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Volume 56, 1926
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Genus Cominella Gray, 1850.

Since Iredale's “Commentary” was published the radular characters of this group have been studied by Cooke. In New Zealand three or four groups have developed, and their relationships are not well known. In Australia the “costata” group is associated with the “lineolata” group so closely that some workers have even suggested that they are conspecific. The latter has been stated to represent the “maculosa” series, but the relationship may not be as close as at first sight seems apparent.

The diminutive used by Gray is suggestive of an altered nomination, and this is found to be the case, for in the Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2. vol. 13, 1853, p. 420, Gray quotes Cominia maculata instead of Cominella maculata, thus suggesting that his origínal name was Cominia, and that he

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amended it to Cominella on account of his recalling the prior Cominia of Brown.*

All the New Zealand species, which at first sight seem difficult to divide into groups, may be separated into two major divisions—the nassoides-quoyana association, and the remainder. Despite all the variation in shape, size, and general appearance in both groups, there are two characters which are found in the former and always serve to mark its members off from those of the latter; these are (1) a large swollen embryo, flatly dome-shaped on top, with no succeeding stage of axial acceleration, and (2) the possession of a Phos-like ridge or plait at the base of the columella, distinctly raised in one section of the group, indicated by a more or less deep groove in the others. The latter character is better marked and usually more serviceable than the former: the possession of these factors indicates the relationship between quoyana and its congeners and nassoides with its relatives. Gray's original root name Cominia may be continued by the formation of diminutives and derivatives to cover the associations which are here outlined. The discernable groups in the first division are—

Eucominia n. gen. Type: Buccinum nassoides Reeve.

This will also include the “Miocene” C. intermedia Suter (N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 5, p. 33, 1917) and the Pliocene new species E. excoriata Finlay, E. elegantula Finlay, and E. nana Finlay (vide infra). The Chatham Island Recent form of nassoides (Hutton's “var. B”) is regionally distinct from the mainland shell, while a directly ancestral new species occurs there fossil. These are all moderately large shells, with characteristic spiral sculpture of very dense microscopic grooves, over which may appear a further ornament of very low cords with wider interstices: the axial sculpture frequently tends to become nodulous on the shoulder and below the suture. The Palaeocene C. sublurida Marshall (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 49, p. 455, 1917) seems to belong to this group, which thus shows considerable antiquity.

Cominula n. gen. Type: Cominella quoyana A. Adams.

A group of small shells with heavy axial sculpture, persistent over body-whorl and base, large embryo and columellar groove as in Eucominia, but with rather weak spiral sculpture of fine cords. Here will be referred the Pliocene Clathurella hamiltoni Hutton (Trans. N.Z. Inst. vol. 17, p. 316, 1885; also Marwick, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 55, p. 197, 1924) and several new Pliocene species. A group of shells from the “Miocene”—pulchra Suter, exculpta Suter, denselirata Finlay, propinqua Finlay, praecox Finlay, and pukeuriensis Finlay (vide infra), and probably compacta Marwick (this volume, p. 322)—may be separated subgenerically as Procominula nov., with the first-named as type; in these forms the axial ribs become nodulous on the keel, which is near the lower instead of the upper suture, and the canal is rather longer.

Zephos n. gen. Type: Nassa cingulata Hutton.

Moderately small shells with large embryos, strong axial ribs, and thick prominent spiral cords; the basal columellar plait is very strong, much as

[Footnote] * I have to thank Mr. Tom Iredale for nomenclatural assistance in this case and that of Cominella lurida (Phil.), discussed below.

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in true Phos. With the Pliocene type (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 17, p. 327, 1884) must be associated two other Pliocene forms, Clathurella incisa Hutton and Cominella purchasi Suter. A Recent representative may be the shell Suter identified as Phos tenuicostatus (Ten.-Woods), a record that should be rejected. Suter's specimens are not available, but a shell believed to be the same species occurs off Otago Heads in 60 fathoms and proves to be quite distinct from the Tasmanian shell. Tate and May have commented on the affinities of Cominella tenuicostata Ten.-Woods with some Australian Tertiary species (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vol. 26, p. 454, 1901), such as Phos cominelloides Tate, and for these Iredale (Rec. Austr. Mus., vol. 14, p. 262, 1925) has provided the genus Fax, with Phostabidus Hedley as type: the New Zealand Recent shell may prove to belong here rather than to Zephos.

