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Volume 56, 1926
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New Shells from New Zealand Tertiary Beds:
Part 2.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 10th June, 1924; received by Editor, 31st December, 1924; issued separately, 13th March, 1926.]

Plates 5560.

Tugali pliocenica n. sp. (Plate 59, figs. 1–5.)

Shell ancestral to T. colvillensis Iredale and Finlay MS., * but not so high and compressed, with hardly any dorsal carina, squarish and not pointed in front. Radial ribs moderately wide behind, narrower in front, but interstices everywhere wider and ornament more fenestrate than in T. elegans Gray, from which the new species differs also in much smaller size and more conic shell, less widened behind. Sinus rib soon trifurcate, and remaining so to margin. Margins as in colvillensis, more finely denticulate than in elegans.

Length, 18 mm.; height, 6 mm.; width, 11 mm.

Locality.—Castlecliff blue clays (Castlecliffian); not uncommon.

Type in Finlay collection.

Tugali navicula n. sp. (Plate 59, figs. 6–9.)

Shell very elongate, rather depressed, with coarse sculpture, apex well behind. Numerous rather coarse axial ribs, regularly alternately stronger and weaker, reticulated by coarse wavy concentric ribs, interstices with triangular nodules, leaving irregularly-shaped pits between. Sinus rib soon trifurcating and remaining so to margin. Apex at posterior fifth of length, low, hardly hooked. Sides parallel, regularly rounded behind, more narrowly so in front. Margin with very weak but broad denticulations, reduced almost to short grooves on outer edge. Muscle-scars sunken, strong, sides long. Groove wide and shallow, distinctly notching margin.

Length, 17.5 mm.; height, 4 mm.; width, 9 mm. (type). Length, 25 mm.; height, 8 mm.; width, 13 mm. (paratype).

Localities.—Target Gully “shell-bed” (Awamoan); several specimens. Also Ardgowan.

Type in Finlay collection.

Easily separated from Recent and other fossil forms by narrowlyelongate depressed shell, coarser sculpture, more, posterior apex, and different marginal denticulations.

Nobolira n. gen.

I provide this for a series of shells very similar to Lironoba, but with a spirally lirate protoconch, and name as type Lironoba polyvincta Finlay (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 55, p. 485, 1924). When discussing this group of

[Footnote] * In this paper, references to “Iredale and Finlay MS.” are to a systematic and nomenclatural paper which was intended to appear in this volume, but has been held over.

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Rissoids I commented on the discrepant apex of the two fossil species I described, and noted that there seemed to be two parallel groups of these heavily-ribbed forms, exactly as in the case of Merelina and Linemera. Since then I have seen abundant topotypes of L. suteri, the genotype of Lironoba, and my impressions are confirmed. L. suteri has a smooth, rudely-coiled apex, with strong upper carina, and seems related to Anabathron, which has the same texture but several keels on apex, and dense axial foliations on whorls. The polyvincta group is a northern one and is different altogether, having only the heavy spiral ribs in common with its southern twin, otherwise the general facies is quite different; the apex is loosely coiled, with numerous strong spiral grooves but no keels. I have numerous undescribed Recent species, all from the north, while probably most of the Australian species referred to Lironoba would be better placed here. The anagrams Linemera and Nobolira will be useful in recalling the genera they simulate in superficial appearance.

Onustus prognatus n. sp. (Plate 59, figs. 15, 16.)

Very close to the Recent neozelanicus (Suter), but considerably more depressed in relation to width. Finer wavy sculpture on whorls. Incremental lines on base finer and much less lamellose. All specimens seen have greater part of whorls uncovered, and only a row of small contiguous stones at sutures.

Height, 44 mm.; diameter, circa 70 mm.

Locality.—Wharekuri greensands (Ototaran?); type. Also from Clifden, Southland, band 3 (Ototaran).

Type in Finlay collection.

Struthiolaria prior n. sp. (Plate 56, fig. 17.)

Ancestral to S. subspinosa Marwick, but differing from it in lower peripheral keel (medial on spire-whorls instead of on upper third), leading to a much steeper shoulder and consequently different outline of outer lip. Finer spiral sculpture (threads hardly at all raised, and very thin, interstices many times their width), and coarser nodulation on lower keel on body-whorl (about 9 knobs over its length instead of 12).

Height, 61 mm.; diameter, 39 mm.

Locality.—Waikaia, in shelly limestone (Ototaran?); two specimens.

Type in Finlay collection.

Included by Dr. Marwick in the list of records of S. subspinosa as “Waikaia (H. J. Finlay)” (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 55, p. 175, 1924), but I think there are valid differences.

Magnatica altior n. sp. (Plate 60, figs. 3, 4.)

This shell accompanies M. suteri Marwick in the Wharekuri beds, but is much rarer. Easily distinguished by its much higher mamillate spire and different umbilicus. General shape that of Uber, greatest tumidity low down. Sides of spire and upper part of body-whorl practically straight. Sutures distinct. Aperture oblique. Umbilicus situated low down, narrow but quite pervious and funnel-shaped, not rude and irregular as in M. suteri. A callus-lobe spreading round it above, and into it as a rather thick low funicle; below this a second very thin sharp ridge, a depression between the two. Whorls not nearly so vertically compressed as in suteri. Aperture much more oblique and shell more conic than in M. sutherlandi Marwick.

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Height, 26 mm.; diameter, 22.5 mm.

Locality.—Wharekuri greensands (Ototaran?); a few specimens.

Type in Finlay collection.

This species reaches at least three times this size, but no perfect large specimens have been seen. Marwick (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 55, p. 555, 1924) comments on the presence of two forms at this locality, and his fig. 5 (loc. cit., p1. 56) seems to represent a large specimen of altior.

Magnatica clifdenensis n. sp. (Plate 60, fig. 3.)

Allied to the last by its high spire and small pervious umbilicus, but differing in the whorls being slightly depressed below suture, thus forming a rather stepped spire. Base is more produced, and basal lip more narrowly rounded. Umbilicus almost a perfect oval, funicle from calluspad being obsolete; instead of a thin sharp ridge there is a deep narrow funicular groove, slightly indenting margin. Aperture decidedly oblique.

Height, 35 mm.; diameter, 28.5 mm.

Locality.—Clifden, Southland, band 6B (Ototaran?); one specimen.

Magnatica rectilatera n. sp. (Plate 60, fig. 5.)

Distinguished from M. suteri Marwick by its rather straight outlines above and below shoulder. Spire short, flattened, but slightly tabulate, whorls distinct; keel bluntly rounded, thence very flatly convex till near base, which is suddenly contracted. Umbilicus circular, deeply pervious, almost perspective; callus funicle almost obsolete, the lower thin sharp ridge very strong; margin of umbilicus not rounded as in the two previous species but bluntly carinate.

Height, 21 mm.; diameter, 19 mm.

Locality.—Awamoa blue clays (Awamoan); type specimen. Also from Target Gully and Rifle Butts; one specimen from each.

Type in Finlay collection.

Possibly Dr. Marwick's record of M. suteri from Awamoa refers to this species.

The last three forms and N. sutherlandi Marwick have a more conic spire and lower cylindrical and pervious umbilicus than in the suteriapproximata line. I would treat Magnatica as a genus, and propose Spelaenacca nov. (type, Magnatica altior nov.) as a section for these forms.

Uber laxus n. sp. (Plate 60, fig. 1.)

Shell large, very wide and spreading; spire rather blunt, less than quarter height of aperture with callus, whorls 5, very rapidly increasing, surface polished and with smooth appearance but showing growth-lines and faint spiral striations. Suture tangential. Aperture widely semilunar; outer lip sinuous, slightly concave in middle; inner lip with thick parietal callus, filling umbilicus all but a semicircular moderately deep furrow (which does not enter the aperture), and cemented to parietal wall along whole outer side; umbilicus with funicle hidden.

Height, 34 mm.; diameter, 32 mm.

Locality.—Clifden, Southland, band 8 (Awamoan?); one specimen.

Related to U. chattonensis Marwick, but lower and wider, umbilicus not pervious, &c. Relative to width of whorls and umbilicus, and size of callus, this is the widest Uber known from New Zealand. U. intracrassus Finlay and U. waipipiensis Marwick are as wide, but have the aperture forced outwards by a huge callus and a wide umbilicus respectively.

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Globisinum crassiliratum n. sp. (Plate 60, fig. 6.)

Closely allied to G. miocaenicum (Suter), and found with it (though much rarer), but differing at sight in higher spire and coarser sculpture. Spire about half height of aperture; sutures cut in, slightly channelled. Spiral cords of very irregular width, about 12 on penultimate whorl, flat, with furrowed interstices also of quite irregular width, but generally narrower than cords. Umbilicus and aperture as in miocaenicum.

Height, 13 mm.; diameter, 11.5 mm.

Localities.—Otiake, sandy beds above the limestone (Awamoan); two specimens. Also one shell from Wharekuri.

Type in Finlay collection.

Euspinacassis pollens n. gen. et sp. (Plate 55, figs. 10–12.)

Shell large, massive, encircled with rows of strong high tubercles; aperture heavily thickened, canal very short, deeply notched behind. Apex symmetrical, dome-shaped, of 3 smooth regularly-coiled whorls, nucleus minute. Four spiral rows of nodules on last whorl, only the uppermost showing on spire-whorls; 11–13 strong pointed upwardly-directed spines per whorl on top row, about 17 lower blunter nodules on second and third rows, and many weak very low nodules on lowest row; 6–8 low spiral cords on base; whole surface overlaid by very numerous close undulating spiral grooves, interstices slightly raised as weak threads. Spiral threads coarser and plainer and fenestrated by numerous thin axial threads on early spire-whorls. Spire rather high, about half height of aperture, outlines straight. Whorls medially sharply angled by nodular keel, slightly concave above and below, strongly concave between nodular rows on body-whorl. Suture strongly undulating, a little cut in. Aperture in young shells distinctly phalioid, outer lip being thickened and reflexed and bearing several denticles below, inner lip merely a thin glaze over parietal wall and pillar, but free across excavation above fasciole and forming there a small but pervious umbilicus; pillar irregularly plaited and ridged, with one stronger medial blunt ridge later forming outer margin of fasciole. Adult shell has sides of aperture enormously thickened, outer lip very strong and with thickly laminate reflexed edge; inner lip spreading as a massive parietal callus almost up to top nodular row, and as a thick free edge across umbilicus and pillar, forming another umbilicus on farther side of fasciole; pillar with numerous anastomozing sharp plaits and ridges, fasciole ridge covered. Canal very short, at once bent to left and slightly backwards by a strong deep notch almost exactly as in Phalium. Adult shell has a second projecting varix emerging obliquely from parietal callus. Fasciole with an anterior bluntly angular ridge, bounded behind by a sharp keel, a deeply-hollowed rounded groove immediately behind it, leading into umbilicus.

Height, 69 mm.; diameter, 55 mm. (type). Height, 39 mm.; diameter, 27 mm. (paratype). Height 27 mm.; diameter, 18.5 mm. (paratype).

Locality.—Clifden, Southland, band 6A (Ototaran?); four specimens.

Type in Finlay collection.

Congeneric with and very closely allied to Cassis muricata Hector (Prog. Rep. Geol. Surv. N.Z., vol. 9, p. 4), a shell I have not seen, but which Dr. Marwick assures me is distinct. He has (this volume, p. 319) described a shell under the name Phalium grangei n. sp., remarking that it has rows of strong knobs, and that “strong sculpture was used as the basis of Echinophoia Sacco, but Cossmann does not think it worth recognition.” In any case, Echinophoria is preoccupied. Cassidea and

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Semicassis both merit recognition, and the new species does not fall comfortably into either, the type of sculpture and aperture being distinctive, while at the same time it seems a rather obvious derivative of the Casmaria series (or vice nersa). The step is therefore taken of providing for it, muricata Hector, and grangei Marwick a new genus—Euspinacassis.

Cirsostrema caelicola n. sp. (Plate 57, figs. 17, 18.)

