soc., p. 372, 1881.
As shown in Westwood's figures, flagellum fourteen-jointed in both sexes, joints 1–11 in male with rather short projections, the longest about three times as long as joints; in female joints 1–9 have short projections, the longest scarcely longer than joints. Sensory pits black. Hypopygium practically the same as in G. sackeni. Wings somewhat narrower than in G. sackeni, but with similar markings; the one figured was abnormal in having no dark cloud at base of cell M1.
Locality unknown; probably South Island. I have examined West-wood's type male and female in Oxford Museum, also a male and female from Osten-Sacken's collection in Berlin-Dahlem Museum.
Gynoplistia sackeni Alexander. (Fig. 80.)
Gynoplistia sackeni Alexander, Insecutor Inscitiae, vol. 8, p. 125, 1920.
This species is chiefly remarkable for the length and slenderness of the male antennae, the whole organ being nearly twice as long as head and thorax together, the flagellar joints becoming longer towards apex of antenna, where they are about five times as long as broad. The flagellum is fifteen-jointed, of which all but the last two bear long slender projections; the longest projections are about five times as long as joints, but that on joint 13 is not much longer than joint. Wing somewhat longer and broader than that of G. wakefieldi, but has similar markings. Abdomen more slender than in G. wakefieldi, and side-pieces of hypopygium are somewhat longer, but structure of claspers is practically identical.
North Island: Wellington (G. V. Hudson, No. 126d); one male in British Museum compared with Alexander's type in Berlin-Dahlem Museum.
Gynoplistia conjuncta n. sp. (Fig. 82.)
Head dark grey with some obscure dark-brown markings. Proboscis and first joint of antennae dark grey; palpi and rest of antennae black. Flagellum fourteen-jointed in both sexes; in male the first nine joints bearing projections, the longest being scarcely three times as long as joints; in female the first eight joints only with projections, the longest of which are about as long as joints. Thorax dark grey, heavily dusted; pleurae with an ochreous tinge; praescutum with four blackish stripes, not very sharply defined; sensory pits dark brown. Abdomen dark grey, heavily dusted, hind-margins of tergites narrowly ochreous; a dark-brown median dorsal line, broadest in middle of each tergite, and narrowly interrupted at sutures; hypopygium and ovipositor also ochreous. Hypopygium—ninth tergite with short black transverse ridge in middle of posterior margin. Outer clasper blackened and somewhat swollen apically, tip slightly bifid, a small tooth on outer margin some distance before tip. Inner claspers simple, nearly straight. Side-pieces with a blackened but not spinose basal lobe (hardly visible externally). Legs shorter in female than in male; dark brown; femora somewhat lighter towards base, without distinct ring at or before tip. Wings with a faint milky tinge; abbreviated in female; stigma dark brown; base, Rs, cord, outer margin of discal cell, and base of cell M1 very narrowly bordered with blackish; a dark cloud occupying basal half of cell Cu. Veins R1, R2, R3, and Ax
(except tip) pale, the rest darker. Cross-vein r-m obliterated by contact of R4+5 with upper margin of discal cell. Halteres ochreous, knob somewhat darkened. Length of body, 13 mm.; wing, ♂ 11–5 mm., ♀ 9 mm.
South Island: In river-bed, Dart River, Kinloch, Lake Wakatipu, 1st—10th January, 1921 (G. V. Hudson, No. 243); three males (including type) and one female in British Museum.
Gynoplistia bona Alexander. (Fig. 83.)
Gynoplistia bona Alexander, Insecutor Inscitiae, vol. 8, p. 123, 1920.
This is nearly related to G. conjuncta, but the wing-markings differ (see figure); a short r-m cross-vein is present; praescutum has only three indistinct brown stripes; the median dorsal line of abdomen is uniformly narrow and continuous, and there is indication of a similar line on venter; hypopygium, though similar in structure to that of G. conjuncta, is black.
Mesonotum shining, without grey dusting. Front usually quite half as broad as the head.
Gynoplistia tridactyla n. sp. (Figs. 78, 167.)
Head mostly shining blackish-brown, nape ochreous, a small dull-ochreous area above each antenna. Front about one-third as broad as head. Proboscis, basal joint of palpi, and scape of antenna ochreous, rest of palpi and antennae black. Flagellum of male with eighteen joints; joints 1–13 about twice as long as broad, with very long projections, the longest being about ten times as long as joint bearing it; the projections finely pubescent but devoid of longer stiff hairs; fourteenth joint with a projection which is about four times as long as joint; fifteenth joint with a short projection, shorter than joint; joints 16–18 simple, oval, somewhat stouter than preceding joints. Flagellum of female with seventeen joints, the last one apparently formed by the fusion of two; first ten joints with long projections, the longest of which are nearly four times as long as joints, most of them being dorsal. Thorax reddish-brown; mesonotum brightly shining; plurae dusted with whitish, a dull-blackish area immediately in front of root of wings. Abdomen shining reddish-brown; eighth segment darker; hypopygium and ovipositor ochreous. Hypopygium with tips of side-pieces produced into two long points which are bent inwards, and appear at first sight to be a third pair of claspers. Base of side-pieces with a deeply bifid lobe, between the forks of which passes the simple paramere. Both pairs of claspers long, simple, somewhat twisted. Legs brown; tarsi and tips of femora and tibiae blackish. Wings hyaline; tip conspicuously darkened; a large squarish blotch over base of Rs; a conspicuous fascia across cord, leaving centre of the discal cell clear. Halteres entirely ochreous. Length of body, ♂ 9 mm., ♀ 14–14 mm.; wing, ♂ 9 mm., ♀ 11–13 mm.
North Island: Neighbourhood of Auckland, 1854 (Colonel Bolton), one male and one female; also one male (type) and one female from Captain F. W. Hutton, locality unknown, in British Museum; Auckland (K. Suter), one female in Berlin Museum.
Gynoplistia speciosa n. sp. (Fig. 79.)
♀. Head shining dark brown, almost black between eyes; proboscis lighter; palpi dark brown. Front about one-third as broad as head. Scape and first few flagellar joints of antennae reddish-brown, remainder blackish. Flagellum eighteen-jointed, the first nine joints each with an appendage which is nearly four times as long as joint; most of these are dorsal in position, owing to twisting of antenna (as is usual in males of this genus, but not in females). Tenth flagellar joint with a rather shorter appendage, eleventh with a very short one. Thorax dark reddish-brown, mesonotum rather brightly shining, without markings, pleurae with grey dusting which appears almost silvery when seen from above. Abdomen shining dark brown, with faint coppery tint. Anal valves of ovipositor moderately slender. Legs dark brown, femora moderately stout (especially hind pair), ochreous on basal third or half; hind tibiae with conspicuous but ill-defined whitish ring beyond middle. Wings with faintly brownishtinged ground-colour; venation and dark-brown markings as in figure. Sc2 oblique, equal in length to Sc1. Halteres ochreous, knob not darkened. Length of body, 18 mm.; wing, 15 mm.
North Island: Wellington (G. V. Hudson, No. 16d); type female in British Museum.
This is possibly only a variety of G. tridactyla; it is also just possible that it may be the female of G. formosa.
Gynoplistia formosa Hutton.
Gynoplistia formosa Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 46, 1900.
“Abdomen metallic steel-blue, with purple reflections. Head and antennae dark brown. Thorax dark bronze. Legs dark brown, the femora (except the tips) and a distal ring on the hind tibiae yellow. Halteres yellow. Wings faintly tinged with yellow; a large dark spot at the origin of the second longitudinal vein, and a still larger one from the costa through the bases of the second submarginal and first posterior cells to the discal, which is clear, except the inner and outer margins. A lighter spot in the upper margin of the auxiliary cell, about two-thirds from the base, and touching the sixth longitudinal vein. The antennae in the male are 22-jointed, of which 3 to 17 are branched; the last joint is small. Length, ♂ 12 mm.; wing, ♀ 11 mm. The female is unknown.”—(Hutton.)North Island: Kaitoke (Hudson).
Gynoplistia cuprea Hutton. (Figs. 84, 85.)
Gynoplistia cuprea Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 46, 1900.
Antennal flagellum eighteen-jointed in male; sixteen-jointed in the only complete female I have seen, though in this specimen the terminal joint is nearly as long as the three preceding, and is probably compounded of three fused joints. The first fourteen flagellar joints in male, the first twelve in female, bear branches. In male the longest branches are about eight times, in female about three times, as long as joints. The hypopygium has outer claspers simple, nearly cylindrical, with slender, blackened, hooked tip; side-pieces with basal tubercle on ventral side; parameres simple, pointed, black. Colour of thorax, abdomen, and legs normally shining coppery-brown, with metallic reflections on abdomen, but some specimens are much darker, abdomen metallic violet, femora and tibiae with blackened tips. A male of this form is normal in structure. Wings
have a more or less pronounced yellow tint; the dark markings vary in intensity. The insect is of a stouter build than most other New Zealand species.
North Island: Wellington (G. V. Hudson, No. 29); in forest, Porirua, 9th December, 1920 (G. V. Hudson). South Island: Canterbury (Hutton).
Gynoplistia tuberculata n. sp.
♂. Head shining brownish - orange. Palpi dark brown. Antennae brownish-ochreous, the pectinations black. First and ninth flagellar joints with very small conical projections beneath, second to eighth each with a cylindrical process, the longest being little more than twice as long as joint bearing it; remaining antennal joints simple. Thorax brownish-orange, mesonotum shining, upper part of pleurae with a patch of golden pollen; a blackish line between mesonotum and pleurae. Lateral sclerite of post-notum produced into a conspicuous tubercle, the tip of which is rounded and curved backwards. Abdomen shorter than wing, brownish-orange with slight coppery reflection, darker at extreme base; segments 3–6 very broad, quite twice as broad as basal segment. Legs missing (coxae and trochanters concolorous with thorax). Wings with a strongly marked yellow ground-colour, tip scarcely perceptibly darkened, but the darkening, such as it is, reaching almost to cord; an ill-defined dark cloud over cord, extending right across wing, but leaving centre of discal cell yellow; the dark colour spreading out for some distance along hind-margin towards base, and for a much greater distance up cell Cu; a dark cloud over base of Rs, reaching across cell R. Sc1 bent sharply up to costa at tip; Sc2 twice as long as Sc1, but only slightly oblique. Rs square and slightly spurred at base; R2 straight, not quite three times as long as R2+3, and in a straight line with it; R3 and R4+5 also straight. Ax with a strong double curve. Halteres yellowish. Length of body, 11 mm.; wing, 10·5 mm.
A single female in H. Loew's collection in Berlin Zoological Museum, without definite data.
Though superficially very much like G. cuprea, this species is really very distinct on account of the remarkable postnotal tubercles, also by the rudimentary appendages of the first and ninth antennal joints, and the straight branches of the radius.
Gynoplistia violacea n. sp. (Figs. 86, 168.)
♀. Head shining purplish-black, with some pale pubescence. Palpi and antennae black. Flagellum sixteen-jointed, joints for the most part less than twice as long as broad, the last few rather longer; all but the last three joints bear branches, the longest of which are quite ten times as long as joints; branch of thirteenth joint not much longer than joint. Thorax shining greenish-black; sides of pronotum and the greater part of the pleurae heavily dusted with dull grey. Abdomen shining dark violet-blue. Hypopygium tinged with ochreous, its structure as in figure; outer clasper not at all blackened, with cylindrical stem and flat tip; parameres deeply bifid, with two sharp divergent points. Legs: Coxae violet-black, the front and middle pair grey-dusted; trochanters dark brown; femora moderately stout, ochreous on basal two-thirds, apical third black; tibiae and tarsi black, hind tarsi brownish-ochreous except at base and tip. Wings slightly brownish-tinged, with ill-defined markings
as in figure. R2 shorter and straighter than usual. Accessory cross-veins are present in both wings in cells R1 and R3, in different positions in the two wings. Halteres pale ochreous, the base of stem dark. Length of body, 9 mm.; wing, 9 mm.
South Island: Otira Gorge, December, 1908 (G. V. Hudson, No. 234a); type male in British Museum.
Gynoplistia nigronitida n. sp. (Fig. 87.)
♂. Head black, somewhat shining, but conspicuously dusted with grey. Antennae and palpi black. Flagellum with fourteen joints, for the most part about three times as long as broad, the last four shorter, terminal joint very small, globular; first nine joints bearing branches, of which the longest are about six times as long as joints; branch of ninth scarcely three times as long as joint. Thorax shining black; pleurae with slight grey dusting. Abdomen missing. Legs rather short and stout, femora swollen apically. Front and middle coxae dark brown; hind coxae black. Femora, tibiae, and first three tarsal joints dark reddish-brown with black tips; terminal tarsal joints black. (Hind legs missing.) Wings somewhat unusually broad, with well-defined blackish markings as in figure. Halteres entirely blackish. Length of wing, 7 mm.
South Island: Otira Gorge, December, 1908 (G. V. Hudson, No. 237a); type male (damaged) in British Museum.
Gynoplistia speighti n. sp.
♂. Head shining black, with some black hair. Palpi black. Scape of antennae brown; flagellum black, the first seven joints with basal projections, the longest of which are scarcely as long as joints bearing them; all joints scarcely twice as long as broad; joints 8 and 9 simple; terminal joints missing. Thorax shining blackish-brown, ochreous-tinged on shoulders, above roots of wings, and on margin of scutellum. Pleurae with a moderately large patch of fine, dense whitish pubescence. Abdomen shining blue-black; ovipositor yellowish; anal valves slender, nearly straight, twice as long as last segment. Legs rather long and slender, femora slightly thickened apically; brownish-ochreous, femora and tibiae gradually darkened towards tips, tarsi blackish. Wings with venation and markings practically as in G. nigronitida, but Cu1a is a little before middle of discal cell, the dark markings are somewhat smaller, and wings rather longer in proportion. Halteres with ochreous stem and blackish knob. Length of body, 10·5 mm.; wing, 9 mm.
South Island: Mount Grey, Canterbury, 24th December, 1916; type female in Canterbury Museum.