The second division of the Neozelanic “Cominella” may also be subdivided into groups, of which the “lurida” and adspersa associations are the chief.

Cominista n. gen. Type: Buccinum glandiforme Reeve, 1847 (= Buccinum luridum Philippi, 1848).

This name-alteration of the type species is rather curious, as the latter name is omitted by Suter, yet it is recorded in the early accounts of Neozelanic Mollusca. The correction was independently noted in the British Museum by Iredale and Tomlin, the former naming Neozelanic Mollusca, the latter determining South African forms, among which Reeve's species had been recently incorrectly placed.

C. chattonensis Finlay and C. obsoleta Finlay (vide infra) are members of this group, which may in the meantime also contain the Australian C. eburnea Reeve, though the radulae differ a little. The vertically spirally recurved columella, the strong shoulder, and the nodular axial sculpture chiefly distinguish this genus.

Acominia n. gen. Type: Buccinum adspersum Bruguière.

This species and its ancestors C. hendersoni Marwick (this volume, p. 322), C. carinata Hutton (Cat. Tert. Moll., p. 6, 1873), and C. ridicula Finlay (vide infra) show a tendency to develop a crass almost quadrilateral shell with vertical whorl sides. Axial sculpture, of close rather swollen ribs, early becomes obsolete; the pillar is strongly and abruptly twisted, the anterior notch very deep. Near this group may be placed the two remaining Recent species, maculosa and virgata, and perhaps, as a relative of the last, C. accuminata [sic] Hutton (Mac. Mem. Vol., Plioc. Moll., p. 43, 1893). These are aberrant forms, but at the present time their lineage is not known, and one may therefore hesitate to discuss their true affinities. C. maculosa itself, under the synonymic name testudinea, has been designated as type of Cominella Gray (Iredale, Proc. Mal. Soc., vol. 13, p. 34, 1918), which, in a strict sense, should therefore be used only for these three forms.

Eucominia elegantula n. sp. (Plate 57, figs. 14, 15.)

Shell of medium size, smooth except for dense spirals and subobsolete axials, with large embryo and columellar groove. Apex large and bulbous, of three smooth globose whorls, dome-shaped on top, decidedly asymmetrical. 16–17 weak axial ribs per whorl (interstices shallow and wider), slightly

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Fig. 1.—Miomelon clifdenensis n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 2.—Miomelon clifdenensis n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 3.—Miomelon clifdenensis n. sp.: paratype (band 6C). × 1.
Fig. 4.—Alcithoe regularis n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 5.—Alcithoe residua n. sp.: holotype. × ½.
Fig. 6.—Miomelon benitens n. sp.: holotype. × ⅔.
Fig. 7.—Scaphella pretiosa n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 8.—Scaphella pretiosa n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 9.—Alcithoe dyscrita n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 10.—Euspinacassis pollens n. sp.: juvenile paratype. × 1.
Fig. 11.—Euspinacassis pollens n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 12.—Euspinacassis pollens n. sp.: half-grown paratype. × 1.
Fig. 13.—Austrotoma obsoleta n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 14.—Austrotoma obsoleta n. sp.: paratype. × 1.

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Fig. 1.—Alcithoe phymatias n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Figs. 2, 3.—Alcithoe phymatias n. sp.: paratypes. × 1.
Fig. 4.—Alcithoe bathgatei n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 5.—Alcithoe bathgatei n. sp: paratype (band 6A). × 1.
Fig. 6.—Scaphella tumidior n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 7.—Scaphella cognata n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 8.—Austrofusus (Nassicola) nassa n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 9.—Austrofusus (Nassicola) nassa n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 10.—Austrofusus (Nassicola) contractus n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 11.—Austrofusus (Nassicola) contractus n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 12.—Austrofusus (Nassicola) costatus (Hutton): Target Gully specimen. × 1.
Fig. 13.—Conospira rivertonensis n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Figs. 14, 15.—Aphera (?) scopalveus n. sp.: holotype. × 2.
Fig. 16.—Notacirsa oamarutica (Suter): topotype. × 10.
Fig. 17.—Struthiolaria prior n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 18.—Baryspira waikaiensis n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 19.—Baryspira waikaiensis n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 20.—Vesanula chaskanon n. sp.: holotype. × 2.
Fig. 21.—Vesanula chaskanon n. sp.: paratype. × 2.

