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Volume 56, 1926
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Tertiary and Recent Volutidae of New Zealand.

[Abstract read, by permission of the Director of the New Zealand Geological Survey, before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 8th October, 1924; received by Editor, 22nd December, 1924; published separately, 13th March, 1926.]

Plates 6170.

Contents.
Page
1. Introduction 259
2. Previous Classifications 260
3. New Classification 266
4. Stratigraphical Results 267
5. Systematic Classification and Descriptions 270
Synopsis of Genera and Subgenera 270
(1.) Genus Notoplejona 270
(2.) Genus Lyria 271
(3.) Genus Mauia 271
(4.) Genus Waihaoia 274
  (A.) Subgenus Waihaoia 274
  (B.) Subgenus Teremelon 279
(C.) Subgenus Pachymelon 281
(5.) Genus Spinomelon 283
(6.) Genus Metamelon 285
(7.) Genus Alcithoe 287
References 303
1. Introduction.

The Volutes constitute one of the most beautiful and varied groups of the Mollusca, and include some of the rarest shells. As a result they have long attracted the attention of conchologists, and many subdivisions have been proposed with a view to their more accurate classification.

The modern study of the family dates from Dall's revision of 1890. His paper, though concerned principally with the Tertiary of Florida, covered much general ground, and proposed as a new major classification of the Volutidae two series which were later called subfamilies. This division was based on researches made by Dall into the manner of growth of the animals in their early stages, and was as follows:—

A.

Volutoid series.

Protoconch calcareous from the earliest stage.

(a.)

Trochiform nucleus.

(b.)

Bulbous nucleus.

B.

Scaphelloid series.

Protoconch at first horny. *

(a.)

Caricella type—nucleus with a sharp spike: Voluta ancilla Solander.

(b.)

Scaphella type—spike wanting, nucleus with a scar: Voluta junonia Hwass.

(c.)

Cymba type—nucleus enormous: Cymba olla L.

[Footnote] * “In the typical form the larva is clothed with a cutiqular or horny protoconch probably similar in form to that which when shelly results in the bulbous nucleus of the other line of descent. Later on, but while still in the ovicapsule, the deposition of limy matter begins as a slender cone or elevated point along the line of the axis of the protoconch, and as the larva grows the posterior part of the mantle secretes a shelly dome.” The horny protoconch, being thus cut off, disintegrates, and the apex of the shell “presents a slightly irregular dome, with a slender point rising from the apical part…. In some other forms the elevated point is almost or entirely wanting”; and in a third group “the nucleus is enormous but apparently secondary to a protoconch.”—(Dall, 1890, pp. 67, 68.)

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Cossmann (1899) criticized this method of relying on the nature of the protoconch alone for fundamental divisions, and proposed six subfamilies—Volutinae, Homoeoplocinae, Cymbinae, Zidoninae, Volutobulbinae, and Loxoplocinae—based on the sum of the shell-characters.

These proposals were not followed by Dall in his Revision of the American Volutidae (1907), where he used the subfamily divisions Volutinae and Caricellinae (Scaphella had been dropped, for reasons shown below). In a recent paper on the value of nuclear characters (1924) he has given reasons for discounting the importance which he and many others formerly attached to the protoconch as a means of classification. This does not, however, preclude its use for a particular family, and in the Volutidae nuclear characters when considered broadly seem to possess considerable significance. In New Zealand, at all events, the nuclei are remarkably constant in shells which agree closely in other characters. As might be expected, there are considerable differences in detail of the scars left by the horny protoconchs, caused by slight differences in the actual time at which the calcareous matter began to be deposited. But, apart from this, the general nature of the nucleus is a valuable guide to the systematic position of the shell.

The Volutidae of New Zealand belong almost wholly to Dall's Caricellinae, the only exceptions being Notoplejona (two species) and Lyria (one species). There is no trace of the large trochoid shelly nucleus belonging to the typical Voluta (V. musica Linné), Amoria (V. undulata Lamk.), and Cymbiola (V. vespertilio Linné). These are common along the east coast of Australia, and extend to New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and New Caledonia; but they do not seem to have reached any farther east.

2. Previous Classifications.

The following table shows the different genera and some of the typical species recognized by Suter in New Zealand :—

Specific Name. Suter, 1914. Suter, 1917. Suter, 1918.
arabica Martyn Fulguraria Fulgoraria Fulgoraria.
Subgen. Alcithoe Alcithoe Alcithoe.
attenuata Hutton Fulguraria.
Subgen. Alcithoe Scaphella Maculopeplum.
gracilicostata Zittel Volutospina.
Subgen. Volutocorbis (?) Athleta Plejona.
huttoni Suter Volutospina.
Subgen. Athleta Athleta Plejona.
corrugata Hutton Lapparia Cymbiola Miomelon.
Subgen. Miomelon.
hebes Hutton Lapparia Lapparia.
elegantissima Suter Scaphella Maculopeplum.

Alcithoe Adams, 1858.

The common Voluta arabica (Martyn) (V. pacifica Solander) is the genotype of Alcithoe. Important features of the shell are—

(1.)

The secondary, scaphelloid nucleus.

(2.)

The 4 or 5 strong oblique columellar plaits, sometimes ranging up to 6 or 7, but never below 4 even in the brephic stage.

(3.)

The deep and broad anterior notch of the aperture causing a prominent fasciole.

(4.)

The dilated aperture and reflexed lip of the type species.

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The nuclei of Recent beach specimens are nearly always damaged, but very fine specimens—mostly of the closely related A. swainsoni Marwick (= elongata Swainson)—can be obtained from the Upper Pliocene sands of Castlecliff, Wanganui.

As can be seen, these exhibit considerable variation in shape, especially in the height of the blunt point. There can be no doubt that this shelly apex represents the stage which follows a horny protoconch, and which was named by Dall “scaphelloid.”

The specimen illustrated in text-fig. 1d shows an abnormal condition. The walls of the bulbous top are 0.5 mm. thick, and the chamber is continuous with that of the shell. Apart from this, there are no signs of irregularity in the growth of the specimen.

The nucleus of A. gracilis resembles that of A. arabica except that it is somewhat flatter.

Harris (1897, p. 113), dealing with fossil material, recognized these features and classed both species under Scaphella, doubtfully including in the same genus V. ancilloides Tate from South Australia. He stated that his single specimen of the latter shell was without its protoconch, which according to Tate appeared to be bulbous, and therefore the generic position might be nearer Fulgoraria.

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Fig. 1.—Alcithoe swainsoni n. sp. Apices of specimens from the Pliocene of Castlecliff. × 6.

Hedley (1906, p. 49), in pointing out the priority of V. arabica over V. pacifica, also placed the species under Scaphella. Later (1914, p. 725) he granted Alcithoe generic rank, noted its close relationship to Adelomelon, and stated that records of Australian occurrences were incorrect.

When Cossmann revised the family he apparently did not have access to specimens of the genotype of Alcithoe, for he compiled his diagnosis (1899, p. 132) from two South Australian species, V. fulgetrum Sowerby (Recent) and V. ancilloides Tate (Janjukian), neither of which is closely related to V. arabica. As a result he described the protoconch as bulbous, larger than the first whorls of the spire, and sometimes ornamented with ribs. He also gave a figure of the laterally rolled protoconch of V. ancilloides, and placed Alcithoe as a subgenus of Fulgoraria. This example was followed by Suter, who dealt mostly with Recent shells and did not notice the true nature of the apex of V. arabica as shown by the well-preserved fossil specimens.

The genus Fulgoraria Schumacher is founded on a rare shell, V. rupestris Gmelin, which, in addition to the lateral bulbous protoconch, has a rather attenuated anterior canal which is not notched. Other distinctive features

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are a convex, thickened, not reflexed outer lip with some crenulations, and a columella furnished with from 6 to 10 folds. Thus, although the shape and ornamentation of V. arabica resemble those of V. rupestris, the important differences of protoconch and aperture show that Alcithoe is far removed from Fulgoraria.

Plejona Bolten, 1798.

Suter correctly perceived the affinities of his Athleta necopinata, although his material was exceedingly poor. Fine specimens collected by Mr. R. S. Allan at the type locality show, however, that important differences make it impossible satisfactorily to class this species under either Athleta or Plejona. From Athleta it differs in having one strong anterior fold and several weak posterior ones, all oblique and situated on a pad in the adult; in having a spur on the outer lip opposite the upper row of spines; and in the different disposition of the parietal callus-pad. The columella of immature specimens is like that of Plejona, but in the adult the folds are situated on a thick pad of callus, and the outer lip is thickened, reflexed, and crenulated. From both it differs in having a double row of spines on the whorls, as in Neoathleta, but it is distinguished from all these by the deep anterior notch to the aperture, forming a well-defined fasciole much stronger than that of Athleta. Consequently a new generic division is required, and Notoplejona is proposed, with Athleta necopinata Suter as type.

Suter's recognition of the subgenus Volutocorbis was probably due to Zittel's comparison of his species V. gracilicostata (1864, p. 39) with V. abyssicola Ad. & Rve., a Recent shell which was placed under Volutocorbis by Dall. The New Zealand shell in question is, however, not a Volute, but belongs to a common Tertiary group of Turrids for which the new genus Austrotoma has been proposed by Finlay (1924, p. 515). The relationship of V. gracilicostata to this group was also noticed several years ago by the late Mr. R. Murdoch.

The shell described by Suter (1917, p. 19) under the name of Galeodes maoriana does not belong to that genus, but is a Volute. Indeed, Suter himself (1915, p. 32) classed a specimen of it from Kakahu, the type locality, as Volutospina (Athleta) huttoni var. pseudorarispina. The resemblance to Athleta rarispina Lamk is due to parallelism. The tendency of the body-whorl to embrace preceding whorls and to develop thick callus at the suture is quite a common gerontism in several widely-separated families—e.g., Cominella carinata (Hutton), Uber percrassus (Finlay), Baryspira robusta (Marwick).

The apex of “Galeodes” maoriana has not been completely preserved in any of the available specimens. The protoconch was certainly quite small, but there is no direct evidence as to whether it was scaphelloid or not. On the first conch-whorls the angulation was probably well above the suture, but no specimens show this clearly. Fig. 2a shows a specimen in which part of the shell-substance has been removed. The neanic shell is almost biconic, with a flat or slightly concave sloping shoulder, the angle armed with strong tubercles, which extend axially well down on the convex, quickly contracting body. On about the third whorl the suture follows the line of these tubercles, which soon become shorter, so that the shell now represents the adult stage of “Fulgoraria” biconica Suter. For perhaps a quarter-volution the tubercles are obsolete and the shell is almost regularly rounded, but the suture meanwhile has been climbing slightly above the periphery, so that when the tubercles again become stronger they are well below the line of suture. On the body-whorl a thick callus is

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deposited in the posterior end of the aperture, so that the shell has to curve over quickly to the suture; also, the row of sharp tubercles which are not axially elongated has shifted farther forward until it is much nearer to the anterior end of the whorl than to the posterior. On the last half-turn or so the apertural callus has become so thick that the side of the body-whorl fails to reach the penultimate whorl, so the suture is occupied by callus.

Picture icon

Fig. 2.—a. Mauia maoriana (Sut.), showing stages in ontogeny; × 2. b. Mauia huttoni (Sut.), juvenile; natural size.

Suter's Volutospina huttoni has a similar life-history, though in this case the posterior apertural callus is not so well developed; the row of tubercles does not shift anteriorly, and at very early stages the tubercles can be seen well above the suture. The supposed protoconch of V. huttoni var. pseudorarispina described by Suter (1915, p. 32) is but the eroded tip.

These shells are quite distinct from Athleta, Plejona, or Notoplejona, as shown not only by their life-history, but also by their adult appearance. The adult columella bears always 4 strong folds, never less or more, and no wrinkles; also it is slightly twisted anteriorly, the anterior notch is very deep and forms a prominent convex fasciole which has a median ridge, spiral sculpture is quite absent, the outer lip is thin, and the callus does not spread over the body-whorl. Thus they possess rather the characters of Alcithoe, but are further developed. The new genus Mauia is therefore proposed, with “Galeodes” maorianus Suter as type.

Lyria Gray, 1847.

The presence of an isolated but typical Lyria in Middle Tertiary (probably Oligocene) beds in New Zealand is rather surprising.

The present distribution of the genus, according to Tryon (1882, p. 102), is West Indies, west coast of Central America, east coast of Africa, East Indies, Australia, Tasmania, New Caledonia; while fossil species have been recorded from the Upper Senonian of India, Paleocene to Pliocene of Europe, Paleocene to Miocene of eastern North America, and Lower to Upper Tertiary of southern Australia (Cossmann, 1899, p. 144). The New Zealand species almost certainly came from the north, for no record of the genus or any near relative has been made from South America or Antarctica. The Australian fossil species L. harpularia Tate and L. gemmata Tate are not closely related, for they appear to belong to the section Harpeola Dall, which has a channelled suture, on the rim of which the ribs are raised into tubercles. As far as one can judge by figures, the Parisian Eocene L. harpula Lamk, is the most closely related known species; it is, however, much more slender.

Maculopeplum Dall, 1906.

The history of the generic names Cymbiola and Maculopeplum is rather an involved one. In his paper on the Mollusca of the “Blake” Expedition, Dall (1889, p. 147) discussed the original Scaphella and Cymbiola, pointing out Swainson's peculiar conception of what a “type” was: “In one place V. ancilla is cited with a query as to whether this is the type or not; at another place the author queries whether V. ancilla should not form a separate division, and on the same page refers to V. vespertilio as the type

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of the whole genus…. The ‘best known type’ also figured by Swainson for his genus Scaphella is the S. undulata.”

However, in his revision of the family which appeared the following year, Dall (1890) did not pursue the matter further, but accepted the common usage of Scaphella, with V. junonia Hwass as type.

Cossmann (1899) also adopted Scaphella, with the same type, and classed a group of South American shells in Cymbiola Swainson, with V. ancilla Solander as type; this, too, was the customary proceeding.

As a result of further consideration of Swainson's introduction of Scaphella and Cymbiola, Dall later (1907) objected to their being based on V. junonia and V. ancilla respectively. His reasons were: “While Voluta junonia was included among his [i.e., Swainson's] species of Scaphella, it is obvious to the careful student that it cannot be regarded as congeneric with the forms like V. undulata, which was the type of Scaphella, and which were later named Amoria by Gray; nor with the Cymbiola group, founded on Voluta vespertilio, which is the Scapha of Gray and Aulica of Adams and Crosse. Both of these groups have the shelly protoconch of the Volutinae.” (Dall, 1907, p. 370.) He therefore considered new generic names necessary, and proposed Maculopeplum (type V. junonia) to replace the general use of Scaphella, and Adelomelon (type V. ancilla), to replace that of Cymbiola.

Von Ihering (1907, p. 201) did not accept these changes, because he did not have the necessary literature to verify them. Neither did they appeal to Cossmann (1909, p. 205 et seq.), who severely criticized Dall's action and gave a revised summary of the family. He refused to recognize Maculopeplum on the grounds that Hermannsen had “clearly designated V. junonia as type of Scaphella in 1845,” and Adelomelon because “it remains to be explained to what genotype the name Cymbiola ought to be applied.”

Hedley (1914, p. 721) also investigated the position, his results being similar to Dall's except that he gave V. maculata Swainson as type of Scaphella.

Although the question does not have a direct bearing on the revised classification of New Zealand species, it concerns the use of the term “scaphelloid protoconch,” consequently the writer appealed to Mr. T. Iredale, who most kindly contributed the following :—

“Scaphella was proposed (as given by Hedley) in the Zool, Illustr. (ser. 2, vol. 2, pt. 19, pl. 87, 1832), and Scaphella maculata was figured; Swainson, however, stated, ‘Typical species, Scaph. undulata, junonia, maculata, zebra. Aberrant species, Scaph. papillaris, elongata?’ Hermannsen was within his rights in selecting (Index Generum Malacoz., vol. 2, 1848, p. 423) as ‘Type, Voluta junonia Chemn.,’ especially as he gave the correct introduction of the genus as above. Hedley was therefore incorrect in naming Scaphella maculata as type, even though it were the figured species. Cymbiola was introduced at the same time and place, and the shell figured was named Voluta vespertilio. Swainson then wrote, ‘The second or subtypical genus of the Volutes appears to be represented by this common though elegant species,’ adding ‘As we have deemed it advisable to employ the name of Cymbiola (hitherto used in a specific sense) as a generic appelation for the whole group, we trust that those who may adopt our views will hereafter distinguish the Voluta cymbiola of Sowerby, now in the cabinet of Mr. Broderip, by the name of Cymbiola broderipia.’”