Although it is evidently closely allied to G. nigronitida, I feel sure this cannot be the female of that species, on account of its distinctly longer and more slender legs, shining head, and whitish pleural pubescence. The specimen was among a number lent by Mr. Speight, of the Canterbury Museum, to Dr. C. P. Alexander, and through him to the writer.
Gynoplistia anthracina Alexander.
? Gynoplistia anthracina Alexander, Insecutor Inscitiae, vol. 8, p. 128, 1920.
Head and thorax entirely shining black, except that pleurae have a narrow elongate patch of extremely fine white pubescence. Middle legs slender, but with femora somewhat clubbed; pubescence rather longer
than in most species, that on the tibia nearly twice as long as diameter of joint; first tarsal joint is a little more than half as long as tibia (in G. speighti and G. nigronitida it is almost exactly half as long). The other legs and the wings of the type are now lost; according to Alexander's description, the wing-markings are somewhat similar to those of G. speighti and G. nigronitida, but there is a small spot at the base of cell M1 and a complete fascia across the wing from base of Rs to hind-margin. Length of body, 5·8 mm.; wing, 6 mm.
South Island: Greymouth (Helms); type female (fragment) in Berlin-Dahlem Museum.
Gynoplistia fulgens Hutton.
Gynoplistia fulgens Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 47, 1900.
“Abdomen metallic steel-blue, with purple reflections. Head and antennae dark-brown. Thorax black, shining. Halteres yellow. Legs blackish-brown, proximal portions of the femora yellowish-brown. Wings clear, except at bases, where they are slightly tinged with yellow; a rather pale-brown spot at apex of marginal cell, extending across base of second submarginal. Only a minute spot at origin of second longitudinal vein. Discal cell open. Antennae in the male twenty-jointed, of which 3 to 15 are branched. Length, ♂ 13 mm.; wing, ♂ 12 mm. Female unknown.”—(Hutton).
South Island: Mount Arthur, 3,600 ft., 6th February, 1898 (Hudson).
Gynoplistia polita n. sp. (Figs. 88, 171.)
♂. Head shining black, with some black hair; palpi and antennae black. Flagellum only thirteen-jointed, joints as in G. clavipes. Thorax shining black, with scanty pale hair; pleurae with rather large patch of fine dense greyish pubescence. Abdomen shining, dark steel-blue; pubescence pale; side-pieces of hypopygium ochreous, with dark spot on outer side. Structure of hypopygium somewhat resembling that of G. violacea, but flat apical portion of outer clasper longer and more pointed; apical lobes of side-piece larger; parameres less deeply forked, &c. Legs rather slender; femora thickened apically, but not conspicuously clubbed. Coxae and trochanters shining black; femora ochreous on basal half, gradually shading to black apically; tibiae dark brown; tarsi black. Wings hyaline, tip not at all darkened; a squarish spot over base of Rs and a blackish fascia from stigma to discal cell. Halteres uniformly brownish-ochreous. Length of body, 5·5 mm.; wing, 6·5 mm.
South Island: Mount Aurum, 3,000 ft., 17th January, 1920, (G. V. Hudson, No. 217b); type male in British Museum.
Apparently resembles G. fulgens in coloration, but is much smaller, and has fewer joints in antennae.
Gynoplistia trifasciata n. sp. (Figs. 89, 170.)
♂. Head between the eyes shining dark brown, with violet reflections; back part rather light ochreous. Palpi dark brown. Scape of antennae and rachis of first two flagellar joints ochreous, the rest black. Flagellum with only twelve joints, which are mostly about three times as long as broad, the last three a little shorter; the first eight bear branches, the longest of which are about eight times as long as joint bearing them, that on the eighth about five times as long as joint. Thorax entirely brightly
shining. Mesonotum reddish-ochreous; scutellum and base of postnotum darker. Upper half of pleurae black, the lower half pale ochreous. Abdomen blackish, shining, with strong violet reflections. Hypopygium (see figure) with peculiarly lobed side-pieces; outer clasper slender, cylindrical, without flattened projection at tip; parameres long, simple, tip pointed and bent. Legs slender, femora conspicuously clubbed on apical fourth; coxae and trochanters light ochreous; femora ochreous with black clubs; tibiae ochreous at base, gradually shading to black at tip; tarsi black. Wings hyaline, with small dark spot in base of cell R and three complete dark fasciae, as in figure. Halteres with slender dark stem and large black knob. Length of body, 4·5 mm.; wing, 5·5 mm.
North Island: Wainuiomata, Wellington, 14th December, 1920 (G. V. Hudson, No. 327); type and one other male in British Museum.
This species and G. clavipes are doubtless closely allied in spite of some striking differences. They and G. polita are remarkable for the reduction in the number of antennal joints, but there can be no question of removing them from the genus Gynoplistia.
Gynoplistia clavipes n. sp. (Figs. 90, 169.)
♂. Head shining black, with a little black hair. Palpi blackish. Scape of antennae and rachis of first few flagellar joints light brown, the rest dark brown. Flagellum with only thirteen joints, which are about three times as long as broad, the last three rather shorter; the first eight flagellar joints bear branches, of which the longest are about ten times as long as joint bearing them; that on the eighth is about five times as long as joint. Thorax rather dark brown, brightly shining, mesonotum somewhat darker, with metallic reflections; pleurae with a small patch of fine, dense, silvery-white pubescence. Abdomen dark brown, with strong violet reflections; hypopygium lighter, its structure as in figure: somewhat resembling that of G. violacea, but the dorso-apical lobe of the side-piece is longer, rounded, and bare; paramere long, nearly straight, and not bifid, &c. Legs slender, but the femora conspicuously clubbed on their apical fourth; coxae, trochanters, and bases of femora ochreous, the rest dark brown. Wings almost hyaline, with moderately dark-brown markings as in figure. Ax more sinuous than usual. Halteres ochreous, the knob somewhat darkened. Length of body, 7 mm.; wing, 6·3 mm.
North Island: Wellington, 6th February, 1916 (G. V. Hudson, No. 98a); type male in British Museum.
Gynoplistia albicincta n. sp. (Fig. 91.)
♂. Head shining black, the front broad, about half as broad as head. Palpi with first joint blackish, the rest light brown. Antennae dark brown. Flagellum with only eleven joints (complete, not broken); the first two joints simple, shortly oval; the next five joints somewhat longer, with a pointed ventral projection which has the whole length of joint, not not only its proximal portion, for its base; last four joints simple, the terminal joint longer than any one of the preceding three, which are nearly globular. Thorax shining dark brown, black posteriorly; plurae without grey dusting or dense pubescence. Abdomen shining black; ovipositor brown, anal valves slender almost straight, half as long again as last segment. Legs short and stout, with longer pubescence than in any other species known to me; on the tibiae it is about twice as long as diameter of tibiae. Femora strongly clubbed on outer third. Coxae, trochanters,
basal three-fourths of femora, and a narrow ring at base of tibiae ochreous; a rather broad whitish ring just beyond middle of tibiae; remainder of legs black (hind legs missing). Wings greyish-tinged, darker towards tip and towards bases of cells Cu; a small dark spot over base of Rs and a large dark-brown patch over cord. Rs shorter and more curved than in any other New Zealand species; R2 almost straight at base: cross-vein r apparently absent. Halteres blackish. Length of body, 6·5 mm.; wing, 6·5 mm.
North Island: Wainuiomata, Wellington, 14th December, 1920 (G. V. Hudson, No. 334); type female in British Museum.
The peculiarities of this species are probably sufficient for it to be made the type of a new genus, but until the male is known it had better be regarded as an aberrant Gynoplistia.
Genus Cerozodia Westw.
As already noticed by Osten-Sacken, this genus is very closely allied to Gynoplistia and to the South American Ctedonia, and it is by no means impossible that the three will some day be united. Some species of Gynoplistia (especially G. magnifica) approach Cerozodia in the long vein Sc2; others (such as G. speciosa) in the number of joints on the antennae, while in this last point Ctedonia is intermediate between Gynoplistia and Cerozodia. The male hypopygium of the New Zealand species of Cerozodia is very similar in structure to that of G. magnifica; all four Cerozodiae are remarkably alike in this organ, and I doubt if the small differences I have observed between different specimens are of any value for distinguishing the species; I have therefore not described them. C. pulverulenta is possibly only a variety of C. paradisea, and both are just possibly only varieties of C. plumosa, but C. hudsoni is certainly a good species. The number of simple joints at the tip of the male antenna seems more or less constant for the species, but the principal characters relied on for separating them are those of the wing-markings.
Apart from the New Zealand forms, only one species of the genus has been described, C. interrupta Westw., from Western Australia. Dr. C. P. Alexander informs me that he has seen two species from Tasmania.
Cerozodia plumosa Osten-Sacken. (Fig. 92.)
Cerozodia plumosa Osten-Sacken, Berlin. ent. Zeitschr., vol. 31, p. 213, 1887.
The antennae of Osten-Sacken's type (which I have examined) have 2 + 3 + 32 + 2 joints, as stated by the describer: “two basal ones, three remose joints, the branches of which are directed downwards, thirty-two joints with the branches directed upwards (the branch of the thirty-second is a mere stump); the last two joints have no branches, the last being rather elongate.” Thorax and abdomen reddish-brown, without distinct grey dusting, thorax devoid of markings, abdominal tergites with blackish lateral line. Wings are somewhat shorter in proportion to their breadth than in the other species, and have all veins more or less distinctly bordered with brown, the border of vein Cu being particularly broad for the whole length of vein in cells M and Cu1. There is a small dark-brown spot in base of cell R, a very small one over base of Rs, and a moderately large cloud below the dark-brown stigma. Basal section of R4+5 strongly curved, about six times as long as r-m; cell M1 not longer than its stem; Cu1a
rather more oblique than usual, meeting discal cell a little beyond the middle. Length of body, 24 mm.; wing, 20 × 5·5 mm.
Type in Berlin-Dahlem Museum; locality unknown.
A male in Canterbury Museum from Lake Kanieri, 17th February, 1920, is almost certainly the same species, but has the antennal formula 2 + 3 + 23 + 2; the spot over base of Rs is rather larger, and there are small dark cloudings at each angle of discal cell, which is open on one wing. Both specimens agree in having a small brown cloud on inner edge of anal angle, which is absent in C. paradisea and C. pulverulenta.
Cerozodia paradisea n. sp. (Fig. 93.)
Antennal formula 2 + 3 + 23 + 1. Thorax reddish-brown, with some grey dusting, outlining four praescutal stripes; pleurae more distinctly grey-dusted. Abdomen reddish - brown, slightly shining, without grey dusting; lateral stripe indistinct. Legs uniformly reddish-brown, as in C. plumosa; tibial spurs brown with black tips. Wings with a distinct ochreous tinge, with brown markings in base of cell R, over base of Rs, and below stigma, similar to those of C. plumosa, but larger; there is in addition a long dark spot in middle of cell Cu, joined to a smaller dark spot in cell An; hind-margin of wing somewhat darkened, especially in cell Ax; veins are all rather light-coloured, and are not distinctly bordered with brown. Rs spurred at base; basal section of R4+5 about six times as long as r-m; cell M1 half as long again as stalk; upper of the two veins closing the discal cell rather shorter than lower; Cu1a joining discal cell a little beyond middle. Length of body, 24 mm.; wing, 22·5 × 5·7 mm.
South Island: Paradise, 15th March, 1910 (G. H. Howes); type male in British Museum. A second male from the same locality, same date (Dr. G. B. Longstaff) is in Oxford Museum.
Another male in British Museum from Nothofagus forest, Lake Wakatipu, 2,000 ft., 9th January, 1921 (G. V. Hudson, No. 138), is certainly the same species, but differs in having more joints in antennae (2 + 3 + 26 + 1 on one antenna, 2 + 3 + 27 + 1 on the other); Rs is not spurred; basal section of R4+5 only twice as long as r-m; cell M1 twice as long as its stalk; dark cloud in cell Cu longer. Two more males in Cambridge Museum from Humbolt Range, 4,000 ft. (G. V. Hudson, No. 138), practically agree with this one; antennal formulae 2 + 3 + 26 + 1 and 2 + 3 + 28 + 1.
Cerozodia pulverulenta n. sp. (Fig. 94.)
Antennal formula 2 + 3 + 25 + 1. Thorax darker than in C. plumosa or C. paradisea, and more heavily dusted, the four praescutal stripes fairly distinct. Abdomen brownish, without reddish tinge, slightly but distinctly dusted with grey. Tips of tibiae distinctly darkened, spurs all black. Wings greyish, without ochreous tinge; veins darker than in C. paradisea, for the most part without brown seams. A small dark-brown streak in base of cell R; whole of Rs seamed with dark brown, connecting with the dark-brown patch below the stigma; cell R4+5 clear except at extreme base; a small brown patch in middle of cell Cu; hind-margin of wing slightly and uniformly darkened. Rs not spurred, basal section of R4+5 about twice as long as r-m; cell M1 as long as its stalk; upper of the two veins closing the discal cell strongly curved, rather longer than the lower, Cu1a joining discal cell in or slightly before middle. Length of body, 23 mm.; wing, 20·5 × 5 mm.
South Island: West Plains, Invercargill (G. V. Hudson, No. 225a); type male in British Museum. West Plains, 20th November, 1902 (A. Philpott); one male in Cawthron Institute collection with wing-markings exactly as in type, but antennal formula 2 + 3 + 29 + 2.
A third male, in British Museum, from Mount Aurum, Wakatipu district, 3,000 ft., 17th January, 1921 (G. V. Hudson, No. 361b), differs as follows: Antennal formula 2 + 3 + 26 + 1. A broad blackish-brown streak running from base of cell R to middle of cell R3, its lower edge straight except for a slight enlargement over r-m; wing-tip somewhat darkened. Basal section of R4+5 about five times as long as r-m. This may be called C. pulverulenta var. striata; I do not think it can represent a distinct species.
Cerozodia hudsoni n. sp. (Fig. 95.)