Shell stout, large, elaborately sculptured. Apex lost. Twelve stout and high minutely-frilled axial ribs per whorl (interstices 1½–2 times their width), suddenly deeply cut in and smoothed below suture and prolonged slightly forward there; diminishing in width but hardly in height on base. Varices marked by stouter ribs (about twice width of ordinary ribs), quite irregular in disposition. Eleven stronger and wider spirals per whorl, with a narrower thread between each two, and sometimes a minute threadlet on either side of it; a few fine threads near suture and basal keel; base with regular narrow threads with sublinear interstices; spirals smooth in interstices, lamellose over axials. Base flat, with a strong outer keel (bisected by a linear groove and raised more in interstices than on axial ribs). Spire tall, regularly tapering, whorls convex; sutures concealed by expansions of axial ribs, but seeming canaliculate because of excavation at top of ribs. Aperture almost circular, outer lip thick, frilled, and crossed by spiral cords down to basal keel, thence quite smooth and polished along wide and flat basal lip to rounded triangular pad marking end of stout fasciole encircling pillar. Peristome complete, inner lip thin but well defined and blunt, regularly curved.

Height, 49 mm.; diameter, 21 mm.

Locality.—All Day Bay blue clays (Awamoan); one specimen.

Type in Finlay collection.

A most beautiful shell. Closely related to C. lyrata (Zittel), but wider and with far more numerous spirals; especially characteristic is the pseudo-canaliculation of the suture, caused by the concave truncation of the ribs.

Notacirsa n. gen.

I provide this for Turbonilla oamarutica Suter (N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 5, p. 16, 1917). Suter's original location was in section Pyrgiscus of Turbonilla; Cossmann (in Marshall, Trans, N.Z. Inst., vol. 49, p. 462, 1917) remarked that it was probably an Acissella [sic]; and I noted (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 55, p. 506, 1924) that it was much better referred to the Epitoniidae than to any Pyramidellid genus. It has an oval aperture as in Acirsella, but an ornament more like Hemiacirsa, from which it also differs in its rounded periphery. Epitonium elatum Suter, E. gracillimum Suter, and several undescribed Tertiary species may be named as congeneric. As Suter's original drawing does not well convey the appearance of this shell, I present a much magnified figure of a topotype in my collection (Plate 56, fig. 16). The Aldingan Scalaria (Hemiacirsa) lampra Tate (Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., vol. 13, p. 234) is also congeneric.

Iredalula n. gen. Type: Bela striata Hutton.

This characteristic New Zealand Pliocene shell presents a most striking similarity to Acamptochetus mitraeformis (Brocchi) (Cossmann, Essais de Pal. Comp., liv. iv, p. 123, 1901), but the resemblance is quite superficial,

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as a glance at the embryos will reveal. Acamptochetus has, in Cossmann's words, the “protoconque lisse, paucispirée, formant un gros bouton à nucléus subdévié”; B. striata has a curiously-shouldered disproportionately-whorled embryo, the tip globular and a trifle inrolled, the remainder with a high blunt keel, shoulder wide and flat, straight below; obscure cord-like lirations (two more prominent on the keel) are very faintly reticulated by growth-lines, but the whole is smoothish and polished. The canal and whorling are also somewhat different. The shell itself is, in the fossil state, pure white and extremely elegant. Pleurotoma alticincta Marshall and Murdoch, another of out most elegant shells, and some undescribed species, possess the same peculiar apex and style of shell and are referable to this genus, which may be placed in the Neptuneidae (= Chrysodomidae Cossmann) till a better location is found.

Genus Austrofusus Kobelt, 1879.

Iredale and Finlay (MS.) show that this comes into use vice Aethocola Iredale, and that the Recent species takes the name Austrofusus glans (Bolten, 1798).

Under the name Siphonalia Suter has included in his various lists of fossil shells several diverse types. These can be roughly separated into two groups—the Verconellids and the Austrofusids. The typical form of Austrofusus has somewhat the appearance of a spiny Verconella with a short canal, but the presence of an anterior notch at once removes it to the Buccinidae; in fact, the line of separation between some forms of Austrofusus and Cominella is slight. Austrofusus, however, has a “tail,” on which the fasciole and notch are placed, while in Cominella these seem to cut into the body of the shell itself. But perhaps the best and most important distinguishing feature of Austrofusus is the protoconch. This is always conic, polygyrate, and sharply pointed, of 3 or 4 smooth whorls, followed by ½-¾ whorl with brephic sculpture of curved backwardly-sloping axial riblets, twice their width apart; while Cominella has a pauci-spiral, globose, slightly asymmetrical embryo, with but little distinct brephic sculpture. This difference in the two genera is constant and very marked, and is exactly comparable to a difference between two groups of the Mitridae, Austrofusus having almost the apex of Mitra s. str., while Cominella imitates Vexillum.

The species at present referable to Austrofusus may be divided into groups by considering the development of the canal and the siphonal fasciole. Nassicola Finlay has been proposed for one well-marked group (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 55, p. 514, 1924), as typified by Neptunea costata Hutton. Aethocola beta n. sp. (described below) may be put forward as type of another distinct section, for which I propose the new name Neocola. Finally, a peculiar development is represented by Neptunea subnodosa Hutton and its allies, and for these I constitute a new genus Zelandiella, with that species as type. The classification thus becomes—Genus Austrofusus Kobelt. Type, Neptunea nodosa Martyn (= Drupa glans Bolten).

Section Austrofusus s. str.

Section Neocola nov. Type, Austrofusus beta n. sp.

Section Nassicola Finlay. Type, Neptunea costata Hutton.

New genus Zelandiella. Type, Neptunea subnodosa Hutt.

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Several other sections are separable, but these will serve at present for the species dealt with in this paper. The chief characters of these groups are as follows:—

Austrofusus.—Includes glans (Bolten), spinifera (Finlay), pagoda (Finlay), * acuticostata (Sut.), affiliata n. sp., precursor n. sp., tatae Marwick (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 55, p. 197, 1924), and two new Recent species I am describing later. Characterized by slight development of the fasciole, which is not keeled; the columellar area is excavated at its join with the parietal wall and considerably twisted lower down, but less suddenly and more regularly than in the other groups. This excavation makes the pillar slightly oblique, and gives the shell a Verconella-like aperture.

Neocola.—Includes flexuosa (Marshall), alpha n. sp., beta n. sp., gamma n. sp., apudalpha n. sp., and many other species not treated of here. Agrees with Austrofusus s. str. in having a moderately long canal, downwardly produced after the twist, but the shell is smaller and more solid, with usually a narrowed and contracted aperture, due to the thick outer lip and columella and absence of excavation in the latter. The pillar is relatively less twisted, but often appears more so owing to the greater prominence of the fasciole, which has a marginal carina, sometimes very high and sharp.

Nassicola.—Includes costata (Hutt.), nassa n. sp., contracta n. sp., and magnifica n. sp. In shape and appearance of canal this distinct group is somewhat intermediate between Austrofusus proper and Cominella, but the apex shows that relationship is really with the former. The short and rather indistinct canal is bent well to the left, due to the very strong twist of the columella (in Austrofusus s. str. the pillar is much less twisted, and thence continues with a rotatory motion downwards rather than laterally). Notch almost as in Cominella (but less penetrating), deeper and narrower than in the typical group; fasciole strong, keeled.

Zelandiella.—Includes subnodosa (Hutt.), propenodosa (Bartrum) (with which I would unite kaawaensis Bartrum), and fatua n. sp. The apex of the type is aberrant, not high and conical, but compressed vertically, like the shell itself, into a mamillary appearance; 3 smooth, tiny, very convex whorls, followed by ½ whorl with axial riblets. The growth of the shell and of the anterior notch, the style of sculpture, and the heavy deposit of callus round the inner lip are all abnormal.

Austrofusus (Neocola) alpha n. sp. (Plate 57, figs. 1–4.)

Moderate size, bucciniform, fairly solid. Embryo conic, polygyrate, sharply pointed, of 3–4 smooth whorls followed by ¾ whorl with brephic sculpture of curved backwardly-sloping axial riblets, twice their width apart. Adult whorls 6, with a medial keel, nowhere very sharp, but weaker on the first and penultimate whorls, tending to obsolescence on body-whorl; base with no indications of second keel. 11–13 axial ribs per whorl, continuous between sutures on first three whorls, thence obsolete on shoulder and (except on keel, where they remain as blunt swellings) almost vanishing on body-whorl and base; a little more than own width apart. Spirals appearing as raised cords of regular strength over whole surface, not more prominent on base (though sometimes slightly alternating); 11 on penultimate whorl (excluding occasional interstitials), 6 being on shoulder,

[Footnote] * New name proposed in Proc. Mal. Soc., vol. 16, pt. 2, p. 103, for Siphonalia turrita Suter, preoccupied.

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about 26 on body-whorl and base; the three on keel slightly stronger. Base rapidly contracted into a short and strongly twisted prolongation, containing the fasciole, which is very prominent and bordered by a high sharp carination. Aperture narrow, rapidly contracted to a short deep canal, notched backward but hardly upwards; outer lip grooved at spirals and with short linear ribs farther within. Columella stout, strongly twisted and attenuated low down. Parietal and inner-lip callus well marked but not strong.

Height, 27 mm.; diameter, 15 mm.

Locality.—Clifden, Southland, band 4B (Ototaran?), also from band 3; common.

Type in Finlay collection.

Distinguished by regular strong spiral sculpture, rounded base, and low nodules. This and the two following species are not much like any other form I have seen; perhaps nearest A. flexuosa (Marshall), but that species has a longer canal and shows decided geronticism in its sculpture, whereas these Clifden species all appear hale and vigorous.

Austrofusus (Neocola) beta n. sp. (Plate 57, figs. 5, 6.)

A direct descendant of A. alpha, occurring in the next set of beds at the same locality. Distinguished from its predecessor by a tendency to stronger tuberculation, giving the peripheral keel a more angular aspect and the whole shell a broader outline; the spirals are less raised and have lost their regularity, three or four on the base becoming stronger and more prominent, and indicating a low second keel, while the three on upper keel are closer but hardly stronger than the others. Spire-whorls often slightly shorter than in previous species, with keel a little below middle.

Height, 30 mm.; diameter, 17 mm.

Locality.—Clifden, Southland, bands 6A (type) and 6B (Ototaran?); very common. Also from Pourakino, Riverton.

Type in Finlay collection.

Austrofusus (Neocola) gamma n. sp. (Plate 57, figs. 7, 8.)

Represents the culmination, at this locality, of the alpha-beta line. The tendency towards prickly sculpture, manifest on the middle whorls of the two preceding species, has here continued even during the formation of the body-whorl, which bears on the peripheral keel a row of rather sharp serrations, especially prickly on all spire-whorls. Irregularity in spiral sculpture has also much increased, three of the basal cords being very swollen, giving the body-whorl almost a subquadrilateral outline; these cords are also rendered distinctly prickly by the axial ribs. Upper keel marked by a very strong cord.

Height, 23 mm.; diameter, 15 mm. (type). Height, 26 mm.; diameter, 15 mm. (paratype).

Locality.—Clifden, Southland, band 6C (Ototaran?); common.

Type in Finlay collection.

A few specimens from the same locality but in still higher beds (7A and 7B) seem also referable to this form, but have slightly thinner spirals, and are mostly about twice the size of the typical forms from 6C. I hesitate to erect a further species on the slight amount of poor material available; the differences seen may well be inconstant.

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Austrofusus (Neocola) apudalpha n. sp. (Plate 57, figs. 9, 10.)

Shell of the same general build as the preceding forms, but with rather longer canal, more compressed body-whorl, and weaker fasciole. Apex typical, adult whorls 6, medially bluntly keeled. 11–12 axial ribs per whorl, very similar in development to those of A. alpha, but higher and more persistent on body-whorl, often extending half-way over base and shoulder. A second keel indicated a little way below first, much nearer to it than in the Clifden shells; below this the base rapidly contracts. Spirals prominent and cord-like, almost equal and equidistant over shoulder and keels, but a trifle stronger and wider apart on base, with one interstitial riblet; practically similar in number and arrangement to those of A. alpha. Aperture small but not compressed, outer lip thickened, and with many short linear ridges within. Pillar straight, strongly twisted below, forming a fairly long canal, bent to the left and not deeply notched. Fasciole strong, but not prominently keeled.

Height, 25 mm. (estimated); diameter, 16 mm. (type). Height, 32 mm.; diameter, 19 mm. (figured paratype, Blue Cliffs).