The Pakaurangi shells placed under Cymbiola by Marshall (1918, p. 266) are not Volutes, but belong to the Mitridae, though none of the present genera fit them well.

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Of the two species placed by Suter under Scaphella, V. attenuata Hutton is a much damaged internal cast not even generically recognizable. It should be omitted from our lists. S. elegantissima Suter is a slender shell with a high spire related to the Alcithoe stock, and here classed as Waihaoia (Teremelon).

Amoria Gray, 1855.

Cossmann (1899, p. 120), under Amoria, gives “Pliocene—L'espèce-type dans les couches récentes de la Nouvelle-Zélande, d'après M. Geo. Harris.” This is a mistake; the occurrence recorded by Harris (1897, p. 109) for A. undulata is “Post-Pliocene: Victoria.” The genus does not occur in New Zealand.

Miomelon Dall, 1907.

Miomelon was proposed as a section of Adelomelon by Dall (1907, p. 365) for a small shell, Volutilithes philippiana Dall, which was dredged from 677 fathoms off the south-west coast of Chile. The single known specimen is not an adult, and the apex is eroded, but a number of South American fossil species included in the genus by its author give a better idea of its characters.

Cossmann (1909, p. 214) accepted Miomelon, but, of course, as a section of Cymbiola. This was followed by Suter (1917), but in the following year he elevated Miomelon to generic rank. The South American species attributed to Miomelon often have strong spiral sculpture, and from 2 to 3 plaits, rarely a fourth weak one on the columella. The New Zealand shells such as L. parki classed here by Suter resemble them in shape and axial ornamentation, but have 5 or 6 plaits on the columella, not less than 4 even in the brephic stage. Excepting traces on early whorls of some specimens, spiral sculpture is wanting. Adelomelon has no spiral sculpture, but the columella is similar to that of Miomelon.

L. parki and its allies are more closely related to Alcithoe, having the same general form, anterior notch, and columellar plaits. The most important differences are the strongly spiked nucleus of the former, and the greater tendency to angulation and tuberculation of the ribs in the latter. The new genus Spinomelon is therefore proposed, with Lapparia parki Suter as type.

Lapparia Conrad, 1855.

The genus Lapparia is based on V. pactilis Conrad, a small shell with a contracted base, persistent spiral ornamentation, and a shoulder armed with sharp tubercles. A deep anterior notch to the aperture causes a prominent raised fasciole; the columella is furnished with four strong plaits decreasing anteriorly; and the nucleus is scaphelloid.

Suter (1907, p. 202) placed his species L. parki in this genus at the instance of Dall, who had examined the specimen. Later, when he had seen Dall's new section of Adelomelon—Miomelon—with a spiked nucleus and more elongated shape, he transferred his species to it, in the meantime having synonymized L. parki with L. corrugata (Hutton). The generic change was an improvement, but, as has been stated above, the New Zealand shells are more closely related to Alcithoe, and have been here given the new name of Spinomelon. Adelomelon, Miomelon, Alcithoe, and Spinomelon are probably offshoots from a common Antarctic ancestor of Cretaceous age.

The generic position of one of the shells supposed by Suter to be Lapparia hebes (Hutton), but classed below as Alcithoe angusta (Suter), is a different question. None of the specimens has a well-preserved nucleus, but in size, shape, axial sculpture, and apertural notch they show considerable resemblance to Lapparia. Spiral sculpture, however, is lacking; the columellar

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plaits are less mitriform and more anterior than in Lapparia; and the anterior fascicle is rather more specialized. Consequently it has been classed in this paper under the new genus Mauia, of which it represents a very early stage.

3. New Classification.

The generic grouping here proposed for New Zealand Volutes is put forward with considerable hesitation, for other schemes could be drawn up with perhaps as weighty arguments. A statement of the principles governing this classification will, at all events, make the writer's position clearer.

(1.) The shape of the nucleus is a valuable guide in grouping related shells. Allowance must be made for exceptionally early or late calcification, but where a number of individuals can be observed a general form is apparent.

(2.) The number of columellar plaits is often variable, but there are always fairly strict limits. Thus, among the dozens of specimens of A. gracilis examined, only one had other than 4 plaits; in the new genus Mauia no variation in number was seen except in the species M. insignis, and hardly any in several other species: e.g., A. finlayi. Members of Spinomelon have nearly always 5 or 6 folds, 4 being quite exceptional.

(3.) The anterior notch has considerable systematic value. A shallow notch is a primitive character, and deepening marks evolutionary progress.

(4.) The primitive sculpture of most of the New Zealand Volutes consists of strong, smooth, sharp axial ribs. Remains of an early spiral ornamentation are occasionally seen, but do not assume any importance. Evolution from simple axial ornamentation may follow two paths:—

(a.)

The costae may become angled and then tubercular: e.g., the line Waihaoia allani or W. thomsoni—bathgatei—phymatias—dyscrita.

(b.)

The costae may become obsolete and the shell have a smooth surface: e.g., the line Waihaoia allani—pretiosa—cognata.

Often a tendency is manifested to revert to axial costae or tubercles after a smooth stage has been reached: e.g., Spinomelon benitens—parki—speighti. This is also shown in the ontogeny of large examples of Alcithoe swainsoni, where the penultimate whorl is smooth but the body-whorl shows a return to tubercles.

(5.) The independent orthogenetic evolution of these characters in different groups produces combinations showing a considerable degree of parallelism.

The use of five genera, in addition to Neoplejona and Lyria, is proposed: Alcithoe, Mauia, Waihaoia, Metamelon, and Spinomelon, the last four being new, and Waihaoia having the two new subgenera Teremelon and Pachymelon.

Mauia and Waihaoia are represented in the greensand of Kakahu and Waihao, probably Eocene; Metamelon and Spinomelon are not known until the Wharekuri greensands, perhaps Middle Oligocene; but Alcithoe does not appear until the Awamoan—i.e., Upper Oligocene or Lower Miocene. Mauia is proposed for an early line of shells with a deep anterior notch and a ridged fasciole. Gerontism soon developed, and the suture ascended so high that most of the spire was ultimately embraced by the body-whorl. Waihaoia is founded on the small W. allani, which has simple axial ornamentation, a scaphelloid nucleus, 5 columellar plaits, and a quite shallow anterior sinus. With it are included other shells from a lower or equally low horizon, with more advanced sculpture and 4 plaits, but still with the shallow notch. A series from Clifden described by Finlay seems most conveniently to be classed here. W. bathgatei has a higher spire than W. allani, the axials are slightly angled, and the anterior notch is deeper; the columella, however, is the same. In W. phymatias the spire-whorls are as in W. bathgatei, but on the body-whorl the axials develop into prominent

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tubercles, and the shape is rather broader; the columellar folds are only 4 in number, but the notch is no deeper than in W. bathgatei. W. dyscrita is much broadened, and the ornamentation is accelerated so that most of the whorls are tubercular; the columella has 4 plaits, and the anterior notch has not advanced any farther. This development was only an offshoot from the main stock, which, except for the shortened beak, is still much the same as the Eocene W. thomsoni in the Miocene W. obsoleta.

The new subgenera Pachymelon and Teremelon are proposed for specialized groups; the former have a thick test and a fairly shallow notch; the latter are thin and graceful, for the most part smooth and shining, notch moderate, fasciole not strongly marked. These subgenera, especially Pachymelon, show considerable likeness to Spinomelon, but they have not the spiked nucleus, therefore they have been retained under Waihaoia.

Spinomelon (type Lapparia parki) has been introduced for a number of large shells of oval shape with axial corrugations, a spiked nucleus, 5 or 6 columellar folds, and a moderate to fairly deep anterior notch. The sculpture and the columellar folds are the same as in Waihaoia allani—indeed, the general appearance of the two species is so similar that one is almost forced to the conclusion that they are directly related.

The species grouped under Metamelon have also a spiked nucleus, but they are small shells inclined to gerontism, and are known as early as Spinomelon. The beak is always produced, the anterior notch very deep, and the base of the body-whorl contracted.

The origin of Alcithoe, the only living genus, is not clear. The small Mauia angusta has many of the characters of Alcithoe, but has a rather better developed anterior notch, and the protoconch is not known. Spinomelon is a close relative, but whether each is an independent offshoot of Waihaoia, whether Spinomelon gave rise to Alcitho or whether the origins are from other stocks than at present known, are difficult questions. Each has something in its favour.

4. Stratigraphical Results.

As in previous papers by the writer, the table of stratigraphicar ranges has no claims to completeness. The stage divisions of our Tertiary strata are somewhat in a state of flux at present, and will be, no doubt, for some time. This is due to the increasing knowledge of some of the faunas; but we have still a long way to go before the relative time values of the different stages are accurately known. The European time scale of the table is only a rough approximation.

In this paper the Bortonian includes the Black Point sandstone (type locality), the Waihao greensands and “Island sandstone,” the Kakahu greensands, and the Hampden beds. This extensive series has been subdivided by Mr. R. S. Allan, whose paper will soon be available. The Waiarekan has been omitted as there are no Volutes to list from it, restricted. The Wharekuri greensands are correlated with the Ototaran at a guess; and the Clifden beds are provisionally placed with the Hutchinsonian, pending further information from Mr. H. J. Finlay's studies on the Southland faunas. The Kai Iwi beds have been separated from the Castlecliffian, as a preliminary survey indicates that a useful stage may be recognizable between the Nukumaruan and Castlecliffian.

Acknowledgments.—The writer is greatly indebted to the following for their kindness in lending specimens: Miss M. K. Mestayer, Drs. P. Marshall and J. A. Thomson, Professor R. Speight, and Messrs. R. S. Allan, H. J. Finlay, W. La Roche, and W. R. B. Oliver; also to Mr. P. G. Morgan and the officers of the Geological Survey for valuable information on stratigraphy.

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5. Systematic Classification and Descriptions.

Synopsis of Genera and Subgenera.
1.

Notoplejona: Small, fusiform; spire low; protoconch small, shelly; each, axial rib with 2 spines, spiral ornamentation strong anteriorly; thick pad of callus on body; anterior notch strong; columella with 1 strong fold and several wrinkles; in adults these are situated on a pad.

2.

Lyria: Small, oval; spire low; protoconch small, shelly; strong axial ribs, anterior notch moderate, columella with 2 strong anterior folds and several weak wrinkles above them.

3.

Mauia: Broadly fusiform; protoconch uncertain; armed with tubercles sometimes extended into axials; anterior notch very deep, fasciole ridged, columella with 4 strong, narrow folds.

4.

Waihaoia:

(a.)

(Waihaoia): Small, narrowly fusiform; spire high; nucleus scaphelloid; axially ribbed, often developing tubercles; anterior sinus shallow, almost absent, fasciole inconspicuous or absent, columella with 4 or 5 folds.

(b.)

(Teremelon): Small, narrowly fusiform, spire high; nucleus small, scaphelloid; first few whorls axially ribbed, remainder smooth, and polished; anterior notch moderate, not making a prominent fasciole; columella with 5 narrow folds in typical group, 4 in “cognata” group.

(c.)

(Pachymelon): Small, broadly fusiform, thick and heavy, spire low, nucleus large, scaphelloid, rather globose; axial ribs becoming obsolete; anterior sinus shallow; fasciole inconspicuous; columella produced, generally with 5 folds.

5.

Spinomelon: Large, fusiform; nucleus caricelloid with high spike; axial ribs generally becoming obsolete, rarely developing into tubercles; anterior notch moderate; fasciole conspicuous, columella produced, generally with 5 or 6 folds.

6.

Metamelon: Small, broadly fusiform; nucleus small, caricelloid with sharp spike; spire-whorls smooth, body-whorl inflated, constricted below, generally with long axial ribs, fasciole exceedingly well marked; anterior notch deep; columella with 5 folds.

7.

Alcithoe: Generally large, fusiform; nucleus scaphelloid; axial ribs generally developing into tubercles or nodules; anterior notch deep, fasciole well marked; columella with 4 or 5 folds, sometimes more.

1. Notoplejona n. gen.

Shell rather small, fusiform. Spire turreted. Fasciole well marked. Sculpture of strong axial ribs bearing double row of spines, one below suture, one on periphery; whole whorl with spiral lirae often stronger anteriorly. Aperture deeply sinused next suture and deeply notched below. Outer lip thickened, reflexed, crenulated, sharply angled where sutural row of tubercles abuts. Columella convex with 4 or 5 weak posterior oblique folds and a stronger spaced anterior one. Inner lip with a thick callus-pad.

Type: Athleta necopinata Suter.

Notoplejona necopinata (Suter). (Plate 66, figs. 2, 5.)

1917.

Athleta necopinata Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 5, p. 40, pl. 5, fig. 7.

1918.

Plejona necopinata (Suter), Alph. List N.Z. Tert. Moll., p. 23.

Owing to faulty material, Suter's description of the columella is not correct. On very early whorls there is but one strong plait, well down on the columella; later a second weak one appears posteriorly, and afterwards three others (sometimes more) in succession; the posterior plaits are grouped together, remain much weaker than the anterior one, and the columella is straight until the adult stage is reached. Here the four weak plaits are gathered on to a strong callus-pad, which extends to the anterior plait and tends to obliterate it. The protoconch is not preserved in any of the specimens, but it was evidently quite small.

Localities.—Greensand, Waihao Downs (type); 480, “Island sandstone,” Waihao River; 164, Greensand, Kakahu; 176, Black Point.

– 271 –

Notoplejona lata n. sp. (Plate 66, fig. 1.)

Shell rather small, broadly fusiform. Spire turreted, about one-third height of aperture. Body-whorl with sloping concave shoulder, below which it contracts slowly at first, then quickly, finally straightening again; anterior with well-marked fasciole, bounded above by low broad ridge. Suture deeply impressed. Sculpture of 10 broad low axial ribs with wide interspaces, ribs extending almost to fasciole; on periphery of shoulder, also below suture, are strong tubercles; whole surface with numerous, undulating, spaced, bevelled, spiral lirae, weak over greater part of body, slightly stronger on shoulder, much stronger on anterior constricted part of whorl. Aperture with subparallel sides, deeply notched anteriorly. Outer lip thickened and reflexed, slightly crenulated. Columella strongly convex in adult, with about 5 weak folds, anterior one separated by wider interspace than others. Inner lip with a thick pad of callus burying but not obliterating spines and extending to suture.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 26 mm.; diameter, 14 mm.

Locality.—759, Castle Hill shaft, Kaitangata.

Easily distinguished from N. necopinata by lower spire and more squat shape.

2. Lyria Gray, 1847.

Shell rather small, ovoid, thick. Spire conical. Body-whorl regularly convex; fasciole well marked. Sculpture of strong axial ribs. Aperture channelled above, deeply notched below. Outer lip thickened, with an external varix. Columella with 3 almost horizontal folds, above which are several weak wrinkles.

Type: Valuta nucleus Lamk.

Lyria zelandica Finlay. (Plate 64, fig. 1.)

1925.

Lyria zelandica Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 55, p. 470, pl. 49, fig. 7.

Locality.—Clifden, Southland, 6b.

3. Mauia n. gen.

Shell moderate to small in size, strong, broadly fusiform. Spire generally low conic or conoid. Protoconch unknown but small. Body-whorl large, often embracing most of the previous whorls, contracting quickly to the neck; fasciole large, convex, projecting, bounded above by a sharp ridge and with another rounded central ridge. Suture sometimes filled with callus, which forms a thick parietal pad. Sculpture of sharp tubercles which are represented by axial ribs on primitive species, on advanced ones the row of tubercles is far forward on shell. Aperture broad, deeply notched below. Outer lip thin, simple. Columella with 4 strong plaits.

Type: Galeodes maoriana Suter.

Synopsis of Species.
A. Small to moderate size (under 80 mm.).
1. Tubercles stronger than axials.
(a.) Spire turreted angusta.
(b.) Spire conic, tubercles short, sides of body not convex biconica.
Spire conic, tubercles long, recurved, body convex curvispina.
(c.) Spire immersed maoriana.
2. Axials stronger than tubercles insignis.
B. Very large (over 100 mm.).
1. Body-whorl embracing most of spire huttoni.
– 272 –

Mauia angusta (Suter). (Plate 61, figs. 4, 13.)