♂. Antennal formula 2 + 3 + 25 + 3; centres of flagellar joints darkened (more so than in the other species). Thorax blackish-brown, with some grey dusting on pleurae and between praescutal stripes, which are not darker than ground-colour. Abdomen stouter than in the other species, shining blackish-brown, without darker lateral stripes, and without a trace of grey dusting, except on first tergite. Ninth tergite with a rather deeper emargination than in the other species, but otherwise the structure of hypopygium is very similar. Legs uniformly dark brown, tibial spurs blackened apically. Wings with an almost uniform greyish-ochreous tinge; costal cell and stigma scarcely darker; narrow clear streaks along centres of basal cells, the upper one crossing into the discal. Cell M1 just sessile on one wing, with a very short stalk on the other Cu1a joining the discal cell just before its apex. Length of body, 21 mm.; wing, 17 ♂ 5 mm.; front leg, 37 mm.
♂. Coloration of body as in male. Flagellum of antennae entirely blackened, with twenty-four joints; the first fifteen with short ventral projections, the longest of which are scarcely longer than joints; remaining joints (except the more elongate terminal one) slightly enlarged ventrally. Abdomen very broad in middle. Anal valves of ovipositor stout, curved, half as long again as long terminal segment. Legs much shorter and stouter than in male and with somewhat longer pubescence; front femora much thickened on outer two-thirds. Wings a little shorter than thorax; venation atrophied, except for costa and R1. Halteres normal, darker in colour than in male. Length of body, 23 mm.; wing, 3 mm.; front leg, 22·5 mm.
North Island: Wainuiomata, Wellington, beaten from tree-ferns, 11th February, 1921 (G. V. Hudson, No. 147); type male in British Museum, allotype female in Mr. Hudson's collection. A second male in British Museum (G. V. Hudson, No. 147d) is rather lighter in colour, and cell M has a longer stem; the wing of this specimen is figured.
It has been customary to divide this subfamily into three tribes—Dolichopezini, Tipulini, and Ctenophorini—but the distinctions between at least the first two of these are so unsatisfactory that I can see no justification for their retention. No representatives of the Ctenophorini nor of the genus Tipula (in its present extent) have yet been discovered in New Zealand.
|1.||Vein R2 and discal cell absent, Cu1a joining M far before the fork||Dolichopeza.|
|Vein R2 and discal cell present; Cu1a joining M beyond (rarely exactly at) the fork||2|
|2.||Vein R3 curved, the convexity facing downwards; male hypopygium with the anal segment largely chitinized; female with conspicuous chitinous ovipositor||Holorusia.|
|Vein R3 straight, or bent somewhat downwards towards the tip; male hypopygium usually without any chitinization of the anal segment||3|
|3.||First few flagellar joints swollen and nearly bare, the remainder slender, with long dense hairs; abdomen elongate; female with long chitinous ovipositor; vein R2 (in New Zealand species only) about as long as and almost in a straight line with R2+5||Longurio.|
|Terminal flagellar joints not conspicuously more hairy than the rest; abdomen usually short; vein R2 shorter than R2+3 and making a distinct angle with it||4|
|4.||Antennae with twelve or thirteen joints, the last few sometimes indistinctly separated; male hypopygium small and usually twisted to one side; female ovipositor short and fleshy||Macromastix.|
|Antennae extremely short, with ten joints (male) or seven joints (female), male hypopygium large, not displaced; female ovipositor long and strongly chitinized||Hudsonia.|
Genus Dolichopeza Curt.
A small and fairly well defined genus, of almost world-wide distribution. The species are all very similar in general appearance, the most conspicuous differences being shown in the coloration of the legs.
The two New Zealand species are distinguishable at once by their size.
Dolichopeza parvicauda n. sp. (Fig. 96.)
Head greyish-brown, more ochreous above antennae; a blackish mark adjoining each eye. Front one-third as broad as head in male, a little broader in female. Rostrum ochreous, less than half as long as head. Palpi light brown. Antennae of male nearly as long as abdomen, of female not longer than thorax; scape ochreous, flagellum dark brown. In male flagellum is covered with a fine, uniform pubescence, as long as diameter of joints, and with scattered long hairs; in female the pubescence is much shorter, especially on upper side, but the hairs are quite as long and rather more numerous. First flagellar joint in male not much longer than second; in female proportionately longer. Thorax light brownish-ochreous, pleurae and postnotum somewhat dusted with grey. Praescutum with three dark-brown stripes, the lateral pair turned down in front. Mesepisternum with two dark-brown spots, one above the other. Abdomen blackish-brown, each segment with a basal ochreous band, narrowed in middle, and in female strongly dusted over with grey. Hypopygium of male very small, narrower than seventh segment; ninth tergite with lateral angles slightly produced; two pairs of hairy claspers, both shorter than side-pieces, outer pair serrate on inner ventral margin, inner pair narrower than the outer and somewhat twisted. Ovipositor normal. Legs almost uniformly dark brown; coxae and trochanters ochreous; a very narrow whitish ring embracing the femoro-tibial articulation. Wings brownish-tinged; indistinct pale areas before and beyond the blackish stigma; most of the veins slightly seamed with dark brown. Rs very short, almost perpendicular, in a line with basal section of R4+5 and with r-m, and scarcely longer than either of these. Halteres with dark-brown stem; base of knob black, tip whitish. Length of body, ♂ 7·5 mm., ♀ 9 mm.; wing, ♂ 8 mm., ♀ 10 mm.
North Island: Wilton's Bush, Wellington, in forest, 11th December, 1920 (G. V. Hudson, No. 185); type and one other male and one female in British Museum.
This comes very close to D. planidigitalis Skuse in coloration, but the hypopygium is very different.
Dolichopeza atropos (Hudson).
Tipula atropos Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 27, p. 295, 1895.
Dolichopeza atropos Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 24, 1900.
“Uniform dark brown, the wings tinted yellowish-brown; the stigma and veins brown. The third joint of the antennae is elongated, and is as long as the fourth and fifth taken together. Second posterior cell rather short, petiolate; chief cross-vein more than half its length distant from the end of the fourth posterior cell. The auxiliary vein joins the first longitudinal at the origin of the second longitudinal. The first longitudinal ends free, and there is no marginal cross-vein. The third longitudinal is much bent down, and then turns slightly upwards before joining the margin of the wing. Anal angle of the wing distinct. Male: Length of body, 12 mm.; of wing, 15 mm. The male forceps is incrassate.”—(Hutton.)
North Island: Terawhiti, Wellington, in a gold-mining shaft (G. V. Hudson); type male (unique) in Mr. Hudson's collection. Evidently a true Dolichopeza, distinct from D. parvicauda.
Genus Holorusia Lw.
As understood at the present day, this genus is considered to be confined to South America. Two Australian species have indeed been referred by Skuse to Holorusia, but one of these (H. conspicabilis Skuse) really belongs to the related but apparently distinct Oriental genus Ctenacroscelis; the other (Tipula lateralis Walker) may be a true Tipula, but the type is too much damaged for generic determination. I do not consider, however, that Skuse's genus Ischnotoma, with three Australian species, is well separated from Holorusia, and the latter should therefore probably be regarded as common to the Neotropical and Australasian regions. The distinctness of the Holarctic Prionocera is questionable.
The two New Zealand species differ from those of South America, and agree with Ischnotoma serricornis in the strongly curved vein M3; on the other hand, they agree better in antennal structure with the South American species than with I. serricornis, though it may be noted that the male of H. novarae approaches I. serricornis in having the flagellar joints somewhat enlarged on the under-side. The presence of a vein-stump in cell M in both H. novarae and H. fulva is noteworthy, but it is unlikely that this feature indicates any close relationship with Macromastix maori, which possesses a similar stump.
Hutton has pointed out that in both the New Zealand species r-m is placed exactly at the apex of Rs; but this is not quite constant, as I have seen specimens of H. novarae in which R4+5 has a basal section almost equalling r-m in length.
Holorusia novarae (Schiner). (Figs. 97, 98.)
Tipula novarae Schiner, Reise der “Novara,” Dipt., p. 37, 1868; Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 26, 1900.
Tipula senex Butler, Voy. “Erebus” and “Terror,” Ins., p. 27, 1875; Kirby, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., p. 270, 1874.
A common species, readily distinguishable by the wing - markings, which show only a slight variation. The vein-stump in cell M varies in
development; it is very rarely entirely absent or forms a complete cross-vein (one wing of one specimen in each case).
North Island: Auckland (Sinclair); Wellington (Hudson); Weraroa (Miller). South Island: Mount Grey (Canterbury Museum); Waikouaiti (British Museum). Occurs throughout New Zealand, according to Hutton.
Holorusia fulva (Hutton). (Fig. 99.)
Tipula fulva Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 26, 1900.
This is closely allied to H. novarae, differing principally in having the whole apex of the wing rather conspicuously darkened. A slight difference in the male hypopygium supports the specific distinction. The flagellar joints of the male antennae are not perceptibly enlarged beneath.
North Island: Wainuiomata, Wellington, in dense forest, 11th February, 1921 (G. V. Hudson, No. 154). South Island: Nelson (Hudson); White Rock, 26th October, 1920 (Canterbury Museum).
Genus Longurio Lw.
The differences between Longurio Lw., Acracantha Skuse, Aeshnasoma Johnson, and Austrotipula Alex. appear to me too trivial to be treated as generic, and I therefore propose to include all four in the genus Longurio. Thus understood, the genus is still a very small one, but with representatives in all the chief regions of the world except Europe and Madagascar. All the species appear to be rare. In antennal structure the New Zealand species are more like the Formosan L. rubriceps Edw., and the Chinese L. fulvus Edw., than the Australian species, but the reverse is the case in regard to venation; the nearest ally, however, appears to be the North American L. rivertonensis (Johnson).
Longurio dux (Hudson). (Fig. 100.)
Tipula dux Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 27, p. 293, 1894.
Pachyrhina hudsoni Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 24, 1900.
Austrotipula hudsoni Alexander, Insecutor Inscitiae, vol. 8, p. 129, 1920.
In this species, the giant among New Zealand crane-flies, the wings are strongly and almost uniformly brown-tinged, the veins distinctly paler than the ground-colour; cell M1 is broadly sessile; the femora have a slightly darker pre-apical ring, the tip being conspicuously whitish.
North Island: Wellington (Hudson). I have examined two males and three females in British Museum, one male and one female in Cambridge Museum, and one female from Berlin-Dahlem Museum. I consider that Hudson's name dux may be revived for this species, as, although it is preoccupied in Tipula, it is not so in Longurio.
Longurio legatus n. sp. (Fig. 101.)
Wing-membrane not quite so dark as in L. dux, but veins conspicuously darker than ground-colour; cell M1 only just sessile, or even provided with a very short stalk; femora uniformly brown, tip scarcely paler.
South Island: Shores of Lake Wakatipu (G. V. Hudson, No. 141); type male and one female in British Museum; a second male in Cambridge Museum.
The slight differences from L. dux are constant. The hypopygia are practically identical.
Genus Macromastix Osten-Sacken.
This genus is certainly related to Tipula, but is readily distinguishable therefrom by the absence of distinct verticils of hairs at the bases of the flagellar joints, the simple male hypopygium in which the anal segment is almost entirely membranous, and the fleshy and generally very short ovipositor of the female. These characters suggest that it may represent the ancestral type of the Tipulini, and in accordance with this it is interesting to notice that many species show a marked approach to the Dolichopezini in their very elongate tarsi and short and nearly vertical vein R2. Indeed, the range of the characters shown by the New Zealand species is such as to make it extremely doubtful whether the sections Dolichopezini and Tipulini can be maintained as distinct. Perhaps any attempt to classify the Tipulinae into sections would be most satisfactorily based on the male hypopygium; in this respect Macromastix, Hudsonia, and Longurio are all similar, and possibly might all be referred to the Dolichopezini, as already foreshadowed by Skuse. In classifying the Tipulinae a great deal of stress was laid by Osten-Sacken and Skuse on the presence or absence of a nasus at the tip of the rostrum, while Enderlein has recently erected the genus Icriomastax for a species with a forked nasus. The study of the very extensive New Zealand material before me has proved that these characters are absolutely worthless for generic separation. The nasus may be simple or forked, present or absent, in two obviously closely allied species, in the sexes of the same species, or even perhaps in individuals of one sex of the same species. I think it probable that Phymatopsis Skuse, Icriomastax Enderlein, and perhaps Pehlkea Enderlein, will eventually be ranked as synonyms of Macromastix. I have not, however, seen specimens of any of these genera.
It may be noted further that some species of this genus have Sc1 present, and that the fourth palpal joint is often rather short, so that the distinctions between the Tipulinae and Limnobiinae as given by Osten-Sacken are not very well maintained. A more satisfactory characterization of the two subfamilies is one based on the condition of the cubital vein.
The genus Macromastix seems to be highly characteristic of the New Zealand fauna; seventeen species have previously been described (some under Tipula), and twenty new ones are now added. If one or two of these species prove to be ill founded, others will certainly be discovered to increase the number. The range of structure between the extreme forms is very considerable, and it is possible to recognize some well-marked groups of nearly allied species, but I feel convinced that no satisfactory generic division can be made. The most distinct groups are (a) the eight species placed first in the sequel, which have a long praefurca (Rs) and a rather distinct facies; and (b) the four species showing green coloration, two of which (and probably the others also) have females with rather long and pointed ovipositors. Two characters which are very conspicuous in some species, elongation of the male antennae or reduction in width of the cell Ax, are of specific value only and do not necessarily indicate affinity.
Apart from the numerous New Zealand species, about a dozen species of Macromastix are known from Australia, and three or four from South America. Walker's Tipula filigera, supposed to be from the United States, is also certainly a Macromastix, the type male in the British Museum being in fairly good condition.
