Art. 39.–New Species of Flowering-plants.
[Read before the Auckland Institute, 19th December, 1921; received by Editor, 31st December, 1921; issued separately, 22nd May, 1923.]
1. Astelia Cockaynei Cheesem. n. sp. (A. montana Cockayne in Bot. Surv. Tongariro Nat. Park (1908). 36, non A. montana Seem., Fl. Vit. (1865–73), 313, t. 95.)
Affinis A. nervosae Banks et Soland. sed multo minore, foliis rigidis et utrinque sericeiis vel villosis, scapis folio brevioribus paucifloris.
Very closely allied to A. nervosa, and possibly only a subalpine state, but smaller in all its parts, and with the foliage much more rigid and silky. Leaves numerous, 2 ft. 6 in. long or even more, 1–⅓–1–½ in. broad, linear or linear-ensiform, gradually narrowed into long-acuminate points, dilated at the sheathing base; midrib stout, prominent beneath; half-way beneath the midrib and the margin is a stout rib composed of 2 almost coalescent veins; ribs often coloured red or purplish-red; upper surface of leaf usually with a thin easily-detached silvery pellicle and generally more or less clothed with silky appressed hairs, sometimes almost villous; under-surface paler, more or less scurfy, generally covered with white appressed scales or hairs, which are most plentiful along the margins; veins numerous, evident; sheathing base of leaves densely covered with long appressed silvery-white or tawny hairs. Flowers very similar to those of A. nervosa, but the panicles much smaller and with fewer branches, and the females much more compact. Berry ovoid or ovoid-globose, pointed at the tip, ⅓ in. diam., fleshy, reddish-orange, enclosed in the persistent cup-shaped enlarged base of the perianth, which is often but not invariably coloured red within. Seeds 2–3 in each cell, black, angled.–A. nervosa var. montana T. Kirk in Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. (1906), 714.
Hab.–North and South Islands, Stewart Island: Abundant in subalpine localities from Hikurangi, Mount Egmont, and Taupo southwards. 2,500–4,500 ft.
There can be little doubt that a direct passage can be traced from A. Cockaynei into A. nervosa. On the mountains of north-west Nelson I have several times satisfied myself on this point; and Mr. Petrie has come to the same conclusion as regards the Tararua Mountains (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 40 (1908), 293–294). But the difference between the extreme states of A. Cockaynei, with its comparatively low tufts of greyish-white foliage almost shaggy from the abundance of silky hairs, and the highly developed form of A. nervosa formerly known as A. grandis, in which the leaves are almost glabrous, and sometimes reach a height of 8 ft., with a width of over 4 in., is so pronounced that I cannot refuse to draw a line of division between the two plants
2. Nasturtium Gibbsii Cheesem. n. sp.
Species habitu N. latesiliqua sed graciliore et undique glabro, foliis multo angustioribus ad apicem paucis dentibus instructis.
Very similar to N. latesiliqua, and, like it, with a stout woody rootstock as thick as the little finger. Radical leaves very numerous, but soon
withering when the plant flowers, spreading, 3–7 in. long, consisting of a narrow-linear blade ⅛—⅕ in. broad or sometimes even less, from which towards the top project 1–3 pairs of spreading or erecto-patent teeth ⅕ in. long, more or less coriaceous, smooth and glabrous, or sometimes furnished with a few long hairs on the margins of the leaves. Cauline leaves similar to the radical, the lower ones broader. Flowering-stems one or several, 6–24 in. high, branched, glabrous, the branches usually spreading. Flowers very numerous, ¼ in. diam., white. Petals spathulate, with very long claws. Pods large, 1–½–3 in. long, strongly curved, turgid. Seeds numerous, compressed, reddish-brown, pointed at the tip.
Hab.—South Island: Nelson–Ravines on the face of Mount Lockett, alt. 3,500 ft.; F. G. Gibbs.
Although closely allied to N. latesiliqua, this differs in a marked manner in the taller and more slender glabrous habit, and particularly in the more numerous exceedingly narrow glabrous leaves, which are almost entire except for a few distant projecting teeth towards the top of the leaf.
3. Pomaderris rugosa Cheesem. n. sp.
Affinis P. Edgerleyi Hook. f. sed differt caulibus altioribus, erectis et fastigiatis; foliis longioribus rugosis, supra non scabridis.