1917.

Galeodes (Pugilina) angusta Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 5, p. 18, pl. 11, fig. 19.

Shell small, fusiform. Spire strongly gradate, not quite equal in height to aperture. Whorls broad and low, with a concave shoulder, below which body-whorl is slightly convex then contracted; anterior fasciole strongly developed, bounded above by prominent ridge, and with another broader ridge a short distance above lower boundary. Suture undulating. Sculpture of 7 long strong tubercles, which extend longitudinally as axial ribs almost to basal fasciole below, and often, though weakly, to suture above. Aperture oblong, angled above, with deep anterior notch. Outer lip thin, straight. Columella with 4 rather weak folds, anterior two close together.

Holotype and lectotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Locality.—164, greensand, Kakahu.

The type specimen of Galeodes angusta is an internal cast, but it clearly belongs to the same species as a number of strongly ribbed Volutes which Suter classed along with two other species under his Lapparia hebes (Hutton).

Satisfactory generic placing of this shell is rather difficult. It probably represents the ancestral type of such shells as Mauia, in which the suture in neanic whorls is below the periphery, and which have a similar four-plaited columella, deep anterior notch, and prominent fasciole with strong ridge bounding it above, and another strong central ridge with concave space between. It also resembles Aldithoe, from the typical species of which it differs not only greatly in size but also in the small nucleus and strongly-ridged fasciole. M. angusta may, indeed, be an ancestor of Alcithoe; the highly specialized siphonal fasciole probably indicates that it is not on the direct line, but marks a gerontism that culminates in such forms as M. maoriana, and M. huttoni.

M. angusta, as perceived by Suter, closely resembles Lapparia, but the fasciole is slightly more specialized, there is no spiral sculpture, and the axials have developed along a different line, having become strong and tubercular, while those of Lapparia develop into spines something like those of M. maoriana. Unfortunately, none of the specimens shows a complete apex.

What is probably a related species, though much more slender, occurs at locality 759, Castle Hill shaft, Kaitangata. The single specimen is incomplete, and is mostly an internal cast, so one cannot be certain about it.

Mauia biconica (Suter). (Plate 61, fig. 15.)

  • Galeodes biconica Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 5, p. 18, pl. 11, fig. 20.

  • Fulgoraria (Alcithoe) biconica Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 5, p. 39, pl. 5, figs. 5, 6.

Curiously enough, Suter gave the same specific name to the two shells listed above. The one which he called Galeodes biconica has 4 strong plaits on the pillar and so is certainly not a Galeodes (= Melongena); it agrees, however, in all particulars except size with the type of Fulgoraria biconica. Galeodes biconica has page priority, so the small shell becomes the type of the species. One of Suter's plesiotypes of Lapparia hebes (Hutton) is a M. biconica (Suter, 1917, p. 41, pl. 12, fig. 11.) Sometimes it is difficult to decide whether young shells are M. biconica or M. maoriana, as the latter passes through a stage represented by the former.

Localities.—Greensand, Kakahu (type); greensand, Waihao Downs; Hampden.

– 273 –

Mauia curvispina n. sp. (Plate 69, fig. 13.)

Shell large, solid. Spire low, conic, one-quarter height of aperture. Spire-whorls slightly concave; body-whorl with long steep slightly convex shoulder, which is strongly tubercular on the periphery, below which whorl contracts very slowly at first then rather quickly to a huge fasciole bounded above by high narrow ridge and traversed by strong median rounded ridge. Sculpture: periphery armed with 10 tubercles, at first low and sharp, but increasing rapidly in strength so that later ones are long and strongly curved posteriorly. Suture undulating, situated a little above line of tubercles and on last half-whorl filled with callus. Aperture fairly large, very deeply and rather narrowly notched below. Outer lip broken but apparently rounded, not reflexed, and strongly convex. Columella with 4 high, narrow, spaced plaits. Inner lip fairly well spread as a thin glaze, forming a moderate pad on the parietal wall.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey, deposited by Mr. R. S. Allan.

Height, 72 mm.; diameter, 45 mm.

Locality.—Greensand, Waihao Downs.

This species represents an advance from M. biconica, marked by convexity of the body-whorl, and the development of long recurved spines.

Mauia maoriana (Suter). (Plate 61, fig. 9; and text-fig. 2a.)

1917.

Galeodes maoriana Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 5, p. 19, pl. 3, fig. 11.

The resistant matrix having been cleared from the aperture of the holotype, the columella displays 4 strong oblique folds, the anterior one weaker than the others. This with the deep anterior notch shows that the shell is a Volute, not a Galeodes (= Melongena). A description of the ontogeny and relationship to Mauia biconica (Suter) is given above (p. 262). The embracing, rounded body-whorl, calloused suture, and anteriorly placed tubercles are all gerontic features.

Locality.—164, greensand, Kakahu.

Mauia huttoni (Suter). (Plate 61, fig. 8.)

1873.

Voluta kirki Hutton, Cat. Tert. Moll., p. 7 (not of Hutton, Cat. Mar. Moll.).

1914.

Volutospina (Atheta) huttoni Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 2, p. 26, pl. 16, figs. 3 a, b.

1917.

Athleta huttoni (Suter), N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 5, p. 87.

1918.

Plejona huttoni (Suter), Alph. List. N.Z. Tert. Moll., p. 23.

The shell (fig. 2b) listed from Mount Harris as Fulgoraria biconica (Suter, 1921, p. 64) is not that species, for it has a more contracted convex body and a longer neck; but it agrees exactly with the apex of well-preserved specimens of Mauia huttoni, and can be regarded with practical certainty as the young of that species. The preservation and adhering matrix are not like those of Mount Harris, but are identical with some of the fossils from Trelissick Basin, locality 451a, Pareora beds, junction of Porter and Thomas Rivers. Although the locality-label now reads 475, the 7 has been put on with different ink at a much later date over an original 5. Locality 455 was supposed to be from the Triassic of Okuku, but in a manuscript copy of fossiliferous locality descriptions written by McKay the following note appears: “This collection is wrongly numbered, as 455 is a numerous collection of Miocene fossils either from Pareora River Valley or the Thomas River, Trelissick Basin.”

Locality.—Broken River, Trelissick Basin.

– 274 –

Mauia pseudorarispina (Suter).

1915.

Volutospina (Athleta) huttoni pseudorarispina Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 3, p. 31, pl. 5, fig. 6.

1917.

Athleta huttoni pseudorarispina (Suter), N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 5, p. 87.

1918.

Plejona huttoni pseudorarispina (Suter), Alph. List N.Z. Tert. Moll., p. 23.

The value of this species or variety is uncertain. The shape of M. huttoni varies considerably according to the amount of callus below the suture, coupled with the degree of submersion the spire has undergone. Individual differences are so great that it is extremely doubtful whether M. pseudorarispina represents a constant group. Also, further collecting is required to ascertain if any stratigraphical significance appertains to the respective forms.

Localities.—Broken River, Trelissick Basin; Porter River, Trelissick Basin.

The shell recorded under this heading from Kakahu by Suter (1915, p. 32) is a damaged example of Mauia maoriana.

Mauia insignis n. sp. (Plate 61, fig. 14.)

Shell of moderate size, unequally biconic. Spire gradate, one-fourth height of aperture. Nucleus eroded but probably scaphelloid. Post-embryonic whorls about 4, concave on spire; body with rather narrow but deeply concave steep shoulder, prominently angled at periphery, below which body contracts slowly and regularly to very prominet fasciole bounded by ridge, concave along outer half and with another broadly rounded ridge forming inner half. Sculpture of 20 or more strong sharply raised axial ribs with wider interstices, extending from suture to suture and almost down to fasciole, before reaching which they weaken and bend quickly off to right; ribs are slightly but sharply tuberculate on periphery. Suture strongly impressed, just below line of tubercles. Aperture long and narrow, channelled above, deeply notched below. Outer lip broken but evidently thickened, slightly reflexed, and ascending above the periphery. Columella padded within, with 4 strong, rather narrow, spaced plaits and a fifth low broad rounded posterior one. Inner lip not much expanded, thin above, thicker below, and forming with rounded ridge of fasciole deep narrow furrow.

Holotype in Canterbury Museum.

Height, 51 mm.; diameter, 23 mm.

Locality.—Dovedale, coast between Waipara and Motunau Rivers (probably from Pliocene beds, in the opinion of Professor R. Speight).

This distinctive species has no close relative in our collections, but seems to be a development of M. biconica along lines of increase in number and extension of the axials.

4. Waihaoia n. gen.

Shell rather small, fusiform. Nucleus scaphelloid. Fasciole absent or ill-defined. Sculpture of axial ribs sometimes developing to strong tubercles, sometimes disappearing at an early stage. Aperture with a shallow to moderate anterior sinus. Columella with 4 or 5 plaits.

Type: Waihaoia allani Marwick.

(A.) Waihaoia n. subgen.

Shell rather small, fusiform. Spire nearly as high as aperture. Nucleus scaphelloid, of 2 or 3 smooth whorls. Body-whorl contracting gradually;

– 275 –

fasciole absent. Sculpture of axial ribs indistinctly angled to tubercular. Aperture with a very shallow anterior sinus. Outer lip simple, thin or slightly thickened. Columella of type with 5 strong plaits on a convex pad; some species have only 4.

Synopsis of Species.
A. Axial ribs only.
1. Narrowly fusiform allani.
2. Broadly fusiform, spire gradate rugosa.
Broadly fusiform, spire conic regularis.
B. Axial ribs on spire, but later disappearing scitula.
C. Axial ribs on spire, but later becoming slightly tubercular.
1. Shell very narrow, anterior end long, 9 axials thomsoni.
2. Anterior end short, tubercles sharp, 12 axials bathgatei.
3. Tubercles blunt, 8–12 superstes.
D. Axial ribs on spire, but later becoming strongly tubercular.
1. Anterior end long, tubercles moderate suteri.
2. Anterior end short, tubercles very strong phymatias.
E. Strongly tubercular on both spire and body.
1. Sharp tubercles nearer anterior suture aculeata.
2. Rather blunt tubercles nearer posterior suture confusa.
3. Shell very broad, nucleus flat dyscrita.

Waihaoia allani n. sp. (Plate 61, fig. 5.)

Shell small, fusiform. Spire conic, about as high as aperture Nucleus scaphelloid, of about 3 smooth whorls. Post-embryonic whorls 4 ½, at first convex, then bluntly angled about middle; body-whorl with short steep shoulder, below which it is straightened, then moderately contracted; fasciole not marked. Sculpture: spire-whorls with 12, body-whorl with 14, strong axial ribs, bluntly angled on shoulder and twisted backward, interstices equal or slightly wider; on spire, ribs extend from suture to suture and well down on body-whorl. Aperture moderate, angled above with extremely shallow sinus below. Outer lip thick, not reflexed, slightly convex, a little ascending. Columella with pad bearing 5 strong folds, anterior weakest. Outer lip with thin glaze.

Holotype in Dominion Museum.

Height, 45.5 mm.; diameter, 16 mm.

Locality.—Greensand, McCullough's Bridge, Waihao River.

The nucleus of the holotype is not normal, having the appearance of being unrolled.

Waihaoia regularis (Finlay). (Plate 61, fig. 6.)

1926.

Alcithoe regularis Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 56, p. 247, pl. 55, fig. 4.

In general appearance this shell resembles M. clifdenensis; but if any reliance can be placed on recapitulation as shown by ornamentation, &c., the relationship is not so close as at first glance appears. The post-embryonic whorls are strongly axially ribbed from suture to suture right from the neanic stage, whereas ribs do not appear in M. clifdenensis until the penultimate whorl. Also, the anterior notch in W. regularis is not so deep nor the fasciole so well defined. Further, although the nucleus is damaged, enough remains to show, in the writer's opinion, that it had a flattened top, as in the W. bathgatei group. The shallow anterior notch agrees with this systematic position. W. regularis represents a broadened offshoot from W. bathgatei, or earlier, for the sculpture is of simple axial ribs throughout.

Locality.—Clifden (band 8).

– 276 –

Waihaoia bathgatei (Finlay). (Plate 61, fig. 7.)

1926.

Alcithoe bathgatei Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 56, p. 248, pl. 56, figs. 4, 5.

The spire is about equal in height to aperture, and the whorls have each about 16 narrow ribs with wide concave interspaces. The ribs soon become angled, and finally short sharp tubercles are developed, but the ribs still extend to the suture above and well down over the body-whorl. The anterior notch is rather shallow, and on some specimens the fasciole is quite convex, it is not rough nor bounded by a ridge; the columella has 4 folds, decreasing anteriorly; sometimes a fifth weak fold appears posteriorly. The apex of the nucleus is generally flattened, but occasionally somewhat domed.

This species seems to be a development from such forms as W. suteri, the anterior end of the shell having shortened considerably and the notch become slightly deeper.

Locality.—Clifden, Southland (bands 4, 6a).

Waihaoia phymatias (Finlay). (Plate 61, fig. 11.)

1926.

Alcithoe phymatias Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 56, p. 248, pl. 56, figs. 1–3.

This shell is a descendant of W. bathgatei in which the tubercles on the shoulder have greatly enlarged, with a consequent loss of the axial ribs, the bathgatei stage being represented about the fourth conch-whorl. The anterior notch is still shallow, and the fasciole is not marked off from the base of the body-whorl. The nucleus is somewhat larger, and is a little more flattened on the summit.

Locality.—Clifden (band 6b).

Waihaoia dyscrita (Finlay). (Plate 61, fig. 12.)

1926.

Alcithoe dyscrita Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 56, p. 249, pl. 55, fig. 9

An accelerated offshoot from W. phymatias in which the height has greatly decreased compared with the diameter. The top of the nucleus is broken in the single specimen found, but there is little doubt that it was the same as that of A. phymatias. Further points of agreement are the columella with 4 mitriform folds, and the shallow anterior notch not forming a well-defined fasciole. Only the first 2 or 3 axials are without a tubercle, so that the ancestral ornamentation, occupying 2 or 3 whorls in W. bathgatei and W. suteri and 1 whorl in W. phymatias, has almost disappeared.

Locality.—Clifden (band 6c).

Waihaoia confusa n. sp. (Plate 61, fig. 3.)

1917.

Lapparia hebes (Hutton): Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 5, p. 40 (in part, but not of Hutton), pl. 12, fig. 12.

Shell somewhat small, elongate fusiform. Spire strongly gradate, about two-thirds height of aperture. Diameter of spire-whorls about twice their height, and with a concave shoulder; body-whorl slightly convex, very gradually contracting, with a well-marked fasciole not bounded above by a ridge. Suture undulating. Sculpture of 7 sharp tubercles on the shoulder, not produced into definite axial ribs. Aperture oblong, angled above, deeply notched below. Columella with 4 plaits, the upper 3 strong, more than equal to the interspaces, the lowest very weak.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 33 mm.; diameter, 15 mm.

Locality.—164, greensand, Kakahu.

– 277 –

Hutton's lost type of Pleurotoma hebes has now been recovered, and it shows how far Suter went astray in his selection of plesiotypes. The original shell is certainly not a Volute, but is congeneric with the shell described by Suter as Ptychatractus nodosoliratus. Of the two specimens figured by him as plesiotypes, one (pl. 12, fig. 11) is a Mauia biconica, the other (pl. 12, fig. 12) belongs to the species described above. Many specimens of another shell, Mauia angusta (Suter), were also identified by Suter as Lapparia hebes.

Lapparia, a genus from the North American Eocene, has strong spiral ornamentation reticulated by the growth-lines, and a deep anterior notch.

Waihaoia thomsoni n. sp. (Plate 61, fig. 1.)

Shell rather small, narrowly fusiform. Spire turreted, in height equal to or a little greater than aperture. Whorls 6 remaining, at first probably convex, but soon developing a sloping shoulder, on later whorls shoulder-angle gets lower until finally it is in middle of whorl, above it whorl is slightly concave and very steep; body-whorl subcylindrical for some distance below shoulder, then contracting quickly, finally slowly to a rather long neck, which is bent outwards in type but is straightened in a paratype, and bears an inconspicuous fasciole. Sculpture: spire-whorls with 9 narrowly rounded axial ribs with wide interstices, on later whorls these decrease in number and relative length and strength until on body-whorl there are only 6 obsolete knobs. Aperture long and narrow, with sub-parallel sides contracting to angle above; anterior sinus shallow, the effect rather increased by outward twist to canal. Outer lip broken but apparently straight, thin, not reflexed or ascending. Columella long, projecting slightly, bent, outwards below, bearing 4 well-spaced folds, anterior and posterior weakest. Inner lip with well-defined outer edge.