The following is an attempt to tabulate the New Zealand species on obvious characters applicable to both sexes:—
|1.||Wings grey, with numerous cloudy whitish blotches and spotsx||nebulosa (Hudson).|
|1a.||Rs long, its base scarcely beyond the middle of the wing||2|
|Rs shorter, its base much beyond the middle of the wing||9|
|2.||Abdomen with a pale central stripe||tenera (Hutton).|
|Abdomen with a black central stripe||3|
|3.||A dark cloud at the wing-tip||clara (Kirby).|
|4.||Wing-veins and membrane mostly ochreous||orion (Hudson).|
|Wing-veins dark brown, membrane hyaline or brownish||5|
|5.||A black stripe from prothoracic stigma to mesosternum||6|
|No such stripe||8|
|6.||Costal cell and stigma light brown||auroatra n. sp.|
|Costal cell and stigma blackish brown||7|
|7.||Legs very short||brevitarsis n. sp.|
|Legs much longer and more slender||dux (Kirby).|
|8.||Cross-vein r absent||aperta n. sp.|
|Cross-vein r present||ferruginosa n. sp.|
|9.||Body at least partly green or greenish||10|
|No green tinge on any part||13|
|10.||Thorax all green||holochlora (Now.).|
|Mesonotum partly brown||11|
|11.||Lateral praescutal stripes outlined only||virescens n. sp.|
|Lateral praescutal stripes distinct||12|
|12.||Costal cell light, stigma greenish||viridis (Walk.).|
|Costal cell dark brown, stigma whitish||albistigma n. sp.|
|13.||A dark spot or patch at tip of Ax||14|
|No such marking||15|
|14.||A vein-stump on M in middle of cell M||maori Alex.|
|No vein-stump on M||binotata Hutton.|
|15.||Wings with conspicuous pale markings on a dark ground||16|
|Wings without conspicuous pale markings||22|
|16.||Abdomen with grey dusting on certain segments only||17|
|Abdomen without differential grey markings||19|
|17.||Wing-tip all dark||lunata Hutton.|
|Cell M1 largely pale||18|
|18.||Humeral and pre-arcular cells pale||variegata n. sp.|
|Humeral and pre-arcular cells dark||decorata n. sp.|
|19.||Cell M1 conspicuously pale||huttoni n. sp.|
|Cell M1 not conspicuously pale||20|
|20.||Cell Ax very narrow||vittata n. sp.|
|Cell Ax broad||21|
|21.||Pale wing-markings large and well defined||alexanderi n. sp.|
|Pale wing-markings smaller, less defined, and more separated||fumibasis n. sp.|
|22.||Scutellum bright orange||fucata Hutton.|
|23.||Thorax and abdomen uniformly ash-grey||cinerea n. sp.|
|24.||Thoracic hair long and conspicuous||25|
|Thoracic hair short and inconspicuous||29|
|25.||Cell Ax broad||26|
|Cell Ax very narrow, especially in the male||28|
|26.||Four distinct praescutal stripes||vulpina (Hutton).|
|Only three praescutal stripes||27|
|27.||Wings smoky, especially towards base and costa||montana (Hutton).|
|Wings hyaline except for the stigma||submontana n. sp.|
|28.||Thoracic hair black||minor n. sp.|
|Thoracic hair yellowish||rufiventris n. sp.|
|29.||Cu1a clouded, joining discal cell at the base||cubitalis n. sp.|
|Cu1a clear, joining discal cell well beyond the base||30|
|30.||Abdomen long and slender, male antennae elongate||pallida Hutton.|
|Abdomen not unusually long; male antennae not elongate||31|
|31.||Abdominal tergites with blackish apical bands||32|
|Abdomen generally with continuous black dorsal stripe||33|
|32.||A pale patch on Cu before the fork||obliqua n. sp.|
|Cu all dark||incerta n. sp.|
|33.||A clear spot on each side of stigma in male wing; female with rudimentary wings||zeylandiae Alex.|
|Clear spots on each side of stigma scarcely perceptible; female wings normal||34|
|34.||Cell Ax very narrow; middle praescutal stripe paler than the lateral ones||dichroithorax Alex.|
|Cell Ax broader; praescutal stripes all of the same colour||35|
|35.||Middle praescutal stripe undivided||sinclairi n. sp.|
|Middle praescutal stripe divided by a pale line||obscuripennis Kirby.|
Rs quite half as long again as R2+3. Male antennae never elongate.
Macromastix nebulosa (Hudson).
Tipula nebulosa Hudson, Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. 56, p. 276, 1920.
“♂. Expanse of wings 2 in. Length of body ⅝ in. General colour dull brown; there are two broad and two narrow longitudinal darker-brown bands on the praescutum; the prominent portions of the scutum and postnotum are also dark brown. The base of the abdomen is dull yellowish-brown, the remainder suffused with blackish-brown. Legs dark brown, darker towards the extremities. The wings are of full average width, grey, with numerous cloudy whitish blotches and spots, forming very irregular broken transverse bands; the first band is situated just beyond the basal cross-vein; the second, which is much the widest, beyond the middle of the wing immediately before the submarginal cells; the third band, which is very irregular and composed of numerous rather small spots, is situated on the apical and marginal areas. The halteres are long, pale yellowish-brown. The whole insect is covered with very fine pubescence. The female is unknown, but, being a winter species, may possibly be semi-apterous.”—(Hudson.)
North Island: Open hills south of Wellington, 18th August, 1914 (G. V. Hudson).
I am indebted to Mr. G. V. Hudson for the loan of the type of this interesting species. I find it to be closely allied to M. maori Alex., having the same peculiar grey and cream-coloured wings, with the same short stump on the middle of vein M, and a very similar structure of the hypopygium. It differs conspicuously from M. maori in the wing-markings, which are as described by Hudson, and are not at all ocelliform as they are in M. maori. The markings are not quite symmetrical on the two wings: the large pale blotch beyond the middle of cell M extends across the anal cells on the right wing but not on the left. Alexander did not describe the antennal flagellum of M. maori; in M. nebulosa it is short, distinctly ten-jointed, the joints gradually and slightly diminishing in length towards the tip.
Macromastix tenera (Hutton).
Tipula tenera Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 29, 1900.
A remarkably distinct species, the dorsal and lateral stripes being pale, with black stripes between them, which is a reversal of the usual type of coloration of the abdomen. Colour of mesonotum very variable. One male in series before me has broad deep-black praescutal stripes, as described by Hutton; a second has the stripes dark brown, in the others they are light brown, while in the females they are hardly perceptible. The ochreous colour of pleurae is not affected, nor does the structure of
hypopygium vary. The antennae are rather differently constructed from those of the other species of this group: the flagellum is distinctly ten-jointed, the joints all about equal in length, very gradually and slightly decreasing in thickness, the terminal joints not more hairy than the rest. The nasus varies in development. The female legs are shorter, but not any stouter, than those of the male.
North Island: Wellington district (G. V. Hudson, No. 165). The British Museum possesses three males and three females from Wainuiomata, 3rd December, 1898, and 14th December, 1920; the Cambridge Museum has two males.
Macromastix clara (Kirby). (Fig. 103.)
Tipula clara Kirby, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., p. 271, 1884; Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 29, 1900.
A very well marked species, distinguishable at once from all others by the uniformly ochreous thorax and the conspicuous brown tips of wings. The antennal flagellum is eleven-jointed, the joints all approximately equal in length, the last three more slender than the rest and with longer hairs. The legs are long and slender. The sexes are very much alike; Kirby's type is a female not a male.
North Island: Wellington (G. V. Hudson, No. 142h); one male in British Museum; two males in Cambridge Museum. Auckland? (Dr. A. Sinclair), Kirby's type female.
Macromastix orion (Hudson).
Tipula orion Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 27, p. 294, 1895;
Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 29, 1900.
A very distinct and easily recognized species, owing to the orange-yellow veins and membrane of wings; C, Sc, R, and R1 are black, as is continuation of costa all round margin of wing. Hutton mentions dark thoracic stripes, but these are not present in the single example I have seen, though the mesonotum is somewhat darker than the uniformly orange pleurae. Abdomen mainly orange, with a rather narrow median black stripe of even width. Coxae orange; front trochanters almost entirely orange-yellow, middle and hind pairs orange above, black below.
South Island: Mount Peel, Nelson, 4,000 ft. (G. V. Hudson). There is a male in British Museum, presented by Captain F. W. Hutton, and another in Cambridge Museum.
Macromastix auroatra n. sp.
♂. Head orange; very large velvet-black mark on vertex, extending forwards on to frontal tubercle, which is rather small and feebly bifid. Rostrum a little shorter than head, orange, black at tip above and at sides, nasus well developed. Antennae and palpi black, structure as in M. ferruginosa and M. aperta. Thorax orange, with sharply defined velvet-black markings: three praescutal stripes, middle one very broad in front, undivided, well separated from lateral stripes; scutum with two large patches; a rather narrow stripe on pleurae, commencing a little below prothoracic stigma and continued across mesosternum; a pair of spots on apex of postnotum; and a spot on lower lateral sclerite of postnotum close to base of halteres. Abdomen deep orange, with a rather narrow black central stripe and less conspicuous lateral stripes. Hypopygium very much the same as in M. dux. Legs slender, black, coxae, front trochanters, and bases of front femora orange; femora slightly swollen apically. Wings
hyaline; stigma and cells C and Sc rather light brown. Cross-vein r present, rather short; Rs almost straight, less than twice as long as R2+3; tip of Ax somewhat bent downwards. Halteres blackish, base of stem orange. Length of body, 10 mm.; wing, 16 mm.; hind leg, femur 9 mm., tibia 9 mm., tarsus 15 mm.
Mount Arthur Tableland, 3,000 ft., 11th January, 1891 (G. V. Hudson, No. 84b); type male in British Museum.
Macromastix brevitarsis n. sp.
Head orange; a rather small and narrow black vertical spot, scarcely reaching the small and slightly bifid frontal tubercle. Rostrum scarcely as long as head, black above and at sides, orange beneath; nasus short but distinct. Antennae and palpi black, base of first scapal joint orange. Flagellum eleven-jointed, the last six joints all very slender; first four joints all of equal length, short, the first one or two swollen, shortly oval. Thorax orange with velvet-black markings: three praescutal stripes, the middle one very broad, slightly enlarged in middle, where it is almost or quite in contact with lateral stripes; scutum with two rather broad stripes, constricted into two unequal parts; a well-defined stripe extending from front of middle praescutal stripe continuously to mesosternum, and sending a branch from prothoracic stigma almost to wing-base; postnotum with a double apical spot, the whole of lower lateral sclerite of postnotum black. Abdomen orange; a broad velvet-black median dorsal stripe, constricted in middle of second segment, and slightly enlarged on hind-margin of each tergite; narrower lateral black stripes, broadest near apex of second segment. Hypopygium hardly differing from that of M. dux. Legs coloured as in M. auroatra, but very much shorter and stouter. Wings with slight brownish tinge; veins dark brown; stigma and cells C and Sc blackish-brown. Venation as in M. auroatra. Halteres black, base of stem orange. Length of body, 11 mm.; wing, 16 × 4·2 mm.; hind leg—femur 7 mm., tibia 6·2 mm., tarsus 6·3 mm.
South Island: The Hump, Southland (A. Philpott); type male in British Museum, presented by Mr. G. V. Hudson. Two additional males from the same locality sent me through Dr. C. P. Alexander; one of these is somewhat larger than the type, and differs slightly in venation, M3 arising exactly at base of discal cell.
Macromastix dux (Kirby).
Tipula dux Kirby, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., p. 270, 1884.
The following points are not mentioned in Kirby's description: Nasus well developed. Frontal tubercle distinctly bifid. Rostrum a little shorter than head, its sides black, under-surface orange. A large blackish mark adjoining eyes, at base of rostrum on each side. Pronotum orange above, blackish at sides. Middle sclerite of postnotum with broad blackish median stripe, lower lateral sclerite dark brown, upper one orange. A blackish stripe on pleurae running from wing-base to prothoracic stigma and thence at right angles downwards to mesosternum, its edge rather ill-defined. Hypopygium—ninth tergite somewhat emarginate; claspers rather short, a small hairy dorso-basal lobe, a shortly spiny apical lobe, a hairy ventral lobe, and a largely-bare dorsal portion, the inwardly-directed tip of which is somewhat bifid and bears short spines; parameres short and rounded. Front coxae orange; middle and hind coxae orange, with dark-brown markings. Front trochanters yellow at base, middle and hind ones all black. Front femora yellowish towards base. Costal and subcostal cells and stigma blackish-brown, not yellowish-brown as
stated by Kirby. Cross-vein r present and very distinct, meeting R2 close to base. Halteres black, except at extreme base.
Locality unknown, but probably Auckland (Dr. A. Sinclair).
Macromastix aperta n. sp. (Fig. 102.)
♂. Differs from M. dux as follows: Dark stripe on vertex small and faint. No dark areas adjoining eyes at base of rostrum. Pronotum mostly blackish, only posterior margin narrowly reddish-orange. Praescutal stripes, especially middle one, much less distinct. Scutum almost entirely reddish-orange. Lower lateral sclerite of postnotum orange like upper one. No black stripe from prothoracic stigma to mesosternum. Central black stripe of abdomen much broader, leaving only narrow orange areas on each segment between central and lateral stripes. Wings with a slight brownish tinge. Cross-vein r absent. Ax straighter, tip not at all bent downwards. Length of body, 13 mm.; wing, 21·5 mm.; hind femur, 9 mm.; hind tibia, 9·5 mm.; hind tarsus, 12 mm.
Silverstream, Wellington, February, 1899 (G. V. Hudson, No. 166c); type male in British Museum; a second male in Cambridge Museum.
Another specimen (damaged, tip of abdomen missing) in British Museum is almost certainly the same species, but differs as follows: Nasus indistinguishable, represented by a tuft of long black hairs only. Pronotum orange. Thoracic markings further reduced, postnotum without dark area in middle. Presented by Captain F. W. Hutton in 1902, and determined by him as Tipula dux. I think the absence of a radial cross-vein in M. aperta and the differences in thoracic and abdominal markings will suffice to distinguish the two forms specifically. There are some very slight differences in the hypopygium, of uncertain value.
Macromastix ferruginosa n. sp.
