Art. 40.—Descriptions of New Native Flowering-plants.
[Read before the Auckland Institute, 19th December, 1921; received by Editor, 31st December, 1921; issued separately, 22nd May, 1923.]
1. Colobanthus Wallii sp. nov.
C. paivus dense ramosus, glaberrimus, ± 2.5 cm. altus. Folia dense imbricata, lineari-subulata, 5 mm. longa ± 1 mm. lata, plana v. apicem versus ± concava, enervia, basi expansa ac ± scariosa. Flores axillares sessiles v. subsessiles tetrameri, sepalis folia subaequantibus et latitudine aliquanto excedentibus, obtusis v. subacutis tenuibus, a marginibus ± scariosis ac pellucidis. Capsula sepalis ± dimidio brevior; seminibus late claviformibus.
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A small tufted shortly and compactly branched species, ± 1 ⅙ high, perfectly glabrous. Leaves densely imbricating, erect or nearly so, linearsubulate, acute and shortly apiculate, ± ⅕ in. long ± 1/20 in. broad, flat or the upper part more or less concave, nerveless, pale along the edges, expanded and more or less scarious at their bases, texture soft. Flowers tetramerous, axillary, sessile or nearly so; sepals about as long as the leaves but considerably wider, obtuse or subacute, rather thin with broad semi-scarious pellucid margins. Capsule about half as long as the sepals; seeds broadly club-shaped.
Hab.—Crevices in limestone rocks at the top of Mount Arthur, west Nelson: Arnold Wall!
I have seen but a single plant of this: the size of the plant and its habit of growth may prove different in more favourable situations.
2. Epilobium Wilsoni sp. nov.
Caules a radice summa complures, 20–32 cm. longi, graciles teretes simplices v. parce divisi, a parte superiore sparse ac aeque pubescentes, rubri. Folia subpatentia, breviter petiolata, opposita v. apicem versus alterna, oblongo-lanceolata v. oblongo-ovata, tenuia, ± puberula, remote ac obscure sinuato-dentata, 2–3.5 cm. longa ± 1 cm. lata. Flores pauci ex foliorum superiorum axillis editi, majusculi ad 1.5 cm. longi, albi, pedunculi pergraciles, maturi bracteas subduplo superantes. Petala calyce duplo longiora, late obcordata. Capsula 20–34 mm. longa, gracilis sparse ac aeque pubescens. Semina papillosa, supra angustata, hoc latere plano illo subacute rotundato.
Stems several from the top of the root, 9–12 in. long, simple or sparingly branched, decumbent at the base, erect or ascending above, slender terete, bifariously pubescent or almost glabrous below, more or less evenly pubescent above, dark red. Leaves ½–1 in. long including the petiole, ¼–⅓ in. broad, shortly petiolate, all opposite or the uppermost alternate, spreading, oblong-lanceolate to oblong-ovate, usually obtuse at the tip, thin and membranous, faintly puberulous or nearly glabrous, faintly and remotely sinuate-dentate, midrib and veins usually evident. Flowers not very numerous, springing from the axils of the uppermost leaves, large, ¼–½ in. in diameter, apparently white. Calyx-segments linear-lanceolate, acute thin and glabrous. Petals twice as long as the calyx, broadly obcordate. Mature peduncles ½–¾ in. long, slender, sparsely but evenly pubescent. Capsules ¾–1 ¼ in. long, slender, sparsely but evenly pubescent. Seeds papillose, narrowed upwards, one side almost flat, the other distinctly ridged.
Hab.—Isolated Hill, Clarence Valley: B. C. Aston! Swale River, Clarence Valley (Marlborough): Aston and Wilson!
Through Mr. Cheeseman's courtesy I have here reproduced the description which he has prepared for the new edition of his Manual. The affinitis of this species are far from obvious. In the size of the flowers it recalls E. chloraefolium Haussk., but is in other respects widely different. The form of the seeds is very characteristic. It is named in honour of Major Robert A. Wilson, D.S.O., who greatly assisted Mr. Aston in the exploration of the vegetation of the Clarence Valley.
3. Carex Enysii sp. nov.
Carex C. aciculari (Boott) affinis; differt habitu perlate difuso denseque caespitoso; foliis brevioribus glaberrimis, spiculis paucifloris (masculis ad 2, foemineis ad 3); utriculis anguste ellipticis subteretibus, vix stipitatis, apice nec elongatis nec serratis, ore integris v. perobscure bifidis.
A very short slender species forming a wide-spreading dense turf in moist places. - Culms up to 3 cm. long, stiff, erect, filiform, terete, little grooved. Leaves as long as the culms, erect or ascending, subterete, fili form, perfectly glabrous, grooved on the front with broad sheathing bases and rather blunt tips. Spikelets small, solitary, terminal, 3 mm. long or less, few-flowered, female flowers (2–3) below, males (1 rarely 2) above. Glumes ovate-lanceolate, acute, brown with a green midrib, the lowermost produced into a slender bract-like elongation twice as long as the utricles or less. Utricles blackish-brown above, greenish below, glabrous, narrow-elliptic, not ribbed, not or scarcely stipitate, uniformly contracted upwards to the acute pale entire or obscurely bifid apex, almost terete but somewhat depressed on the inner face; style branches 3; nut trigonous.
Hab. — Craigieburn Range, North Canterbury Alps, circa 6,000 ft.: Arnold Wall!
Mr. J. D. Enys, to whose memory this species is dedicated, for a number of years occupied as a sheep-run the country where this plant occurs. He took a great interest in the botany of the district, and supplied to the late Mr. T. Kirk and others valuable specimens of rare and little-known plants.