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Fig. 1.—Austrofusus (Neocola) alpha n. sp.: paratype (band 3). × 1.
Figs. 2, 3.—Austrofusus (Neocola) alpha n. sp.: holotype. Fig. 2, × 1; fig. 3, × 2.
Fig. 4.—Austrofusus (Neocola) alpha n. sp.: apex of holotype. × 10.
Fig. 5.—Austrofusus (Neocola) beta n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 6.—Austrofusus (Neocola) beta n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 7.—Austrofusus (Neocola) gamma n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 8.—Austrofusus (Neocola) gamma n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 9.—Austrofusus (Neocola) apudalpha n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 10.—Austrofusus (Neocola) apudalpha n. sp.: paratype (Blue Cliffs). × 1.
Figs. 11, 12.—Austrofusus (Nassicola) magnificus n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 13.—Eucominia excoriata n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 14.—Eucominia elegantula n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 15.—Eucominia elegantula n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 16.—Eucominia elegantula verrucosa n. subsp.: holotype. × 1.
Figs. 17, 18.—Cirsostrema caelicola n. sp.: holotype. Fig. 17, × 1; fig. 18, × 1–½.
Fig. 19.—Austrotoma scopalveus n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 20.—Austrotoma scopalveus n. sp.: paratype. × 1.

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Figs. 1, 2.—Acominia ridicula n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 3.—Cominista obsoleta n. sp.: holotype. × 2.
Fig. 4.—Cominista obsoleta n. sp.: paratype. × 2.
Fig. 5.—Cominista chattonensis n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 6.—Cominista chattonensis n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 7.—Eucominia nana n. sp.: holotype. × 2.
Fig. 8.—Cominula (Procominula) nulchra (Suter): topotype. × 2.
Fig. 9.—Cominula (Procominula) denselirata n. sp.: holotype. × 2.
Fig. 10.—Cominula (Procominula) pukeuriensis n. sp: paratype × 2.
Fig. 11.—Cominula (Procominula) pukeuriensis n. sp.: holotype. × 2.
Fig. 12.—Austrofusus (s str) affiliatus n. sp.: senile paratype. × 1.
Fig. 13.—Austrofusus (s. str.) affiliatus n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 14.—Austrofusus (s. str.) affiliatus n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 15.—Austrofusus (s. str.) precursor n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 16.—Austrofusus (s. str.) precursor n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 17.—Zelandiella fatua n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 18.—Zelandiella fatua n. sp.: paratype. × 1.
Fig. 19.—Neilo sinangula n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 20.—Neilo awamoana n. sp.: paratype (Ardgowan). × 1.
Fig. 21.—Neilo awamoana n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 22.—Neilo awamoana n. sp.: paratype (Devil's Bridge). × 1.

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Figs, 1, 2.—Tugali pliocenica n. sp.: holotype. × 2.
Figs. 3, 4.—Tugali pliocenica n. sp.: paratype. × 2.
Fig. 5.—Tugali pliocenica n. sp.: senile paratype. × 2.
Figs. 6, 7.—Tugali navicula n. sp.: holotype. × 2.
Figs. 8, 9.—Tugali navicula n. sp.: paratypes. × 2.
Fig. 10.—Spissatella discrepans n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 11.—Spissatella poroleda n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 12.—Spissatella scopalveus concisus n. subsp.: holotype. × 1.
Figs. 13, 14.—Spissatella trailli (Hutt.): Mount Harris specimens. × 1.
Fig. 15.—Onustus prognatus n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 16.—Onustus prognatus n. sp.: paratype (Clifden). × 1.

