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Volume 55, 1924
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(a.) S. papulosa Group.

Struthiolaria subspinosa n. sp. (Plate 11, figs. 4, 9, 10.)

Shell of moderate size, ovate, with gradate spire about equal in height to aperture; whorls 8, including protoconch, sharply angled above middle, with a somewhat flat shoulder, whorls immediately after protoconch convex, body-whorl bicarinate, concave between shoulder and lower keel, base very rapidly contracted; apex conoidal, of 2 smooth whorls, nucleus minute, planorbid; sculpture, angle of shoulder furnished with small sharply-pointed laterally-elongated tubercles, 14–20 on body-whorl, 18–25 on the penultimate, and about 30 on each spire-volution; keel of body-whorl obsoletely nodular, and base often with weak cinguli, of which the one nearest keel is sometimes stronger, giving the shell the suggestion of a double keel; the whole surface covered with fine, sharp, spiral threads, with wide interstices, 8 on first two convex whorls, 10 on third, the sixth thread from top being moniliform and marking the subangled shoulder, 7 above the finely-tuberculated shoulder of fourth whorl and 9 below, 9 above and 10 below on fifth, 10 above and 17 below on penultimate, the growth-lines very fine; on early whorls a strong spiral cord midway between angle and anterior suture, making whorl bicarinate; suture linear, not impressed; aperture ovate, angled above, produced below into very short canal; outer lip reflexed, thickened, wedge-shaped in cross-section, sinuous, not greatly produced at shoulder, more so opposite lower keel; inner lip with moderate regular callus, barely surmounting keel, and little wider than outer lip; columella concave, bent to right below, ending in beak.

Type in collection of the New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 40 mm.; diameter, 27.5 mm.

Localities.—165, White Rock River, Pareora (type); 170, Awamoa; 475, Mount Harris; 458, Lower Gorge, Pareora; 44, Brewery Creek, Mokihinui River; 577, Pareora beds, Kakahu; Target Gully shell-bed, Oamaru; Pukeuri, Oamaru; Hurupi Creek, Palliser Bay (J. A. Thomson), (two incomplete specimens); shell-bed above upper limestone, junction of Porter and Thomas Rivers, Trelissick Basin (J. A. Thomson); 952, Target Gully; Waikaia (H. J. Finlay).

Remarks.—This is the commonest and most widely spread Struthiolaria in the Tertiary. The specimens from higher horizons seem to have a smooth lower keel on the body-whorl.

Poor specimens and casts from the following localities resemble this species, but certain identification cannot be made: 98, brown sandstone, Whangaroa Harbour; 70, Akuaku, East Cape district; 649, Paparoa Rapids; 919, mudstone below upper limestone, Awakino Valley; 1043, grit band, McGovern's Stream, Ohura; 1048, Okahukura tunnel.

Distinguished from S. spinosa by the more numerous and finer spines, and the narrow callus of the inner lip. The description was compiled from paratypes as well as from the holotype, which is somewhat worn on the spire.

Many of the Target Gully specimens have an appearance somewhat different from the typical S. subspinosa. They have very small low

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tubercles, are of a slender shape and small size, and have a sloping shoulder. It is quite possible that they can be separated as a distinct species. (See Plate 11, fig. 10.)

Struthiolaria calcar Hutton. (Plate 11, figs. 8, 11, 13.)

1873. Struthiolaria cincta var. C Hutton, Cat. Tert. Moll., p. 11.

1886. Struthiolaria calcar Hutton, Trans. N. Z. Inst., vol. 18, p. 335.

1887. Struthiolaria calcar Hutton, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., ser. 2, vol. 1, p. 216.

1914. Struthiolaria calcar Hutton: Suter, N. Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 2, p. 17, pl. 1, fig. 8.

Localities.—Shell-bed, Ardgowan, Oamaru (H. J. Finlay); Ashburton River, Canterbury (H. J. Finlay); Tengawai Cliffs, South Canterbury (Canterbury Museum).