Locality.—Otiake, sandy beds above the limestone (Awamoan) (type); also Blue Cliffs; common.

Type in Finlay collection.

This species has a weaker fasciole and carina, and longer snout, than the typical forms, and it, together with related species, may later prove separable from Neocola.

Austrofusus (Nassicola) nassa n. sp. (Plate 56, figs. 8, 9.)

Shell rather small, Cominelliform, fairly solid. Apex typical, 6 adult whorls, bluntly keeled above the middle, shoulder concave, remainder of whorl vertical, base rather convex. On body-whorl a second keel is very faintly indicated but is masked by inflation of base. 13–14 axial ribs per whorl, extending over early whorls, but stopping just above keel from antepenultimate whorl onwards; continuing half-way over base on body-whorl; raised into blunt swellings on keel, especially on last whorl. 10–12 spirals on penultimate whorl, 25–30 on body-whorl, low, flattish, and often grouped in pairs or triplets, with linear interstices, so that space below keel on body-whorl appears to be cut up by about 10 distant grooves. Aperture not contracted, rather wide near canal, which is short, rather indefinite, and strongly notched upwards and to left. Outer lip crenulated by the grooves and, in thickened examples, with many internal lirae. Pillar straight, sharply bent to left low down. Fasciole strong, with a sharp but not high carina. In common with many other species of the genus, the shell has a slight Stromboid notch in outer lip close to canal, shown by growth-lines when lip is imperfect.

Height, 25 mm.; diameter, 14 mm.

Locality.—Clifden, Southland, band 6A (Ototaran?); several shells.

Type in Finlay collection.

Distinguished from the following species chiefly by more numerous and therefore closer axial ribs (which must be counted on corresponding whorls of adult shells, as they increase slightly in number on earlier whorls), less prominent nodulation on keel, more or less distinct double or triple grouping of spirals, and greater inflation of base.

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Austrofusus (Nassicola) contractus n. sp. (Plate 56, figs. 10, 11.)

This species apparently grows to a larger size than its progenitor, quite small examples of which are often found with a thickened and lirate outer lip; other differences already noted. It forms a link between it and A. costatus (Hutton), being of about the same size, with similar very lowly convex base (and with stronger indication of a second keel than in A. nassa). There is hardly any appearance of grouping of spirals, which are less raised and closer than in A. costatus. Both contractus and nassa have a relatively higher more exsert spire, a more concave shoulder, and a higher peripheral keel than A. costatus, the carina of this species being usually below middle of whorls. The Clifden species are, however, almost certainly directly ancestral to Hutton's shell, an example of which (from Target Gully) is here figured for comparison (Plate 56, fig. 12). Hutton's figure of the type (from Mount Harris) (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 9, pl. 16, fig. 2, 1876) is poor, the aperture being too much contracted, and the canal too long, straight, and distinct.

Height, 26 mm.; diameter, 15 mm. (type). Height, 34 mm.; diameter, 19.5 mm. (figured paratype).

Locality.—Clifden, Southland, band 7 (Hutchinsonian); several specimens.

Type in Finlay collection.

Austrofusus (Nassicola) magnificus n. sp. (Plate 57, figs. 11, 12.)

Shell large, spinose, pagodiform. Apex and early whorls much worn. Six whorls remain (probably 2–3 and the embryo are lost), with a strong not high medial carina, studded with sharp high and thick spines on all whorls but especially on the last, 10, 11, and 12 on body-whorl and next two whorls respectively. Spines vertically compressed, somewhat truncated in front and with a medial ridge behind, generally directed a little backwards, and about twice their thickness apart. Emerging from suture is a second keel, prominent, but lower than upper one, also bearing sharp nodules, but these are much lower and less spiny than the others, almost obsolete on last half of body-whorl, usually just visible at suture on spire-whorls, and strongly undulating the suture. Spines connected on all whorls but last by very low thickish axial ribs, extending neither above nor below them; interspaces about twice their width and distinctly sunken. Dense and fine spirals cover whole surface, especially on shoulder; they are of uneven strength and finely wavy; on base the finer threads are very indistinct, but some 16–18 spirals are rather wider and more conspicuous; all, however, are hardly raised above surface; an intermittent strong cord traverses centre of spines on both keels. Growth-lines prominent but not raised, dense and fine; retrocurrent from suture and forming a deep narrow sinus on the spines. Spire about equal in height to aperture, staged. Aperture pyriform, rather ample for the genus; outer lip almost regularly curved, not much thickened, feebly multilirate within. A posterior channel and slight vertical sinus above. Parietal wall smooth, not excavated. Columella straight, much twisted far down to form with outer lip a short deep and rather indistinct canal, strongly flexed to left and with a deep narrow notch tending upwards and laterally. Fasciole rather narrow, raised and prominent, margined by a low but sharp carina.

Height, 55 mm.; diameter, 36 mm.

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Locality.—Olifden, Southland, band 6C (Ototaran?); one specimen. Also a spire fragment from band 7B (Hutchinsonian).

Type in Finlay collection.

Apparently not closely related to any other species of the genus, though evidently referable to the “costatus” group. Style of sculpture very reminiscent of Struthiolaria spinosa Hector.

Zelandiella fatua n. sp. (Plate 58, figs. 17, 18.)

Shell like a Sycum in shape, tumid, rather solid, heavily calloused over columella area. Apex and early whorls much rubbed, but probably about 6 adult whorls of growth. Whorls rounded, without carinae; a slight depression below suture and another weaker one on base, giving the impression of a sutural swelling and a peripheral tumidity. Traces of weak and blunt axial ribs (15–16 per whorl) remain on the eroded early whorls, but last two whorls seem to have had no axial sculpture. Spirals prominent, distant, cord-like, quite thin, 2–5 times their width apart, but appearing rather uniformly distributed, 4–5 on penultimate, 20 on body whorl. Towards aperture body-whorl is pushed away from penultimate by callus-deposit that begins to form interiorly at suture. During the last quarter-whorl this deposit quickly increases in bulk and ends in a huge callus-pad, filling up posterior part of aperture, leaving only a linear posterior channel and vertical groove. The callus spreads rather thinly far over parietal wall and half-way up penultimate, then, a little below periphery, extends on to base in a thick lip as in Struthiolaria; this is suddenly followed anteriorly by a wide regularly concave channel, over which and most of fasciole the callus is just thick enough to smooth out all details of ornament. Outer lip a little thickened, undulating, and rather expanded, very faintly lirate within. Aperture ample, almost subquadrilateral, rapidly contracted below into a distinct short and deep canal, bent to the left but directed more downwards, deeply and almost laterally notched at base. Fasciole wide and strong, though mostly effaced by callus, bounded by a sharp and high keel, and with a much weaker median sub-keel.

Height, 32 mm.; diameter, 21 mm.

Locality.—Lower Waipara sandy beds (Tongaporutuan?); three shells.

A very curious-looking shell, undoubtedly congeneric with Hutton's Cominella subnodosa, but well distinguished from it by absence of keels and bolder spiral sculpture. Gerontic characters already indicated in that species have here fully developed. Included by Speight in a list of fossils from Lower Waipara (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 44, p. 231, 1912) as “Galeodea sp. Small variety, probably distinct.”

Austrofusus (s. str.) precursor n. sp. (Plate 58, figs. 15, 16.)

This and the following species are so generally similar to A. spinigera (Finlay) and the Recent A. glans (Bolten), and so evidently the direct ancestors of those species, that they are best described by comparison with them. The apex in all is typical, and all have about 14 axial ribs per whorl. The three Tertiary species differ from A. glans in having the axial ribs continuous between the two rows of nodules, which are vertically compressed and rather wedge-shaped; in the Recent shell the ribs are almost obsolete, and the nodules are pointed and appear more spiny. The fossil shells also have a longer and more twisted canal, with a shallower

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notch. The present species has very unequal spiral sculpture; a rather strong cord margins suture, weak spirals cover the shoulder, a strong cord on upper keel with another close above it (the two most conspicuous spirals on spire-whorls), uneven spirals between the keels, a group of three strong cords on lower keel, three massive raised cords on base (with wide interstices crossed by fine spiral threads, centre one slightly stronger), alternating strong and weak cords over remainder of base and canal. Nodules on upper keel are directed slightly upwards, and this effect is enhanced by the slight concavity of shoulder. A. spinigera and A. glans have much less conspicuous and more equal spiral ornament, no sutural band, no stronger peripheral or supra-peripheral cords, and but weakly developed stronger ribs on base (interstitial ribs mostly obsolete, what remain being little inferior to main ribs); the nodules are directed more outwards and the shoulder is more sloping and straight.

Height, 35 mm.; diameter, 20 mm. (type). Height, 30 mm.; diameter, 17 mm. (paratype).

Locality.—Chatton sands, Southland (Ototaran?); two specimens. Also Wharekuri greensands.

Type in Finlay collection.

Austrofusus (s. str.) affiliatus n. sp. (Plate 58, figs. 12–14.)

Related to previous species by its sutural cord, two stronger peripheral cords, and strong basal spirals (which, however, are more evenly placed and graded), but differing in having a straight shoulder and outwardly (not upwardly) pointing nodules. This is due mostly to extension of axial ribs almost to sutures in this species, whereas in A. precursor they cease shortly above keel. The figures, however, show the slight differences between the two species better than any verbal description. Fig. 12 depicts a specimen attaining senility, which is shown (as in the Recent species) by rounding of body-whorl, loss of nodules, and crowding of variceal growth-lines. The adult size of the Tertiary shell is thus considerably less than that of A. glans.

Height, 30 mm.; diameter 15.5 mm (type). Height, 34 mm.; diameter, 16 mm (senile paratype).

Locality.—Otiake, sandy beds above the limestone (Awamoan); several specimens.

Type in Finlay collection.

Genus Cominella Gray, 1850.

Since Iredale's “Commentary” was published the radular characters of this group have been studied by Cooke. In New Zealand three or four groups have developed, and their relationships are not well known. In Australia the “costata” group is associated with the “lineolata” group so closely that some workers have even suggested that they are conspecific. The latter has been stated to represent the “maculosa” series, but the relationship may not be as close as at first sight seems apparent.

The diminutive used by Gray is suggestive of an altered nomination, and this is found to be the case, for in the Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2. vol. 13, 1853, p. 420, Gray quotes Cominia maculata instead of Cominella maculata, thus suggesting that his origínal name was Cominia, and that he

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amended it to Cominella on account of his recalling the prior Cominia of Brown.*

All the New Zealand species, which at first sight seem difficult to divide into groups, may be separated into two major divisions—the nassoides-quoyana association, and the remainder. Despite all the variation in shape, size, and general appearance in both groups, there are two characters which are found in the former and always serve to mark its members off from those of the latter; these are (1) a large swollen embryo, flatly dome-shaped on top, with no succeeding stage of axial acceleration, and (2) the possession of a Phos-like ridge or plait at the base of the columella, distinctly raised in one section of the group, indicated by a more or less deep groove in the others. The latter character is better marked and usually more serviceable than the former: the possession of these factors indicates the relationship between quoyana and its congeners and nassoides with its relatives. Gray's original root name Cominia may be continued by the formation of diminutives and derivatives to cover the associations which are here outlined. The discernable groups in the first division are—

Eucominia n. gen. Type: Buccinum nassoides Reeve.

This will also include the “Miocene” C. intermedia Suter (N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 5, p. 33, 1917) and the Pliocene new species E. excoriata Finlay, E. elegantula Finlay, and E. nana Finlay (vide infra). The Chatham Island Recent form of nassoides (Hutton's “var. B”) is regionally distinct from the mainland shell, while a directly ancestral new species occurs there fossil. These are all moderately large shells, with characteristic spiral sculpture of very dense microscopic grooves, over which may appear a further ornament of very low cords with wider interstices: the axial sculpture frequently tends to become nodulous on the shoulder and below the suture. The Palaeocene C. sublurida Marshall (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 49, p. 455, 1917) seems to belong to this group, which thus shows considerable antiquity.

Cominula n. gen. Type: Cominella quoyana A. Adams.