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An erect branching shrub 4–8 ft. high or more; bark dark brown or dark purplish-brown; branchlets villous with stellate or simple hairs. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, ½–1–½ in. long, obtuse or subacute, much wrinkled and glabrous above with the veins deeply impressed; the veins prominent beneath and densely covered with ferruginous stellate hairs, the interspaces between the veins covered with longer and paler simple hairs mixed with a few stellate ones. Flowers very numerous, in terminal and axillary cymes, small, 1/10 in. diam. Petals wanting. Calyxtube densely hoary with flexuous silky hairs. Styles divided nearly to the base. Ripe cocci not seen.—-P. Edgerleyi Cheesem., Man. N.Z. Fl. (1906), 100, and III. N.Z. Fl., i (1914), t, 28 (but not of Hook. f.).
Hab.–North Island: Whangarei Heads, summit of Mount Manaia, T. Kirk, T. F. C.; Cape Colville and Coromandel southwards almost to the Thames, upper part of the Kauaeranga Valley, Thames, T. F. C, Adams! Townson! Mercury Bay, T. Kirk!
So far this has been confused with P. Edgerleyi, from which, however, it can be readily distinguished by its much taller and more fastigiate habit, and by the longer and narrower leaves, which are quite glabrous on the upper surface; whereas those of the true P. Edgerleyi have the upper surface densely covered with short stiff bristles. Both species are included in the description of P. Edgerleyi given in the Handbook, but in the original notice given in the Flora of New Zealand (vol. 1, p. 46) Hooker specially mentions the “scabrid” leaves in his account of Edgerley's plant, thus fixing the application of the name.
4. Note upon Epilobium junceum Solander.
New Zealand botanists have had much difficulty in deciding which species of Epilobium was entitled to bear Solander's name of junceum. The facts are as follows: E. junceum was discovered by Banks and Solander at Te Oneroa, the locality where the present town of Gisborne now stands, and was gathered by them in almost every locality visited during Cook's first voyage. A description of it was prepared by Solander for his manuscript Flora of New Zealand, a work which, as is well known, was never
actually issued. Forster also collected it during Cook's second voyage– probably at Queen Charlotte Sound–and published it in his Prodromus under Solander's name–unfortunately without any description. Consequently, without access to the Banksian collection, the whole of which was lodged in the British Museum, it was practically impossible to be sure of the identity of the species. Hooker, when preparing the Flora Novae Zelandiae, examined the Banksian collection, and applied the name of junceum to a group of plants including E. hirtigerum, E. erectum, and E. cineru, but did not associate the name “junceum” with any one of them. Hooker followed the same plan in the Handbook, and even Haussknecht, whose Monograph appeared in 1884, still treated “junceum” as the head of a number of varieties without particularizing any one to bear the name.
From the above it is quite clear that an examination of the Banksian types was absolutely necessary to determine the identity of the plant. Fortunately, through the liberality of Dr. Rendle, of the British Museum, I received a few years ago a fairly complete set of the plants collected by Banks and Solander during Cook's first voyage. On referring to the Epilobia I found two specimens labelled “Epilobium junceum.” These are practically identical with E. cinereum A. Rich. In future, therefore, this plant must be treated as a synonym of E. junceum Sol.
It is worth mention that Solander divided his junceum into two varieties var. a, campestre, which answers to E. cinereum A. Rich., and var. b, limosun, which the specimens prove to be E. hirtigerum A. Cunn.
As it may be a convenience to New Zealand botanists to have a description of the plant which, if the preceding remarks are accepted, must be regarded as Solander's E. junceum, I reproduce here a copy of that which will appear in the forthcoming edition of the Manual of the New Zealand Flora:–
“E. junceum Soland. in Forst. f. Prodr. Append. (1786), n. 516, nomen nudum.–Stems strict and erect from a hard almost woody decumbent base, 6–18 in. high or more, slender, terete, leafy, simple or branched, sometimes excessively so, more or less covered with fine greyish-white pubescence, sometimes almost glabrate towards the base. Leaves often crowded on short axillary branchlets, variable in size, ½–1–½ in. long, sessile, oblong-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate or linear-spathulate, sub-opposite at the base, alternate above, abruptly mucronulate at the apex, margins furnished with distantly placed denticles, both surfaces more or less clothed with fine ashy pubescence, rarely almost “glabrous. Inflorescence leafy, towards the top of the stems. Flowers small, pale rose, ¼ in; long. Calyx-segments linear-lanceolate, acute, ashy-pubescent. Capsule long, slender, erect, straight or curved, 2–3 in. long, tapering upwards into a short truncate style; peduncle short, seldom exceeding the leaves. Seeds oblong-obovoid, papillose.–Spreng., Syst., ii (1825), 233; A. Cunn. Precur. (1839), n. 551; Raoul, Choix (1846), 49; Hook, f., Fl. Nov. Zel., i (1853), 60, in part; Handb. N.Z. Fl. (1864), 80, in part; Haussk., Monog. Epilob. (1884), 289, in part; T. Kirk, Students' Fl. (1899), 169, in part; Cheesem., Man. N.Z. Fl. (1906), 174, in part. E.cinereum, A.Rich., Fl. Nouv. Zel. (1832), 330; A. Cunn., Precur. (1839), n. 544. E. incanum, virgatum, and confertum, A. Cunn., I.e., nn. 545, 547, 549.