Hutton gives as the original locality “Oamaru”; and, although the horizon cannot be stated definitely, it was probably Awamoan. Mr. Finlay has some fine specimens from the Ardgowan shell-bed and from the Ashburton River.

In all respects except the spur on the outer lip these shells are identical in appearance with S. subspinosa. Further, just as there are two forms of that species, a broad and a slender, so there are two similar forms of S. calcar. It is unlikely, however, that such a development should not have specific value.

The specimen described by Suter as Hutton's type is an artificial, plaster cast, and no trace of the original material now remains. Suter did not notice the nature of the “holotype,” for he says (1914, p. 17), “protoconch and all the whorls covered by a white calcareous layer obscuring the sculpture.” In view of this, Mr. Finlay's specimen from Ardgowan shell-bed (Plate 11, fig. 11) is here named “neotype.” If, as seems probable, the plaster cast mentioned above was prepared directly from the original material it is a plastotype (Schuchert, 1905, p. 15); but there is no way of proving this.

Struthiolaria spinosa Hector. (Plate 11, figs. 12, 14.)

1886. Struthiolaria spinosa Hector, Outline N. Z. Geol., p. 51, fig. 9, No. 13.

1886. Struthiolaria tuberculata Hutton, Trans. N. Z. Inst., vol. 18, p. 335, in part (not of 1873).

1887. Struthiolaria tuberculata Hutton, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., ser. 2, vol. 1, p. 216, in part (not of 1873).

Shell moderately large, ovate, turreted; whorls 7, strongly shouldered, body-whorl bicarinate; sculpture, the whole surface finely regularly spirally lirate, about 10 lirae on shoulder and 10 between angle of shoulder and suture below, on shoulder-angle is row of long, strong tubercles, 8 per whorl on neotype but 10 on some specimens, generally more numerous on earliest whorls; body-whorl provided with tubercled keel, just below level of suture, in this case tubercles are smaller and closer together than those of shoulder; suture linear, not impressed; aperture oblique, ovate, with shallow channel above and very short canal below; outer lip reflexed, thickened, sinuous, little produced at shoulder but well produced at keel, then retreating rapidly to canal; columella concave, ending in beak directed towards right and front; inner lip with very thick pad of callus which extends up to angle of shoulder, filling in spaces between tubercles and extending over part of base where it presents prominent protuberance with vertical face towards outside and wide smooth channel between it and beak.

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Figs. 1, 2, 3.—Monalaria concinna (Sut.). Type.
Figs. 4, 9.—Struthiolaria subspinosa n. sp. Type.
Figs. 5, 6, 7.—Monalaria minor (Marshall).
Figs. 8, 13.—Struthiolaria calcar Hutton's plastotype.
Fig. 10.—Struthiolaria subspinosa n. sp. Target Gully.
Fig. 11.—Struthiolaria calcar Hutton. Neotype.
Figs. 12, 14.—Struthiolaria spinosa Hector. Neotype.

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Figs. 1, 3.—Struthiolaria errata n. sp. Type.
Figs. 2, 5, 6.—Struthiolaria papulosa (Martyn). Recent.
Fig. 4.—Struthiolaria papulosa (Martyn). Mangatahi River

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Fig. 1.—Struthiolaria cingulata Zitt. (After Zitt.)
Fig. 2.—Struthiolaria rugosa n. sp. Type.
Fig. 3.—Struthiolaria spinifera n. sp. Type.
Figs. 4, 5.—Struthiolaria cincta Hutt.
Fig. 6.—Struthiolaria tuberculata Hutt.
Fig. 7.—Struthiolaria monilifera Sut. Type.
Figs. 8, 10.—Struthiolaria frazeri Hutt. Maraekakaho.
Fig. 9.—Struthiolaria cingulata Zitt. (usual form).