Head reddish-orange, an ill-defined but large dark spot in middle. Front nearly half as broad as head, somewhat swollen, a slightly bifid tubercle above antennae. Rostrum reddish-orange, about as long as head; nasus black, rather long in the male, much shorter, a mere rounded projection, in the female. Palpi and antennae black. Flagellum eleven-jointed, joints nearly cylindrical, gradually and very slightly increasing in length to the fourth, then decreasing again; last four more slender and with more numerous hairs than first seven. Thorax ferruginous; a narrow darker central praescutal stripe, most distinct in female; apical margin of scutellum obscurely darker; a light-orange patch on pleurae extending from base of wing to prothoracic stigma. Abdomen with broad median and narrower lateral black stripes, the hind-margins of segments also narrowly black, those of segments 2–4 in the male more broadly so: between the black areas are orange side-spots on first seven segments. Hypopygium mostly orange, its structure practically as in M. dux. Legs black; coxae partly ferruginous; bases of front trochanters and front femora yellowish. In female the legs are somewhat shorter and more slender than in male. Wings as in M. dux, but with a slightly more pronounced brownish tinge to membrane. Length of body, 11·5 mm.: wing, ♂ 16–5 mm., 15 mm.: hind leg, ♂, femur 9 mm., tibia 10 mm., tarsus 15 mm.; ♀, femur 7·5 mm., tibia 8 mm., tarsus 10 mm.
North Island: Wainuiomata, Wellington, 11th February, 1921, glades in forest (G. V. Hudson, No. 166m); type male and one female in British Museum.
Though closely allied to M. dux and M. aperta, this is certainly a distinct species.
Rs shorter than R2+3. Body at least partly green. Female abdomen pointed. Male antennae never elongate.
Macromastix virescens n. sp. (Fig. 172.)
♂. Head light greenish-ochreous; darker ochreous at sides and on rostrum, which is as long as head; nasus absent. Front about one-quarter as broad as head, tubercle rather small, bluntly pointed, forwardly directed. Palpi black, except towards base. Scape of antennae pale ochreous, first joint slender. Flagellum blackish, ochreous towards base; first six joints distinct, elongate oval, slightly enlarged on under-side, third slightly longer than first or second, fourth and fifth shorter; last five very slender, cylindrical, indistinctly separated, slightly more hairy than preceding joints; terminal joint minute. Thorax—pronotum pale-greenish. Praescutum mainly rather deep ochreous, margins pale-greenish; traces posteriorly of three darker stripes, middle one blackish, divided by a pale line; lateral pair only outlined. Scutum with two ill-defined blackish patches in front. Scutellum, postnotum, and pleurae pale greenish-ochreous. Abdomen discoloured; probably uniformly light green in life. Ninth tergite broad, truncate, with four slight rounded terminal prominences. Tips of side-pieces scarcely produced. Claspers short and broad (see figure). Legs uniformly ochreous (perhaps green in life), long and slender. Wings with membrane very slightly milky, veins green, costa darker towards wing-tip. Costal cell scarcely tinted. Stigma pale-greenish. Cross-vein r at base of R2, which is curved upwards and joins costa almost immediately beyond tip of R1. Rs shorter than R2+3. M1 and M2 slightly convergent; cell M1 shortly stalked (stalk about one-eighth as long as cell). Cu1 in punctiform contact with discal cell. Cell Ax rather broad, especially in the middle. Halteres very long; knob green, stem darker. Length of body, 15 mm.; wing, 22 mm.; halter, 4 mm.; hind leg, about 53 mm.
South Island: Tisbury, 8th September, 1911 (A. Philpott); type male in Cawthron Institute collection.
Macromastix viridis (Walker). (Fig. 173.)
Tipula viridis Walker, Ins. Laund. Dipt., p. 445, 1856.
♂. Head ochreous. Front about one-fifth as broad as head; tubercle rather small, slightly bifid at tip. Rostrum about as long as head, ochreous above, darker beneath; nasus distinct, but rather short and broad, blunt-ended. Antennae as in M. virescens, but third flagellar joint is slightly shorter than second. Thorax much as in M. virescens, but dark markings of mesonotum more extensive and conspicuous, lateral praescutal stripes solidly blackish, pleurae dusted with grey. Abdomen brownish-ochreous, dark brown towards apex, slightly shining, without distinct grey dusting. Hypopygium—ninth tergite with two large rounded lobes and a pair of triangular terminal projections, pubescent at tips; side-pieces with tips produced into sharp blackened points; claspers with very numerous short black spines (see figure). Legs very long and slender, rather dark brown, tarsi and tips of femora and tibiae almost black. Wings much as in M. virescens, but with a faint brownish rather than a milky tint; costal cell rather more distinctly tinged with brown; cell Ax broadest near base. Halteres shorter than in M. virescens, stem blackish. Length of body, 20 mm.; wing, 24 mm.; halter, 3 mm.; hind leg, 75 mm.
North Island: Karori, Wellington, December, 1920 (G. V. Hudson, No. 106); one male in British Museum. The above description has been
drawn up from this specimen; the figure of hypopygium is taken from Walker's type, which is damaged but obviously identical. These are the only two specimens I have seen, all others so determined proving to belong to related but distinct species.
Macromastix albistigma n. sp. (Figs. 114, 174.)
Differs from M. viridis as follows: Middle praescutal stripe obsolete, lateral pair conspicuously darker. Abdomen duller, more ochreous, tip not darkened, with rather broad lateral bands of grey dusting on all tergites except first. Hypopygium smaller, the claspers with a slightly different structure. Legs lighter in colour. Wings distinctly brown-tinged, lower pre-arcular cell, costal and subcostal cells, base of cell R2 and veins dark brown; stigma conspicuously whitish-ochreous. Cell M1 sessile in some specimens; cell Ax broadest in the middle. Length of body, ♂ 16–17 mm., ♀ 17–20 mm.; wing, 18–23 mm.; halter, about 3 mm.; hind leg, ♀ 45–50 mm.
South Island: Spreydon, Canterbury, January, 1920, one female, in Canterbury Museum; West Plains, 4th February, 1903, one female (wing figured). Also five males, all damaged, in Osten-Sacken collection in Berlin-Dahlen Museum, without locality label; none of these is sufficiently well preserved to select as a holotype.
The ovipositor of female, though rather long and sharply pointed, has hairy valves which are no more strongly chitinized than the general integument of the abdomen.
Macromastix holochlora (Nowicki). (Fig. 175.)
Tipula holochlora Nowicki, Beitr. z. K. der Dipt. Neuseelands, p. 9, 1875.
Though certainly nearly allied to M. viridis, this has wrongly been regarded as synonymous with that species. The hypopygia are very distinct (compare figures), and M. holochlora may further be distinguished from other members of the group by the entirely green thorax, the meso-notum having only a slight ochreous tinge (probably none in life), and no trace of dark praescutal stripes. Cell Ax broadest near middle.
There are apparently two varieties, differing as follows: (a.) Abdomen entirely green; tips of femora and tibiae scarcely darkened; wings practically hyaline; stigma entirely pale-greenish; cell Ax moderately broad. This is the typical M. holochlora. (b.) Abdomen brownish-green except towards base; tips of femora and tibiae more distinctly darkened; wings greyish-tinged; stigma dark grey at base; cell Ax narrower. Length of body, 10–20 mm.; wing, 14–22 mm.
North Island: Neighbourhood of Auckland, 1854 (Colonel Bolton), two females of typical form in British Museum; Karori, Wellington, December, 1920 (G. V. Hudson, No. 323), one male of var. b, one female of typical form, in British Museum; Te Wairoa, 15th November, 1919 (D. Miller), one male of typical form. South Island: West Plains, 6th February, 1906, one male of var. b.
Rs at most slightly longer than R2+3. Female abdomen blunt-ended. Male antennae frequently elongate.
Macromastix maori Alex. (Fig. 104.)
Macromastix maori Alexander, Insecutor Inscitiae, vol. 8, p. 130, 1920.
Apart from wing-markings, which will at once distinguish it from all others found in New Zealand, this species is remarkable for the possession of a vein-stump in middle of M projecting into cell M, much as in the two species of Holorusia.
South Island: Tisbury, July—August, 1912 (A. Philpott); two males in Alexander's collection. Also one male (type) in Berlin-Dahlem Museum, from Osten-Sacken's collection (the wing of this specimen figured).
Macromastix binotata Hutton. (Fig. 105.)
Macromastix binotata Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 32, 1900.
The distinctive wing-markings of this species bear some slight resemblance to those of M. maori, but there is no vein-stump in cell M. Another point of resemblance to M. maori is the narrowness of front, which is scarcely a quarter as broad as head. The first antennal joint is rather short and not particularly swollen; flagellum eleven-jointed, all joints rather elongate and about equal in length, except last, which is globular.
North Island: Wellington district (G. V. Hudson, No. 87). A rare species, found in midwinter. Female probably semiapterous.
Macromastix lunata Hutton. (Fig. 106.)
Macromastix lunata Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 32, 1900.
In this species male antennae nearly three times length of whole body; frontal tubercle and basal antennal joint of male much enlarged, the latter ochreous in colour; head has large dark spot between eyes, covering most of frontal tubercle; front is very broad, about half as broad as head; rostrum about as long as head, straight; nasus more or less bifurcate at tip, moderately long. Thorax rather conspicuously hairy on whole surface. Praescutum with three dark-brown or black stripes on grey or ochreous-grey ground, middle stripe divided by grey line of varying width. Pleurae dark grey; pale ochreous between wing-base and pronotum, and below this with a single velvet-blackish spot towards front. Abdomen with orange ground-colour on tergites, an irregular black dorsal stripe, broadest on basal half of second segment; sides of the basal half of second segment, of third, fourth, and fifth segments, and whole of sixth and seventh segments, as well as almost whole of venter, are ash-grey. Wings as in figure; small pre-arcular cells and cells M1 and M2 are dark; the pale markings are whitish, except in cell R3 which is yellow towards base; cell Ax broad; stem of cell M1 from a quarter to a third as long as the cell; R2 somewhat sinuous, nearly vertical. Length of body, 9–10 mm.; wing, 14–16 mm.; antennae, ♂ 27–30 mm.; hind leg, ♂ 31 mm.
North Island: Wellington district (G. V. Hudson, No. 108). British Museum collection contains two damaged cotypes presented by Captain Hutton, a perfect male presented by Dr. H. Scott, and another presented by Mr. Hudson. Other specimens are in Cambridge Museum.
Macromastix variegata n. sp. (Fig. 107.)
Differs from M. lunata as follows: Scape of antennae darker; rostrum distinctly longer and slightly curved, nasus very short; praescutal stripes
lighter; black mark on second abdominal segment smaller; wings broader, pale markings more extensive; pre-arcular cells and cell M1 almost all whitish; pale portion of cell R3 with only a faint yellowish tinge; cell Ax rather more extensively dark at base. Length of body, 12–13 mm.; wing, ♂ 19 mm., ♀ 17 mm.; antennae, ♂ 33 mm., ♂ 2–5 mm.
North Island: Forest, Kaeo, North Auckland, January, 1913 (G. V. Hudson, No. 294); type male and one female in British Museum. The female differs from male in having a smaller pale area in tip of cell M.
Macromastix decorata n. sp. (Fig. 108.)
Head, including rostrum and antennae, rather light brown, dull. Frontal tubercle well developed, rather larger in male; front with long but not very dense pale hair. Front nearly half as broad as head, nasus bifurcate at tip. Antennae as long as head and thorax together in male, shorter than thorax in female; thirteen-jointed. Basal joint much swollen in male. Flagellum evenly tapering in male; in female the first five flagellar joints thicker than others, almost cylindrical but slightly enlarged apically; last two joints short, somewhat thicker than preceding four, so that to the naked eye antenna appears slightly clubbed. Thorax rather light greyish-brown, dull, with short and rather dense pale hair. Praescutum with four dull dark-brown stripes; scutum mostly dark brown. Pleura greyer than mesonotum, anteriorly with two chocolate-brown spots one above the other, bordered with lighter brown. Abdomen ochreous-brown, nearly bare; greater part of venter, basal half of tergite 2, and whole of tergites 5 and 7 whitish-grey; tergite 2 with a pair of transverse shining patches in middle; dark median line on segments 1–5, less distinct and interrupted in female; sides of tergites 2 (apical half), 3, 4, and 6 dark chocolate-brown. Wings rather dark brown, lighter in anal and posterior cells, more yellowish-brown in costal cell; a large lunate white mark in apical half of basal cells, spreading over greater part of discal cell; cell R2 mostly white; basal half of cell R3 yellow; R5 a little longer than R2+3, R2 about half as long, arising at an angle of 60♂; stem of cell M1 about one-eighth as long as cell; Cu1a fused with M3 for a short distance; cell Ax large, broadest near base. Legs rather dark brown, tips of joints darker. Last tarsal joint in male somewhat swollen, especially at base beneath. Empodia nearly as long as claws. Length of body, 12 mm.; wing, 19 mm.; antennae, ♂ 4·5 mm., ♀ 2·5 mm.
North Island: Wainuiomata, Wellington, Christmas, 1906, and 15th December, 1920 (G. V. Hudson, No. 210); type male, one other male, and one female in British Museum.
Close to M. lunata Hutton, but differs in the markings of wings and abdomen, and in length of male antennae.
Macromastix huttoni n. sp. (Fig. 109.)
Head dull dark ochreous, scarcely any darker in middle, with some ochreous-grey dusting round eyes. Front about one-quarter as broad as head, tubercle moderate. Rostrum slightly longer than head, rather darker than vertex; nasus with long hairs at tip, which is not bifid. Palpi blackish. Antennae rather dark brown, alike in both sexes; shorter than thorax, first scapal joint slender. First flagellar joint slightly shorter than second, third, or fourth; fifth and sixth shorter; last five thinner and indistinctly separated. Thorax resembling that of M. lunata, but much less hairy, and area above blackish pleural spot is not conspicuously pale. Abdomen much as in M. lunata, but without conspicuous grey dusting on any part;
the blackish dorsal line is narrower, especially on second segment. Legs, especially tarsi, distinctly longer and more slender than in M. lunata; femora and tibiae brown with black tips; tarsi-darker. Wings resembling those of M. lunata, but there is a small white streak before humeral cross-vein, and a whitish mark in cell M1; the stem of this cell is shorter (one-fifth to one-eighth as long as the cell). Length of body, 9–10 mm.; wing, 14–16 mm.; hind leg, ♂ 38–42 mm.