Holotype in Dominion Museum.

Height, 52 mm.; diameter, 15 mm.

Locality.—Greensand, Waihao Downs.

Distinguished from W. suteri by the fewer and much weaker ribs, also by the disposition of the columellar folds.

A crushed shell from Hampden in Dr. Marshall's collection at Wanganui Museum perhaps is related to this species. It has ribs on the spire-whorls, but they are obsolete on the body. The length is about 73 mm., and the columella bears 5 plaits.

Waihaoia suteri n. sp. (Plate 61, fig. 2.)

Shell rather small, narrowly fusiform. Spire turreted, equal in height to the aperture. Nucleus damaged but apparently scaphelloid. Post-embryonic whorls 6, early ones convex but soon developing a shoulder which later becomes concave and prominent; body-whorl for a short distance below shoulder almost cylindrical, then contracting rather quickly at first but afterwards more slowly so as to produce a rather long neck which has practically no fasciole. Sculpture: early whorls with 12 narrow high axial ribs extending from suture to suture; on third whorl these ribs become angled and have a short concave shoulder; on later whorls their number is reduced to 11 and finally to 10; angulation increases in strength, and above it ribs are much weaker though they persist to suture; on body-whorl ribs extend down on to contracting base but do not reach neck. Aperture long, with subparallel sides, angled above, scarcely notched below. Outer lip broken, but apparently thin and straight, not ascending or

– 278 –

reflexed. Columella with 4 narrow, well-spaced plaits decreasing in strength anteriorly. Inner lip thin.

Holotype in Canterbury Museum.

Height, 50 mm.; diameter, 17 mm. (circa).

Locality.—Greensand, Waihao Forks.

By some mistake this specimen was figured by Suter (1915, pl. 4, fig. 14) as the holotype of Fulguraria aculeata (Hutton), and a wrong magnification given.

Waihaoia superstes n. sp. (Plate 61, fig. 10.)

Shell rather small, narrowly fusiform. Spire turreted, slightly less in height than aperture. Whorls 5 remaining, angled above mid-point, and with a sloping slightly concave shoulder; body-whorl straightened below shoulder, then contracting rather quickly, finally again straightening out to an inconspicuous though convex fasciole which is not definitely bounded above. Sculpture: early whorls with 14 or 15 low axial ribs which scarcely reach sutures, and which are developed into low tubercles on shoulder-angle; on later whorls axials become shorter and fewer, and tubercles stronger; on penultimate there are 12 and on body-whorl 8. Aperture long, sides subparallel, anterior sinus very shallow. Outer lip slightly convex and ascending. Columella with 4 rather weak spaced plaits. Inner lip moderate.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 44 mm.; diameter, 16 mm.

Locality.—894, Mokau River.

This shell is very like W. thomsoni except that the anterior end is shorter. It probably belongs to a northern stock that has descended from W. thomsoni independently of the Southland species W. bathgatei, &c., for the anterior sinus shows no sign of deepening.

This is the Fulgoraria arabica (Hutt.) of Suter (Henderson and Ongley, 1923, p. 36).

Waihaoia aculeata (Hutton). (Plate 64, fig. 6.)

1885.

Voluta aculeata Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 17, p. 325.

1915.

Fulgoraria (Alcithoe) aculeata (Hutton): Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 3, p. 31, pl. 4, fig. 14.

The shell figured by Suter is not the holotype. The statement to this effect in the explanation of plates (Suter, 1915, p. 63) errs also in stating that the figure is “enlarged 1 ½ diameters.” The original specimen from which the photograph was taken is in Canterbury Museum, and comes from Waihao Forks. It is described above under the name Waihaoia suteri n. sp. Suter's description of W. aculeata is, however, correct, being based on the true type specimens. Important features of the shell are the small size; straight, sharp outer lip; sharp spines on last whorls developed from strong angled axial ribs on the early whorls; shallow anterior notch which makes an inconspicuous fasciole.

The locality was given by Hutton as White Rock River, but the specimens are not from the bed usually collected from. Their matrix has a large amount of a greenish mineral that appears to be glauconite, so further collecting is needed to clear up a doubt as to the age of this species.

Waihaoia rugosa n. sp. (Plate 70, fig. 4.)

Shell of moderate size, fusiform. Spire almost as high as aperture. Whorls bluntly angled with a long sloping shoulder; body-whorl inflated,

– 279 –

contracted relatively quickly to the large fasciole. Suture undulating. Sculpture of 20 strong axial ribs with equal interstices, ribs twisted and extending from suture to suture on spire and across body-whorl almost to fasciole; on spire-whorls are numerous somewhat irregular spiral lirae crossed by fine close growth-lines. Aperture with wide but shallow anterior sinus. Columella with 4 strong folds with interspaces twice their width. Inner lip extending from aperture as a thick callus.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 54 mm.; diameter, 25 mm.

Locality.—1038, Flat Trig., North Shore, Palliser Bay.

A. rugosa is probably related to Voluta corrugata var. B Hutton. The latter, however, is much larger, and has 5 strong folds and 1 weak one on the columella. W. rugosa differs from the typical Waihaoia in having a well-developed fasciole. The sinus which forms it, however, is fairly shallow.

Waihaoia scitula n. sp. (Plate 64, fig. 5.)

Shell small, thin, broadly fusiform. Spire turreted, one-half height of aperture. Nucleus missing. Post-embryonic whorls prominently angled about the middle, with a fairly broad concave shoulder; body-whorl for some distance cylindrical, then contracted to a short neck bearing an insignificant fasciole not bounded above. Sculpture of about 20 broad axials on early whorls reaching from suture to suture but very weak on shoulder, on penultimate whorl these become obsolete, and body-whorl is quite smooth. Aperture triangular, rather wide, narrowly channelled above, with a shallow anterior sinus. Outer lip thin, straight, not ascending or reflexed. Columella with 4 strong spaced plaits. Inner lip thin, restrained.

Holotype in Canterbury Museum.

Height, 31 mm.; diameter, 14 mm.

Locality.—Porter River, Trelissick Basin.

Scaphella gracilis (Swainson),” according to Hutton's tablet. Easily distinguished from that species by the general shape, concave shoulder, and shallow anterior notch. It is not closely related to any other species so far collected.

(B.) Teremelon n. subgen.

Shell rather small, narrowly fusiform. Spire nearly as high as aperture. Nucleus scaphelloid, rather flat. Sculpture: first one or two whorls with curved axial ribs, later whorls smooth and shining. Fasciole moderately marked, not rugose, and surface not departing from normal curve of the shell. Aperture moderately notched. Outer lip thin, straight. Columella with 5 rather narrow plaits.

Type: Scaphella tumidior Finlay.

The group W. pretiosa-cognata perhaps represents a line of evolution independent of the type species, which is intimately related to W. elegantissima and W. awamoaensis. The shells of the former group have a deeper anterior notch and better-marked fasciole, the ribbing advances farther down the spire, the nucleus is higher, and the columella has only 4 plaits.

Synopsis of Speoies.
A. Columella with five plaits, ribbing scarcely developed.
1. Form narrow elegantissima.
2. Regularly fusiform awamoaensis.
3. Somewhat inflated tumidior.
B. Columella with 4 plaits, ribbing extended some distance down spire.
1. Whorls convex cognata.
2. Whorls flattened pretiosa.
– 280 –

Waihaoia (Teremelon) tumidior (Finlay). (Plate 62, fig. 2.)

1926.

Scaphella tumidior Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 56, p. 250, pl. 56, fig. 6.

This species is wider and has a lower spire than A. elegantissima. Localities.—Otiake; greensand opposite Wharekuri.

Waihaoia (Teremelon) elegantissima (Suter). (Plate 62, fig. 1.)

1917.

Scaphella eleqantissima Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 5, p. 41, pl. 5, fig. 9.

1918.

Maculopeplum elegantissimum (Suter), Alph. List of N.Z. Tert. Moll., p. 18.

Locality.—Shell-bed below uppermost Mount Brown limestone, Weka Pass Stream.

Waihaoia (Teremelon) awamoaensis n. sp. (Plate 62, fig. 4.)

Shell rather small, narrowly fusiform. Spire conic, two-thirds height of aperture. Nucleus scaphelloid, of 2 smooth volutions. Post-embryonic whorls 5, slightly convex on spire; body-whorl with rounded shoulder, below which it is very slightly convex and contracts gradually to a fasciole which is not well marked off except for a lack of polsh. Sculpture: first two whorls with 15 rather narrow axial ribs, the last ones becoming obsolete, below this the shell has a smooth polished surface covered with microscopic waved spiral lirae, crossed by numerous growth-lines. Aperture triangular, widely and fairly deeply notched below. Outer lip thin, scarcely ascending. Columella straight, furnished with 5 plaits, the anterior and posterior weakest. Inner lip spread as a thin glaze some distance from aperture.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 48 mm.; diameter, 16 mm.

Locality.—1160, blue sands, Awamoa Creek.

Intermediate in shape between A. elegantissima and A. tumidior.

Waihaoia (Teremelon) pretiosa (Finlay). (Plate 62, fig. 7.)

1926.

Scaphella pretiosa Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 56, p. 250, pl. 55, figs. 7, 8.

The nucleus is large and scaphelloid; the anterior notch is moderate, just deep enough to form a slight bounding ridge, and there are only 4 mitriform folds on columella. Spire-whorls flattened, and sculpture, of about 17 narrow axial ribs with concave interstices, becomes obsolete on body-whorl.

Locality.—Clifden (band 6a).

Waihaoia (Teremelon) cognata (Finlay). (Plate 62, fig. 5.)

1926.

Scaphella cognata Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 56, p. 249, pl. 56, fig. 7

In this species the shape, nucleus, and anterior notch are similar to those of W. pretiosa, except that whorls are more convex and shoulder higher. Also, axial ribs disappear at an earlier stage, so the two species are easily distinguished. A Pareora shell in Canterbury Museum is larger (circa 70 mm. high), and the ribbing is scarcely developed at all; but, as the single specimen is very imperfect, it is safer classed with W. coynata until further material is examined. This specimen was identified by Hutton as Scaphella attenuata, and the same specific identification was followed by Suter.

Localities.—Target Gully (type); Pareora.

– 281 –

(C.) Pachymelon n. subgen.

Shell rather small, thick and heavy, broadly fusiform. Spire short. Nucleus scaphelloid, generally globose. Sculpture of axial ribs tending to become obsolete. Fasciole scarcely marked. Aperture with a shallow anterior sinus. Outer lip convex, thickened and rounded. Columella produced, with 4 or, generally, 5 folds.

Type: Waihaoia amoriaformis Marwick.

Synopsis of Species.
A. Smooth.
1. Regularly fusiform, diameter nearly half height waitakiensis.
2. Broadly fusiform, diameter much less than half height murdochi.
B. Ribbed.
1. Body tapering regularly to anterior end.
  (a.) Ribbing fine, about 25 per whorl amoriaformis.
  (b.) Ribbing coarse, about 15 per whorl, obsolete on body firma.
2. Body contracted rather quickly below, then straightening out to a rather long beak lutea.

Waihaoia (Pachymelon) waitakiensis n. sp, (Plate 70, fig. 1.)

Shell of moderate size, heavy, fusiform. Spire less than half height of aperture. Spire-whorls only slightly convex; body-whorl rounded, with faint depression on sloping shoulder. Fasciole well marked. Sculpture: first whorls missing, remainder smooth with faint growth-lines. Aperture wide, deeply notched anteriorly. Outer lip convex, ascending, not reflexed. Columella with 4 strong plaits and a fifth very weak posterior one. Inner lip thin.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey, deposited by Dr. P. Marshall.

Height, 70 mm.; diameter, 27 mm.

Locality.—Greensand, left bank Waitaki River, opposite Wharekuri.

The type is somewhat damaged, so that the dimensions given are only approximate. Distinguished from its relative A. murdochi by being larger and more slender.

Waihaoia (Pachymelon) murdochi n. sp. (Plate 63, fig. 5.)

Shell of moderate size, solid, fusiform. Spire half height of aperture. Nucleus bulbous scaphelloid, of about 2 ½ smooth whorls with a large flattened apex. Post-embryonic whorls 4, almost flat on spire, diameter of penultimate one over twice height; body-whorl somewhat inflated, tapering gradually to a broad but not well-marked fasciole. Suture plain. Sculpture: first two whorls have each about 12 weak axial ribs, but these become obsolete and thereafter surface is smooth. Aperture longitudinally hastate, channelled above, deeply and broadly notched below. Outer lip rounded, not reflexed, slightly convex and retreating below, ascending penultimate whorl only slightly. Columella with 6 narrow, well-spaced folds, which decrease in strength from centre anteriorly and posteriorly, top and bottom ones scarcely developed, top one sometimes absent. Inner lip with a light callus anteriorly and posteriorly, not developed in centre.

Holotype in Wanganui Museum.

Height, 51 mm. (estimated); diameter, 24 mm.

Localities.—Awamoa (type); shell-bed, Target Gully, Oamaru.

– 282 –

Waihaoia (Pachymelon) amoriaformis n. sp. (Plate 63, fig. 1.)

Shell of moderate size, solid, fusiform. Spire half height of aperture. Nucleus bulbous scaphelloid, of about 3 smooth whorls, with a large bluntly-pointed apex. Post-embryonic whorls 4, slightly convex on spire; body-whorl inflated, with sloping slightly concave shoulder, below which it is lightly convex and tapering gradually to the inconspicuous fasciole. Suture undulating. Sculpture; 24 to 27 low axial ribs with equal interstices reaching from suture to suture on upper spire-whorls, obsolete on shoulder of penultimate and on whole of body-whorl. Aperture hastate, channelled above, widened below, with a wide shallow anterior notch. Outer lip convex, lightly sinused above, thickened and reflexed, only slightly ascending penultimate whorl. Columella with 6 strong well-separated folds, anterior and posterior ones somewhat lower than others. Inner lip rather thickly calloused.

Holotype in collection of Mr. H. J. Finlay.

Height, 66 mm.; diameter, 30 mm.

Localities.—Shell-bed, Target Gully (type); Mount Harris.

Waihaoia (Pachymelon) firma n. sp. (Plate 70, fig. 2.)

Shell rather small, unequally biconic, solid. Spire conic, about half height of aperture. Nucleus large scaphelloid, of 3 smooth whorls. Post-embryonic whorls 5, with long steep slightly concave shoulder, obtusely angled just above suture; body-whorl contracting regularly to fasciole, which is faintly marked. Sculpture: spire-whorls with about 15 low broadly-rounded axial ribs, very weak on sloping shoulder but slightly nodular just above suture, on penultimate whorl they are also a little stronger immediately below posterior suture, on body-whorl these axials become obsolete and finally disappear. Aperture triangular, channelled above, widely and shallowly notched below. Outer lip damaged in the only specimen, but apparently thick and convex, not ascending. Columella with a thick pad on which are 5 plaits, the anterior one weakest. Inner lip glazed.

Holotype in collection of Mr. H. J. Finlay.

Height, 53 mm.; diameter, 23 mm.

Resembles A. neglecta, but distinguished by the straighter outlines, longer shoulder extending almost down to suture, axial ribs more knobbed at the shoulder, fasciole shallow and not separated by a ridge from base.

Waihaoia (Pachymelon) lutea (Watson). (Plate 63, fig. 3.)

1882.

Cymbiola lutea Watson, Jour. Linn. Soc., vol. 16, p. 33.

1886.

Voluta (Cymbiola) lutea Watson, Chall. Rep., vol. 15, p. 255, pl. 15, figs. 3 a, b.