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Figs. 1, 2, 3.—Struthiolaria fortis n. sp. Type.
Fig. 4.—Struthiolaria armata n. sp. Type.
Figs. 5, 6.—Struthiolaria obesa Hutt. Type.
Figs. 7, 8, 9.—Struthiolaria callosa n. sp. (Fig. 7 is type.)

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Neotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 55 mm.; diameter, 40 mm.

Localities.—165, White Rock River, Pareora (type); Ardgowan shell-bed (H. J. Finlay).

As pointed out by Thomson (1913, p. 25), Hutton illegally introduced S. spinosa (1886) as being more appropriate for his S. tuberculata (1873). Thus S. spinosa Hutton (1886) is an absolute synonym of S. tuberculata Hutton (1873). But in the same year (1886) Hector published a figure labelled “S. spinosa.” No locality is given, but the drawing (text-fig. 11) is a very fair representation of the common White Rock River species, which is quite different from Hutton's S. tuberculata var. B, the shell to which tuberculata proper was transferred by that author in 1886.

The validity of Hector's specific name and the application of it depend upon whether his publication was prior to Hutton's, which was issued in May. Hector's Outline shows only the year of issue, but as the Indian and Colonial Exhibition, for which it was prepared, commenced in May it is safe to assume that the publication of the catalogue was earlier in the year than that of the Transactions.

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Fig. 11. Struthiolaria spinosa Hector. (After Hector's figure.)

Suter's usage of S. tuberculata for the Broken River species is correct; but he made a serious mistake in connection with the type of S. spinosa. Hutton (1873) listed S. tuberculata var. B, giving the localities “Palliser Bay; Waikari; Lower Gorge of Waipara.” The specimen in the showcases, and therefore the one to be taken as type of S. tuberculata var. B, is from Waikari. Both Hutton and Suter thought the White Rock River shell was specifically the same as this one, but their opinions must have been formed without a close examination of the shells, for the body-whorl of the former has a second row of prominent tubercles. A comparison of the figures here published will show the difference at once. Struthiolaria spinosa must be based upon the shell that Hector figured—i.e., the White Rock River species; while a new name must be applied to the Waikari one. (See below, S. errata n. sp.)

Struthiolaria spinifera n. sp. (Plate 13, fig. 3.)

Shell moderately large, conoidal, with high turreted spire, 1½ times height of aperture; whorls 8, angled above middle with concave shoulder and sloping sides, body-whorl bicarinate, keel of greater diameter than shoulder-angle, base rapidly contracted; apex conoidal, nucleus minute, planorbid; sculpture, first whorls after apex are faintly shouldered, the shoulder-angle of fourth has numerous nodules, while on each of remaining whorls it bears 9 long strong spines, keel of body-whorl also has strong spines, more closely placed but hardly so long as those of shoulder-angle, fine spiral ornamentation is obsolete but growth-lines are strong; suture somewhat undulating, bulging over spines of concealed keel and with narrow strip of callus peeping over it here and there; aperture ovate, subangled above, produced into short canal below; outer lip reflexed, thickened, edge wedge-shaped, sinuous, with fairly prominent projection opposite shoulder-angle and more prominent one opposite keel, inner lip with

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Figs. 1, 2, 3.-Struthiolaria fortis n. sp. Type.
Fig. 4.-Struthiolaria armata n. sp. Type.
Figs. 5, 6,-Struthiolaria obesa Hutt. Type.
Figs. 7, 8, 9.-Struthiolaria callosa n. sp. (Fig. 7 is type.)

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moderately wide and regular callus just surmounting keel where it joins outer lip; columella concave, bent to right below and ending in beak.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 55 mm.; diameter, 39.5 mm.

Locality.—475, Mount Harris (= S. tuberculata of Pal. Bull. No. 8, p. 64).

Remarks.—The long sharp spines show that this shell is closely related to S. tuberculata, from which it differs in its greater size and higher spire.

Struthiolaria tuberculata Hutton. (Plate 13, fig. 6.)