A group of small shells with heavy axial sculpture, persistent over body-whorl and base, large embryo and columellar groove as in Eucominia, but with rather weak spiral sculpture of fine cords. Here will be referred the Pliocene Clathurella hamiltoni Hutton (Trans. N.Z. Inst. vol. 17, p. 316, 1885; also Marwick, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 55, p. 197, 1924) and several new Pliocene species. A group of shells from the “Miocene”—pulchra Suter, exculpta Suter, denselirata Finlay, propinqua Finlay, praecox Finlay, and pukeuriensis Finlay (vide infra), and probably compacta Marwick (this volume, p. 322)—may be separated subgenerically as Procominula nov., with the first-named as type; in these forms the axial ribs become nodulous on the keel, which is near the lower instead of the upper suture, and the canal is rather longer.

Zephos n. gen. Type: Nassa cingulata Hutton.

Moderately small shells with large embryos, strong axial ribs, and thick prominent spiral cords; the basal columellar plait is very strong, much as

[Footnote] * I have to thank Mr. Tom Iredale for nomenclatural assistance in this case and that of Cominella lurida (Phil.), discussed below.

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in true Phos. With the Pliocene type (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 17, p. 327, 1884) must be associated two other Pliocene forms, Clathurella incisa Hutton and Cominella purchasi Suter. A Recent representative may be the shell Suter identified as Phos tenuicostatus (Ten.-Woods), a record that should be rejected. Suter's specimens are not available, but a shell believed to be the same species occurs off Otago Heads in 60 fathoms and proves to be quite distinct from the Tasmanian shell. Tate and May have commented on the affinities of Cominella tenuicostata Ten.-Woods with some Australian Tertiary species (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vol. 26, p. 454, 1901), such as Phos cominelloides Tate, and for these Iredale (Rec. Austr. Mus., vol. 14, p. 262, 1925) has provided the genus Fax, with Phostabidus Hedley as type: the New Zealand Recent shell may prove to belong here rather than to Zephos.

The second division of the Neozelanic “Cominella” may also be subdivided into groups, of which the “lurida” and adspersa associations are the chief.

Cominista n. gen. Type: Buccinum glandiforme Reeve, 1847 (= Buccinum luridum Philippi, 1848).

This name-alteration of the type species is rather curious, as the latter name is omitted by Suter, yet it is recorded in the early accounts of Neozelanic Mollusca. The correction was independently noted in the British Museum by Iredale and Tomlin, the former naming Neozelanic Mollusca, the latter determining South African forms, among which Reeve's species had been recently incorrectly placed.

C. chattonensis Finlay and C. obsoleta Finlay (vide infra) are members of this group, which may in the meantime also contain the Australian C. eburnea Reeve, though the radulae differ a little. The vertically spirally recurved columella, the strong shoulder, and the nodular axial sculpture chiefly distinguish this genus.

Acominia n. gen. Type: Buccinum adspersum Bruguière.

This species and its ancestors C. hendersoni Marwick (this volume, p. 322), C. carinata Hutton (Cat. Tert. Moll., p. 6, 1873), and C. ridicula Finlay (vide infra) show a tendency to develop a crass almost quadrilateral shell with vertical whorl sides. Axial sculpture, of close rather swollen ribs, early becomes obsolete; the pillar is strongly and abruptly twisted, the anterior notch very deep. Near this group may be placed the two remaining Recent species, maculosa and virgata, and perhaps, as a relative of the last, C. accuminata [sic] Hutton (Mac. Mem. Vol., Plioc. Moll., p. 43, 1893). These are aberrant forms, but at the present time their lineage is not known, and one may therefore hesitate to discuss their true affinities. C. maculosa itself, under the synonymic name testudinea, has been designated as type of Cominella Gray (Iredale, Proc. Mal. Soc., vol. 13, p. 34, 1918), which, in a strict sense, should therefore be used only for these three forms.

Eucominia elegantula n. sp. (Plate 57, figs. 14, 15.)

Shell of medium size, smooth except for dense spirals and subobsolete axials, with large embryo and columellar groove. Apex large and bulbous, of three smooth globose whorls, dome-shaped on top, decidedly asymmetrical. 16–17 weak axial ribs per whorl (interstices shallow and wider), slightly

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Fig. 1.—Miomelon clifdenensis n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 2.—Miomelon clifdenensis n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 3.—Miomelon clifdenensis n. sp.: paratype (band 6C). × 1.
Fig. 4.—Alcithoe regularis n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 5.—Alcithoe residua n. sp.: holotype. × ½.
Fig. 6.—Miomelon benitens n. sp.: holotype. × ⅔.
Fig. 7.—Scaphella pretiosa n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 8.—Scaphella pretiosa n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 9.—Alcithoe dyscrita n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 10.—Euspinacassis pollens n. sp.: juvenile paratype. × 1.
Fig. 11.—Euspinacassis pollens n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 12.—Euspinacassis pollens n. sp.: half-grown paratype. × 1.
Fig. 13.—Austrotoma obsoleta n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 14.—Austrotoma obsoleta n. sp.: paratype. × 1.

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Fig. 1.—Alcithoe phymatias n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Figs. 2, 3.—Alcithoe phymatias n. sp.: paratypes. × 1.
Fig. 4.—Alcithoe bathgatei n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 5.—Alcithoe bathgatei n. sp: paratype (band 6A). × 1.
Fig. 6.—Scaphella tumidior n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 7.—Scaphella cognata n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 8.—Austrofusus (Nassicola) nassa n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 9.—Austrofusus (Nassicola) nassa n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 10.—Austrofusus (Nassicola) contractus n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 11.—Austrofusus (Nassicola) contractus n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 12.—Austrofusus (Nassicola) costatus (Hutton): Target Gully specimen. × 1.
Fig. 13.—Conospira rivertonensis n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Figs. 14, 15.—Aphera (?) scopalveus n. sp.: holotype. × 2.
Fig. 16.—Notacirsa oamarutica (Suter): topotype. × 10.
Fig. 17.—Struthiolaria prior n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 18.—Baryspira waikaiensis n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 19.—Baryspira waikaiensis n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 20.—Vesanula chaskanon n. sp.: holotype. × 2.
Fig. 21.—Vesanula chaskanon n. sp.: paratype. × 2.

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Fig. 1.—Austrofusus (Neocola) alpha n. sp.: paratype (band 3). × 1.
Figs. 2, 3.—Austrofusus (Neocola) alpha n. sp.: holotype. Fig. 2, × 1; fig. 3, × 2.
Fig. 4.—Austrofusus (Neocola) alpha n. sp.: apex of holotype. × 10.
Fig. 5.—Austrofusus (Neocola) beta n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 6.—Austrofusus (Neocola) beta n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 7.—Austrofusus (Neocola) gamma n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 8.—Austrofusus (Neocola) gamma n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 9.—Austrofusus (Neocola) apudalpha n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 10.—Austrofusus (Neocola) apudalpha n. sp.: paratype (Blue Cliffs). × 1.
Figs. 11, 12.—Austrofusus (Nassicola) magnificus n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 13.—Eucominia excoriata n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 14.—Eucominia elegantula n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 15.—Eucominia elegantula n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 16.—Eucominia elegantula verrucosa n. subsp.: holotype. × 1.
Figs. 17, 18.—Cirsostrema caelicola n. sp.: holotype. Fig. 17, × 1; fig. 18, × 1–½.
Fig. 19.—Austrotoma scopalveus n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 20.—Austrotoma scopalveus n. sp.: paratype. × 1.

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Figs. 1, 2.—Acominia ridicula n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 3.—Cominista obsoleta n. sp.: holotype. × 2.
Fig. 4.—Cominista obsoleta n. sp.: paratype. × 2.
Fig. 5.—Cominista chattonensis n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 6.—Cominista chattonensis n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 7.—Eucominia nana n. sp.: holotype. × 2.
Fig. 8.—Cominula (Procominula) nulchra (Suter): topotype. × 2.
Fig. 9.—Cominula (Procominula) denselirata n. sp.: holotype. × 2.
Fig. 10.—Cominula (Procominula) pukeuriensis n. sp: paratype × 2.
Fig. 11.—Cominula (Procominula) pukeuriensis n. sp.: holotype. × 2.
Fig. 12.—Austrofusus (s str) affiliatus n. sp.: senile paratype. × 1.
Fig. 13.—Austrofusus (s. str.) affiliatus n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 14.—Austrofusus (s. str.) affiliatus n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 15.—Austrofusus (s. str.) precursor n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 16.—Austrofusus (s. str.) precursor n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 17.—Zelandiella fatua n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 18.—Zelandiella fatua n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 19.—Neilo sinangula n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 20.—Neilo awamoana n. sp.: paratype (Ardgowan). × 1.
Fig. 21.—Neilo awamoana n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 22.—Neilo awamoana n. sp.: paratype (Devil's Bridge). × 1.

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Figs, 1, 2.—Tugali pliocenica n. sp.: holotype. × 2.
Figs. 3, 4.—Tugali pliocenica n. sp.: paratype. × 2.
Fig. 5.—Tugali pliocenica n. sp.: senile paratype. × 2.
Figs. 6, 7.—Tugali navicula n. sp.: holotype. × 2.
Figs. 8, 9.—Tugali navicula n. sp.: paratypes. × 2.
Fig. 10.—Spissatella discrepans n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 11.—Spissatella poroleda n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 12.—Spissatella scopalveus concisus n. subsp.: holotype. × 1.
Figs. 13, 14.—Spissatella trailli (Hutt.): Mount Harris specimens. × 1.
Fig. 15.—Onustus prognatus n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 16.—Onustus prognatus n. sp.: paratype (Clifden). × 1.

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Fig. 1.—Uber laxus n. sp.: holotype. × 1–½.
Fig. 2.—Magnatica (Spelaenacca) clifdenensis n. sp.: holotype. × 1–½.
Fig. 3.—Magnatica (Spelaenacca) altior n. sp.: holotype. × 1–½.
Fig. 4.—Magantica (Spelaenacca) altior n. sp.: paratype. × 1–½.
Fig. 5.—Magnatica (Spelaenacca) rectilatera n. sp.: holotype. × 1–½.
Fig. 6.—Globisinum crassiliratum n. sp.: holotype. × 2.
Fig. 7.—Spissatella scopalveus n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 8.—Spissatella scopalveus n. sp.: para type. × 1.

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noduling a subsutural ridge, absent on shoulder and obsolete on body-whorl. Very fine dense undulating linear grooves over whole surface, grouped into more or less distinct ribs on base. Spire taller than aperture, outlines straight. Whorls subangled above middle, concave on shoulder, lightly convex below; body-whorl rounded, gradually contracted. Suture distinct, straight. Aperture subpyriform, angled above, open below in wide indistinct canal. Outer lip thin and sharp, with numerous short blunt teeth well inside, a slight subangled sinus at shoulder. Inner lip not raised, but well marked as a thin callus-deposit. Pillar straight, hardly excavated, with a well-marked generic notch, below which it is somewhat raised and twisted to canal. Fasciole strong; base deeply notched.

Height, 31 mm.; diameter, 14 mm.

Locality.—Castlecliff (Castlecliffian); not uncommon.

Type in Finlay collection.

The smooth and graceful appearance, large embryo, and dense microscopic sculpture render this species quite distinct; it seems so far to have been regarded as C. virgata, with which it has little in common.

Subspecies verrucosa n. subsp. (Plate 57, fig. 16.)

Differs from the typical form in much stronger development of axial sculpture. Ribs persistent over body-whorl, though disappearing on base, forming two distinct lines of nodules, one on periphery and another on a ridge below suture, a narrow smooth concave space between. This brings the subspecies closer to nassoides, from which it differs in less-inflated shell, shape of whorls, and spiral sculpture, which in this is not cord-like. All other details as in the species.

Locality.—Same as last, with the species itself, but rarer.

Type in Finlay collection.

Eucominia excoriata n. sp. (Plate 57, fig. 13.)

Shell close to elegantula, of same size and general form. Apex lost but probably large. Differs from elegantula in strength of axial sculpture. Eleven strong ribs per whorl, continuous over all spire-whorls, and only a little reduced in strength on shoulder; nodules on periphery and below suture are but very faintly indicated; ribs disappear only near fasciole. Irregular low distinct spiral cords on body-whorl as in nassoides Reeve, overlain by the extremely dense sculpture seen in elegantula, and characteristic of this group. Pillar with a weak groove. Outer, lip not toothed within. Other details as in elegantula.