North Island: Wellington, in forest, February, 1914, and 11th March, 1921 (G. V. Hudson, No. 311); type male, one other male, and one female in British Museum. Another male, without exact locality label, is in Berlin-Dahlem Museum, bearing the label “huttoni O.-S.,” in Osten-Sacken's handwriting.
Macromastix vittata n. sp. (Fig. 110.)
♂. Head, including rostrum, reddish-ochreous, somewhat dusted with grey; a large dark spot in middle of vertex, extending on to the rather small frontal tubercle. Front about one-third as broad as head. Rostrum very slightly longer than head; nasus not bifid. Antennae about as long as the praescutum; scape reddish-ochreous, flagellum dark brown; last five joints short, together scarcely longer than preceding two together. Thorax with short pale hair over whole surface. Pronotum reddish-ochreous. Mesonotum dark grey. Praescutum with three black stripes, middle one just divided by a dark line; lateral pair extending across scutum. Pleurae leaden-grey, space between wing-base and pronotum reddish-ochreous, no dark marking below this. Abdomen reddish-ochreous; a black median dorsal stripe, broadening out on segment 4 and occupying whole of segments 5–8; venter similarly coloured. Legs: Coxae leaden-grey. Femora ochreous-brown, blackish towards tip; tarsi not quite as long as tibiae. Wings with markings of the M. lunata type, but white markings tending to form a streak running from base of cell Ax to base of cell R2. Pre-arcular cells mostly whitish. Pale portion of cell R3 with scarcely any yellowish tinge. Cell M1 dark, its stem about one-quarter as long as cell. Cell Ax very narrow, nearly all pale. Length of body, 11 mm.; wing, 17 mm.; hind leg, 46 mm.
North Island: Wellington (G. V. Hudson, No. 108b), type male in British Museum; Mount Ngongotaha, 2,550 ft., 15th February, 1910 (Dr. G. B. Longstaff), one male in Oxford Museum.
Macromastix alexanderi n. sp. (Fig. 111.)
♂. Head dark reddish-ochreous, paler on posterior eye-margins, not any darker in middle. Front about one-quarter as broad as head, with a rather small tubercle. Rostrum scarcely as long as head; nasus very short, scarcely distinguishable. Palpi and antennae blackish-brown. First scapal joint slender. Flagellum ten - jointed, first five joints gradually diminishing in length, somewhat swollen beyond middle; last five joints distinct, short, very little more slender than first five (except last joint, which is slender). Thorax nearly bare, dark brownish-grey, praescutum with three rather ill-defined dull black stripes, middle one not divided. Pleurae without markings. Abdomen dark reddish-brown; black dorsal line on segments 1–4, segments 5–8 wholly blackish grey. Legs blackish-brown, femora lighter towards base. Wings somewhat resembling those of M. vittata, but pre-arcular cells are dark; a large dark patch along Cu in apical half of cell M; stem of cell M1 about half as long as the cell,
and cell Ax is moderately broad. Length of body, 9 mm.; wing, 16 mm.; hind leg, 38 mm.
South Island: Otira, November, 1918; type male (unique) in Canterbury Museum.
I have much pleasure in dedicating this species to Dr. C. P. Alexander, through whose kindness I received the Canterbury Museum collection for study.
Macromastix fumibasis n. sp. (Fig. 112.)
Head dark brown in middle, shading to ochreous-grey round the eyes. Front about one-third as broad as head, tubercle moderate. Rostrum about as long as head; nasus well developed, but broad and blunt. Antennae with the scape ochreous; flagellum dark brown with ten distinct almost cylindrical joints, gradually decreasing in length and thickness, eleventh joint minute. Thorax with short but rather dense pale pubescence; mesonotum dull dark brown, the praescutum with four obscurely darker stripes; pleurae lighter. Abdomen rather dark brown, slightly shining and ochreous-tinged towards base; dull and somewhat greyish towards tip. Legs moderately slender, ochreous-brown, tips of femora and tibiae darker. Wings brownish over greater part of surface, much darker towards base and in costal cell; a whitish area across M before middle, and a larger one at apex of cell R, extending into adjoining cells, except R4+5. R2 oblique and nearly straight; base of R4+5 blackened and bent downwards; cell M1 nearly three times as long as its stem. Length of body, 11–12 mm.; wing, 17 mm.; hind leg, 28 mm.
South Island: Tisbury, 6th February, 1918, and 6th March, 1912 (A. Philpott); type and another female in Cawthron Institute collection.
Macromastix fucata Hutton.
Macromastix fucata Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 31, 1900.
The thoracic and abdominal markings are distinctive, especially the orange scutellum and base of pronotum, which contrast strongly with the rest of thorax; black markings of abdomen are not dusted over with grey, as they are in M. montana and to a less extent in M. vulpina. In female which I have examined there are some slight divergences from Hutton's description: the sides and under-part of rostrum are black; head mostly blackish-grey, except for a rather narrow ochreous median line; pronotum dull brownish-ochreous; first antennal joint mostly dark, second and third ochreous; first segment of abdomen mostly reddish, dusted over with grey; sides of third segment and of apical half of fourth also have reddish ground-colour. It may also be noted that Hutton has evidently regarded the two parts of the second segment as distinct segments. Antennal flagellum eleven-jointed, first eight joints gradually decreasing in size, convex and pubescent below, last two joints indistinctly separated, each slightly larger than ninth. On wings, Rs is nearly as long as R2+3 and R2 together; cell M1 is almost parallel-sided, about twice as long as its stem; cell Ax is narrow, slightly broader in middle.
Male differs from female as follows: Rostrum with dark area at tip on upper surface. Antennae all black, the last four flagellar joints slender. Head (except for ocherous central line), praescutum, and scutum almost all dull black (perhaps partly on account of discoloration of grey areas). Thoracic hair longer and denser. Sixth and seventh abdominal tergites much more extensively black. Tarsi longer. Cell Ax slightly narrower.
North Island: Wellington district (G. V. Hudson, No. 151); one female in British Museum from dense forest, Wainuiomata, 15th December, 1920. South Island: Otira, December, 1908 (G. V. Hudson); The Hump, 24th December, 1915 (A. Philpott), one male in Cawthron Institute collection. It is just possible that the two specimens are not conspecific. Further material of each sex from both localities will decide the point.
Macromastix cinerea n. sp.
♀. Head dark grey, with some pale hair; front about one-third as broad as head, without tubercle; rostrum scarcely as long as head, moderately hairy, with distinct nasus. First scapal joint long, rugose; second very small. Flagellum eleven - jointed; first joint enlarged, especially on under-side; next five joints also slightly enlarged on under-side, gradually decreasing in size; last five joints somewhat more slender, last two indistinctly separated and slightly thicker than seventh to ninth. Thorax ash-grey, praescutum with traces of four darker stripes, and with rather long and dense dark hair on interspaces. An ochreous patch on pleurae between wing-base and prothoracic stigma. Abdomen ash-grey above, buff-coloured below. Legs rather long and slender, blackish-brown, coxae and bases of femora lighter. Wings hyaline, stigma scarcely darker, veins dark brown. Rs very short, shorter than R2+3 and hardly longer than R2; stem of cell M1 about half as long as cell; cell Ax moderately broad. Halteres brownish. Length of body, 11 mm.; wing, 14·5 mm.; hind tibia, 7·7 mm.; hind tarsus, 20 mm.
South Island: Arthur's Pass, 3,000 ft., December, 1914 (G. V. Hudson, No. 322); type and one other female in British Museum.
Macromastix vulpina (Hutton). (Fig. 116.)
Megistocera vulpina Hutton, Cat. N.Z. Dipt., p. 16, 1881.
Marcomastix vulpina Osten-Sacken, Berl. ent. Zeitschr., vol. 30, p. 185, 1886;
Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 30, 1900.
An easily recognized species, on account of short, stout body, elongate male antennae, and practically unmarked wings. The long, dense, pale hair of thorax shows the close relationship to M. montana, but M. vulpina may be readily distinguished from this species by the four distinct praescutal stripes, the much paler abdomen, the relatively shorter legs (especially tarsi), and the rather conspicuous milky tinge to wings. As stated by Osten-Sacken, the female antennae are thirteen-jointed, last five joints more slender and indistinctly separated. Stem of cell M1 is from one-half to two-thirds as long as cell. Length of body, ♂ 10 mm., ♀ 11 mm.; wing, 14 mm.; hind tibia, 8 mm.; hind tarsus, ♂ 11·5 mm., ♀ 8·5 mm.
South Island: Dunedin (Hutton); Lake Wakatipu (G. V. Hudson, No. 191); series in British and Cambridge Museums. Mount Grey, Canterbury, January, 1918; one male in Canterbury Museum.
Macromastix montana Hutton.
Macromastix montana Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 31, 1900.
Head ash-grey, densely covered with long pale hair. Rostrum as long as head, with short but distinct nasus. Frontal tubercle rather small. Antennae alike in both sexes. First scapal joint rather long, cylindrical, greyish, second small. Flagellum with nine joints, first four about equal
in length, somewhat convex below and somewhat narrowed at base, especially on upper side; remaining joints gradually decreasing in length and size, except last, which is somewhat stouter than penultimate. Thorax ash-grey, densely and uniformly covered with long pale hair. Praescutum with three black stripes, middle one very broad, undivided, lateral ones continued across scutum. Scutellum, postnotum, and pleurae unmarked. Abdomen with short and rather sparse pale pubescence; in male the ground-colour is ash-grey, second tergite being reddish on basal two-thirds, with an interrupted blackish middle line, venter also largely reddish-tinged; in female, as in male, the basal portion of second tergite is reddish, without any grey dusting, whole of the rest of abdomen being heavily dusted, but the ground-colour reddish, with a rather broad blackish median dorsal stripe narrowed but not interrupted on reddish portion of second tergite. Legs black, basal halves of femora indeterminately orange; coxae and trochanters dusted with grey. Wings slightly smoky, more distinctly so in cells C and Sc and towards bases of cell R and M; stigma brown. Rs of same length as R2+3; r meeting R2 near base; stem of cell M1 at most one-fifth as long as cell; cell Ax very broad. Halteres light-brownish. Length of body, 15–16 mm.; wing, 22–23 mm.; hind tibia, ♂ 17 mm., ♀ 16 mm.; hind tarsus, ♂ 36 mm., ♀ about 24 mm.
North Island: Mount Ruapehu, 4,000 ft. South Island: Mountains round Lake Wakatipu (G. V. Hudson, No. 137).
The above description is drawn up from a male and female in British Museum from Mount Earnslaw, 3,500 ft., Lake Wakatipu, sent as M. montana by Mr. Hudson. There is another similar female in Cambridge Museum, also named and presented by Mr. Hudson. These specimens differ in several respects from Hutton's diagnosis, and may perhaps represent another species, but I think the main differences can be accounted for by supposing that Hutton described from discoloured specimens, in which the heavy grey dusting was obliterated, and the ground-colour consequently showed darker than usual; and by further assuming that he accidentally reversed his statements regarding the male and female abdomens.
Macromastix submontana n. sp.
♀. Differs from M. montana as follows: Black stripe of abdomen narrower, base of second segment less conspicuously red. Wings hyaline except for dark stigma and slight smokiness towards base of costal cell. Cross-vein r meeting R2 near the middle. Cell M1 scarcely longer than its stalk. Length of body, 13 mm.; wing, 18 mm.; hind tibia, 11 mm.; hind tarsus, 19 mm.
South Island: Mount Cleughearn, 13th January, 1916 (A. Philpott); type female in Cawthron Institute collection.
Macromastix minor n. sp. (Fig. 118.)
♂. Head blackish, lighter round hind-margins of eyes; frontal tubercle rather small, rounded. Front, vertex, and under-surface of rostrum clothed with long black hair. Antennae short, black, thirteen-jointed, first six flagellar joints distinct, somewhat oval, nearly straight above, enlarged slightly on ventral side, gradually decreasing in size, remaining five joints cylindrical, indistinctly separated, about equal in length, together as long as and much more slender than three preceding joints. Thorax blackish-grey, clothed with rather long and dense black hair; praescutum with
four black stripes. Abodmen orange-red, black at sides and with broad median dorsal black stripe, last two or three segments almost entirely black; hair dark, shorter than that of thorax. Legs black, femora brown at base; last tarsal joint not swollen. Wings almost colourless except for the black veins and the conspicuous dark-brown stigma; in certain lights whitish areas are visible at base of cell R2, in apices of the cells R and M, and before middle of cell M. Marginal cross-vein distinct. Rs equal in length to R2+3, R2 half as long. Stem of cell M1 about a quarter as long as cell. A short m-Cu cross-vein present. Fold below Cu not darkened. Vein Ax ending scarcely beyond anal angle of wing; cell Ax very narrow and of even width throughout, not carried back beyond base of vein Ax. Halteres black, base of stem orange. Length of body, 7·5 mm.; wing, 10·5 mm.; hind tibia, 7·2 mm.; hind tarsus, 14·2 mm.
South Island: Tableland of Mount Arthur, 4,000 ft., February, 1910, on tussock-grass (G. V. Hudson, No. 253).
Macromastix rufiventris n. sp. (Fig. 117.)
♂. Very similar to M. minor, differing as follows: Hair on thorax and abdomen light-yellowish instead of black. Black abdominal stripe narrower and narrowly interrupted on margins of the segments; tergites 5–8 black in middle, grey at sides. Wings tinged with fuscous on greater part of surface, leaving three clear spaces, one in pre-arcular cell, one at apex of upper basal cell and base of discal cell, and one in middle of lower basal cell. Last five antennal joints shorter, rounded. Length of body, 7·5 mm.; wing, 11·5 mm.; hind tibia, 9 mm.; hind tarsus, 17 mm.