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Fig. 1.—Uber laxus n. sp.: holotype. × 1–½.
Fig. 2.—Magnatica (Spelaenacca) clifdenensis n. sp.: holotype. × 1–½.
Fig. 3.—Magnatica (Spelaenacca) altior n. sp.: holotype. × 1–½.
Fig. 4.—Magantica (Spelaenacca) altior n. sp.: paratype. × 1–½.
Fig. 5.—Magnatica (Spelaenacca) rectilatera n. sp.: holotype. × 1–½.
Fig. 6.—Globisinum crassiliratum n. sp.: holotype. × 2.
Fig. 7.—Spissatella scopalveus n. sp.: holotype. × 1.
Fig. 8.—Spissatella scopalveus n. sp.: para type. × 1.

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noduling a subsutural ridge, absent on shoulder and obsolete on body-whorl. Very fine dense undulating linear grooves over whole surface, grouped into more or less distinct ribs on base. Spire taller than aperture, outlines straight. Whorls subangled above middle, concave on shoulder, lightly convex below; body-whorl rounded, gradually contracted. Suture distinct, straight. Aperture subpyriform, angled above, open below in wide indistinct canal. Outer lip thin and sharp, with numerous short blunt teeth well inside, a slight subangled sinus at shoulder. Inner lip not raised, but well marked as a thin callus-deposit. Pillar straight, hardly excavated, with a well-marked generic notch, below which it is somewhat raised and twisted to canal. Fasciole strong; base deeply notched.

Height, 31 mm.; diameter, 14 mm.

Locality.—Castlecliff (Castlecliffian); not uncommon.

Type in Finlay collection.

The smooth and graceful appearance, large embryo, and dense microscopic sculpture render this species quite distinct; it seems so far to have been regarded as C. virgata, with which it has little in common.

Subspecies verrucosa n. subsp. (Plate 57, fig. 16.)

Differs from the typical form in much stronger development of axial sculpture. Ribs persistent over body-whorl, though disappearing on base, forming two distinct lines of nodules, one on periphery and another on a ridge below suture, a narrow smooth concave space between. This brings the subspecies closer to nassoides, from which it differs in less-inflated shell, shape of whorls, and spiral sculpture, which in this is not cord-like. All other details as in the species.

Locality.—Same as last, with the species itself, but rarer.

Type in Finlay collection.

Eucominia excoriata n. sp. (Plate 57, fig. 13.)

Shell close to elegantula, of same size and general form. Apex lost but probably large. Differs from elegantula in strength of axial sculpture. Eleven strong ribs per whorl, continuous over all spire-whorls, and only a little reduced in strength on shoulder; nodules on periphery and below suture are but very faintly indicated; ribs disappear only near fasciole. Irregular low distinct spiral cords on body-whorl as in nassoides Reeve, overlain by the extremely dense sculpture seen in elegantula, and characteristic of this group. Pillar with a weak groove. Outer, lip not toothed within. Other details as in elegantula.

Height, 33 mm.; diameter, 16 mm.

Locality.—Shrimpton's, Poverty Bay district (Nukumaruian); one specimen.

Type in Finlay collection.

The strong sculpture brings this species near nassoides, but it has the slender shape of elegantula, and no double nodular row.

Eucominia nana n. sp. (Plate 58, fig. 7.)

Shell small, biconic, with nodular axials and many spirals. Apex moderately large, conically dome-shaped, symmetrically coiled. 11—12 axial ribs per whorl, strong on spire-whorls (but much diminished on shoulder), almost reduced to nodules on periphery of body-whorl, quite absent on base;

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interstices twice their width. Regular equal low spiral cords over whole surface, about 10 on penultimate whorl, 20 on body-whorl; interstices of same width. Spire equals aperture in height, sides straight. Whorls medially bluntly angular, shoulder concave, faintly convex below; base almost regularly tapering. Suture distinct, the whorls clasping. Aperture subpyriform, sharply and narrowly angled above, open below in a rather long distinct canal, not deeply notched behind. Outer lip thin and sharp, much thickened and with short thin teeth inside. Inner lip distinct, a trifle excavated. Pillar roundly hollowed above, with a faint groove below and apparently a feeble blunt ridge above it.

Height, 15 mm.; diameter, 7.5 mm.

Locality.—Otiake, sandy beds above the limestone (Awamoan); one specimen.

Type in Finlay collection.