According to the sounding plotted on the Admiralty Chart, this shell was dredged from 275 fathoms about 250 nautical miles west of New Plymouth—not “200 miles west of Cape Farewell,” as given by Watson. The original description does not mention the fasciole, and the anterior sinus of the aperture is described as a “broad shallow shightly emarginated minutely-bordered canal.” The figures also show that the anterior sinus is quite shallow, and has not formed a prominent fasciole such as is invariably present in Alcithoe. Two years ago the writer inadvertently gave the name Alcithoe lutea to a new species from the Pliocene of Ngaruroro River. Since the shells appear to be generically distinct, the specific name will have to remain in both cases. This is unfortunate, as it is likely to cause confusion. W. lutea has not again been collected either Recent or fossil.

– 283 –

5. Spinomelon n. gen.

Shell large, somewhat narrowly fusiform. Spire conic, lower than aperture. Body-whorl tapering gradually to well-marked fasciole. Sculpture of axial ribs tending to become obsolete on later whorls but sometimes developing tubercles. Nucleus caricelloid, spike being sharp and strong. Aperture wide, moderately notched below; beak often projecting strongly. Outer lip convex, sometimes slightly reflexed. Columella with 5 or 6 strong plaits.

Type: Lapparia parki Suter.

Synopsis of Species.
A. Axials on spire strong.
1. Body regularly curved enysi.
2. Body with a rounded shoulder.
  (a.) Shell strong, fasciole well defined, later whorls well ribbed parki.
  (b.) Shell thin, fasciole not defined and with a central fold, later whorls smooth benitens.
3. Body with a tuberculate shoulder speighti.
B. Axials on spire very fine mira.

Spinomelon enysi n. sp. (Plate 62, fig. 6.)

Shell very large, narrowly fusiform, strong. Spire about half height of aperture. Four whorls remaining on type, slightly convex on spire; body-whorl subcylindrical, slightly convex, contracting gradually to fasciole, which is broad and shallow, the outer side almost horizontal. Sculpture: early spire-whorls with about 15 narrow low ribs with broad interstices, becoming obsolete and leaving penultimate and body-whorls smooth. Aperture high, contracted above to a narrow channel, dilated below with a wide shallow anterior notch. Outer lip convex, expanded, ascending a short distance on penultimate whorl. Columella straight, projecting anteriorly, furnished with 6 well-spaced oblique folds of moderate strength. Inner lip spread as a glaze, sometimes as a fairly thick callus on body-whorl.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 142 mm.; diameter, 50 mm.

Locality.—243, fan-coral bed, Trelissick Basin.

Besides the smooth later whorls, the shallow anterior notch shows that this species is closely related to S. benitens, from which it can be distinguished by its size, strength, greater development of ribs, and altogether different shape of body.

Spinomelon benitens (Finlay). (Plate 62, fig. 3.)

1926.

Miomdon benitens Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 56, p. 250, pl. 55, fig. 6.

Salient features are the smooth polished surface of the later whorls, the thinness of shell-material, shallow anterior notch and projecting columella, and prominent rounded ridge traversing central line of fasciole.

Locality.—Otiake.

Spinomelon parki (Suter). (Plate 62, fig. 8.)

1907.

Lapparia parki Suter, Proc. Malac. Soc., vol. 7, p. 207, pl. 18, figs. 1, 2 (juv.).

1914.

Lapparia corrugata (Hutton): Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 2, p. 27 (in part).

1917.

Cymbiola (Miomelon) corrugata (Hutton): Suter, N.Z. Geol Surv. Pal. Bull. 5, p. 87 (in part).

Shell large, fusiform, strong. Spire half height of aperture. Nucleus of about 2 smooth whorls, with an erect, sharply pointed calcarella. Post

– 284 –

embryonic whorls about 5½, convex, with a sloping very slightly concave shoulder; body-whorl occupying four-fifths of shell, contracting slowly to large fasciole. Suture undulating. Sculpture: 16 rather low axial ribs with wider interstices, on upper whorls reaching from suture to suture, but on body-whorl not traversing shoulder nor extending far anteriorly; sometimes the ribs die out at an early stage and body-whorl is smooth. Aperture large with subparallel sides, narrowing to a channel above, broadly and moderately notched below. Outer lip convex, reflexed and thickened, scarcely ascending penultimate whorl. Columella with 5 strong well-spaced oblique plaits, anterior and posterior ones rather weaker, also a sixth rudimentary plait posterior to others; inner lip spreading as a thin glaze well over body-whorl.

Height of plesiotype, 116 mm.; diameter, 45 mm.

Localities.—Target Gully; Pareora (type); Mount Harris; Parson's Creek, Oamaru; Callaghan's Hill, Westland.

This handsome shell was wrongly considered by Suter to belong to Hutton's Voluta corrugata, which is a short, plump shell with strong ribs extending right across the body-whorl, and which is closely related to Alcthoe solida n. sp. The number of folds on the columella of S. parki is generally 5 or 6, but sometimes 7; also the stage at which the axial ribs disappear is variable. The only specimens in which ribs persist on the body-whorl are from Mount Harris. The ribbing on the shell from Parson's Creek is but little more developed than that on S. benitens; unfortunately the anterior end is broken, so the depth of the apertural notch is not known. S. enysi also has ribbing only on the early whorls, but the body-whorl is regularly convex and has not a rounded shoulder-angle.

Spinomelon speighti n. sp. (Plate 64, fig. 7.)

Shell large, broadly fusiform. Spire one-half height of aperture. Whorls 5 ½, at first convex then bluntly angled below mid-point of whorl; body-whorl with rather broad concave shoulder, below which it is lightly convex and somewhat rapidly contracted but straightening before reaching depressed fasciole. Sculpture: spire-whorls with 11 or 12 strong axial ribs which on later whorls become weaker on sloping shoulder and finally fail to cross it, mean while their strength has increased at shoulder angle, and on body-whorl there are 10 strong, laterally extended tubercles. Aperture wide, deeply and widely notched below. Outer lip convex, dilated, reflexed, ascending penultimate whorl. Columella with 5 or 6 well-spaced strong plaits, anterior and posterior weaker than central ones. Inner lip thin, extending out from aperture.

Holotype in Canterbury Museum.

Height, 110 mm.; diameter, 47 mm.

Locality.—Mount Harris, South Canterbury.

None of the specimens seen had the nucleus intact, but the species is undoubtedly closely related to S. parki. There is some variation in the strength and number of the tubercles, but they are always fewer and more angled than on S. parki. Other points of distinction are a broader body-whorl, more contracted base, and generally more distended aperture.

Spinomelon mira n. sp. (Plate 64, fig. 4.)

Shell large, fusiform. Spire less than one-third height of aperture. Nucleus missing. Post-embryonic whorls 6, the last few rapidly increasing so that slope of spire is slightly concave; first whorls lightly convex, later ones more strongly so, and finally developing a sloping flattened shoulder

– 285 –

without marked angle; body-whorl very long, with slightly concave shoulder and rounded angle, below which contraction is very gradual for a space, then increasing somewhat, finally straightening out again to a long neck which bears a moderately-well-marked convex fasciole, not bounded by ridge. Sculpture: first whorl with about 25 or 30 low axial ribs, on later whorls number increases but ribs become confused with and impossible to separate from irregular crowded growth-ridges; before completion of penultimate whorl indistinct blunt nodules begin to be developed, they increase in strength on body-whorl, where they are axially elongated but do not reach half-way across shoulder nor down body to any distance, their number is about 15, but the last three are obsolete; some of the early whorls have traces of indistinct spirals. Aperture with aubparallel sides, contracting rather quickly to a channel above, with wide shallow, anterior sinus. Outer lip slightly convex, ascending, thickened not reflexed. Columella long, slightly twisted anteriorly, with 6 folds situated relatively high up, the posterior three on a low pad, the anterior fold very weak, but the strength of others increases posteriorly until fourth, fifth is almost as strong, but sixth or posterior one is weak. Inner lip thin spreading.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 130 mm.; diameter, 46 mm.

Locality.—166, blue clays of eastern slopes of Mount Horrible, Pareora River; Awamoa.

This species is not closely related to any other of those described.

6. Metamelon n. gen.

Shell rather small, broadly fusiform. Spire rather narrow. Body-whorl expanding quickly, contracted again quickly below to a produced neck bearing very prominent fasciole strongly marked off from base. Nucleus caricelloid, spike sharp and high. Sculpture: early species and early whorls of later species practically smooth except for growth-lines, later strong axials appear and in type species a prominent angulation of whorl develops into concave shoulder. Suture impressed. Aperture broad, very deeply notched below. Outer lip sharp, straight. Columella generally with 5 folds.

Type: Miomelon clifdenensis Finlay.

Synopsis of Species.
A. Body-whorl smooth.
1. Small (under.25 mm.) minima.
2. Moderate size (40 mm. or over) inermis.
B. Body-whorl ribbed.
1. Axials very strong, ending abruptly at shoulder clifdenensis.
2. Axials weak, not defining the shoulder marshalli.
3. Axials weak, developing blunt tubercles on shoulder reverta.

Metamelon inermis (Finlay). (Plate 69, fig. 14.)

1926.

Miomelon inermis Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 56, p. 247.

This species is characterized by smooth, convex whorls, contracted base, prominent fasciole, and dilated aperture. The last two whorls of pointed nucleus have weak spiral threads, of which one is stronger than others; these are crossed by very weak axials. Even in neanic stage there are 5 strong spirals on columella.

Localities.—Otiake; Chatton (= Mitra n. sp. of Suter, 1921, p. 95), fragment.

– 286 –

Metamelon marshalli n. sp. (Plate 69, fig. 12.)

Shell rather small, broadly fusiform. Spire conic, half height of aperture. Nucleus with high spike. Spire-whorls slightly convex; body-whorl rounded, with short slightly concave sloping shoulder; fasciole prominent, bounded by ridge. Suture impressed, bordered below by a groove on nearing aperture. Sculpture: spire-whorls smooth, with irregular growth-lines; body-whorl with 14 narrow not strong axial ribs with wide interstices, ribs weaken on crossing shoulder and die out on base. Aperture wide, deeply notched below. Outer lip thin, simple, ascending. Columella straight, with 5 rather weak plaits. Inner lip thin.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey, deposited by Dr. P. Marshall.

Height, 56 mm.; diameter, 23 mm.

Locality.—Greensand, left bank Waitaki River, opposite Wharekuri.

Closely related to M. clifdenensis, but not quite so extreme—shoulder not so concave, ribs weaker and only present on body, base not so contracted, and suture not so deeply impressed. Some immature specimens in Mr. R. S. Allan's collection have noticeably closer ribbing than the type, and one has a few irregular spiral cords. Also, their suture is appressed, and one has a ridged fasciole. Perhaps more than one species is represented.

Metamelon clifdenensis (Finlay). (Plate 69, fig. 11.)

1926.

Miomelon clifdenensis Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 56, p. 246, pl. 55, figs. 1–3.

The ontogeny of this shell is peculiar. It commences with a narrow strongly-spiked nucleus of 3 smooth whorls, then comes a cylindrical whorl with almost vertical sides ornamented by fine posteriorly-flexed growth-lines crossed by rather weaker waved spiral lirae. The succeeding whorls are convex, frustoid, and soon develop a slightly concave sloping shoulder. The growth-lines meanwhile have become strong, and about beginning of penultimate whorl they develop into axial ribs. These become very strong on lower half of whorl and form prominent concave shoulder. Anterior notch deep, but fasciole somewhat variable though always well defined. In type it is convex, curving round to anterior point, and separated by narrow chink from inner lip. In paratype columella projects much more anteriorly and fasciole is concave and sunken along outer side, inner side roundly ridged but no chink separates inner lip.

Locality.—Clifden (bands 6a, 6b).

Metamelon reverta (Finlay). (Plate 69, fig. 15.)

1926.

Miomelon reverta Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 56, p. 247.

This is an offshoot from the S. inermis type of shell, less specialized than S. clifdenensis, the ribbing and angulation of body-whorl being much restrained. The marked outward curve of anterior end of columella shown by type is probably not a constant character. In a younger topotype columella is almost straight; similarly, the curvature of this part in S. clifdenensis is variable.

Localities.—Target Gully (type); 175, Ardgowan shell-bed; Mount Harris.

– 287 –

The last two specimens lack the body-whorl, and so resemble M. inermis; there is thus some doubt about their identification.

Metamelon minima n. sp. (Plate 69, fig. 10.)

Shell small, fusiform. Spire conic, over two-thirds height of aperture. Nucleus scaphelloid, of 2 smooth whorls. Post-embryonic whorls 4½, convex on spire with flattened shoulder; body-whorl regularly convex, slightly compressed below suture, contracted fairly quickly and constricted before joining well-marked fasciole. Surface almost smooth, with numerous growth-lines which on spire are grouped into weak irregular axial ribs. Aperture moderate, deeply notched below. Outer lip thin, simple, scarcely ascending. Columella with 4 spaced folds; inner lip spreading well out.

Holotype in collection of Mr. H. J. Finlay.

Height, 24 mm.; diameter, 9 mm.

Localities.—Otiake (type); All Day Bay; Mount Harris (R. S. Allan collection).

The generic position is uncertain, because the nucleus has not the prominent spike possessed by all other members of Metamelon. The fasciole and constricted body-whorl, however, suggest this position. If correct, though persisting in the Mount Harris beds, M. minima is a primitive type representing the kind of shell from which M. inermis sprung.

7. Alcithoe h. and A. Adams, 1858.

Type: Buccinum arabicum Martyn.

Synopsis of Species.
1. Large shells, generally over 70 mm. in height.
A. Spire less than two-thirds apertural height.
(1.) Body tubercles strong.
  (a.) Body tapering regularly.
   Four folds.
    Body-shoulder steep hurupiensis.
    Body-shoulder not steep familiaris.
   Five folds.
    Columella padded compressa.
    Folds not very oblique armigera.
    Shoulder appressed robusta.
    Shoulder abutting jaculoides.
(b.) Body slightly inflated, contracted below.
   Angle about middle of spire-whorls arabica.
   Angle low down, near suture.
    Nodules very long, sharp on spire arabicula.
    Spire almost smooth, very strong, sharp, tubercles on body transformis.
    Shell very large, body expanding suddenly oliveri.
    Moderate size, nodules blunt, inner lip with raised edge depressa.
(2.) Body tubercles weak or absent.
   (a.)Diameter one-third height of shell, tubercles weak acuta.
   (b.)Diameter over one-third height of shell.
    Body cylindrical, inner lip thin cylindrica.
    Body inflated, base gradually contracting, inner lip with raised edge, tubercles often absent swainsoni.
    Body inflated, base quickly contracting, inner lip thin, no tubercles larochei.
(3.) Axially ribbed.
   (a.) Whorls angled haweraensis.
   (b.) Whorls rounded, irregular spirals on early whorls residua.
– 288 –
B. Spire two-thirds height of aperture.
(1.) Axial ribs scarcely tuberculate whakinoensis.
(2.) Well-developed tubercles.
   (a.) Strong axials.
    Sharp tubercles turrita.
    Blunt tubercles sequax.
   (b.) Weak axials.
    Columella padded, 6 folds wekaensis.
    Columella straight, 5 folds; inner lip thick, raised detrita.
    Columella straight, 4 folds; inner lip thin, not raised lutea.
(3.) Whorls smooth nukumaruensis.
2. Small shells, generally under 70 mm.
A. Diameter one-third height or less.
Tapering body with ribs mackayi.
Cylindrical, smooth body hedleyi.
B. Diameter more than one-third, less than one-half height of shell.
(1.) Four folds.
   (a.) Spire nearly as high as aperture
    Body strongly ribbed gatesi.
    Body smooth exigua.
    Body knobbed finlayi.
   (b.) Spire much lower than aperture.
    Spire conic.
    Body inflated, lip dilated irregularis.
    Body not inflated, lip not dilated scopi.
   (c.) Spire turreted.
    Axial ribs on body subgracilis.
    Body smooth or tubercled gracilis.
   (2.) Five folds.
Columella straight.
    Lip reflexed reflexa.
    Lip not reflexed lepida.
    Columella padded neglecta.
C. Diameter one-half height of shell.
   Body with axial ribs.
    Thirteen ribs, spire conic solda.
    Seventeen ribs, spire turreted brevis.
    Body tuberculate.
    Four folds dilatata.
    Five folds parva.

Alcithoe turrita (Suter). (Plate 66, fig. 8.)

1917.

Fulgoraria (Alcithoe) arabica var. turrita Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 5, p. 39, pl. 5, fig. 4.

1920.

Fulguraria (Alcithoe) turrita Suter, Marsh. & Murd., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 52, p. 132.