Height, 33 mm.; diameter, 16 mm.

Locality.—Shrimpton's, Poverty Bay district (Nukumaruian); one specimen.

Type in Finlay collection.

The strong sculpture brings this species near nassoides, but it has the slender shape of elegantula, and no double nodular row.

Eucominia nana n. sp. (Plate 58, fig. 7.)

Shell small, biconic, with nodular axials and many spirals. Apex moderately large, conically dome-shaped, symmetrically coiled. 11—12 axial ribs per whorl, strong on spire-whorls (but much diminished on shoulder), almost reduced to nodules on periphery of body-whorl, quite absent on base;

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interstices twice their width. Regular equal low spiral cords over whole surface, about 10 on penultimate whorl, 20 on body-whorl; interstices of same width. Spire equals aperture in height, sides straight. Whorls medially bluntly angular, shoulder concave, faintly convex below; base almost regularly tapering. Suture distinct, the whorls clasping. Aperture subpyriform, sharply and narrowly angled above, open below in a rather long distinct canal, not deeply notched behind. Outer lip thin and sharp, much thickened and with short thin teeth inside. Inner lip distinct, a trifle excavated. Pillar roundly hollowed above, with a faint groove below and apparently a feeble blunt ridge above it.

Height, 15 mm.; diameter, 7.5 mm.

Locality.—Otiake, sandy beds above the limestone (Awamoan); one specimen.

Type in Finlay collection.

Somewhat like pulchra in size and appearance, but with weaker shoulder and ribs (which are more numerous), different spirals, and symmetrical apex. Practically a miniature of E. intermedia (Suter), agreeing exactly in shape and spiral sculpture, but with more-angled whorls, smaller and more valid axials, and a much smaller test and apex.

Cominula (Procominula) pukeuriensis n. sp. (Plate 58, figs. 10, 11.)

Shell small, with nodular axials and inconspicuous spirals. Apex paucispiral, of two small slightly asymmetrical whorls, sharply marked off. 11–13 narrow sharp axial ribs per whorl, strong on spire-whorls (except on shoulder, where they are generally much weaker), diminished quickly on base of body-whorl, but developing small sharp tubercles on periphery; interstices 2–3 times their width. Spiral sculpture very weak, of many faint irregular threadlets over all whorls (interstices of varying width but generally narrower), three or four stronger distant threads on base. Spire equals aperture in height, sides straight. Whorls medially sharply angled, shoulder wide, slightly concave, straight below. Suture distinct. Aperture as in previous species except that outer lip advancing above periphery and very feeble teeth only occasionally present within. Pillar-groove more distinct, with no ridge above it, and canal much more deeply notched.

Height, 14 mm.; diameter, 6.5 mm.

Locality.–Pukeuri sandy clays (Awamoan); fairly common. Also Target Gully, Awamoa, and Rifle Butts (?) (the single specimen has 15 subnodular axials, but is otherwise similar).

Type in Finlay collection.

Cominula (Procominula) pulchra (Suter). (Plate 58, fig. 8.)

Figured from a Blue Cliffs topotype for comparison with the closely allied species here described. Chiefly characterized by its wide shell, angulate periphery low down on whorls (near lower suture instead of medial or supramedial), fewer axial ribs (9.10), lower spire (generally less than aperture), and strong spiral sculpture, which consists of numerous faint thread-lets on shoulder, 3 stronger and distant narrow threads on periphery, centre one marking highest point of axial ribs, and many distinct distant narrow threads below, gradually becoming stronger near canal.

Cominula (Procominula) denselirata n. sp. (Plate 58, fig. 9.)

Shell very similar to C. pulchra (Suter), apex being of same style but intermediate in size between those of pulchra and pu [ unclear: ] euriensis.

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9–10 axial ribs as in pulchra, though less prominent and reduced to tubercles on body-whorl, interstices 2–3 times as wide. Spirals very dense and fine all over, with linear grooves between, not more prominent on periphery or base. Spire a trifle lower than aperture; whorls medially angled. Aperture as in pukeuriensis, but lirae inside outer lip longer and stronger.

Height, 14 mm.; diameter, 7 mm.

Locality.—Otiake, sandy beds above limestone.

Type in Finlay collection.

Cominula (Procominula) propinqua n. sp.

Twelve axials per whorl, reduced on body-whorl almost entirely to elongate nodules on periphery, and even on penultimate whorl disappearing before reaching sutures. Spirals as in previous species, but rather more raised and prominent, grooves between not quite linear. Otherwise similar to denselirata.

Height (estimated), 18 mm.; diameter, 9 mm.

Locality.—Wharekuri greensands.

Type in Finlay collection.

Cominula (Procominula) exsculpta (Suter).

The unique holotype is generally similar to pulchra in style of ornament, and has the same swollen apex, but is considerably more elate (more the shape of denselirata). 10 axials per whorl, only slightly weaker on shoulder and strong over whole of body-whorl (even more so than in pulchra), disappearing only on fasciole. Spiral ridges very thin, raised and distant, two on periphery and four on base rather stronger, not much weaker on shoulder.

Cominula (Procominula) praecox n. sp.

Shell simulating C. exsculpta (Suter), but with axial ribs as wide as or wider than interstices. Axial ribs 10 per whorl, vanishing half-way down body-whorl, but strong on shoulder. Spirals thin and distant, but rather more raised than in exsculpta. Early whorls not so sharply angulate; apex considerably smaller.

Height, 15.5 mm.; diameter, 7 mm.

Locality.—Wharekuri greensands.

Type in Finlay collection.

Key to the Species of Procominula.
Spirals inconspicuous, very numerous and fine.
Spirals uniform, with sublinear grooves between.
9–10 axial ribs denselirata.
13 axial ribs propinqua.
Three to four distant, more prominent spirals on base.
11–13 axial ribs pukeuriensis.
Spirals strong, raised ridges.
Axial ribs half as wide as interstices.
Shell squat, sculpture weak on shoulder, whorls angulate below middle pulchra.
Shell elate, sculpture strong on shoulder, whorls angulate above middle exsculpta.
Axial ribs as wide as interstices praecox.
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Cominista chattonensis n. sp. (Plate 58, figs. 5, 6.)

Shell of moderate size, sharp-spired, with distant blunt tubercles and spiral grooves. Apex tiny, paucispiral, papillate. 10–11 axial ribs per whorl, present only on lower half of spire-whorls and reduced almost to elongate blunt and strong tubercles on periphery of body-whorl, interstices 2–3 times their width. Surface scored with distant spiral grooves, with irregular finer ones between. Indications of 6 narrow brown colour-bands. Spire as high as aperture, very sharp, sides straight. Whorls medially angled, shoulder steeply sloping, slightly concave, straight below. Base almost straight, regularly tapering; suture distinct, slightly undulating. Aperture pyriform, angled above, narrowly but widely open below as an indistinct short canal. Outer lip thin and sharp, smooth inside. Inner lip smooth, with a practically straight edge, raised below where there is a chink-like opening left between it and the strong roughened fasciole, which has a sharp inner edge and an outer keel. Pillar slightly oblique, hardly excavated above, narrowly twisted and then recurved vertically downwards to a sharp point, with no groove. Parietal wall rather heavily calloused. Canal deeply notched behind.

Height, 32 mm.; diameter, 16.5 mm.

Locality.—Chatton sands, Southland (Ototaran ?); several specimens.

Type in Finlay collection.

A near relative of the Recent glandiformis Reeve (=lurida Phil.), but with sharper periphery, fewer and more nodular spirals. Also somewhat like the Australian eburnea Reeve, but more nodular and inflated.

Cominista obsoleta n. sp. (Plate 58, figs. 3, 4.)

Shell small, with obsolete sculpture and long faintly-notched canal. Apex worn. About 18 elongate peripheral small nodules per whorl, absent on shoulder and near lower suture, entirely obsolete on body-whorl, which is almost smooth and rounded. Body-whorl with numerous flat subequal spiral cords, interstices linear; worn off spire-whorls. Spire shorter than aperture, outlines faintly convex. Whorls rounded, very faintly sub-medially shouldered. Sutures indistinct. Aperture pyriform, angled above, with a rather long oblique open canal below, its base but little notched. Outer lip with fairly strong wide sinus at periphery, and with some thin distant teeth within. Fasciole very weak.

Height, 15 mm.; diameter, 13.5 mm.

Locality.—Nukumaru (Nukumaruian); two specimens.

Type in Finlay collection.

A very aberrant form, somewhat like a miniature C. maculosa, but the details of sculpture and aperture seem to fix its relationship with Cominista though the canal is longer and less notched, and the pillar less recurved than usual. It seems, however, to be closely connected with the Recent glandiformis Reeve, and may be an offshoot from this line.

Acominia ridicula n. sp. (Plate 58, figs. 1, 2.)

Shell of moderate size, squarely inflated, massive. Apex lost. Ten low blunt axial ribs per whorl on the early whorls (interstices narrower), but these very soon become obsolete, and last three whorls are smooth except for numerous irregular spiral scratches, and 3–4 better-defined low close cords on base. Spire about half height of aperture, small and sharp

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projecting from the massive squarish body-whorl, outlines a little concave. Early whorls subangled, later ones flatly rounded, body-whorl subshouldered almost at level of suture, below this convex on left side, faintly concave on right side, due to swelling of upper part of whorl near aperture. Suture canaliculate. Aperture elongate, suboval centrally, running up to a long narrow point at the posterior channel, and open below at the short deep canal. Outer lip thin and sharp, almost straight, much thickened and smooth inside. Inner lip well defined, not raised except past fasciole, where a narrow umbilical chink is formed; a very heavy parietal callus. Pillar massive, straight, excavated above, very strongly twisted below, without groove. Fasciole narrow, lamellose. Canal very deeply notched behind.

Height, 36 mm.; diameter, 24 mm.

Locality.—Clifden, Southland, band 6C (Ototaran ?); one adult and one juvenile.

Type in Finlay collection.

Ancestral to the Recent A. adspersa (Brug.), which also often develops a squarish body-whorl, but relatively more massive, with smaller aperture, narrower notch, and weaker spiral sculpture. Other forms in the same line are errata Finlay * and hendersoni Marwick (this volume, p. 322).

Vesanula chaskanon n. gen. et sp. (Plate 56, figs. 20, 21.)

Shell of moderate size, with crass winged varices and flaring mouth. Apex worn, but apparently polygyrate and mamillate, the nuclear whorl somewhat asymmetrical. One or two faint low broad spirals on otherwise smooth shoulder; an angular frill at periphery, and below it about 11 low broadly-rounded spiral cords on body-whorl, the first two or three with narrow smooth furrows between, some on base with a fairly wide threadlet in interstices, those on canal closer; about 3 cords visible on spire-whorls. Numerous crispate growth-lines everywhere render spirals lamellar. 13–15 rude subobsolete axial ribs per whorl, absent on shoulder, strongest on periphery (interstices subequal or wider), very irregularly developed on body-whorl, fading out gradually on canal. Irregular very crass varices on last whorl of adult shells, about three stronger than others, thick and broad, frilled and lamellar with spiral and axial sculpture, projecting high above surface in front, especially at periphery. Spire not quite equal to aperture with canal, outlines straight. Whorls sharply carinate below middle, shoulder wide, sloping, thence cut in to suture which is not well marked. Aperture Trophonoid. Outer lip with a sharp frilled outer edge, suddenly much thickened inside, with 7 sinuous cord-like lirae running over the rampe to the frills; straight and slightly sloping at shoulder, with a shallow spout-like canal at periphery. Inner lip indistinct, smooth. Aperture prolonged basally into an almost straight narrowly open canal, longer than aperture itself. Pillar almost straight, strongly twisted at origin of canal. Fasciole weak, but marked by projecting terminations of previous canals.

Height, 21.5 mm.; diameter, 12 mm.

Locality.—Ardgowan “shell-bed” (Awamoan); several specimens. Also Target Gully.

Type in Finlay collection.

[Footnote] * New name proposed in Proc. Mal. Soc., vol. 16, pt. 2, p. 103, 1924, for Cominella carinata (Hutt.), preoccupied.