4. Carex Carsei sp. nov.
Carex late diffusa caespitem densum ac continuum formans. Culmi numerosi, 8–12 cm. alti, graciles erecti leves obtuse triquetri, medio tenus
foliati. Folia culmos superantia, ± 3 mm. lata, graminea, plana v. ± complicata, in apices filiformes gradatim angustata, marginibus leviter scabridis. Spiculae 4–5; suprema mascula sessilis brevis pauciflora: ceterae omnino foemineae breves ovatae, quarum infima plerumque remota pedunculata, reliquae approximatae breviter pedunculatae v. sessiles; bractae longae foliaceae. Glumae ovatae acutae v. subacutae, pallide - virides, tenues delicate pluri-nerviae. Utriculi 6–7 mm. longi, glumas subduplo superantes, anguste lanceolati, leves ± plano-convexi glabri, leviter plurinervii, apice acuminato bifidi; styli rami 3; nux obtuse triqueter.
A wide-spreading species forming a close continuous sward in swampy stations. Culms numerous, 8–12 cm. high, rather slender, stiffly erect, smooth striate, obtusely triquetrous (sometimes more or less compressed below), leafy to the middle. Leaves considerably longer than the culms, long-sheathing, grassy, ± 3 mm. wide, flat or more or less complicate, very gradually narrowed into filiform tips, margins finely scabrid. Spikelets 4–5, the uppermost male only, short, sessile, cylindrical, few-flowered; the others entirely female and broadly ovate, the lowermost generally remote and then rather long-pedunculate, the remaining two or three approximate, shortly peduncled, with the uppermost sessile; bracts long, leafy, considerably exceeding the inflorescence, the lowermost when remote long-sheathing. Glumes ovate, acute or subacute, thin, pale-green, faintly many-nerved; utricles 6–7 mm. long, about twice as long as the glumes, narrow-lanceolate, pale yellow, smooth plano-convex or nearly so, somewhat compressed, faintly many-nerved, bifid at the acuminate tips; style branches 3; nut obtusely triquetrous.
Hab.—Swampy stations on the Waimarino Plain: H. Carse and H. B. Matthews! Near Lake Tennyson (Southern Nelson): W. G. Morrison!
This is a remarkably distinct plant, not closely related to any other native species. It fills considerable areas of swamp with a close grass-like sward, and never forms isolated tufts or tussocks. Mr. Carse's specimens are in young flower; Mr. Morrison's in ripe fruit.
5. Danthonia Raoulii Hk. f. var. teretifolia var. nov.
Folia culmis multo breviora, infra subinvoluta supra paene filiformia; culmi graciles quam in forma typica breviores; panicula minor, ramis binatis v. solitariis parce scaberulis; spiculae minores ac angustiores; arista reflexa, basi hand torta.
Hab.—Mount Rochfort (near Westport), circa 3,000 ft.: Arnold Wall Wet flats at the base of Mount William (near Denniston): D. Petrie.
6. Poa Wallii sp. nov.
Poa ± caespitans 4–10 cm. alta v. ultra; culmi pauci a basi ramosi, ± stoloniferi, glabri. Folia ± 2–5 cm. longa, linearia acuta plana v. ± complicata, vaginas subaequantia; caulinorum vaginis elongatis saepe ad paniculae basim pertinentibus; ligula lata brevis ± erosa, aliquando paene obsoleta. Panicula parva, anguste ovata, ramis capillaribus glaberrimis 1–3-floris, inferioribus binatis superioribus solitariis; spiculae plerumque paucae, anguste lanceolato-ellipticae, acutae, 5–6 mm. longae 2 mm. latae, 3 (raro 4) flores gerenetes: glumae vacuae leviter inaequales acutae 3-nerviae, florigerae ovato-lanceolatae acutae purpureo-virides, 5-nerviae (nervo medio solo ad apicem pertinente), carina ± scabridae, a tergo ac basi pilorum longius culorum flocco subamplo vestitae, apicibus scariosis. Palea glumis florigeris aequilonga, apice breviter bifida, nervis ciliatis.
A rather short sparsely-tufted grass, 4 in. high or less, but occasionally somewhat taller. Stems few, branching from the base and more or less stoloniferous; leaves ± 1 in. (2.5 cm.) long, about equalling their broad thin scarious sheaths, narrow-linear, flat or more or less complicate, faintly striate, cauline with shorter blades and longer sheaths (in smaller specimen usually reaching to the base of the panicle); ligule broad, short, more or less erose, sometimes almost obsolete. Panicle narrow-ovate, branches short, capillary, glabrous, few-flowered, the lower binate, the upper solitary; spikelets purplish-green, 5–6 mm. long ± 2 mm. broad, of 3 (rarely 4) florets, narrow lanceolate-elliptic, acute; empty glumes slightly unequal (the upper longer and reaching half-way up the spikelet), ovate-lanceolate, acute, 3-nerved; flowering-glumes ovate-lanceolate, acute, 5-nerved (the median nerve alone reaching to the apex), delicately scabrid along the keel, with a tuft of long hairs at the back and the base, scarious at the edges and especially at the tips; palea nearly as long as its glume, ciliate along the nerves and shortly bifid at the tip.
Hab.—Top of the Craigieburn Range, Canterbury Alps, curca 6,000 ft.: Arnold Wall! I have seen a few taller pieces of what seems to be the same grass collected by Mr. W. G. Morrison at the headwaters of the Waiau River, Amuri County: these pieces were long past flower.