Axial ribs on spire narrow but strong, and tubercles on body-whorl much compressed. Columella bent sharply to rear below, ending in sloping knife-like edge about ¼ in. long.

Other than the type, no example of this species has been seen; but there is a related species from Mount Brown, and another from Nuku-maru.

Locality.—Blue Cliffs, South Canterbury.

Alcithoe wekaensis n. sp. (Plate 68, fig. 4.)

Shell large, fusiform, strong. Spire turreted, slightly less than two-thirds height of aperture. Nucleus scaphelloid, of about 2 ½ smooth whorls. Post-embryonic whorls 5, obtusely angled about the middle and with a

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Fig. 1.—Waihaoia thomsoni n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 2.—Waihaoia suteri n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 3.—Waihaoia confusa n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 4.—Mauia angusta (Suter): lectotype.
Fig. 5.—Waihaoia allani n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 6.—Waihaoia regularis (Finlay): holotype.
Fig. 7.—Waihaoia buthgatei (Finlay): holotype.
Fig. 8.—Mauia huttoni (Suter): holotype.
Fig. 9.—Mauia maoriana (Suter): holotype.
Fig. 10.—Waihaoia superstes n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 11.—Waihaoia phymatias (Finlay): holotype.
Fig. 12.—Waihaoia dyscrita (Finlay): holotype.
Fig. 13.—Mauia angusta (Suter): plesiotype.
Fig. 14.—Mauia insignis n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 15.—Mauia biconica (Suter): holotype.

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Fig. 1.—Waihaoia (Teremelon) elegantissima (Suter): holotype.
Fig. 2.—Waihaoia (Teremelon) tumidior (Finlay): holotype.
Fig. 3.—Spinomelon benitens (Finlay): holotype.
Fig. 4.—Waihaoia (Teremelon) awamoaensis n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 5.—Waihaoia (Teremelon) cognata (Finlay): holotype.
Fig. 6.—Spinomelon enysi n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 7.—Waihaoia (Teremelon) pretisa (Finlay): holotype.
Fig. 8.—Spinomelon parki (Suter): Mount Harris.

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Fig. 1.—Waihaoia (Pachymelon) amonaformis n. sp. : holotype.
Fig. 2.—Alcithoe nukumaruensis (Marsh. & Murd.): holotype.
Fig. 3.—Waihaoia (Pachymelon) lutea (Watson): after Watson.
Fig. 4.—Alcithoe swainsoni n. sp.: Recent, Paekakariki
Fig. 5.—Waihaoia (Pachymeioa) murdochi n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 6.—Alcithoe larochei n. sp.: holotype.

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Fig. 1.—Lyria zelandica Finlay: holotype.
Fig. 2.—Alcithoe familiaris n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 3.—Alcithoe hurupiensis n. sp.: syntype.
Fig. 4.—Spinomelon mira n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 5.—Waihaoia scitula n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 6.—Waihaoia aculeata (Hutton): holotype, × 2.
Fig. 7.—Spinomelon speighti n. sp.: holotype.

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Fig. 1.—Alcithoe armigera n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 2.—Alcithoe dilatata n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 3.—Alcithoe cylindrica n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 4.—Alcithoe compressa n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 5.—Alcithoe robusta n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 6.—Alcithoe parva n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 7.—Alcithoe sequax n. sp.: holotype.

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Fig. 1.—Notoplejona lata n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 2.—Notoplejona necopinata (Suter): Waihao Downs.
Fig. 3.—Alcithoe acuta n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 4.—Alcithoe arabicula n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 5.—Notoplejona necopinata (Suter): Kakahu.
Fig. 6.—Alcithoe detrita n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 7.—Alcithoe neglecta n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 8.—Alcithoe turrita (Suter): holotype.

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Fig. 1.—Alcithoe transformis n. sp.: holotype.
Figs. 2, 3.—Alcithoe irregularis n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 4.—Alcithoe depressa (Suter): holotype.
Fig. 5.—Alcithoe oliveri n. sp.: holotype.

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Fig. 1.—Alcithoe lepida n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 2.—Alcithoe jaculoides Powell: paratype.
Fig. 3.—Alcithoe arabica (Martyn): Tauranga, Recent.
Fig. 4.—Alcithoe wekaensis n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 5.—Alcithoe lutea Marwick: holotype.
Fig. 6.—Alcithoe reflexa n. sp.: holotype.

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Fig. 1.—Alcithoe finlayi n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 2.—Alcithoe scopi n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 3.—Alcithoe solida n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 4.—Alcithoe exigua n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 5.—Alcithoe gracilis (Swainson): Castlecliff.
Fig. 6.—Alcithoe brevis n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 7.—Alcithoe mackayi n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 8.—Alcithoe hedleyi (Murdoch and Suter): holotype.
Fig. 9.—Alcithoe subgracilis n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 10.—Metamelon minima n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 11.—Metamelon clifdenensis (Finlay): holotype.
Fig. 12.—Metamelon marshalli n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 13.—Mauia curvispina n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 14.—Metamelon inermis (Finlay): holotype.
Fig. 15.—Metamelon reverta (Finlay): holotype.

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Fig. 1.—Waihaoia (Pachymelon) waitakiensis n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 2.—Waihaoia (Pachymelon) firma n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 3.—Alcithoe residua (Finlay): holotype.
Fig. 4.—Waihaoia rugosa n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 5.—Alcithoe haweraensis n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 6.—Alcithoe whakinoensis n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 7.—Alcithoe gatesi new name: holotype.

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very steep shoulder; body-whorl slightly convex below shoulder, contracting gradually to large rounded fasciole which is turned strongly inwards and backwards. Sculpture: spire-whorls with about 14 rather weak axial ribs which scarcely reach sutures and are raised into blunt angle about middle of whorl, penultimate whorl with 10 and body-whorl with 8 large strong tubercles which do not extend far axially. Aperture high, triangular, deeply and broadly notched below, channelled above. Outer lip slightly distended, reflexed and thickened, especially at a point slightly lower than central line of tubercles, ascending somewhat on penultimate whorl. Columella swollen in region of folds, which are 6 in number, anterior one weak; columella bent rather strongly backwards and ends in sharp convex edge. Inner lip spreading as thick glaze for some distance from aperture.

Holotype in collection of Mr. H. J. Finlay.

Height, 110 mm.; diameter, 42.5 mm.

Locality.—Lower shell-bed in uppermost Mount Brown beds.

Distinguished from A. turrita by its stronger build, lower spire, weaker axials, blunter tubercles, and different disposition of anterior part of columella and fasciole; also, columellar folds are more numerous and placed on prominent convexity.

Alcithoe detrita n. sp. (Plate 66, fig. 6.)

Shell large, fusiform. Spire narrow, nearly as high as aperture. Spire-whorls at first slightly convex, then bluntly angled about middle; body-whorl with prominent shoulder, below which it is straightened, then contracted fairly quickly to prominent fasciole, which is convex and curves inwards. Sculpture: surface is generally eroded, but a fine specimen in Mr. Allan's collection shows 11–12 obsolete nodules on shoulder of spire-whorls, body-whorl with 5–8 strong rounded, knobs on shoulder-angle. Aperture wide, contracted to channel above, deeply notched below. Outer lip thickened, slightly reflexed, ascending to angle; most specimens show a marked contraction in posterior extension of aperture during thickening of outer lip. Columella straight, with 5 strong folds, posterior often weak. Inner lip thickly calloused, sometimes with raised edge in fasciolar region.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 185 mm.; diameter, 47 mm.

Localities.—Brown sands at boat-landing, Nukumaru; 1105, arenaceous mudstone, Mangatahi Stream, Ngaruroro River.

This is the knobbed shell identified as Alcithoe turrita by Marshall and Murdoch (1920, p. 132). A. turrita has a narrower and more regularly tapering body-whorl; its tubercles are more numerous, sharper, and elongated into axial ribs on spire and body; and the inner lip is not raised into a calloused pad. A. wekaensis is more closely related, but can be distinguished by wider spire-angle, pad on columella, which bears 6 folds, decreasing in strength from centre, also by thinner lip and more numerous and longer axials on spire-whorls.

A. nukumaruensis differs only in the absence of tubercles, and narrower body-whorl.

Alcithoe nukumaruensis (Marshall and Murdoch). (Plate 63, fig. 2.)

Fulguraria (Alcithoe) turrita nukumaruensis Marh. & Murd., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 52, p. 133, pl. 9, figs. 18, 19.

Locality.—Nukumaru, brown sands at boat-landing.

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Alcithoe cylindrica n. sp. (Plate 65, fig. 3.)

Shell large, subcylindrical, strong. Spire turreted, under half height of aperture. Whorls 4 remaining, bluntly angled about the middle, with a very steep slightly concave shoulder; body-whorl contracting very little to large curved slightly convex fasciole, from which it is separated by broad low ridge. Sculpture: spire-whorls with about 12 low axially elongated tubercles, 8 on penultimate and 6 obsolete ones on body-whorl. Aperture high, triangular, channelled above, deeply and broadly notched below. Outer lip thickened and reflexed, ascending to angle of penultimate whorl. Columella thickly padded in region of folds, which are 6 in number, the anterior and posterior being weakest. Inner lip extending some distance from aperture, and sometimes thickly coated.

Holotype in collection of Mr. H. J. Finlay.

Height, 125 mm.; diameter, 46 mm.

Locality.—Shell-bed, Target Gully, Oamaru.

Alcithoe compressa n. sp. (Plate 65, fig. 4.)

Shell fairly large, heavy. Spire about one-half height of aperture. Spire-whorls with diameter twice height, bluntly angled below middle and with a long sloping shoulder; body-whorl with high concave shoulder, below which it is slightly convex and gradually contracted to fasciole. Suture undulating. Sculpture: spire-whorls at first with about 12 broad weak axial ribs, penultimate whorl with 11, last 4 raised into strong blunt tubercles extending axially to suture below but not over shoulder; body-whorl with 6 strong sharp laterally-compressed tubercles which extend a short distance anteriorly, between them whorl is deeply concave and flattened. Aperture long and narrow, channelled above, deeply notched below. Outer lip thickened, a little reflexed, and ascending with a shallow sinus to line of shoulder. Columella padded, with 6 oblique plaits, anterior and posterior weak, others very strong, interspaces equal to folds. Parietal wall with thick pad of callus.

Holotype in the collection of Mr. H. J. Finlay.

Height, 85 mm. (estimated); diameter, 35 mm.

Localtly.—Shell-bed, Target Gully.

Alcithoe armigera n. sp. (Plate 65, fig. 1.)

Shell of moderate size, heavy. Spire conic, under half height of aperture. Nucleus missing. Post-embryonic whorls 4 ½, early ones convex, later ones with a flattened shoulder, angle blunt and only slightly above suture; body-whorl with broad concave shoulder, below which it contracts somewhat quickly, then straightens out for short distance before reaching prominent fasciole, which is bounded above by ridge and curves inward. Sculpture: early whorls with large number of weak axials, probably about 30 per whorl, these increase rapidly in strength; on penultimate whorl about 16 blunt knobs extending to anterior suture but not above shoulderangle; on body-whorl are 7 strong sharp tubercles with steeper anterior than posterior slope, and elongated anteriorly but not advancing far on shoulder. Aperture wide, angled above, deeply notched below; outer lip convex, ascending, thickened and reflexed. Columella with 5 strong plaits, strongest in middle. Inner lip spread out well over body, edge not defined.

Holotype in collection of Mr. H. J. Finlay.

Height, 75 mm.; diameter, 35 mm.

Locality.—Shell-bed, Ardgowan.

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Alcithoe robusta n. sp. (Plate 65, fig. 5.)

Shell large and heavy. Spire conic, about one-third the height of aperture. Spire-whorls with height from half to two-fifths of diameter, bluntly angled below middle, shoulder long, sloping and concave; body-whorl contracting slowly below shoulder to fasciole, which is not prominently raised. Suture undulating. Sculpture: body-whorl with 8 strong blunt nodules, which are extended somewhat anteriorly to form low axials; penultimate whorls with 10 and previous one with 12 broad low axial ribs forming blunt tubercles on shoulder-angle but weakening quickly posteriorly. Aperture long and narrow, deeply notched below, outer lip slightly convex, thickened and reflexed, ascending to shoulder-angle. Columella with 5 strong oblique plaits, the second and third from below slightly thicker than others. Parietal wall with pad of callus. Inner lip forming a thin glaze extending well out across shell.

Holotype in collection of Mr. H. J. Finlay.

Height, 94 mm; diameter, 40 mm.

Localities.—Mount Harris; 559, Black-birch Creek, Blairich (smaller than Mount Harris specimen).

Alcithoe sequax n. sp. (Plate 65, fig. 7.)

Shell of moderate size. Spire turreted, over half height of aperture. Only 3 ½ whorls remaining, top one obtusely angled slightly above mid-point, penultimate with concave shoulder and prominent angle well above mid-point, body-whorl also with strong concave shoulder below which it contracts fairly quickly to beak; fasciole well marked, somewhat flattened along outer part. Sculpture: spire-whorl with 11 rounded axial ribs which die away on shoulder; on penultimate whorl 9 strong axials with wide interspaces, forming blunt knobs on shoulder-angle but weakening rapidly above and below; body-whorl with 7 strong tubercles increasing in size until sixth, which is very large, last one quite small. Aperture rather wide, deeply notched anteriorly. Outer lip convex, ascending, thickened and reflexed. Columella with 5 low broad plaits, middle one strongest. Inner lip thick, widespread.

Holotype in collection of Mr. H. J. Finlay.

Height, 78 mm.; diameter, 32 mm.

Locality.—Mount Harris.

Easily distinguished from A. robusta and A. armigera by the high shoulder of the spire-whorls, also by the fewer axials.

Alcithoe familiaris n. sp. (Plate 64, fig. 2.)

Shell large. Spire turreted, about three-fifths height of aperture. Spire-whorls at first lightly convex but soon becoming obtusely angled about middle, later the angulation becomes sharper and shifts lower down on whorl, forming a sloping shoulder, at first slightly, later decidedly convex; body-whorl contracting below shoulder rather quickly. Sculpture at first of about 11 rounded axial ribs extending from anterior suture up to angle but very weak across shoulder; later the axials decrease to 10, then 9, they become broad and low and bluntly knobbed at angle; penultimate whorl with 7 sharp strong tubercles with wide interspaces, axially extended below suture; body-whorl with 6 very strong high sharp tubercles, front face steeper than back, extending axially for short distance down shell. Aperture wide. Outer lip convex, ascending, thickened, reflexed.

– 292 –

Columella with 4 strong folds, the central ones stronger. Inner lip thin, wide-spreading.

Holotype in collection of Mr. H. J. Finlay.

Height (estimated), 120 mm.; diameter, 54 mm.

Locality.—Mount Harris.

Not unlike A. arabica, but with fewer axials, although a wider shell. Further, there are only 4 folds on the columella, and the ribs develop into spines at an earlier stage.

Alcithoe irregularis n. sp. (Plate 67, figs. 2, 3.)

Shell rather small. Spire conic, between one-half and one-third height of aperture. Nucleus and early conch-whorls missing; later spire-whorls obscurely angled low down near suture, and with a long sloping shoulder; body-whorl inflated, with concave shoulder, below which it is convex and does not contract for some distance, then it slopes regularly to the anterior end; fasciole, flattened, not conspicuous. Sculpture: spire-whorls almost smooth with obsolete axial ribbing, body-whorl same for first third, then knobs on shoulder become stronger, the last two being well raised, blunt and fairly prominent. Aperture wide and high, moderately notched below. Outer lip slightly convex, ascending, thickened and reflexed. Columella projecting well beyond outer lip, folds obscured by hard matrix but probably 4 in number. Inner lip wide-spreading, edge well defined.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 55 mm.; diameter, 27 mm.

Locality.—68, Akuaku, East Cape.

Alcithoe hurupiensis n. sp. (Plate 64, fig. 3.)

Shell large, strong, fusiform. Spire less than half height of aperture. Whorls prominently angled low down, with concave sloping shoulder; body-whorl convex below shoulder, contracting to large prominent fasciole. Suture undulating. Sculpture of strong sharp spines on shoulder-angle, 14 on early whorls, decreasing to 9 on penultimate and 7 on body-whorl; on spire tubercles are elongated into low axial ribs, but these are absent on body, the tubercles of which have steep anterior face and convex posterior one. Aperture large, channelled above, deeply and widely notched below. Outer lip thickened and slightly reflexed, ascending to shoulder-angle. Columella swollen in middle and with 4 strong well-spaced folds which decrease in height anteriorly. Inner lip spreading as thin callus well over body-whorl.