Somewhat like pulchra in size and appearance, but with weaker shoulder and ribs (which are more numerous), different spirals, and symmetrical apex. Practically a miniature of E. intermedia (Suter), agreeing exactly in shape and spiral sculpture, but with more-angled whorls, smaller and more valid axials, and a much smaller test and apex.

Cominula (Procominula) pukeuriensis n. sp. (Plate 58, figs. 10, 11.)

Shell small, with nodular axials and inconspicuous spirals. Apex paucispiral, of two small slightly asymmetrical whorls, sharply marked off. 11–13 narrow sharp axial ribs per whorl, strong on spire-whorls (except on shoulder, where they are generally much weaker), diminished quickly on base of body-whorl, but developing small sharp tubercles on periphery; interstices 2–3 times their width. Spiral sculpture very weak, of many faint irregular threadlets over all whorls (interstices of varying width but generally narrower), three or four stronger distant threads on base. Spire equals aperture in height, sides straight. Whorls medially sharply angled, shoulder wide, slightly concave, straight below. Suture distinct. Aperture as in previous species except that outer lip advancing above periphery and very feeble teeth only occasionally present within. Pillar-groove more distinct, with no ridge above it, and canal much more deeply notched.

Height, 14 mm.; diameter, 6.5 mm.

Locality.–Pukeuri sandy clays (Awamoan); fairly common. Also Target Gully, Awamoa, and Rifle Butts (?) (the single specimen has 15 subnodular axials, but is otherwise similar).

Type in Finlay collection.

Cominula (Procominula) pulchra (Suter). (Plate 58, fig. 8.)

Figured from a Blue Cliffs topotype for comparison with the closely allied species here described. Chiefly characterized by its wide shell, angulate periphery low down on whorls (near lower suture instead of medial or supramedial), fewer axial ribs (9.10), lower spire (generally less than aperture), and strong spiral sculpture, which consists of numerous faint thread-lets on shoulder, 3 stronger and distant narrow threads on periphery, centre one marking highest point of axial ribs, and many distinct distant narrow threads below, gradually becoming stronger near canal.

Cominula (Procominula) denselirata n. sp. (Plate 58, fig. 9.)

Shell very similar to C. pulchra (Suter), apex being of same style but intermediate in size between those of pulchra and pu [ unclear: ] euriensis.

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9–10 axial ribs as in pulchra, though less prominent and reduced to tubercles on body-whorl, interstices 2–3 times as wide. Spirals very dense and fine all over, with linear grooves between, not more prominent on periphery or base. Spire a trifle lower than aperture; whorls medially angled. Aperture as in pukeuriensis, but lirae inside outer lip longer and stronger.

Height, 14 mm.; diameter, 7 mm.

Locality.—Otiake, sandy beds above limestone.

Type in Finlay collection.

Cominula (Procominula) propinqua n. sp.

Twelve axials per whorl, reduced on body-whorl almost entirely to elongate nodules on periphery, and even on penultimate whorl disappearing before reaching sutures. Spirals as in previous species, but rather more raised and prominent, grooves between not quite linear. Otherwise similar to denselirata.

Height (estimated), 18 mm.; diameter, 9 mm.

Locality.—Wharekuri greensands.

Type in Finlay collection.

Cominula (Procominula) exsculpta (Suter).

The unique holotype is generally similar to pulchra in style of ornament, and has the same swollen apex, but is considerably more elate (more the shape of denselirata). 10 axials per whorl, only slightly weaker on shoulder and strong over whole of body-whorl (even more so than in pulchra), disappearing only on fasciole. Spiral ridges very thin, raised and distant, two on periphery and four on base rather stronger, not much weaker on shoulder.

Cominula (Procominula) praecox n. sp.

Shell simulating C. exsculpta (Suter), but with axial ribs as wide as or wider than interstices. Axial ribs 10 per whorl, vanishing half-way down body-whorl, but strong on shoulder. Spirals thin and distant, but rather more raised than in exsculpta. Early whorls not so sharply angulate; apex considerably smaller.

Height, 15.5 mm.; diameter, 7 mm.

Locality.—Wharekuri greensands.

Type in Finlay collection.