♂. Resembles male in most respects, but abdomen is more ochreous than orange, central black stripe being narrower and obsolete on last few segments; cell Ax of wings is quite twice as broad, and broadest in middle. Length of body, 9–10 mm.; wing, 14 mm.; hind tibia, 8 mm.; hind tarsus, 11·5 mm.
North Island: Wellington district, “formerly (1891) extremely abundant on hilltops, now (1921) very rare; February” (G. V. Hudson, No. 124); type male and one female in British Museum.
Macromastix cubitalis n. sp. (Fig. 113.)
♀. Head dull-brownish. Front about one-third as broad as head, tubercle scarcely developed. Rostrum about as long as head; nasus short. Scape of antennae ochreous; flagellum dark brown, ten-jointed, the joints nearly cylindrical and all rather slender, first joint longer than scape, second not quite so long, following joints gradually shorter, except last which is longer again. Thorax with a certain amount of longish but not very conspicuous hair; colour dull-brownish, praescutum with four narrow and ill-defined darker stripes. Abdomen dull-brownish, lighter towards base, darker on margins, fifth segment rather distinctly dusted with grey. Legs slender, brownish; tarsi and tips of femora and tibiae darker. Wings greyish-tinged, veins brown; stigma rather dark brown; a fairly obvious brown seam over Cu1a, which meets M at base of discal cell; discal cell open on one wing; cell M1 with very short stalk. Halteres dark brown. Length of body, 8·5 mm.; wing, 10·5 mm.; hind tibia, 5–7 mm.; hind tarsus, 9 mm.
North Island: Karori, Wellington, April—May (G. V. Hudson, No. 280c); type female in British Museum.
Macromastix pallida Hutton.
Macromastix pallida Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 31, 1900.
Hutton's brief description omits mention of what is perhaps the most characteristic feature of the species, the length and slenderness of abdomen when compared with other species of the genus. The first antennal joint is also unusually short, and the penis is much stouter than in any other species which I have examined, though in other respects the structure of the hypopygium is typical of Macromastix. There is some variation in the position of the radial cross-vein, which in some specimens is placed exactly at or even immediately before the base of R4+5. The halteres are unusually long, and, like the antennae and legs, are light-brownish.
North Island: Wellington district (G. V. Hudson, No. 110); “a winter species, extremely rare; female unknown, probably semiapterous” (Hudson); three males in British Museum. South Island: Invercargill, 18th April, 1919; West Plains, 8th February, 1901 (Philpott).
Macromastix obliqua n. sp. (Figs. 115, 176.)
♂. Head dark brown, a narrow greyish-ochreous border to eyes, an ill-defined black central line. Antennae missing. Rostrum about as long as head; nasus absent. Thorax dark ochreous-brown, with short and inconspicuous pale pubescence. Praescutum with three dark-brown stripes, middle one divided in front by a pale line; front margin between stripes blackish; a brown spot on pleurae a little below prothoracic stigma. Postnotum dark apically, its lower lateral sclerite dark brown, rather sharply contrasting with the pale upper one. Abdomen dark brown, tergites darker apically, and with some greyish dusting on sides, particularly noticeable on segments 3, 4, 6, and 7. Hypopygium of peculiar form: the ninth tergite very broad and short, almost completely divided into two large hairy lobes which probably take the place of the reduced claspers; side-pieces narrow, with bare rounded blackened tips; claspers with a bare rounded black basal lobe. Legs moderately stout, dark brown. Wings nearly hyaline, somewhat iridescent, the costal cell very slightly darker, stigma light brown. Veins dark brown, except for a short pale area on Cu just before fork, and tip of R2. R2 very oblique, twice as long as r. Base of R4+5 as long as r-m, the two forming a perfectly straight line. Cell M1 sessile. Cu1a very oblique, parallel with costa, the angle between it and Cu2 only about 50♂. Cell Ax moderately broad. Halteres blackish; base of stem and tip of knob ochreous. Length of body, 11 mm.; wing, 15·5 mm.; hind leg, 38 mm.
North Island: Papatotara, 26th January, 1911; type male in British Museum.
Macromastix incerta n. sp.
♀. Head blackish-brown in middle, broadly greyish-ochreous round eyes. Rostrum shorter than head; nasus absent. Front fully one-third as broad as head, with a scarcely perceptible tubercle. Antennae with scape greyish-ochreous; flagellum blackish. First scapal joint slender. Flagellum distinctly ten-jointed; first two joints somewhat swollen beneath; remaining joints rather elongate oval, gradually and slightly diminishing in length and thickness. Thorax and abdomen coloured as in M. obliqua, except that there is no dark patch on pleurae below prothoracic
stigma; mesonotum somewhat shining, and praescutal stripes less distinct. Legs darker brown, rather shorter and more slender than in M. obliqua. Wings hyaline, costal cell without trace of darkening, stigma dark brown; veins all dark brown, no trace of pale area on Cu. Rs very short, shorter and straighter than in M. obliqua. R2 less oblique than in M. obliqua, scarcely longer than r. Basal section of R4+5 much shorter than r-m, which is somewhat curved. Cell M1 with a short stalk (about one-sixth as long as cell). Cu1a almost normal, not nearly so oblique as in M. obliqua. Knob of halteres entirely dark. Length of body, 10 mm.; wing, 13 mm.; hind leg, 27 mm.
North Island: Papatotara, 26th February, 1911; type female in British Museum.
It is quite possible that this may be the female of M. obliqua, especially as it was taken at the same place by the same collector on the same day, and has almost the same rather peculiar thoracic coloration; the differences in the wings seem, however, to preclude this supposition.
Macromastix zeylandiae Alexander. (Figs. 121, 177.)
Macromastix zeylandiae Alexander, Insecutor Inscitiae, vol. 8, p. 131, 1920.
Tipula obscuripennis Hutton (nec Kirby), Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 28, 1900.
There are two slight inaccuracies in Alexander's description: the pleurae are almost uniformly grey, with little or no trace of stripes, and the pale pubescence of the mesonotum is uniformly distributed, not confined to the praescutal interspaces. The praescutal stripes, as is frequently the case in other species, are variable in colour, the middle pair being very faint, the lateral pair also somewhat faint, in most of the North Island specimens I have seen. Antennae alike in both sexes, flagellum ten-jointed, last five joints somewhat more slender and together about two-thirds as long as first five. Female resembles male in coloration, but has much shorter and somewhat stouter legs, and rudimentary wings.
A pair presented to the British Museum by Mr. G. V. Hudson show the following measurements: Length of body, ♂ 10·5 mm., ♀ 12·5 mm. (distended with eggs); wing, ♂ 16 mm., ♀ 4·5 mm.; hind tibia, ♂ 7·5 mm., ♀ 5·8 mm.; hind tarsus, ♂ 27 mm., ♂ 8·3 mm.
North Island: Papatotara, 26th February, 1911, one male; Karori, Wellington, February—March (G. V. Hudson, No. 69). South Island: Christchurch (Hutton), a pair in British Museum, presented by Captain Hutton and named by him Tipula obscuripennis; Mount Grey, Canterbury, November, 1916, one male in Canterbury Museum; Otago (Osten-Sacken), Alexander's type male in Berlin-Dahlem Museum.
Very similar in many respects to M. obscuripennis, but differs in the reduced wings of female, the stouter legs in both sexes, and in having a distinct clear spot on each side of stigma in wing of male.
Macromastix dichroithorax Alexander. (Figs. 119, 178.)
Macromastix dichroithorax Alexander, Insecutor Inscitiae, vol. 8, p. 133, 1920.
As stated by Alexander, this is similar in most respects to M. zeylandiae, differing most conspicuously in the very much narrower cell Ax. Apart from this, the pale marks on each side of the stigma are scarcely perceptible,
and the lateral praescutal stripes, though variable in intensity of coloration, are always darker than the middle stripes. The sexes are alike as regards antennae and wings. The flagellum is ten-jointed, the last five joints very short, rather indistinctly separated, and together not longer than the fourth and fifth joints together.
North Island: Karori, December, abundant (G. V. Hudson, No. 127); one female in British Museum. South Island: Otago (Osten-Sacken): a number of specimens in Oxford Museum, collected by C. M. Wakefield, probably from Canterbury.
Macromastix sinclairi n. sp. (Figs. 120, 179.)
Head greyish-ochreous, greyer round eyes, somewhat darker in middle. Front about one-quarter as broad as head, tubercle rather prominent, slightly bifid. Rostrum scarcely as long as head, brownish-ochreous; nasus broad, blunt-ended. Antennae brownish-ochreous, somewhat darker apically; first scapal joint slender. Flagellum eleven-jointed; first eight joints gradually diminishing in size, rather elongate oval, somewhat more convex beneath; last three joints rather more slender and each a little longer than the eighth. Thorax dull brownish-ochreous, with short, uniformly distributed and rather dense pale pubescence. Praescutum with three darker-brown stripes, middle one broad and undivided. Abdomen dark-brownish, more ochreous at sides, towards base, and on venter. Hypopygium as in figure; note especially the form of ninth tergite, which can be seen even in the dry specimen. Ovipositor normal. Legs slender; no stouter and not much shorter in female than in male; brown, tips of femora and tibiae darker. Wings alike in both sexes, except that in the female cell Ax is slightly broader; brownish-tinged, costal cell somewhat darker, stigma rather dark brown; scarcely perceptible paler areas on each side of stigma. R2 nearly straight, nearly vertical, pale; r placed near middle of R2; Rs about equal to R2+3; cell M1 about half as long again as its stem; cell Ax rather narrow. Halteres brownish. Length of body, ♂ 9 mm., ♀ 8–10 mm.; wing, 12–14 mm.; hind tibia, ♂ 9 mm., large ♀ 7·5 mm.; hind tarsus, ♂ 23 mm., ♀ 13 mm.
North Island: Auckland? (Dr. A. Sinclair, 1845), one male and two females in Kirby's series of Tipula obscuripennis; Karori, Wellington, March—April (G. V. Hudson, No. 201), two males (including type) and two females in British Museum.
Macromastix obscuripennis (Kirby). (Fig. 180.)
Tipula obscuripennis Kirby, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., p. 271, 1884.
♂. Differs from M. sinclairi as follows: Head more ochreous, scarcely greyer round eyes. Front somewhat broader, nearly one-third as broad as head, tubercle not in the least bifid. Flagellum ten-jointed, last six joints distinctly more slender than first four, and together as long as joints 2–4 together. Thorax greyer, praescutal stripes darker, middle one distinctly divided for its whole length by greyish line. Abdominal segments 5–6 rather conspicuously grey-dusted. Hypopygium as figured, resembling but distinct from that of M. dichroithorax. Length of body, 9 mm.; wing, 14 mm.; hind tibia, 9 mm.; hind tarsus, 20 mm.
North Island: Auckland? (Dr. A. Sinclair, 1845). Kirby's series consisted of two males and two females (he had overlooked the fact that he had both sexes before him); of these one male and two females are
now referred to M. sinclairi, described above. I have selected the fourth specimen as the type of M. obscuripennis, because it is the only one which agrees with Kirby's statement that the middle thoracic stripes are divided by a narrow pale line.
Genus Hudsonia n. gen.
Allied to Macromastix, and agreeing with that genus in its venation and its non-verticillate antennae, but (1) the antennae are reduced in both sexes, both in length and in the number of joints, the reduction being greater in the female; (2) the male hypopygium is large and normal in position, not small and twisted to one side as in Macromastix; (3) the ovipositor has long horny anal valves as in Tipula, Holorusia, Longurio, &c.; (4) in both sexes the sensory pits on the praescutum (pseudosutural foveae of Alexander) are larger than in Macromastix; (5) the palpi are short, the fourth joint scarcely longer than the third.
This genus is erected for the single species Tipula heterogama Hudson, which cannot be satisfactorily placed in Macromastix, on account of the horny ovipositor; in Holorusia, on account of the venation of the male; or in Longurio or Tipula, on account of the absence of verticils on the antennae. I have much pleasure in dedicating the genus to Mr. G. V. Hudson, the discoverer and describer of the type species. I do not consider the name Hudsonia to be preoccupied by Hudsonius Gir., 1856 (Pisces).
The reduction of the female antennae is very interesting, and seems to foreshadow the somewhat similar condition in the Brachycera. I do not know of another case among the Nematocera in which reduction of the wings is accompanied by reduction of the antennae.
Hudsonia heterogama (Hudson). (Fig. 122.)
Tipula heterogama Hudson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 45, p. 68, 1913.
♂. Head ochreous, greyish round eyes, with some dark hair, especially noticeable on the moderately large and somewhat bifid frontal tubercle. Front a little over a quarter as broad as head. Rostrum shorter than head, with broad rather long nasus. Antennae brownish-ochreous, tips of second and third joints pale. First scapal joint rather short, not much more than twice as long as the second. Flagellum with eight joints; first about three times as long as broad, second equally broad but rather shorter, third narrower and only about half as long as second; the remaining five all minute and together shorter than second and third together. Palpi not much longer than rostrum, brown; last joint not much longer than third. Thorax brownish, dusted with grey, except on the four somewhat shining dark reddish-brown praescutal stripes. Pronotum and interspaces of praescutum with some dark pubescence. Abdomen rather brightly shining, reddish-brown, apical portion of segment 2 and segments 3–5 darker. Segment 2 more than twice as long as segment 3. Pubescence rather spare, except on tergites 8 and 9, where it is shorter and much denser, and points forwards instead of backwards. Hypopygium as long as segments 6–8 together and slightly broader; ninth tergite considerably narrower than side-pieces, and only half as long, with a small median V-shaped emargination, corners somewhat produced; claspers large; reaching back over margin of ninth tergite, short-haired, without strong spines, an upper
flattened lobe covering a lower narrower ones. Legs rather stout, ochreous-brown, tips of femora and tibiae and last two or three tarsal joints blackish. Last tarsal joint cylindrical, unmodified. Wings with slight brown tinge, more obvious in costal cell; stigma shortly oval, dark brown. Sc1 present, oblique (as in several species of Macromastix). Rs very short, curved, slightly longer than R2+3, which is only half as long again as R2; r meeting R2 near the middle; stem of cell M1 about one-third as long as cell; cell Ax rather narrow, of even width throughout. Halteres rather light brown. Length of body, 13 mm.; wing, 18 mm.; hind leg—femur 10 mm., tibia 10·5 mm., tarsus 20 mm.