1873. Struthiolaria tuberculata Hutton, Cat. Tert. Moll., p. 11.

1886. Struthiolaria tuberculata Hector, Outline Geol. N.Z., p. 51, fig. 9, No. 4.

1886. Struthiolaria spinosa Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., p. 335 (not of Hector).

1887. Struthiolaria spinosa Hutton, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., ser. 2, vol. 1, p. 217.

1914. Struthiolaria tuberculata Hutton: Suter, N.Z. Geol. Sur. Pal. Bull. No. 2, p. 19, pl. 1, fig. 12.

Hutton's localities are: “East coast, Wellington; Upokororo Stream, Te Anau Lake; Kawau; Broken Hill (U).” Probably several species were represented; the Broken River shell has become the type because it was represented as the example of the species in Hutton's type collection at the Dominion Museum. Thomson and Speight collected this fossil from the shell-bed immediately above the limestone of Trelissick Basin (Speight, 1917, p. 348); also “in the small tributary of White Water Creek coming in from the north, in what may be called the Struthiolaria bed from the number of remains of this genus occurring. The same bed is met with in a similar stratigraphical position in the Porter River between the gorges in the Thomas River.” The horizon seems, then, to be low Awamoan. No specimens from elsewhere than the Trelissick Basin have been seen during this revision.

Struthiolaria cincta Hutton. (Plate 13, figs. 4, 5.)

1873. Struthiolaria cincta Hutton, Cat. Tert. Moll., p. 11.

1887. Struthiolaria cincta Hutton, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., ser. 2, vol. 1, p. 216.

1897. Struthiolaria cincta Hutton: Harris, Cat. Tert. Moll. Brit. Mus., vol. 1, p. 221.

1914. Struthiolaria cincta Hutton: Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 2, p. 16, pl. 1, fig. 7.

The type of S. cincta is from “Awatere,” but the exact horizon was not stated by Hutton. Dr. Thomson's collection from Lower Awatere (Pal. Bull. No. 8, p. 30) contains S. cincta, so this may be the type locality. The species has been recorded from many horizons—e.g., Kakanui; Waihao greensands; Target Gully; Pakaurangi; Duncan's, Tolaga Bay. These are based either on poor specimens or on a very wide interpretation of the species. The true S. cincta has very coarse spirals of irregular appearance, and during the course of this revision has been seen only from 126, Awatere Valley, and 218, Motunau.

The shell most often mistaken for it is S. subspinosa n. sp., which has much the same outline, but sculpture consisting of numerous very fine regular spiral lirae, whereas in S. cincta the spirals are strong and very irregular. The shoulder-angle of S. cincta is sometimes smooth and sometimes ornamented with blunt nodules, 15 to 18 per whorl; in S. subspinosa the tubercles are about the same in number, but they are fairly strong and sharply pointed, and are always present.

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Struthiolaria cingulata Zittel. (Plate 13, figs. 1, 9.)

1864. Struthiolaria cingulata Zittel, Reise der “Novara,” 1 Bd., 2 Abt., p. 35, pl. 15, fig. 2.

1873. Struthiolaria cingulata Zittel: Hutton, Cat. Tert. Moll., p. 11.

1887. Struthiolaria cingulata Zittel: Hutton, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., ser. 2, vol. 1, p. 217.

1893. Struthiolaria cingulata Zittel, Macleay Mem. Vol., p. 61.

1914. Struthiolaria cingulata Zittel: Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 2, p. 18 (not the specimen figured pl. 1, fig. 9).

The figure published by Suter was drawn by Buchanan from Hutton's plesiotype from Patea. This shell belongs to the S. vermis group, and so is widely separated from Zittel's species. The latter's figure represents an individual with whorls much more convex than usual, but the angulation is described in the text. The more common outline is shown in Plate 13, fig. 9. An examination of the aperture with its spreading callus on the body-whorl, and of the arrangement of the spirals, will show that the species is closely related to the convex variety of S. papulosa.

Zittel gives Awatere Valley as the locality, but in this extensive district more than one horizon is represented. The specimens here placed under this species come from Starborough Creek, where the rocks are of Pliocene age.