“North and South Islands, Stewart Island: Abundant in lowland districts throughout, especially in the northern part of the North Island, but not common in the elevated districts of either the North Island or South Island. Sea-level to 2,000 ft. November-March.”
5. Nothopanax laetum Cheesem. n. sp.
Affinis N. arboreo Seem., sed foliis longioribus et multo coriaceis, 25–35 cm. longis; petiolo et nervo medio purpureo; marginibus minute sinuatis-serratis.
A small much-branched tree or large round-topped shrub 8–20 ft. high, with much of the habit and appearance of N. arboreum. Leaves much larger and more coriaceous, digitately 5–7 foliolate, primary petioles sheathing at the base, stout, dark purple, 5–8 in. long or more; leaflets 6–12 in. including the petiolule, narrow obovate-oblong, acute or subacute, gradually tapering to the base, petiolules and midribs conspicuously dark purplish-red, dark green and glossy above, paler beneath, margins surrounded by a faint purplish line, upper two-thirds shallowly sinuate-serrate or dentate, lower third entire, often unequal at the base. Inflorescence composed of large terminal compound dioecious umbels, very similar to that of N. arboreum.
Hab.–North Island: Auckland–Hills in the upper valley of the Kauae-ranga River, Thames, alt. 1,000 ft., T. Kirk. T. F. C, W. Townson! Taranaki–Upper Waitotara, J. R. Annabell!
This differs altogether from N. arboreum in the much larger and more coriaceous leaves, which are often 1 ft. in length and have dark purplish-red petioles and midribs; and, according to Mr. Townson, in the laxly drooping position of the leaves, and more finely-cut serratures.
6. Aciphylla divisa Cheesem. n. sp.
Species ex affinitate A. Monroi Hook. f. a qua differt caule robusto, foliis majoribus profuse bipinnatis, segmentis latoribus magis coriaceis.
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Stems 6–18 in. high, densely clothed below with the remains of the old leaves, smooth and shining, perfectly glabrous in all its parts. Leaves very numerous, variable in size, 4–15 in. in total length; lamina 2–4 in. broad, obovate or obovate-cuneate when spread out, 3-pinnatisect; primary divisions 4–5 pairs, suberect, closely placed, often overlapping; ultimate segments linear, ½–1–½ in. long 1/10–⅛ in. broad, rigid and coriaceous, gradually tapering into an acuminate pungent point, jointed at the base, striate, midrib canaliculate; margins thickened. Petiole as long as the lamina, stout, smooth and convex on the back, deeply concave in front. Sheaths equalling the petiole in length, much expanded and membranous at the base, deeply grooved, narrowed towards the top, and produced on each side into a long slender spine. Flowering-stem exceeding the leaves, tall, stout, often ⅓ in. diam. or more, grooved, naked. Male and female inflorescence much alike in size and shape, forming a globose head 2–4 in. diam. Lower bracts often forming a kind of involucel at the base of the panicle; sheaths large, broad and membranous, tipped with 3 long subulate spines. Peduncles of the male umbels ½-2 in. long, females about half the length; rays numerous, spreading, slender; involucral bracts linear. Fruit ⅙ in. long, linear-oblong, carpels equally 5-winged, or one 5-winged and the other 4-winged.—A. Monroi var. divisa Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 47 (1915), 40.
Hab.—South Island: Probably not uncommon in the higher mountain districts of Canterbury and Otago. Mount Cook district, abundant on the mountains flanking the Hooker and Tasman Valleys, T. F. C., Cockayne! Petrie! Wall! Otago—Mountains near Lake Wakatipu, J. Speden! W. A. Thomson! Garvie Mountains, D. L. Poppelwell! Mount Bonpland, Petrie; mountains above Lake Harris, Cockayne! 3,500–5,500ft. December-February.
In my “Notes on Aciphylla” (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 47, p. 42) I treated this as a variety of A. Monroi. But further study of the genus has convinced me that the differences between it and the original type of the species (which I have figured in the Illustrations of the N.Z. Flora) are far too great to allow such a course to be taken. The many plants included by Hooker in the Handbook under the name “Monroi” are, in my opinion, best treated as follows: —1. Leaves simply pinnate: A. similis. 2. Leaves sparingly bipinnate at the base: A. Monroi (type of the species). 3. Leaves 3-pinnatisect; ultimate segments linear: A. divisa. 4. Leaves pinnatisect, ultimate segments almost filiform: A. multisecta.