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The sculpture, aperture, and apex give this shell a peculiar facies, and I cannot allot it to any known austral group. A congeneric species seems to be Fusus tegens Hutton, from White Rock River (of which the later Fusinus congestus Suter, from the same locality is a synonym); this certainly has a mamillate, polygrate, symmetrical apex, and differs chiefly in its smaller, more slender shell, and much longer canal. Pagodula vegrandis M. & M. is superficially similar, but the embryo is radically different.

Aphera (?) scopalveus n. sp. (Plate 56, figs. 14, 15.)

Shell small, ovately fusiform, with fine dense spiral sculpture. Apex large, globose, of 2 smooth whorls, the first considerably heterostrophe. Fine dense spiral grooves over whole surface, cutting up shell into low flattish spiral cords, finely reticulated by numerous thickish growth-lines. Spire lower than aperture, outlines almost straight. Whorls regularly lightly convex. Suture subchannelled, but this may be due to wearing. Aperture pyriform, narrowly angled above, with a very indistinct widely open canal below, not notched at base. Outer lip thickened, heavily lirate inside. Inner lip well marked as a smooth glaze. Pillar stout, vertical, with 3 plaits, the upper two very strong (the uppermost more so), the lowest feeble, margining canal; a weak short denticular plait between each pair at margin of inner lip. Imperforate.

Height, 18 mm.; diameter, 9.5 mm.

Locality.—Target Gully “shell-bed” (Awamoan); two specimens.

Type in Finlay collection.

This shell is only provisionally placed; it seems congeneric with Can-cellaria lactea Desh. (=laevigata Sow.) and C. purpuriformis Kuster, but I hesitate to make a new group for them without further knowledge of the Australian shells.

Family Volutidae.

Most of the following new Volutes are not correctly located gencrically. Several need new genera, but as Dr. Marwick has this in hand I create no new groups for these shells, and place them where Suter placed similar shells.

Miomelon clifdenensis n. sp. (Plate 55, figs. 1–3.)

Shell small, strongly corrugated, with subnodulous keel on lower whorls, excavated shoulder, sharp apex, and wide aperture. Apex Caricelloid, of essentially same type as in M. parki Suter, but more narrowly cylindrical and with higher whorls. About 4 ½ adult whorls, very rapidly increasing. Spire-whorls with a lightly concave depression on upper half, lower half almost straight; this develops till later whorls bear a strong shoulder, very prominent on body-whorl, where the subsutural excavation is markedly concave. Effect of this shouldering strengthened by ribs, which, though practically absent (except for growth-lines) on first 2–3 whorls, rapidly develop into strong axials, 12–13 on body-whorl. Ribs begin as growth-ridges at suture, suddenly swell to blunt nodules on keel, thence taper off gradually and slope backwards on base, vanishing just before fasciole; interstices about 2 ½ times width of ribs. Distinct spiral scratchings over whole surface. Body-whorl remains of uniform inflation for some distance below keel, suddenly contracts to fasciole, and thence tapers very little. Spire about half height of aperture. Aperture with subparallel sides or

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inflated at base, constricted posteriorly by shoulder depression. Outer lip sharp-edged, but thickened within. Inner lip not defined, limited to thin glaze. Columella almost straight but oblique, stout and not much tapered below, with 5 plaits, uppermost weakest. Basal notch very strong, Buccinoid, marked by strong fasciole, sharply keeled on outer edge by raised ridge.

Height, 41.5 mm.; diameter, 18 mm.; height of aperture, 27.5 (type). Height, 50 mm.; diameter, 20 mm.; height of aperture, 33 (paratype).

Locality.—Clifden, Southland, bands 6A (type) and 6B (Ototaran ?); three specimens.

Type in Finlay collection.

Miomelon reverta n. sp.

Very close to previous species in all details of shape and sculpture, but with less-developed keel, there being but little shoulder-excavation, and hardly any keel on spire-whorls. Axial ribs developed only on inflated part of body-whorl, quite absent when base begins to contract. Spire, aperture, and fasciole as in last species, but columella with only 4 plaits, all well developed, wider apart and less oblique than in M. clifdenensis; top plait from its position is evidently the highest, so a fifth internal plait is probably not present. Columella thicker at base than in last species, and bent to left instead of right, so that anterior end of shell forms a rather prominent snout.

Height, 48.5 mm.; diameter, 20.5 mm.; height of aperture, 33 mm.

Locality.—Target Gully; one specimen.

Type in Finlay collection.

Miomelon inermis n. sp.

In shape and shell-formation corresponds almost exactly with M. clifdenensis, but totally without axial sculpture. Apex Caricelloid, but apparently not rising to so sharp a point. All whorls smooth except for growth-lines and spiral scratches. A faint keel and straight shoulder sometimes developed on body-whorl, more often absent, whorls being regularly lightly convex. Shape of body-whorl, relative height of spire, inner lip, basal notch, fasciole, and columellar plaits as in M. clifdenensis. Outer lip, however, more flaring posteriorly, due to absence of shoulder-excavation.

Height, circa 44 mm.; diameter, 18.5 mm.; height of aperture, 29 mm.

Locality.—Otiake, sandy beds above the limestone (Awamoan); six specimens.

Type in Finlay collection.

Alcithoe regularis n. sp. (Plate 55, fig. 4.)

Superficially similar to M. clifdenensis. Apex lost, but almost certainly Caricelloid. Spire less staged, more regularly attenuated. Axial ribs of same character but thinner, not nodular at keel, present on all whorls and more numerous (16–17 per whorl), interstices about twice their width. Spire-whorls with hardly any keel, body-whorl with a blunt angulation, but keel and shoulder excavation much weaker than in M. clifdenensis. Anterior attenuation of shell begins sooner and is greater. Spire three-quarters height of aperture, which is as in M. clifdenensis, except that widest

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at keel, attenuated below. Inner lip better marked by smooth excavated area. Basal notch much weaker; fasciole hardly marked, with no marginal keel.

Height, 42 mm.; diameter, 17.5 mm.; height of aperture, 24 mm.

Locality.—Clifden, Southland, band 8 (Awamoan ?); one specimen.

Type in Finlay collection.

Distinguished from the Pareora shells identified by Suter as M. corrugata (Hutt.) chiefly by considerably greater inflation.

Alcithoe bathgatei n. sp. (Plate 56, figs. 4, 5.)

Shell small, attenuated, with numerous persistent axial ribs, slightly nodular on keel. Protoconch of 2 ½ whorls, apical one extremely vertically compressed, so that whole top is flattened. Adult whorls 6, slightly keeled at about middle, concave above, straight below. Body-whorl short, rapidly contracted to base. 12–15 slender axial ribs per whorl, sloping slightly forward from suture to suture, but thicker on lower half of whorls, forming small, fairly sharp tubercles on keel, vanishing only near fasciole; interstices 3–4 times their width. About 16 flattish inconspicuous spiral cords with linear interstices on upper whorls, absent lower down. Spire higher than aperture; suture oblique, distinct. Aperture short, narrow, basal notch weak, fasciole but slightly raised. Columella thick, slightly oblique, with 4 strong oblique plaits and occasionally a fifth weaker one above. Inner lip definite, smooth, slightly excavated.

Height, 51 mm.; diameter, 15 mm.; height of aperture, 25 mm. (type, from band 4A). Height, 49 mm.; diameter, 16 mm.; height of aperture, 24 mm. (paratype, from band 6A).

Locality.—Clifden, Southland, bands 4B (type) and 6A (Ototaran ?); several specimens.

Type in Finlay collection.

Deceptively similar to the Pliocene A. morgani M. & M., but easily distinguished by much smaller size, shorter body-whorl, flat apex, and different details of sculpture.

Alcithoe phymatias n. sp. (Plate 56, figs. 1–3.)

A development of the last species in which the body-whorl bears only a few (but very strong) spines. Protoconch of same style but larger, almost quite flat on top. Shell constantly wider, with spire lower than aperture. Body-whorl tapering almost at once below keel, base outlines practically straight. First few whorls with same sculpture as previous species, but from third whorl onwards axials begin to space out and become evanescent on shoulder, especially on last two whorls, where, in adult shell, ribs become quite obsolete, their place being taken by long stout spines on periphery, 6–7 on last whorl, ribs quite absent on base except in young shells. Spiral sculpture, basal notch, and columella as in last species; aperture a little longer.

Height, 49 mm.; diameter, 25 mm.; height of aperture, 25 mm. (type). Height, 58.5 mm.; diameter, 25 mm.; height of aperture, 32.5 mm. (paratype). Height, 39.5 mm.; diameter, 16.5 mm.; height of aperture, 21.5 mm. (paratype).

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Locality.—Clifden, Southland, band 6B (Ototaran ?); several specimens.

Type in Finlay collection.

Alcithoe residua n. sp. (Plate 55, fig. 5.)

Shell large, with many curved axial ribs over all whorls. Protoconch of 3 whorls, last narrow and encroached on above and below; apex free, granular, and bluntly pointed. Five adult whorls, rapidly increasing, last very large, regularly convex except for slight shoulder-depression on upper half. Narrow curved axial ribs (interstices twice their width) on all whorls, 17 on first, 22–24 on remainder; on body-whorl they tend to disappear on shoulder and thicken at their bases on periphery, interstices consequently seeming narrower. About 5 faint irregular and distant linear spiral cords on lower two-thirds of spire-whorls. Columella and lower part of shell missing; outer lip thick, slightly expanded, with distinct posterior channel and callus-pad.

Height of what remains, 123 mm.; diameter?

Locality.—Otiake, sandy beds above the limestone (Awamoan); one specimen.

Type in Finlay collection.

Though the shell is so much fractured, the size, sculpture, and apex will sufficiently characterize the species.

Alcithoe dyscrita n. sp. (Plate 55, fig. 9.)

Shell small, biconic, with numerous persistent axial ribs produced into regular prominent spines on a sharp periphery. Tip of protoconch lost, but remainder seems similar to that of bathgatei and phymatias. Four shell-whorls in unique specimen, which, however, is probably juvenile. A sharp submedian carina on all whorls, continued as a pronounced peripheral keel on body-whorl, below which base tapers rapidly for half its length, then more slowly towards beak. Shoulder concave, suture distinct, wavy. Eleven axial ribs on all whorls, extending from suture to suture on first two whorls, then becoming much broader and subobsolete on shoulder, but persistent for half the distance below keel on body-whorl; interstices twice width of ribs. On keel of every whorl ribs develop sharp prominent tubercles, strongest and probably high on body-whorl but all broken off, leaving only thick stumps. Spire little more than half height of aperture. Outer lip broken, aperture oblique, with subparallel sides. Columella stout, oblique, with 4 sharp plaits. Basal notch slight, practically no fasciole.

Height, 33 mm.; diameter, 19 mm.; height of aperture, 21 mm.

Locality.—Clifden, Southland, band 6C (Ototaran ?); one specimen.

Type in Finlay collection.

Easily distinguished from A. phymatias by squat form and many tubercles.

Scaphella cognata n. sp. (Plate 56, fig. 7.)

Very similar to S. elegantissima Suter (N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 5, p. 41, pl. 5, fig. 9, 1917), but differs in less attenuated shell, lower spire (two-thirds of aperture instead of nearly as high), much less contracted and therefore less tapering base, and fewer columellar plaits (only 4 in

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both adults and juveniles). Whorls also not flat, but with distinct subkeel just below middle; each of first three whorls bears about 19 slightly arcuate axial riblets, with interstices twice their width. Protoconch of this and next two species as in S. elegantissima; spiral sculpture in all four species limited to faint scratches, often absent.

Height, 55 mm.; diameter, 18 mm.; height of aperture, 33 mm.

Locality.—Target Gully “shell-bed” (Awamoan); two specimens. One doubtful fragment from Otiake.

Type in Finlay collection.

Scaphella tumidior n. sp. (Plate 56, fig. 6.)

Characterized by relative tumidity and short and concave spire. Whorls almost straight, but showing a very faint blunt kee], nearly hidden by lower suture. This and the rather disproportionate widening of later whorls give the short spire an attenuated aspect, and render its sides slightly concave. First two whorls each with about 22 small sloping riblets, own width or less apart, later whorls smooth. Spire about half height of aperture. Base rapidly contracted and much narrower anteriorly than in preceding species. Basal notch in this and next species not symmetrically vertically placed as in S. cognata, but cutting in from side; columella therefore descending much lower than outer lip. Five columellar plaits, uppermost very weak.