Syntypes in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Locality.—Hurupi Creek, Palliser Bay.

The type material consists of two small imperfect specimens collected by the Wellington Philosophical Society excursion, 1922; and a large specimen (see Plate 64, fig. 3) with the outer lip missing, from the Geological Survey collection. It bears a locality label numbered 188 = Rotella beds, Kereru, Hawke's Bay; but the preservation and matrix are unlike other specimens in that collection and are the same as Hurupi shells. It therefore seems likely that this specimen was lost from the Palliser Bay collection and became mixed with the Kereru one. To avoid any possible trouble the large shell has not been selected as holotype.

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Alcithoe arabicula n. sp. (Plate 66, fig. 4.)

Shell fairly large, broadly fusiform. Spire turreted, two-fifths height of aperture. Whorls prominently angled with broad concave shoulder; body-whorl convex below angle, contracted to prominent fasciole which is limited above by sharp ridge, outer part of fasciole corresponding to notch is concave and sunken, the inner corresponding to extremity of columella, narrowly ridged. Sculpture: penultimate whorl with 9 strong sharp tubercles on shoulder, body-whorl with 7, tubercles not extended far axially. Aperture broad, channelled above, deeply notched below. Outer lip broken, ascending, probably reflexed. Columella with 5 strong spaced plaits. Inner lip very thin and wide-spread.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height (estimated), 70 mm.; diameter, 35 mm.

Locality.—996, Kaawa Creek, Auckland.

The height of the shoulder above the suture is intermediate between A. depressa and A. arabica, from both of which it is distinguished by its short, broad shape, thin inner lip, and much less oblique columellar plaits.

Alcithoe lutea Marwick. (Plate 68, fig. 5.)

1924.

Alcithoe lutea Marwick, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 55, p. 200, p1. 17, fig. 17 (not Cymbiola lutea Watson).

Locality.—Blue clays below Petane limestone, Okouawa Creek, Ngaruroro district.

Closely related to A. detrita, but with a shorter, broader spire. The specific name lutea was applied by a foolish oversight, which was pointed out in litteris both by Mr. Iredale and Mr. Finlay. Had Watson's species been a true Alcithoe a new name could be given to the fossil, but the shells are generically distinct, the former being probably a Waihaoia (Pachymelon). It is not an Alcithoe, for it has only a shallow anterior sinus and no well-defined flattened fasciole.

Alcithoe transformis n. sp. (Plate 67, fig. 1.)

Shell moderate to fairly large. Spire conic, under half height of aperture. Nucleus large, scaphelloid, of about 3 whorls with 2 weak spirals and indistinct axials. Post-embryonic whorls with obsolete axials which finally disappear, for a space whorl is practically smooth, then low blunt tubercles appear on penultimate or body whorl, these increase quickly in strength till broad, high, and pointed; spire-whorls convex to bluntly angled; body-whorl with prominent shoulder, below which it contracts, at first very slowly, then more rapidly, to well-marked fasciole. Aperture wide, deeply notched below. Outer lip thickened, reflexed, ascending, slightly convex. Columella with 5 folds, anterior and posterior much weaker than others.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 87 mm.; diameter, 38 mm. (type): height, 117 mm.; diameter, 54 mm. (paratype).

Locality.—Kai Iwi.

This species is easily distinguished from A. arabica and A. lutea by conic (not turreted) spire, and strong tubercles of body-whorl having arisen only at a late stage following a smooth or almost smooth whorl. A. swainsoni occurs at Kai Iwi, but not A. arabica. At a lower horizon, between Ototoka Stream and Nukumaru, occurs a closely related shell with a more inflated body-whorl quickly contracted to a straightened neck and weaker tubercles; it is included in A. transformis for the present, but may not be a direct ancestor. Each of these knobbed forms may have been given off by A. swainsoni at different times.

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Alcithoe swainsoni n. sp. (Plate 63, fig. 4.)

1821.

Voluta elongata Swainson, Exot. Conch., p1. 20, 21 (not of Solander, Portland Cat., p. 30).

For synonymy and description see Suter's Manual (1913), p. 446.

As Swainson's name is preoccupied, we have a chance of fixing an available type, so the specific name swainsoni is proposed for a Kai-Iwi fossil in the Geological Survey collection. Unfortunately, this course was decided on too late to give a figure of the type specimen.

The division of the arabica-swainsoni group of shells into satisfactory species is a difficult matter. Many of the horizons in the Pliocene section exposed in the sea-cliffs from Nukumaru to Landguard Bluff have characteristic forms; but the writer lacks a large-enough series of Recent shells to determine what is the normal range of variation. Further, the significance in classification of the shoulder-nodules and tubercles has yet to be determined.

A. nukumaruensis, for example, is apparently the smooth form of A. detrita, but as far as known the two forms are constant and do not intergrade at this horizon. Higher in the strata, in the vicinity of Ototoka Stream, we find a smooth shell similar to A. nukumaruensis but with a lower spire. In these beds there is also a stout shell, A. transformis, with a smooth spire of moderate height and a very wide body-whorl armed with blunt nodules (Plate 67, fig. 1). From a little west of Okehu Stream to Kai Iwi Stream the common shell is the typical A. swainsoni. Some are smooth except for a few ribs on the first two whorls, and others develop nodules on the body-whorl. A small smooth variety has the spire shorter than the smooth shell at Ototoka Creek. In the upper part of the section is a form with a spire like swainsoni but with very large sharp tubercles on the body. It is somewhat like A. depressa in that the suture is close below the angulation, but is classed with A. transformis for the present.

In the lower beds at Castlecliff most of the specimens are like swainsoni, but many have a considerably higher spire. The spire-whorls are convex or only bluntly angled, and the body-whorl is either smooth or has low nodules. The slender shell A. acuta (Plate 66, fig. 3) is an extreme form which occurs here. Higher still in the sequence, at Landguard Bluff, occurs the typical A. arabica, with prominently-angled spire-whorls and a tuberculate body-whorl.

Whether those which have a smooth spire and a tuberculate body should be classed as A. arabica appears doubtful, especially since the typical form of that species has not been found in the lower beds. However, A. lutea from the Nukumaruan of Hawke's Bay has spire-whorls sometimes convex and sometimes angled, and differs from A. arabica chiefly in its higher spire.

It is possible that different races developed in different districts, and that subsequent land-movements, by removing barriers (e.g., the formation of Cook Strait), enabled crossing to take place between these races, thus producing the great variety of forms.

Alcithoe larochei n. sp. (Plate 63, fig. 6.)

Shell large and strong, broadly fusiform. Spire conic, one-third height of aperture. Nucleus scaphelloid, of about 2 ½ rather worn whorls, apex flattened, last turn with indications of blunt axials and fine spirals. Post-embryonic whorls 5, convex on spire with flattened steep shoulder; body inflated, contracting fairly quickly to large well-defined fasciole bounded by ridge. Sculpture: first three whorls with about 18 rather low curved

– 295 –

axial ribs, later ones slightly angled, last two whorls smooth except for strong growth-lines. Aperture large, dilated, deeply notched below. Outer lip lightly convex, thickened, reflexed, ascending high on penultimate whorl. Columella with 4 strong folds. Inner lip thin, spread well out from aperture, not raised in fasciolar region.

Holotype in Auckland Museum.

Height, 98 mm.; diameter, 46 mm.

Locality.—Off Opotiki, 30 fathoms.

This specimen was kindly forwarded by Mr. W. La Roche, of Auckland. It resembles Voluta (Cymbiola) lutea Watson at first sight, but is easily distinguished by the deep anterior notch and the different outline of the spire. The species is closely related to A. swainsoni but is much more squat. A specimen from Castlecliff in the Geological Survey collection is fairly close to A. larochei, but is less inflated and has a small pad on the fasciole.

Alcithoe arabica Martyn (1784). (Plate 68, fig. 3.)

For synonymy and description see Suter's Manual (1913), p. 445.

The only typical specimens found fossil were from Landguard Bluff, in the highest beds of the Castlecliffian.

Alcithoe jaculoides Powell. (Plate 68, fig. 2.)

1924.

Alctihoe arabica jaculoides Powell, Proc. Malac. Soc., vol. 16, p. 108, figs. 1, 2.

Distinguished from A. arabica by the narrow outline, fewer spines, very high outer lip, and absence of inner-lip pad. No fossil occurrences are known.

Alcithoe acuta n. sp. (Plate 66, fig. 3.)

Shell fairly large, narrowly fusiform. Spire four-sevenths height of aperture. Nucleus scaphelloid, of 3 whorls, with a few faint spirals of which two are more distinct, crossed by numerous equally faint axials. Postembryonic whorls 5, angled about the middle with steep shoulder; body-whorl not contracted for some distance below shoulder, then tapering quickly to well-marked fasciole which is bounded by low ridge. Sculpture: early whorls with about 13 indistinct axial ribs slightly knobbed at shoulderangle, later axials shorten to low tubercles and number decreases to 10 or even 9. Aperture wide, deeply notched below. Outer lip dilated, thickened, slightly reflexed, slightly convex, ascending penultimate whorl almost to angle. Columella with 4 plaits, anterior one weak. Inner lip spread well out.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 113 mm.; diameter, 38 mm.

Locality.—Castlecliff (near base of series).

Alcithoe oliveri n. sp. (Plate 67, fig. 5.)

Shell very large and broad. Spire low, about one-quarter height of aperture. Spire-whorls mostly broken in type; body-whorl increasing very quickly with broad concave shoulder below which it is scarcely contracted for some distance, then tapering quickly. Sculpture: penultimate whorl with 12 fairly strong tubercles just above suture, body-whorl with 9 (perhaps 10 if complete) strong tubercles extending forward for some distance as low broad axials. Aperture large, channelled above. Outer

– 296 –

lip reflexed, surmounting shoulder and reaching nearly to posterior suture. Columella with 4 strong spaced folds and a fifth faint posterior one. Inner lip wide, spreading.

Holotype in Dominion Museum, presented by Mr. W. R. B. Oliver.

Height, 160 mm.; diameter, 77 mm.

Locality.—Cliffs north of mouth of Waipara River.

Resembles A. depressa, but is much larger and the outer lip ascends higher. The body-whorl is also relatively broader and the shoulder more nearly horizontal. The exact age is uncertain, but in the aperture of the type is a large Eumarcia sp. such as occurs at Waipipi and Nukumaru.

Alcithoe depressa (Suter). (Plate 67, fig. 4.)

For synonymy and description see Suter's Manual (1913), p. 447.

This species is distinguished from A. arabica by the shape of the spire, which is almost regularly conic, caused by the suture being almost on the line of the shoulder-tubercles. The spire of A. arabica is strongly gradate, the suture being well below the angle of the shoulder.

Localities.—Recent (type), Spirits Bay; Castlecliff.

Alcithoe lepida n. sp. (Plate 68, fig. 1.)

Shell rather small, narrowly fusiform. Spire conic, over half height of aperture. Nucleus scaphelloid, of 2 ½ smooth volutions. Post-embryonic whorls 5, early ones slightly convex, later ones obscurely angled below mid-point and with steep shoulder; body-whorl also with steep shoulder above obtuse shoulder-angle, below which whorl is slightly convex and contracts gradually, then straightens out to a rather long beak bearing convex fasciole not bounded by ridge. Sculpture: spire-whorls with 13 or 14 low rounded axial ribs about their own width apart, weaker on shoulder and finally not crossing it; body-whorl with 11 low pointed tubercles on shoulder, only slightly extended axially. Aperture narrow; sides subparallel, channelled above, fairly deeply notched below. Outer lip convex, ascending a little, thickened and dilated but not refiexed. Columella with 5 fairly strong plaits, decreasing in height anteriorly and posteriorly from second posterior one. Inner lip thin, not advancing far from aperture.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 56 mm.; diameter, 20 mm.

Locality.—175, one mile south of Devil's Bridge, Oamaru (= Ardgowan shell-bed).

Closely related to A. reflexa, but axial ribs stronger on spire and more persistent, angulation of whorls more obtuse, nodules on body-whorl weaker, anterior notch slightly shallower and aperture not so dilated. It is therefore not so advanced as, and perhaps directly ancestral to, A. reflexa.

Alcithoe reflexa n. sp. (Plate 68, fig. 6.)

Shell of moderate size, fusiform, thin. Spire slightly under half height of aperture. Nucleus narrow, scaphelloid, of about 2 ½ smooth whorls. Post-embryonic whorls 5 ½, first two with almost straight outlines, third slightly convex in lower part, fourth obtusely angled about mid-point; body-whorl with concave fairly broad shoulder, below which it contracts scarcely at all for a distance, then fairly quickly, finally straightening out again before reaching well-marked fasciole which is rather flattened and

– 297 –

sunken along outer part corresponding to notch, but with ridge on inner part formed by projecting columella. Sculpture: spire-whorls with many obsolete axial ribs blending with growth-lines, about 13 on penultimate whorl; on body-whorl 8 strong sharp knobs are developed on shoulder but do not extend far axially. Aperture dilated, broadly angled above, deeply notched below. Outer lip convex, ascending half-way up penultimate whorl, conspicuously reflexed. Columella with 5 folds, all but anterior strong, second posterior one is highest, columella projects well below outer lip and is curved backwards. Inner lip thin, spreading.

Holotype in collection of Mr. H. J. Finlay.

Height, 64 mm.; diameter, 27 mm.

Localities.—Pukeuri (type); Rifle Butts, South Oamaru.

Alcithoe finlayi n. sp. (Plate 69, fig. 1.)

Shell of moderate size and strength, elongate, biconic. Spire about four-fifths height of aperture. Nucleus scaphelloid, of 2 or 3 smooth whorls. Post-embryonic whorls 4 ½, height more than half diameter, first ones lightly convex, others bluntly angled below middle, with long sloping slightly concave shoulder; body-whorl only slightly convex, below shoulder contracting gradually to large fasciole which is bounded by low ridge. Suture somewhat undulating. Sculpture of about 12 low blunt tubercles on shoulder of each whorl, on body they are only slightly elongated anteriorly, but on spire-whorls they reach anterior suture, on first two conch-whorls they also reach posterior suture. Aperture hastate, channelled above, deeply notched below. Outer lip thin and rounded, slightly convex, retreating below, edge not reflexed, ascending only slightly towards shoulder. Columella with 4 strong oblique folds, decreasing in height anteriorly. Inner lip spread as a thin glaze for a moderate distance from aperture.

Holotype in collection of Mr. H. J. Finlay.

Height, 60 mm.; diameter, 22 mm.

Locality.—Shell-bed, Target Gully, Oamaru. (= Fulgoraria gracilis of Suter, 1921, p. 81.)

This species is the commonest Volute in the shell-bed.

Alcithoe scopi n. sp. (Plate 69, fig. 2.)

Shell of moderate size, strong, fusiform. Spire a little over half height of aperture. Nucleus scaphelloid, very large, of 2 ¼ depressed whorls. Post-embryonic whorls 4 ½, height less than half diameter; spire-whorls slightly convex; body-whorl with fairly long sloping shoulder, bluntly angled, lightly convex and contracting below to large only slightly raised fasciole. Sculpture on spire-whorls of 10–12 axial ribs with weak nodule, low down, forming obscure shoulder-angle; axials obsolete on penultimate and body whorl, so that their number cannot be determined. Suture undulating. Aperture hastate, channelled above, widely and moderately deeply notched below. Outer lip slightly convex, retreating below, edge rounded not reflexed, ascending only slightly on penultimate whorl. Columella with 4 strong oblique plaits, decreasing in height anteriorly. Inner lip thin, restrained.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 53 mm.; diameter, 21 mm.

Locality.—Shell-bed, Target Gully, Oamaru. (= Fulgoraria gracilis of Suter, 1921, p. 81.)

– 298 –

Closely related to A. finlayi, but with lower spire and whorls and much larger protoconch; also the sculpture becomes obsolete at an early stage, though this is sometimes seen in examples of A. finlayi.

Alcithoe neglecta n. sp. (Plate 66, fig. 7.)