Key to the Species of Procominula.
Spirals inconspicuous, very numerous and fine.
Spirals uniform, with sublinear grooves between.
9–10 axial ribs denselirata.
13 axial ribs propinqua.
Three to four distant, more prominent spirals on base.
11–13 axial ribs pukeuriensis.
Spirals strong, raised ridges.
Axial ribs half as wide as interstices.
Shell squat, sculpture weak on shoulder, whorls angulate below middle pulchra.
Shell elate, sculpture strong on shoulder, whorls angulate above middle exsculpta.
Axial ribs as wide as interstices praecox.
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Cominista chattonensis n. sp. (Plate 58, figs. 5, 6.)

Shell of moderate size, sharp-spired, with distant blunt tubercles and spiral grooves. Apex tiny, paucispiral, papillate. 10–11 axial ribs per whorl, present only on lower half of spire-whorls and reduced almost to elongate blunt and strong tubercles on periphery of body-whorl, interstices 2–3 times their width. Surface scored with distant spiral grooves, with irregular finer ones between. Indications of 6 narrow brown colour-bands. Spire as high as aperture, very sharp, sides straight. Whorls medially angled, shoulder steeply sloping, slightly concave, straight below. Base almost straight, regularly tapering; suture distinct, slightly undulating. Aperture pyriform, angled above, narrowly but widely open below as an indistinct short canal. Outer lip thin and sharp, smooth inside. Inner lip smooth, with a practically straight edge, raised below where there is a chink-like opening left between it and the strong roughened fasciole, which has a sharp inner edge and an outer keel. Pillar slightly oblique, hardly excavated above, narrowly twisted and then recurved vertically downwards to a sharp point, with no groove. Parietal wall rather heavily calloused. Canal deeply notched behind.

Height, 32 mm.; diameter, 16.5 mm.

Locality.—Chatton sands, Southland (Ototaran ?); several specimens.

Type in Finlay collection.

A near relative of the Recent glandiformis Reeve (=lurida Phil.), but with sharper periphery, fewer and more nodular spirals. Also somewhat like the Australian eburnea Reeve, but more nodular and inflated.

Cominista obsoleta n. sp. (Plate 58, figs. 3, 4.)

Shell small, with obsolete sculpture and long faintly-notched canal. Apex worn. About 18 elongate peripheral small nodules per whorl, absent on shoulder and near lower suture, entirely obsolete on body-whorl, which is almost smooth and rounded. Body-whorl with numerous flat subequal spiral cords, interstices linear; worn off spire-whorls. Spire shorter than aperture, outlines faintly convex. Whorls rounded, very faintly sub-medially shouldered. Sutures indistinct. Aperture pyriform, angled above, with a rather long oblique open canal below, its base but little notched. Outer lip with fairly strong wide sinus at periphery, and with some thin distant teeth within. Fasciole very weak.

Height, 15 mm.; diameter, 13.5 mm.

Locality.—Nukumaru (Nukumaruian); two specimens.

Type in Finlay collection.

A very aberrant form, somewhat like a miniature C. maculosa, but the details of sculpture and aperture seem to fix its relationship with Cominista though the canal is longer and less notched, and the pillar less recurved than usual. It seems, however, to be closely connected with the Recent glandiformis Reeve, and may be an offshoot from this line.

Acominia ridicula n. sp. (Plate 58, figs. 1, 2.)

Shell of moderate size, squarely inflated, massive. Apex lost. Ten low blunt axial ribs per whorl on the early whorls (interstices narrower), but these very soon become obsolete, and last three whorls are smooth except for numerous irregular spiral scratches, and 3–4 better-defined low close cords on base. Spire about half height of aperture, small and sharp

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projecting from the massive squarish body-whorl, outlines a little concave. Early whorls subangled, later ones flatly rounded, body-whorl subshouldered almost at level of suture, below this convex on left side, faintly concave on right side, due to swelling of upper part of whorl near aperture. Suture canaliculate. Aperture elongate, suboval centrally, running up to a long narrow point at the posterior channel, and open below at the short deep canal. Outer lip thin and sharp, almost straight, much thickened and smooth inside. Inner lip well defined, not raised except past fasciole, where a narrow umbilical chink is formed; a very heavy parietal callus. Pillar massive, straight, excavated above, very strongly twisted below, without groove. Fasciole narrow, lamellose. Canal very deeply notched behind.