Height, 43 mm.; diameter, 15 mm.; height of spire, 29.5 mm.

Locality.—Otiake, sandy beds above the limestone (Awamoan); three specimens.

Type in Finlay collection.

Scaphella pretiosa n. sp. (Plate 55, figs. 7, 8.)

This is the nearest of these three new species to S. elegantissima Suter, being narrow and attenuated towards both extremities, but differs in growth of shell and sculpture. Whorls all regularly increasing, almost flat, but showing slight keel near lower suture, no tumidity in body-whorl. Below keel on body-whorl base is very gently and regularly contracted, outlines being straight or slightly convex, not concave as in S. elegantissima. Spire a trifle lower than aperture. About 17 almost linear, slightly sloping, axial ridges per whorl, present on all spire-whorls and part of body-whorl, interstices 3–6 times their width. Four columellar plaits.

Height, 52 mm.; diameter, 14.5 mm; height of aperture, 28 mm.

Locality.—Clifden, Southland, band 6A (Ototaran ?); two specimens.

Type in Finlay collection.

Distinguished from S. cognata by more fusiform shape, different axial sculpture, lower keel on spire-whorls, &c.

Miomelon benitens n. sp. (Plate 55, fig. 6.)

Shell fairly large but thin, almost smooth, polished. Protoconch Caricelloid, smooth, of about 2 ½ turns, last whorl narrowest, encroached on above and below; apex granular, produced into a sharp high pinnacle. Next three whorls with numerous more or less indistinct slightly curved axial riblets, later whorls perfectly smooth except for obscure and irregular spiral markings. Shell-whorls 5, slightly depressed and concave below

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suture, otherwise regularly convex. Whole shell more or less polished, especially aperture and front of body-whorl. Suture distinct, simple. Body-whorl gently attenuated to base. Spire half height of aperture. Aperture rather wide and flaring, but outer lip lost below. Columellar margin oblique, almost straight; plaits hardly apparent till shell turned side on, when 6 strong plaits can be counted; upper two more distant and uppermost, shorter than others, lowest continuing vertically as prolongation of columella, ending in sharp point at base of shell, considerably past end of outer lip. Basal notch subrectangular, not deep, fasciole broad but almost indistinguishable from rest of shell, traversed near columella by a strong blunt carina, ending just above third highest plait. Inner lip not marked except for a wide semicircular polish extending from above aperture outwards over whole front of body-whorl down to extremity of shell.

Height, 106.5 mm.; diameter, 35 mm.; height of aperture, 68 mm.

Localities.—Otiake, sandy beds above the limestone (Awamoan); one adult and several fragments. Also one apical fragment from Blue Cliffs (Dominion Museum collection).

Type in Finlay collection.

Baryspira waikaiaensis n. sp. (Plate 56, figs. 18, 19.)

Shell of the mucronata line, small for that group, with a very blunt heavy top. A few flattened whorls of the nucleus are just visible through the shining callus. Spire very short and depressed, angle about 110°, top bluntly pointed. Callus very heavy, spread directly outwards as a thick tongue-shaped pad, quite to the left side of shell, not granulose but minutely marked with tiny elongate punctures. The two bands above fasciole are about same width (upper sunken one narrower in type, which has sustained a fracture). Aperture filled with matrix, but what can be seen of it and of pillar agrees with mucronata.

Height, 26 mm.; diameter, 14 mm.

Locality.—Waikaia, in shelly limestone (Ototaran?) one good shell and several damaged ones.

Type in Finlay collection.

Distinguished by small shell, low spire, and heavy callus.

Comitas and Insolentia n. genera.

The genus Turricula contains a great number of widely-differing forms, unnaturally bound together by the common possession of a sinus on the shoulder and a long canal. These two features occur in very many stocks of Turrids, and should not be used as primary generic characters to the neglect of, say, radical embryonic differences. In New Zealand Tertiary beds this kind of shell is well represented, though none of the species is congeneric with Murex tornatus Dilwyn, the tropical genotype of Turricula, and the forms may be very roughly divided into those with paucispiral papillate embryos and those with polygyrate conic pointed apices. For the former I propose Comitas n. gen., naming Surcula oamarutica Suter, from Target Gully (Awamoan), as type (N.Z. Geol. Sum. Pal. Bull. No. 5′ p. 51, 1917). That shell has a two-whorled papillate apex, the nucleus minute, lobate, and flattened down, giving the top a bluntly-pointed (but not acute) appearance, the last whorl developing a strong but not sharp carina. Most of the Neozelanic species may be included here; for the others that

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are sharply pointed I propose Insolentia n. gen., with Surcula pareoraensis Suter (=boliquecostata Suter) as type (N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pall. Bull. No. 3, p. 36; No. 5, p. 52). That species has the protoconch polygrate, conic, consisting of 3 smooth convex whorls, the nucleus pointed, followed by a wider whorl with curved axial riblets.

Zemacies n. gen.

A series of shells from the New Zealand early Tertiary beds, comprising Surcula torticostata, marginalis, ordinaria, all of Marshall, and Pleurotoma hamiltoni Hutton, may be genetically allied to Apiotoma Cossmann, but are larger, less staged, and more slender shells, with a very deep anal sinus on shoulder, the outer lip swinging out far past its origin at suture. Cossmann (Essais de Pal. Comp., livre. 2, p. 73, 1896) remarks that Apiotoma has an “embryon conoidal,à bouton mamillé”; but the New Zealand shells have a protoconch almost similar to that of Insolentia n. gen., regularly conic, polygrate, pointed, with a few curved axial riblets at its close. As I have not seen any examples of the above-named species with well-preserved apices, it is not right to fix any of them as type of a genus based mainly on embryonic features; I therefore describe a new species from Clifden as Zemacies elatior and name it as type. Zemacies and Insolentia are probably closely allied; the Australian Apiotoma bassi Pritchard, though superficially similar, has a different apex, and seems to be a true Apiotoma.

Zemacies elatior n. gen. and sp.

Shell large, very slender. Apex as already described. About 12 spiral cords below shoulder on spire-whorls (interstices twice their width, with a few finer interstitial riblets), numerous fine threads above; spirals continued, alternately fine and weak, all over body-whorl. Axial ribs confined to early whorls, about 20 per whorl, appearing only as elongate forwardly-sloping nodules on keel, vanishing half-way to lower suture; lower whorls only irregularly corrugated and roughened by growth-lines. A low thin sharp cord margins a small subsutural straight and sloping platform as in S. marginata Marshall; below this shoulder is concave, then whorls have a blunt supra-medial keel, then slope slightly in to lower suture. Spire high, as long as aperture with canal. Suture distinct, aperture long and narrow, outer lip as already described, the sinus very deep and narrowly rounded, its apex at centre of concave shoulder. Pillar oblique but quite straight, very long and regularly tapering, no trace of folds. Canal not notched, its base spout-like.

Height, 75 mm. (plus about 5 mm. missing from apex of type); diameter, 17 mm.

Locality.—Clifden, Southland, band 4 (Ototaran); several specimens. Type in Finlay collection.

Very near marginalis Marshall, but differing from all the New Zealand allied species in its greater tenuity.

Speightia n. gen.

Woods, in Bosworth's Geology of the Tertiary and Quaternary Periods in the North-west Part of Peru (p. 106), has described two very interesting shells as Surcula occidentalis n. sp. and S. thomsoni n. sp. As far as can be told without handling actual specimens, these seem congeneric with

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Euthriofusus spinosus Suter (N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull, 5, p. 24, 1917). This is not related to Euthriofusus, as Dr. Marwick, when describing E. tangituensis n. sp., has also mentioned (this vol., p. 320), but is a Turrid, probably of a Clavatuline genus. Woods says that S. occidentalis “shows a general resemblance to the form namedPleurotoma acutinoda by Philippi” but the group is so distinct that comparisons are hardly justified. Accordingly I propose the above name, and fix E. spinosus Suter as type. It is, of course, unsafe to locate extra-limital fossils definitely in a Neozelanic genus from a knowledge only of their figures and descriptions, and the Peruvian shells may quite easily turn out to be only superficially alike and not really related; I would thus name Speightia as a Neozelanic genus and only tentatively assign Woods's species to it until actual specimens are available. The absence, as far as we yet know, of geographically intermediate relatives in both countries, and of ancestral forms, makes one feel somewhat suspicious of their apparent close relation. E. spinosus Suter occurs in the Waihao Downs, McCullough's Bridge, and Hampden beds (Eocene), but commonly only in the first-named, while the Peruvian species come from the Negritos formation, which Woods regards as Eocene.

Austrotoma scopalveus n. sp. (Plate 57, figs. 19, 20.)

Shell moderately large, with strong cancellate ornament, deep basal notch, and keeled fasciole. Protoconch rubbed, but probably as described for A. excavata (Suter) (Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 55, p. 515, 1924). About 24 broadish slightly-forwardly-sloping axial riblets per whorl (interstices subequal or a little wider), starting at shoulder and reaching lower suture, more or less obsolete on body-whorl and frequently on penultimate and antepenultimate also. Shoulder with a few distant fine spiral threads and curved sinus growth-lines, rest of shell with strong raised spiral cords, 5 on spire-whorls, 15 on body-whorl (interstices twice their width, frequently. with 1 or 2 interstitial riblets), slightly undulated by axial ribs. Spire higher than aperture, outlines faintly convex. Whorls shouldered above middle, strongly concave above, straight below. Whorls clasping, suture inconspicuous, margined by a spiral cord above and by very oblique rough growth-lines below, a slight ridge between these and the concave shoulder. Aperture elongate-pyriform, angled above, gradually tapering below to a widely-open rather long canal with a deep basal triangular notch. Outer lip thin and sharp, with a Genotiform sinus on shoulder, curving forward below. Inner lip indistinct, spread as a thin gloss over parietal wall and pillar, which is slightly oblique, thick, bulging a little medially, and slowly tapered off to a point, reaching below outer lip. Fasciole sunken, lamellose, bounded by a low blunt angulation anteriorly and a sharp strong cord-like keel behind, continued from the side of the notch.

Height, 41 mm.; diameter, 18 mm.

Locality.—Target Gully “shell-bed” (Awamoan); fairly common.

Type in Finlay collection.

Austrotoma obsoleta n. sp. (Plate 55, figs. 13, 14.)

Shell with the generic characters of the last species, but shorter and with axial ribs only faintly present on first few whorls. Seven spiral cords on spire-whorls, the upper three forming a very strong subsutural ridge, then a narrow deeply concave smooth sinus space, then the lower four;

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12–14 spirals between this space on body-whorl (interstices wider, deep, sometimes with interstitial threads). Shell squat, with spire shorter than aperture. Pillar more excavated above than in previous species, and canal shorter; other details same.

Height, 26.5 mm.; diameter, 12.5 mm.

Locality.—Lower Waipara sandy beds (Tongaporutuan ?), with Zelandiella fatua n. sp. (see reference, p. 237 of this volume); four specimens.

Type in Finlay collection.

An aberrant form in which axial sculpture has almost disappeared.

Fenestrosyrinx n. gen.

I name Turris nexilis bicarinatus Suter (N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 3, p. 34, 1915) as type of this group, which consists of a series of small shells with strong reticulate sculpture, sinus triangular at the keel, and delicately reticulate apex with the spirals stronger. Of this species Leucosyrinx thomsoni Mestayer is a synonym; I have compared the types and para-types of both, and their identity is certain. The shell has no relation to Leucosyrinx. Suter's subspecies bicarinatus is doubtfully separable from nexilis itself, and the figure is extremely crude, but the name may be retained till more shells bridging the differences are collected. Bathytoma gratiosa Suter is another member of Fenestrosyrinx, while the Australian Hemipleurotoma mayi Verco, Asperdaphne vestalis Hedley, and Daphnella granata Hedley, while emphasizing the number of locations these shells have had, would easily fall into this group. True Asperdaphne is a much larger shell, with different apex and anal sinus.

Stilla n. gen.