Suter quotes in his synonymy (1914, p. 18) the S. cingulata figured in Hector's Outline of New Zealand Geology. This figure was drawn from the type of S. monilifera Suter, which was Hutton's variety B of S. cingulata, but which belongs to a group different from Zittel's species. It should therefore appear in the synonymy of S. monilifera, not of S. cingulata. A comparison of Zittel's figure of this species with that published by Suter (drawn by Buchanan from Hutton's specimen) shows that there are important differences. The true cingulata has the inner-lip callus wide-spreading and thin on the parietal wall, then tapering rapidly below, with a protuberance about half-way down on the outside. The outer lip is quite thin near the junction with the body. This is the typical S. papulosa aperture, and the shell certainly falls under that group. The aperture of Hutton's specimen, on the other hand, has a thick callus of regular width surrounding the aperture; the whorls, too, are convex without the suggestion of carination, and consequently this shell is of the S. vermis group. It is described below as S. rugosa n. sp.

Although Zittel's figure shows a shell with convex spire-whorls, the body-whorl is obsoletely bicarinate, while in his description (1864, p. 35) he says, “Die Embryonalwinddungen sind glatt, die ubrigen dagegen stumpfkantig … die letzte Windung … ist mit zwei stumpfen Kanten versehen.”

No well-preserved replicas of Zittel's figure have been seen, but there is a common Struthiolaria from awatere which corresponds with the description except that the angles are not blunt (see Plate 13, fig. 9). Perhaps the specimen handled by Zittel's artist was one with exceptionally convex whorls, such as sometimes occur in S. papulosa, figured in Plate 12, fig. 2.

According to this interpretation, S. cingulata is closely related to S. cincta, differing in the presence of regular strong spiral cords, and the absence of tubercles on the shoulder.

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Struthiolaria errata n. sp. (Plate 12, figs. 1, 3.)

1873. Struthiolaria tuberculata var. B Hutton, Cat. Tert. Moll., p. 11.

1886. Struthiolaria tuberculata Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 18, p. 335 (in part, but not of 1873).

1887. Struthiolaria tuberculata Hutton, Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., ser. 2, vol. 1, p. 216 (in part, but not of 1873).

1914. Struthiolaria spinosa Hector: Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 2, p. 18, pl. 1, fig. 11 (not of Hector).

Suter has given a full description and figure of this shell, which he wrongfully took to be the type of Hector's spinosa (see above, p. 177). The large planorbid protoconch mentioned by him is not the true protoconch of the shell, but is one of the many septa built by the animal in retreating from the summit, which was afterwards broken off.

The species is closely related to S. papulosa, but it differs in having a straighter columella and more wide-spreading callus on the body-whorl, which also has larger tubercles, placed farther apart. There is a fairly strong spur at the junction of the shoulder with the outer lip.


Struthiolaria papulosa (Martyn). (Plate 12, figs. 2, 4, 5, 6.)

1786. Buccinum papulosum Martyn, Univ. Conch., vol. 2, f. 54.

1786. Buccinum coronarium Solander, Cat. Port. Mus.

1788. Murex pes-struthiocameli Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., vol. 10, figs. 1520, 1521.

1790. Murex stramineus Gmelin: Linn., Syst. Nat., ed. 13, t. 1, pt. 6, 3542.

1822. Struthiolaria nodulosa Lamarck, Anim. s. Vert., vol. 7, p. 147.

1835. Struthiolaria nodosa Gray, in Yate's New Zealand, p. 308.

? 1839. Struthiolaria sulcata Jonas, Arch. f. Nat., i. 342, pl. 9, fig. 5.