Height, 36 mm.; diameter, 24 mm.

Locality.—Clifden, Southland, band 6C (Ototaran ?); one adult and one juvenile.

Type in Finlay collection.

Ancestral to the Recent A. adspersa (Brug.), which also often develops a squarish body-whorl, but relatively more massive, with smaller aperture, narrower notch, and weaker spiral sculpture. Other forms in the same line are errata Finlay * and hendersoni Marwick (this volume, p. 322).

Vesanula chaskanon n. gen. et sp. (Plate 56, figs. 20, 21.)

Shell of moderate size, with crass winged varices and flaring mouth. Apex worn, but apparently polygyrate and mamillate, the nuclear whorl somewhat asymmetrical. One or two faint low broad spirals on otherwise smooth shoulder; an angular frill at periphery, and below it about 11 low broadly-rounded spiral cords on body-whorl, the first two or three with narrow smooth furrows between, some on base with a fairly wide threadlet in interstices, those on canal closer; about 3 cords visible on spire-whorls. Numerous crispate growth-lines everywhere render spirals lamellar. 13–15 rude subobsolete axial ribs per whorl, absent on shoulder, strongest on periphery (interstices subequal or wider), very irregularly developed on body-whorl, fading out gradually on canal. Irregular very crass varices on last whorl of adult shells, about three stronger than others, thick and broad, frilled and lamellar with spiral and axial sculpture, projecting high above surface in front, especially at periphery. Spire not quite equal to aperture with canal, outlines straight. Whorls sharply carinate below middle, shoulder wide, sloping, thence cut in to suture which is not well marked. Aperture Trophonoid. Outer lip with a sharp frilled outer edge, suddenly much thickened inside, with 7 sinuous cord-like lirae running over the rampe to the frills; straight and slightly sloping at shoulder, with a shallow spout-like canal at periphery. Inner lip indistinct, smooth. Aperture prolonged basally into an almost straight narrowly open canal, longer than aperture itself. Pillar almost straight, strongly twisted at origin of canal. Fasciole weak, but marked by projecting terminations of previous canals.

Height, 21.5 mm.; diameter, 12 mm.

Locality.—Ardgowan “shell-bed” (Awamoan); several specimens. Also Target Gully.

Type in Finlay collection.

[Footnote] * New name proposed in Proc. Mal. Soc., vol. 16, pt. 2, p. 103, 1924, for Cominella carinata (Hutt.), preoccupied.

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The sculpture, aperture, and apex give this shell a peculiar facies, and I cannot allot it to any known austral group. A congeneric species seems to be Fusus tegens Hutton, from White Rock River (of which the later Fusinus congestus Suter, from the same locality is a synonym); this certainly has a mamillate, polygrate, symmetrical apex, and differs chiefly in its smaller, more slender shell, and much longer canal. Pagodula vegrandis M. & M. is superficially similar, but the embryo is radically different.

Aphera (?) scopalveus n. sp. (Plate 56, figs. 14, 15.)

Shell small, ovately fusiform, with fine dense spiral sculpture. Apex large, globose, of 2 smooth whorls, the first considerably heterostrophe. Fine dense spiral grooves over whole surface, cutting up shell into low flattish spiral cords, finely reticulated by numerous thickish growth-lines. Spire lower than aperture, outlines almost straight. Whorls regularly lightly convex. Suture subchannelled, but this may be due to wearing. Aperture pyriform, narrowly angled above, with a very indistinct widely open canal below, not notched at base. Outer lip thickened, heavily lirate inside. Inner lip well marked as a smooth glaze. Pillar stout, vertical, with 3 plaits, the upper two very strong (the uppermost more so), the lowest feeble, margining canal; a weak short denticular plait between each pair at margin of inner lip. Imperforate.

Height, 18 mm.; diameter, 9.5 mm.

Locality.—Target Gully “shell-bed” (Awamoan); two specimens.

Type in Finlay collection.

This shell is only provisionally placed; it seems congeneric with Can-cellaria lactea Desh. (=laevigata Sow.) and C. purpuriformis Kuster, but I hesitate to make a new group for them without further knowledge of the Australian shells.