Mangilia flexicostata Suter will not connect with any group of Turrids. Nothing like it in Australia is known to me, but I have a new congeneric Recent shell from New Zealand. The minute size, Daphnellid sinus, and simple axial sculpture render this little group quite conspicuous, and I name M. flexicostata Suter as type of the above new genus. Hedley regarded the species as a Nepotilla, but that genus has an extremely deep sinus like Veprecula and predominate spiral keels. True Nepotilla is also known to me by undescribed species from New Zealand.

Vexithara n. gen.

More attention has been paid to Mitromorphoid shells within recent years. Iredale (Proc. Mal. Soc., vol. 12, pt. 6, p. 328, 1917) has discussed these forms and outlined four genera:—

Mitromorpha Carpenter, with type M. filosa Carp., including Columbella dormitor Sow.

Lovellona Iredale, with type Conus atramentosus Reeve, including Conus parvus Pease and C. micarius Hedley.

Apaturris Iredale, with type Mitromorpha expeditionis Oliver.

Antimitra Iredale, with type Pleurotoma aegrota Reeve, including

Mitromorpha lirata Adams and Daphnella crenulata Pease.

Hedley has discussed the Australian Mitromorpha complex (Rec. Austr. Mus., vol. 13, p. 259, 1921), distributing the forms in Prosipho, Teleochilus, Scrinium n. gen. for M. brazieri Smith, and Mitrithara n. gen. for Columbella

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alba Petterd. The Recent Neozelanic Mitromorpha gemmata Suter and the fossil Borsonia brachyspira Suter belong to the last-named group, but there is a “Miocene” group, comprising Antimitra vexilliformis Marshall and Murdoch, Pleurotoma hebes Hutton, and Ptychatractus nodosoliratus Suter, that will not fall into any of the above genera, and for which I propose Vexithara n. gen., with the first-named as type. Suter's reference of P. hebes Hutton to Lapparia (N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 5, p. 40, 1917) is due to his confusion of two quite different shells, a Volute (loc. cit., pl. 12, figs. 11, 12), and a Turrid (pl. 5, fig. 8). The reference of nodosoliratus to Ptychatractus has, as I have already remarked (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 55, p. 500, 1924), little to justify it. Marshall and Murdoch's figure of vexilliformis (loc. cit., vol. 54, pl. 13, fig. 3) and the good illustration of nodosoliratus (N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 5, pl. 12, fig. 23, 1917) well show the style of these shells.

Conospira rivertonensis n. sp. (Plate 56, fig. 13.)

Shell of moderate size, rather slender, with nodular periphery and exsert spire. Apex lost. Twenty-two small vertically elongate nodules per whorl on the peripheral carina (interstices twice their width); no other axial sculpture except slightly curved growth-lines. Two spiral grooves crossing lower part of nodular row; upper half of body-whorl smooth, lower half with a number of grooves, faint above and with wide spaces between, closer and stronger below. Spire half height of aperture, outlines faintly convex. Whorls medially sharply carinate, straight above and below, shoulder steep, then sloping in below. Suture distinct. Aperture very long, slot-like, angled above, open below, base not notched. Sinus typical, fairly deep on shoulder, very gentle curve below. Pillar straight, slanting, with a single interior very oblique twist and deep groove low down.

Height, 33 mm.; diameter, 12 mm.

Locality.—Pourakino sands, Riverton (Ototaran ?); one specimen.

Type in Finlay collection

Related to Conospira * bimutata Finlay (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 55, p. 498, 1924), but readily distinguished by longer and more exsert spire and narrower shell.

Neilo awamoana n. sp. (Plate 58, figs. 20–22.)

Shell ancestral to N. australis (Q. & G.), but thicker and heavier, more inflated, with different sculpture, not so straight on top. Concentric ribs lower, wider and blunter, more numerous on posterior area, which is much less flattened and wing-like, with its bordering angulation blunter and less raised Two other faint angulations traverse it, as in the Recent species. Shell quite thick, tumid, the dorsal margins both sloping away from the umbo. Hinge altogether much heavier and relatively wider, with very high and sharp teeth. Pallial and muscle impressions better marked. Other details as in N. australis.

Length, 37 mm.; height, 21.5 mm.; width (one valve), 8 mm.

Locality.—Mount Harris (Awamoan), type; also Pukeuri, Awamoa, Ardgowan (fig. 20), Devil's Bridge (fig. 22), &c. The common Awamoan Neilo.

[Footnote] * Misspelt “Cenospira” at the reference quoted.

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Neilo sinangula n. sp. (Plate 58, fig. 19.)

Close to the preceding species, but generally with a rounder basal margin, more indistinct and irregular sculpture, very ill-marked posterior angulation, and no secondary angulations traversing posterior dorsal area. Posterior dorsal margin concave, posterior end more produced and winged, the truncation faintly convex, not sinuate. Sculpture tends to be reduced on posterior dorsal area to growth-laminations alone. Other details as in previous species.

Length, 27 mm.; height, 16 mm.; width, 5 mm. (type). Length, 36 mm.; height, 20.5 mm.; width, 7 mm. (paratype).

Locality.—Wharekuri greensands (Ototaran?); not uncommon.

Type in Finlay collection.

Spissatella n. gen.

Crassatella trailli Hutton (Cat. Tert. Moll., p. 24, 1873) is put forward as type of this new group of Crassatelliform shells, to which the majority of the New Zealand fossil forms belong. Talabrica Iredale (P.L.S. N.S.W., vol. 49, p. 204, 1924) applies to the “bellulus” series; Salaputium Iredale (loc. cit.) has no New Zealand representatives; and Eucrassatella Iredale (loc. cit., p. 202) is available only for the large forms such as amplus (Zittel) and attenuatus (Hutton). The “trailli” series, to which belong subobesus M. & M., Astarte australis Hutton, and all the forms here described, differs from Eucrassatella in size, character of initial ornament, hinge, and muscle-scars. The young shell is very like a Salaputium, which may represent an arrested stage in the development of Spissatella, but the hinge is again different. The members of the four genera above mentioned all have smooth margins, while the genotype of Crassatellites itself (C. sinuatus Krueger =G. gibbosula Lk.) has finely corrugated margins like the Australian G. dennanti Tate, which is apparently closely related to the genotype. Not a single “Crassatellites” with corrugated margins has yet been found in New Zealand.

Spissatella discrepans n. sp. (Plate 59, fig. 10.)

Shell subtrapezoidal, rather thin, inequilateral, depressed. Beaks at a little less than two-fifths of length from anterior end, pointed, considerably incurved, directed forward. Anterior end produced and attenuate; dorsal margin almost straight and sloping rapidly at about 45° for about two-thirds height of shell, then roundly angled to ventral margin. Posterior end much longer, subquadrate; dorsal margin slightly convex, very gradually sloping, then regularly rounded off and curving downwards and slightly. inwards to meet ventral margin, which it does (at an angle of about 110°) at extremity of an almost straight low very blunt angulation extending from umbo; ventral margin just in front of this angulation faintly concave, then broadly rounded up to anterior end; posterior dorsal area faintly convex. Lunule not much excavated, long and narrow, its slope approximately same as that of dorsal margin. Escutcheon long, very narrow, practically straight. Sculpture of very fine regular concentric riblets, a little finer on posterior dorsal area, but not forming striae there; about 25 per centimetre on middle of shell, interstices a trifle narrower. Interior completely hidden by matrix, and shell too fragile and chalky to allow of this being removed. Margin smooth.

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Length, 37 mm.; height, 14 mm.; width (one valve), 7 mm.; distance of beak from anterior end, 14 mm.

Locality.—Lake Wakatipu, sandstone below the limestone (Ototaran?); one specimen.

Type in Finlay collection.

A type of shell different from most of the other small species of Crassa-tellites in New Zealand, which have inflated strong beaks, short anterior ends, and coarse ornament.

Spissatella acculta n. sp.

Closely related to previous species, but still more depressed and with still finer ornament. Anterior end not so pointed or produced, posterior end relatively considerably longer, posterior dorsal area narrower. Basal margin straighter. Beaks, lunule, and escutcheon the same. Posterior angulation somewhat wider and blunter, the dorsal area above it lightly concave. Shell everywhere still less inflated. About 30 very fine and low concentric ribs per centimetre on centre of shell, interstices linear.

Length, 44 mm.; height, 30 mm.; width (one valve), 8 mm.; distance of beak from anterior end, 12 mm.

Locality.—Wharekuri greensands (Ototaran?); one specimen.

Type in Finlay collection.

Spissatella poroleda n. sp. (Plate 59, fig. 11.)

Shell depressed, with a narrow posterior wing, strongly convex basal margin, moderately fine sculpture; much the shape of a Poroleda. Beaks projecting, very acute, at anterior third of length. Anterior end fairly long, rather narrowly convex, much as in previous species. Posterior end long and tapering on both sides, dorsal margin lightly concave, suddenly narrowly vertically truncated. Basal margin everywhere markedly convex. Posterior dorsal area lightly concave, with a second sharp angulation near the dorsal margin. Shell of regular inflation, not depressed near angulation. About 14 lowly rounded narrow ribs per centimetre in centre of shell, interstices narrower but not linear, ribs ceasing at angulation, dorsal area only lamellose. Hinge and interior as in C. trailli Hutt. Margin smooth, narrowly bevelled.

Length, 41 mm.; height, 26 mm.; width (one valve), 6.5 mm.; distance of beak from anterior end, 14 mm.

Locality.—Chatton sands (Ototaran ?); one specimen.

Type in Finlay collection.

Related to C. subobesus Marsh. & Murd., and to the following species, but characterized by shape and thin depressed shell.

Spissatella trailli (Hutton, 1873). (Plate 59, figs. 13, 14.)

For “synonymy”—in this case, confusion with S. obesa (A. Ad.)—and description of type specimen, see Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 2, p. 48, 1914. Easily distinguished from S. obesa (A. Ad.) (if one may judge from the description and figure of that shell, no specimen of which has since been found by local collectors, and which may be, as Iredale suggests, not Neozelanic at all, but a juvenile Australian Eucrassatellites, perhaps the Queensland cumingii A. Ad.) by different shape and finer sculpture

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There are 13 rather raised, rounded, concentric sulci per centimetre in centre of shell, interstices furrow-like, a little narrower. This is the common Awamoan “Crassatellites.”

Type in N.Z. Geological Survey collection.

Spissatella clifdenensis n. sp.

Closely related to the previous species, but more massive, shorter and higher (and therefore less “tailed”), with rather weaker sculpture. Beaks very high and strong; no concave depression near posterior angulation, which is rather sharp; basal and posterior dorsal margins generally quite straight; posterior end more broadly truncated. Fourteen lowly rounded ribs per centimetre in centre of valves, interstices not quite linear. Other details as in C. trailli.

Length, 39 mm.; height, 30 mm.; width (one valve), 9.5 mm.; distance of beak from anterior end, 15 mm.

Locality.—Clifden, Southland, bands 4 (type), 6A, and 6B (Ototaran?); not uncommon.

Type in Finlay collection.

Spissatella scopalveus n. sp. (Plate 60, figs. 7, 8.)

Shell close to C. trailli, but perfectly smooth, wedge-shaped posteriorly. For about 1 cm. or less from umbo there are concentric sulci as in trailli; rest of shell quite smooth except for growth-striae and occasional weak corrugations. Beaks rather incurved, a little blunted. Shell moderately tumid, flatly depressed postero-medially. Posterior truncation very oblique, making posterior end pointed and wedge-shaped. Margin not bevelled interiorly, rounded, and with a faint groove inside. Otherwise similar to trailli.

Length, 46 mm.; height, 32 mm.; width (one valve), 11 mm.; distance of beak from anterior end, 17 mm.

Locality.—Target Gully “shell-bed” alone (Awamoan); common.

Type in Finlay collection.

A curious smooth and produced local form.

Subspecies concisus n. subsp. (Plate 59, fig. 12.)

Differs only in being very short while of same height, and having posterior dorsal area and truncation considerably narrower. Basal margin slopes rapidly up to truncation.

Length, 38 mm.; height, 32 mm.; width (one valve), 10.5 mm.; distance of beaks from anterior end, 15 mm.

Locality.—Same as last, but much rarer.

Somewhat the shape of C. clifdenensis nov., but still more abbreviated and quite smooth.