1842. Struthiolaria gigas Sowerby, Thes. Conch., 1, pl. 5, f. 17.

1843. Struthiolaria papillosa Martyn: Gray in Dieff. New Zealand, vol. 2, p. 231.

1849. Struthiolaria papulosa Martyn: Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. 6, pl. 1.

1849. Struthiolaria straminea Gmelin: Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. 6, f. 3.

1857. Struthiolaria papillaria Gray, Guide Moll. Brit. Mus., p. 76.

1858. Struthiolaria papulosa Martyn: Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll., pl. 27, f. 6, b.

1859. Struthiolaria papulosa Martyn: Chenu, Man. Conch., vol. 1, p. 263, f. 1649.

1868. Struthiolaria stramineus Woodward, Man. Moll., pl. 4, f. 6.

1873. Struthiolaria gigas Sowerby: Hutton, Cat. Mar. Moll. N.Z., p. 24.

1873. Struthiolaria nodulosa Lamarck: Hutton, Cat. Mar. Moll. N.Z., p. 24.

1873. Struthiolaria nodulosa Lamarck: Hutton, Cat. Tert. Moll. N.Z., p. 10.

1873. Struthiolaria papulosa Martyn: von Martens, Crit. List, p. 25.

1876. Struthiolaria papulosa Martyn: Paulucci, Bull. Soc. Malac. Ital., ser. 2, vol. 2, p. 225.

1880. Struthiolaria papulosa Martyn: Hutton, Man. N.Z. Moll., p. 67.

1885. Struthiolaria papulosa Martyn: Tryon, Man. Conch. (1), vol. 7, 133, pl. 12, f. 34.

1885. Struthiolaria gigas Sowerby: Tryon, Man. Conch. (1), vol. 7, 133, pl. 12, f. 37.

1885. Struthiolaria sulcata Jonas: Tryon, Man. Conch. (1), vol. 7, 134, pl. 12, f. 38.

1887. Struthiolaria nodulosa Lamarck: Fischer, Man. Conch., p. 877, pl. 4, f. 6.

1893. Struthiolaria papulosa Martyn: Hutton, Macleay Mem. Vol., p. 60.

1897. Struthiolaria papulosa Martyn: Harris, Cat. Tert. Moll. Brit. Mus., i, p. 219.

1904. Struthiolaria papulosa Martyn: Cossmann, Ess. Paléo. Comp., vol. 6, p. 104

1913. Struthiolaria papulosa Martyn: Suter, Man. N.Z. Moll., p. 274, pl. 40, fig. 1.

Among Recent specimens there is a considerable variation of form and sculpture. In some the spines on the shoulder are large, strong, and sharply pointed, while in others the shoulder bears only small, spaced nodules. The former may be regarded as the typical papulosa, while the

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latter represent Sowerby's gigas. In a card of five Stewart Island specimens in the Dominion Museum, two are typically nodulous; two have the nodules becoming obsolete on the later whorls, with a corresponding rounding of the shoulder; while the fifth has almost regularly convex whorls throughout, with the merest traces of the nodules on the rounded shoulder—it has, in fact, somewhat the appearance of Tryon's figure of S. sulcata Jonas.

It does not at present seem advisable to give any of these aberrant forms specific recognition. The one with rounded whorls and obsolete tubercles can, however, be distinguished easily, and it is possible that a separate species is represented.

Localities.—Recent, Castlecliff and Kai Iwi, Wanganui; 1094, Mangatahi River, Hawke's Bay (very strong spirals—Plate 12, fig. 4); 875, Manaia Beach, Taranaki (M. Ongley); 858, below waterfall, Starborough Creek.

The specimens from the last three localities are by no means typical. Those from Manaia and Starborough resemble a tumid form of the nodular variety, and have the nodules very closely placed.

The only shell closely resembling S. papulosa from a possibly lower horizon than Pliocene is one from Kanieri. This is Hutton's S. cincta var. B of 1873. The specimen has very much the aspect of the Stewart Island shell with rounded whorls, mentioned above, and was thought by Suter to be S. papulosa. Another specimen in the Geological Survey collection from the same district (154, Kanieri) has whorls more angled, but also only traces of nodules. Both are fragmentary, and the second has the suggestion of a keel on the body-whorl. So until better specimens are found it does not seem justifiable to extend the range of S. papulosa back to the Miocene. Several fossils from Kanieri have Wanganuian affinities, and may be from Pliocene strata in the neighbourhood.