♀. Differs from the male as follows: Front slightly broader, quite one-third as broad as head. Antennae further reduced, flagellum club-shaped, very narrow at base, hardly any longer than scape, composed of five indistinctly separated joints, of which first is as long as the other four together. Thorax narrow, no broader than base of abdomen, dark brown, unstriped, with hardly any grey dusting. Abdomen blackish, except towards tip, second segment not much longer than third. Ovipositor long and horny; anal valves straight, stout, with rounded tips, longer than rather long anal segment; genital valves also long, straight, reaching beyond middle of anal valves. Legs much shorter, stouter, with slightly longer pubescence; front femora somewhat stouter than others. Wings reduced to narrow rudiments. Halteres blackish, twisted, apparently in the first stage of degeneration. Length of body, 16 mm.; wing, 2 mm.; hind leg—femur 5 mm., tibia 5·2 mm., tarsus 5·5 mm.
North Island: Wellington district, April—May (G. V. Hudson, No. 170).
The male bears a rather striking resemblance to Macromastix zeylandiae Alexander, and it is not at all surprising that Hutton should have considered the two as varieties of one species. H. heterogama may be a development from this group of Macromastix.
1. Anisopus notatus (Hutton), ♂. × 6.
2. Anisopus notatus (Hutton), ♀. × 6.
(From Lamb's type of Rhyphus undulatus.)
3. Anisopus neozelandicus (Schiner), ♀. × 6.
4. Tanyderus annuliferus Hutton, ♂. × 3.
5. Tanyderus annuliferus Hutton, ♀. × 3.
6. Tanyderus neptunus n. sp., ♂. × 3.
7. Tanyderus forcipatus O.-S., ♀. × 3.
8. Tanyderus varipes n. sp., ♂. × 3.
9. Tanyderus varipes n. sp., ♀. × 3.
10. Dicranomyia flavidipennis n. sp., ♂. × 5.
11. Dicranomyia sublacteata n. sp., ♂. × 5.
12. Dicranomyia decincta n. sp., ♂. × 5.
13. Dicranomyia melanogramma n. sp., ♂. × 5.
14. Dicranomyia cubitalis n. sp., ♂. × 5.
15. Dicranomyia huttoni n. name, ♀. × 5.
16. Dicranomyia crassipes n. sp., ♂. × 5.
17. Dicranomyia repanda n. sp., ♀. × 3.
18. Dicranomyia fumipennis (Butler), ♂. × 3.
19. Dicranomyia hudsoni n. sp., ♀. × 3.
20. Dicranomyia tenebrosa, n. sp., ♂. × 3.
21. Dicranomyia conulifera n. sp., ♂. × 5.
22. Dicranomyia aegrotans n. sp., ♀. × 6.
23. Dicranomyia conveniens (Walker), ♂. × 6.
24. Dicranomyia luteonitens n. sp., ♀. × 6.
25. Dicranomyia gracilis n. sp., ♂. × 6.
26. Discobola ampla (Hutton), ♂. × 3.
27. Discobola dohrni O.-S., ♀. × 3.
28. Discobola dicycla n. sp., ♀. × 3.
29. Discobola gibbera n. sp., ♀. × 3.
30. Discobola venusta (O.-S.), ♂. × 3.
31. Discobola picta (Hutton), ♀. × 3.
32. Discobola striata n. sp., ♂. × 3.
33. Discobola tesselata (O.-S.), ♀. × 3.
(From the type.)
34. Discobola tesselata O.-S., ♀. × 5.
35. Elephantomyia zealandica n. sp., ♂. × 6.
36. Ceratocheilus levis (Hutton), ♀. × 6.
37. Ceratocheilus ochraceum n. sp., ♀. × 6.
38. Gonomyia (Lipophleps) nigrohalterata n. sp., ♀. × 6.
39. Amphineurus insulsus (Hutton), ♀. × 6.
40. Amphineurus fatuus (Hutton), ♂. × 6.
41. Amphineurus perdecorus n. sp., ♀. × 6.
(Denuded wing, to show venation)
42. Amphineurus perdecorus n. sp., ♂. × 2·5. (Showing markings.)
43. Amphineurus hudsoni n. sp., ♀. × 5.
44. Amphineurus horni n. sp., ♂. × 9.
45. Molophilus pulcherrimus n. sp., ♀. × 9.
46. Molophilus variegatus n. sp., ♂. × 9.
47. Gnophomyia (Aphrophila) neozelandica n. sp., ♀. × 3.
48. Gnophomyia (Astelobia) rufa (Hudson). × 3.
49. Orolimnophila eluta n. sp., ♂. × 3.
50. Tinemyia margaritifera Hutton, ♂. × 3.
51. Rhamphophila (n. gen) obscuripennis (Hudson), ♂. × 3.
52. Rhamphophila lyrifera n. sp., ♂. × 2.
53. Ulomorpha nebulosa n. sp., ♂. × 3.
54. Ulomorpha fuscana n. sp., ♂. × 7.
55. Limnophila leucomelas n. sp., ♂. × 7.
56. Limnophila hudsoni n. sp., ♂. × 3.
57. Limnophila marshalli Hutton, ♂. × 3.
58. Limnophila chryser hoea n. sp., ♂. × 3.
59. Limnophila nigrocincta n. sp., ♀. × 3.
60. Limnophila cyatheti n. sp., ♂. × 2.
61. Limnophila geographica Hutton, ♂. × 3.
62. Limnophila crassipes Hutton. × 2.
63. Limnophila oculata n. sp., ♂. × 2.
64. Limnophila lambi n. sp., ♂. × 3.
65. Limnophila argus Hutton, ♀. × 3.
66. Limnophila delicatula Hutton, ♀. × 3.
67. Limnophila subinterventa n. sp., ♂. × 3.
68. Limnophila skusei Hutton, ♂. × 2.
69. Limnophila skusei Hutton var, ♂. × 3.
70. Limnophila skusei Hutton var.,
71. Gynoplistia magnifica n. sp., ♂. × 3.
72. Gynoplistia notata n. sp., ♂. × 3.
73. Gynoplistia nebulosa n. sp., ♂. × 3.
74. Gynoplistia subfasciata Walk., ♂. × 3.
(From Walker's type.)
75. Gynoplistia arthuriana n. sp., ♀. × 3.
76. Gynoplistia canterburina n. sp., ♀. × 2.
77. Gynoplistia fimbriata Alex., ♂. × 2.
78. Gynoplistia tridactyla n. sp., ♀. × 3.
79. Gynoplistia speciosa n. sp., ♀. × 3.
80. Gynoplistia sackeni Alex., ♀. × 3.
81. Gynoplistia wakefieldi Westw., ♂. × 3.
82. Gynoplistia conjuncta n. sp., ♂. × 3.
83. Gynophistia bona Alex., ♀. × 3.
84. Gynophistia cuprea Hutton var., ♂. × 3.
85. Gynophistia cuprea Hutton, ♀. × 3.
86. Gynophistia violacea n. sp., ♀. × 5.
87. Gynophistia nigronitida n. sp., ♂. × 7.
88. Gynophistia polita n. sp., ♂. × 5.
89. Gynophistia trifasciata n. sp., ♂. × 7.
90. Gynophistia clavipes n. sp., ♂. × 7.
91. Gynophistia albicincta n. sp., ♀. × 7.
92. Cerozodia plumosa O.-S., ♂. × 2.
(From Osten-Sacken's type.)
93. Cerozodia paradisea n. sp., ♂. × 2.
94. Cerozodia pulverulenta n. sp., ♂. × 2.
95. Cerozodia hudsoni n. sp., ♂. × 2.
96. Dolichopeza par vicauda n. sp., ♂. × 3.
97. Holorusia novarae (Schin.), ♀. × 2.
(Slight development of stump in cell M.)
98. Holorusia novarae (Schin.), ♂. × 2.
(Complete cross-vein in cell M.)
99. Holorusia fulva (Hutton), ♂. × 2.
100. Longurio dux (Hudson), ♂. × 2.
101. Longurio legatus n. sp., ♂. × 2.
102. Macromastix aperta n. sp., ♂. × 2.
103. Macromastix clara (Kirby), ♂. × 2.
104. Macromastix maori Alex., ♂. × 2·5
(From Alexander's type.)
105. Macromastix binotata Hutton, ♂. × 3.
106. Macromastix lunata Hutton, ♂. × 3.
107. Macromastix variegata n. sp., ♂. × 3.
108. Macromastix decorata n. sp., ♂. × 3.
109. Macromastix huttoni n. sp., ♂. × 3.
110. Macromastix vittata n. sp., ♂. × 3.
111. Macromastix alexanderi n. sp., ♂. × 2.
112. Macromastix fumibasis n. sp., ♂. × 2.
113. Macromastix cubitalis n. sp., ♀. × 3.
114. Macromastix albistigma n. sp., ♀. × 2. (A pale specimen.)
115. Macromastix obligua n. sp., ♂. × 2.
116. Macromastix vulpina (Hutton), ♂. × 2.
117. Macromastix rufiventris n. sp., ♂. × 2.
118. Macromastix minoi n. sp., ♂. × 2.
119. Macromastix dichroithorax Alex., ♂. × 2.
120. Macromastix sinclairi n. sp., ♂. × 2.
121. Macromastix zeylandiae Alex., ♂. × 3.
122. Hudsonia heterogama (Hudson), ♀. × 3.
123. Tanyderus neptunus n. sp.: penis. × 42.
124. Dicranomyia flavidipennis n. sp.: hypopygium from above. × 42.
125. Dicranomyia decincta n. sp.: hypopygium from above. × 42.
126. Dicranomyia sublacteata n. sp.: hypopygium from above. × 42.
127. Dicranomyia cubitalis n. sp.: hypopygium from above. × 42.
128. Dicranomyia melanogramma n. sp.: hypopygium from above. × 42.
129. Dicranomyia octava n. sp.: hypopygium from above. × 42.
130. Dicranomyia vicarians Schin.: hypopygium from above. × 42.
131. Dicranomyia conveniens (Walk.): hypopygium from above. × 42.
132. Dicranomyia sulphuralis n. sp.: hypopygium from above. × 42.
133. Dicranomyia gracilis n. sp.: hypopygium from above. × 42.
134. Discobola striata n. sp.: hypopygium from above. × 42.
135. Amphineurus perdecorus n. sp.: hypopygium from below (tergal view). × 42.
136. Amphineurus bicinctus n. sp.: hypopygium from below (tergal view). × 42.
137. Amphineurus hudsoni n. sp.: hypopygium from below (tergal view). × 42.
138. Amphineurus insulsus (Hutton): hypopygium from below (sternal view). × 42.
139. Amphineurus insulsus (Hutton): hypopygium from below (tergal view). × 42.
140. Amphineurus fatuus (Hutton): hypopygium from below (tergal view). × 42.
141. Molophilus inornatus n. sp.: side-piece and claspers from inner side. × 42.
142. Orolimnophila eluta n. sp.: hypopygium from above. × 42.
143. Ulomorpha nebulosa n. sp.: hypopygium from above. × 42.
144. Tinemyia margaritifera Hutton: hypopygium from above. × 42.
145. Rhamphophila obscuripennis (Hunds.): hypopygium from below. × 27.
146. Rhamphophila obscuripennis (Huds.): side-piece from inner side. × 27.
147. Rhamphophila obscuripennis (Huds.): apex of ninth tergite. × 27.
148. Rhamphophila lyrifera n. sp.: hypopygium from below. × 27.
149. Rhamphophila lyrifera n. sp.: process of ninth tergite. × 27.
150. Limnophila skusei Hutton: hypopygium from above. × 42.
151. Limnophila delicatala Hutton: yopopygium from above. × 42.
152. Limnophila leucomelas n. sp.: hypopygium from above. × 42.
153. Limnophila subinterventa n. sp.: hypopygium from above. × 42.
154. Limnophila subinterventa n. sp.: aedoeagus from above. × 42.
155. Limnophila geographica Hutton: hypopygium from above. × 42.
156. Limnophila oculata n. sp.: hypopygium from above. × 27.
157. Limnophila lambi n. sp: hypopygium from above. × 42.
158. Limnophila chrysorrhoea n. sp.: hypopygium from above. × 27.
159. Limnophila marshalli Hutton: hypopygium from above. × 42.
160. Limnophila cyatheti n. sp.: hypopygium from above. × 27.
161. Limnophila cyatheti n. sp.: basal lobes of side-pieces from below. × 27.
162. Limnophila hudsoni n. sp.: hypopygium from above. × 27.
163. Gynoplistia subfasciata Walk.: hypopygium from above. × 42.
164. Gynoplistia glauca n. sp.: hypopygium from above. × 42.
165. Gynoplistia fuscoplumbea n. sp.: hypopygium from above. × 42.
166. Gynoplistia incisa n. sp.: hypopygium from above. × 42.
167. Gynoplistia tridactyla n. sp.
168. Gynoplistia violacea n. sp.
169. Gynoplistia clavipes n. sp.
170. Gynoplistia trifasciata n. sp.
171. Gynoplistia polita n. sp.
172. Macromastix virescens n. sp.
173. Macromastix viridis (Walk.).
174. Macromastix albistigma n. sp.
175. Macromastix holochlora (Now.).
176. Macromastix obliqua n. sp.
177. Macromastix zeylandiae Alex.
178. Macromastix dichroithorax Alex.
179. Macromastix sinclairi n. sp.
180. Macromastix obscuripennis (Kirby).
Hyoppygium from above. × 42.