Struthiolaria frazeri Hutton. (Plate 13, figs. 8, 10.)

1885. Struthiolaria frazeri (Hector MS.): Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 17, p. 329.

1886. Struthiolaria fraseri Hector, Outline N.Z. Geol., p. 48, fig. 5, No. 1.

1893. Struthiolaria frazeri Hutton, Macleay Mem. Vol., p. 61.

1897. Struthiolaria frazeri Hutton: Harris, Cat. Tert. Moll. Brit. Mus., i, p. 220, pl. vi, figs. 10, a, b.

1910. Struthiolaria frazeri Park, Geol. N.Z., p. 162, fig. 81.

1913. Struthiolaria frazeri Hutton: Speight, Rec. Cant. Mus., No. 2, pt. 1, p. 31.

1921. Struthiolaria frazeri Hutton: Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 8, p. 19.

In revising Hutton's types, Suter did not find that of S. frazeri, which Hutton described while he was in Christchurch. Professor Speight informed me in a private communication that it is not in Canterbury Museum, and thinks that the fine specimen in the Geological Survey collection at the Dominion Museum is probably the original type. Consequently this shell becomes the type of the species.

Most of the specimens, including the type, have small blunt tubercles on the shoulder, but others have only the strong, regular, smooth, spiral ribs; of the former variety Harris's figure is an excellent representation, while Hector's figure is equally characteristic of the latter.

As regards the localities, several obscure names have been given, so that it may be well to list and explain them here: Hutton (1885), Kikiwheru Creek; Hutton (1886), Matapiro (found also in the Pareora system);

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Hutton (1893), Matapiro; Harris (1897), McLean's station, Napier; Hutton (MS.) (1904), Ngaruroro Station and Motunau; Park (1910), McLean's station, Napier; Speight (1913), Motunau; Suter (1921), Shrimpton's, Ngaruroro River; Marshall and Murdoch (1920), Nukumaru, Wanganui district.

Most of these refer to the same place. “Shrimpton's” was a station on the Kikowhero Creek, which is a tributary coming in on the north side of the Ngaruroro River, and forming the eastern boundary of the Matapiro Plain. McLean's was a station on the south side of the Ngaruroro River, opposite Shrimpton's. (Rep. Geol. Explor., x, xii, xviii.)

The statement that this species is “found also in the Pareora system” refers, no doubt, to the specimen recorded from Motunau. I have not seen the specimen, so cannot confirm the identification. In any case, the Motunau beds are now recognized as belonging to a much higher horizon than the Pareora. The Blue Clays of the Ngaruroro River, the type locality of this fossil, are equivalent to the Nukumaru stage of the Wanganuian, so the record of S. frazeri by Marshall and Murdoch from Nukumaru is most interesting. Unfortunately, the specimen was broken to pieces in transmission from Mr. Suter.

The identification of S. frazeri in the Wangaloa beds (Marshall, 1917, p. 451) is surely a mistake.

Four excellent specimens were collected by Dr. Uttley and the writer in a sandy pocket of the clays not far below the Scinde Island limestone at Maraekakaho, Ngaruroro River.

Struthiolaria sp. Zittel.

1864. Struthiolaria sp. Zittel, Reise der “Novara,” Geol. Theil, 1 Band, 2 Abt., Palaontologie von Neu Seeland, p. 35, pl. xv, fig. 3.

In the Geological Survey collection from locality 126, Awatere Valley, are fragments which should probably be placed here; but their condition is no better than Zittel's material, so no good purpose would be served by attempting specific description.

A similar shell, but with sharper spines, occurs at Kaawa Creek, but here again only fragments are available. In both cases there is a strong callus on the inner lip, recalling that of S. spinosa, but the spire is flatter than in the Pareora shell, and the keel is weaker.