Shell small, fusiform, solid. Spire conic, half height of aperture. Nucleus scaphelloid, of about 3 smooth whorls. Post-embryonic whorls 4, obtusely angled rather below middle on spire and with steep shoulder; body-whorl slightly convex below shoulder, contracting to fasciole which is somewhat depressed on outer half but ridged on inner and separated by low ridge from base of body-whorl. Sculpture: spire-whorls with 16 or 17 axial ribs per whorl; ribs rounded, very low, raised into weak knob forming shoulder about one-third across whorl from anterior suture, and reaching anterior suture but scarcely as far as posterior one; body-whorl with 9 low rounded axially elongated knobs on first two-thirds of volution, on remaining third they are obsolete. Aperture high, triangular, channelled above, widely and somewhat shallowly notched below. Outer lip convex, thick, not reflexed, descending slightly for a short distance but previously ascending by same amount. Columella with a convex pad surmounted by 5 columellar folds, space between posterior two almost filled up, folds decreasing in strength anteriorly. Inner lip spreading well out from aperture.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 47 mm.; diameter, 20 mm.

Localities.—Shell-bed, Target Gully; Rifle Butts, Oamaru (more attenuated than type).

Alcithoe solida n. sp. (Plate 69, fig. 3.)

Shell rather small but very heavy, biconic. Spire two-thirds height of aperture. Nucleus depressed, scaphelloid, of 3 smooth whorls with large apex. Whorls 6, including nucleus, on spire they are bluntly angled about middle of whorl; body-whorl with a slightly concave sloping shoulder, below which it is lightly convex and contracted to fasciole, which is not raised. Suture undulating. Sculpture of about 12 strong axial ribs per whorl, they extend from suture to suture on spire, being bluntly angled on the shoulder-angle and twisted forward above, ribs persist well down over body but do not reach fasciole; towards aperture ribs inclined to die away; some specimens have whole body-whorl almost smooth. Aperture long and very narrow, channelled above, deeply notched below. Outer lip thin and rounded, slightly convex, somewhat inclined backwards from suture. Columella with 4 strong spaced plaits. Inner lip spread as thin callus a short distance over body-whorl.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 45 mm.; diameter, 21.5 mm.

Localities.—1133, coast north of Mimi Stream, Waitara Survey District; 52, White Cliffs, Taranaki (= Miomelon corrugata (Hutt.) and var. B of Suter, 1921, p. 22); 3 chains towards Tongaporutu from Okau junction, Mimi Survey District.

The single specimen from the latter locality is much more slender than the typical species. As it occurs in the Tongaporutuan, whereas the Mimi Stream shells are Urenuian, this may have stratigraphical significance.

– 299 –

Alcithoe corrugata (Hutton).

1873.

Voluta (Lyria) corrugata Hutton, Cat. Tert. Moll, p. 7.

1914.

Lapparia corrugata (Hutton): Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 2, p. 27, p1. 2, figs. 4 a, b (in part).

1914.

Cymbiola (Miomelon) corrugata (Hutton): Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 5, p. 87.

1918.

Miomelon corrugata (Hutton): Suter, Alph. List of N.Z. Tert. Moll., p. 19.

Hutton's type should never have been described. The outer surface is completely weathered away, and the ruin conveys only a rough idea of the original details of the shell. Enough remains to show that Suter was mistaken in synonymizing his Lapparia parki with V. corrugata. The body is very broad, and the ribs, which have a strong twist, extend across it. The angle of the spire is 57°, while that of L. parki is 48°. Hutton's type resembles fairly closely the shell described in this paper as Alcithoe solida, but it is slightly bigger and has a few more ribs. Until some topotypes have been secured, however, the best course is to ignore the species.

Alcithoe exigua n. sp. (Plate 69, fig. 4.)

Shell small, fusiform. Spire slightly turreted, two-thirds height of aperture. Spire-whorls bluntly angled about middle; body-whorl rounded not inflated, tapering fairly regularly to convex well-marked fasciole. Sculpture: spire-whorls with about 12 weak axials, slightly tubercled at shoulder, almost dying out towards sutures; on body-whorl axials have become obsolete. Aperture moderate, deeply notched below. Outer lip sinuous, thickened, not reflexed, ascending. Columella with 4 strong folds, anterior end twisted. Inner lip rather thick, well spread.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey, deposited by Mr. R. S. Allan.

Height, 58 mm.; diameter, 21.5 mm.

Localities.—Sands at boat-landing, Nukumaru; one-quarter mile west of Ototoka Stream (between Okehu and Nukumaru); 231, McLean's, Ngaruroro River.

The specimens from the last two localities are much worn, so the identification is doubtful. Distinguished from A. gracilis by the higher and more acute spire, more calloused aperture, and twisted columella. The type is not unlike a small A. nukumaruensis, but is comparatively narrower, and the ribbing on the spire is probably much stronger.

Alcithoe brevis n. sp. (Plate 69, fig. 6.)

Shell rather small, very broadly fusiform, strong. Spire turreted, twothirds height of aperture. Nucleus large, scaphelloid, of 2 smooth volutions, upper one much flattened. Post-embryonic whorls 4 ½, first lightly convex, later ones with concave sloping shoulder gradually increasing in strength, angulation being about middle of spire-whorls; body-whorl contracting fairly quickly to anterior end; fasciole well marked, bounded by ridge. Sculpture: whorls with 13–16 strong rounded axial ribs with equal interstices, ribs decrease suddenly in strength above angle and are quite weak across shoulder, on body-whorl they persist well down towards fasciole but are quite low and sometimes become obsolete. Aperture moderately notched anteriorly, columellar side scarcely projecting. Columella with 4 strong folds, anterior weakest; between second and third folds of a paratype is a weak secondary fold. Inner lip rather thick, edge well defined.

– 300 –

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey, deposited by Dr. P. Marshall.

Height, 39 mm.; diameter, 19 mm.

Locality.—81, Castle Point.

Alcithoe subgracilis n. sp. (Plate 69, fig. 9.)

Shell rather small, fusiform. Spire turreted, about three-fifths height of aperture. Nucleus scaphelloid, of about 2 whorls with 3 or 4 weak spaced spirals crossed by equally weak axials. Post-embryonic whorls 4, angled slightly above middle, with concave sloping shoulder and perpendicular sides; body-whorl also with concave sloping shoulder and prominent angle, below which it contracts with trifling inflation to well-marked fasciole. Sculpture of 15 or 16 strong axial ribs, much weaker on shoulder but stretching well down body-whorl. Aperture moderate, deeply notched below. Outer lip thickened, slightly convex, ascending. Columella with 4 plaits. Inner lip moderately enamelled and extending.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 40 mm.; diameter, 16 mm.

Localities.—736, clays below limestone, Petane; many localities in the Petane beds of the Ngaruroro River district; 1040, Twaite's Gutting, Martinborough district.

Alcithoe mackayi n. sp. (Plate 69, fig. 7.)

Shell rather small, narrowly fusiform. Spire turreted, nearly as high as aperture. Nucleus flattened, scaphelloid, of about 2 smooth whorls. Post-embryonic whorls 4 ½, angled about middle, with slightly concave sloping shoulder persisting on body-whorl, which contracts gradually to conspicuous fasciole. Sculpture of strong axial ribs with wider interstices, ribs reach from suture to suture but are very weak on base of body-whorl, they decrease in number from 15 on early whorls to 11 on body-whorl, and are somewhat tubercular on angle of shoulder. Aperture moderate, deeply notched below. Outer lip slightly thickened, ascending a little. Columella with 4 plaits decreasing anteriorly. Inner lip well calloused.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 51 mm.; diameter, 18 mm.

Locality.—191, Blue clays, Shrimpton's, Ngaruroro River.

Probably an offshoot from A. subgracilis, from which it differs in being narrower, higher on the spire, and in having stronger axials. It is the forerunner of A. hedleyi, which marks a further advance in having a smooth cylindrical body-whorl.

Alcithoe gracilis Swainson, 1821. (Plate, 69, fig. 5.)

For synonymy and description see Suter's Manual (1913), p. 448.

The line of descent of A. gracilis has for long been separated from that of A. arabica, and probably came through A. finlayi n. sp., of Awamoan age.

The height of the spire varies from less than half to about two-thirds that of the aperture. Sometimes the shoulder-nodules are present on the body-whorl, but often they are quite obsolete.

Localities.—Recent (type); Castlecliff (plentiful); Kai Iwi; many localities in blue clays below Petane limestone, Ngaruroro River, grading into A. subgracilis.

– 301 –

Alcithoe hedleyi Murdoch and Suter. (Plate 69, fig. 8.)

1906.

Fulguraria (Alcithoe) hedleyi M. & S., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 38, p 288, pl. 23, figs. 20, 21.

This is a rare shell, not known fossil. The body-whorl is cylindrical and almost the same in diameter as penultimate whorl. The fasciole is well marked, outer half being depressed, bounded above by sharp ridge and below by broad rounded ridge occupying lower half of fasciole.

Alcithoe dilatata n. sp. (Plate 65, fig. 2.)

Shell small, solid, broadly fusiform. Spire two-fifths height of aperture. Nucleus damaged, apparently scaphelloid. Post-embryonic whorls 4, with sloping concave shoulder; spire-whorls angled just above suture; body-whorl convex below shoulder, retreating somewhat quickly to large prominent fasciole which is bounded above by ridge. Suture undulating, channelled at aperture. Shoulder with 8–10 sharp strong tubercles per whorl, those on spire sometimes on line of suture; they are not laterally compressed but extend anteriorly half-way across body-whorl as low axial ribs. Aperture hastate, channelled above, deeply and widely notched below. Outer lip convex, thickened, especially posteriorly; very slightly reflexed, ascending quickly on last quarter-whorl and finally bent over to form deeply channelled suture. Columella sometimes decidedly bent to rear, with 4 strong rather close folds, anterior one very weak. Inner lip with smooth callus extending well out on body and with thick pad on parietal wall.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 34.5 mm.; diameter, 17.5 mm.

Locality.—Basal sandstones, Hurupi Creek, Palliser Bay.

Alcithoe parva n. sp. (Plate 65, fig. 6.)

Shell small, broadly fusiform. Spire two-fifths height of aperture. Spire-whorls angled just above suture, with long, sloping, slightly concave shoulder; body-whorl convex below shoulder and contracting rather rapidly to prominent fasciole, which is bounded above by ridge. Suture undulating. Sculpture of 13 axial ribs very weak on sloping shoulder but raised into low tubercles on angle; on body-whorl tubercles are sharp and fairly strong, and ribs tend to become obsolete. Aperture suboblong, channelled above, deeply and widely notched below. Outer lip thickened, slightly reflexed, ascending and cemented to penultimate whorl half-way between shoulder-angle and suture above. Columella with 5 well-separated folds. Inner lip with thick wide-spreading callus.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 37 mm.; diameter, 18 mm.

Locality.—996, Kaawa Creek.

Incertae sedis.

Alcithoe residua Finlay. (Plate 70, fig. 3.)

1926.

Alcithoe residua Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 56, p. 249, pl. 55, fig. 5.

The nucleus is almost caricelloid, the initial whorl being high conoid. The sculpture of low axial ribs crossed on the early whorls by spiral sculpture, and the lack of angulation, seem to show relations closer to Spinomelon than to Alcithoe. The species, however, can remain under the latter until the generic position is more certain.

Locality.—Otiake.

– 302 –

Alcithoe gatesi new name. (Plate 70, fig. 7.)

1920.

Fulguraria morgani Marshall and Murdoch, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 52, p. 133, pl. 7, figs. 12, 12a, 12b (not of Cossmann and Pissarro).

1923.

Fulguraria morgani Marshall and Murdoch, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 54, p. 125 (in part), pl. 15, figs. 1, 2, 3.

Cossmann and Pissarro (1905, p. 76, pl. 14, figs. 13, 14) have already described a French fossil under the name Fulguraria (Alcithoe) morgani, so a new name must be given to the New Zealand species.

Owing to the obsolescence of axial sculpture on nearing the aperture, and for other reasons discussed below, the type of A. gatesi is considered to be an adult and the large specimens figured by Marshall and Murdoch (1923, p. 14, figs. 1, 2) to be a new species, which has consequently been given the name A. whakinoensis.

Localities.—Waipipi; Whakino; 875, coast, half-mile west of Waingongoro River.

Alcithoe whakinoensis n. sp. (Plate 70, fig. 6.)

1923.

Fulguraria morgani Marshall and Murdoch, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 54, p. 125 (in part), pl. 14, figs. 1, 2.

Shell large. Spire about equal to aperture. Whorls bluntly angled above middle, and with steep scarcely concave shoulder; body with more excavated shoulder, below which it tapers convexly to very prominent convex fasciole curved inwards below. Sculpture of 16–20 strong axial ribs on spire-whorls, extending from suture to suture but weaker on shoulder and projecting as rudimentary tubercles on angle; body with strong tubercles on periphery, axials obsolete. Suture undulating. Aperture wide, deeply notched below. Outer lip dilated, thickened and reflexed, ascending. Columella with 5 plaits. Inner lip thin, well spread out.

Holotype in Wanganui Museum.

Height, 112 mm.; diameter, 38 mm.

Localities.—Whakino; Waipipi.

This large shell was thought by Marshall and Murdoch to be the adult of their A. morgani (= A. gatesi new name); but several important points indicate the specific separation of the large from the small—or, at least, many of the small shells. Thus on the type and other specimens of A. gatesi the ribs become obsolete near the aperture and are replaced by numerous strong growth-lines, also the outer lip ascends noticeably. The juvenile specimen figured by Marshall and Murdoch (1920, pl. 7, fig. 12b) belongs to the new species A. whakinoensis; the whorls are considerably larger and notably higher than those of A. gatesi at the same stage. The separation of two species explains the comparative rarity of the larger shells.

Alcithoe haweraensis n. sp. (Plate 70, fig. 5.)

Shell of moderate size, fusiform. Spire turreted, three-fifths height of aperture. Spire-whorls with sloping convex shoulder, prominently angled, below which are perpendicular sides; body-whorl inflated with angulation and concavity becoming obsolete on last half; base contracted rather quickly to well-marked fasciole. Sculpture of 13–14 strong narrow axial ribs, which become suddenly very weak above angle and thus leave an almost smooth shoulder; on body-whorl ribs are at first more numerous

– 303 –

but become obsolete on last half-turn, their place taken by strong growthlines. Aperture somewhat dilated, narrowed above, deeply notched below. Outer lip slightly convex, thickened, reflexed, ascending a little. Columella with 5 strong spaced plaits, anterior and posterior weakest. Inner lip spreading well out.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey, deposited by Mr. R. S. Allan.

Height, 79 mm.; diameter, 33 mm.

Localities.—Hawera (type); Waipipi.

Differs from A. gatesi in the fewer and stronger ribs, almost smooth shoulder, inflated body-whorl, and 5 plaits on columella, and from A. whakinoensis in the much shorter spire.

A specimen from Waipipi is most irregularly ribbed and covered by strong growth-lines. It may be a pathological specimen, but the holotype shows a similar development on the last half-whorl, so perhaps the species is a gerontic one.

List of References.

Cossmann, M., 1899. Essais de Paléoconchologie Comparée, vol. 3.

—, 1909. Essais de Paléoconchologie Comparée, vol. 8.

Cossmann, M., and Pissarro, G., 1905. Faune Eocenique du Cotentin, tome 2, fasc. 3 (extrait du Bull. Soc. Géologique du Normandie, tome 24).

Dall, W. H., 1889. Mollusca of “Blake” Expedition. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, vol. 18.

—, 1890. Tertiary Fauna of Florida. Trans. Wag. Free Inst., vol. 3, pt. 1.

—, 1907. A Review of American Volutidae. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 48.

—, 1924. Value of Nuclear Characters in Classification of Marine Gastropods. Jour. Washington Ac. Sci., vol. 14.

Finlay, H. J., 1924. Molluscan Fauna of Target Gully. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 55.

Harris, G. F., 1897. Catalogue of Tertiary Mollusca, British Museum, Part I, Australasia.

Hedley, C., 1906. Eighteenth-century Names that relate to New Zealand Mollusca. N.Z. Col. Mus. Bull. 1.

—, 1914. Studies in Australian Mollusca, No. 12. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vol. 39.

Henderson, J., and Ongley, M., 1923. Geology of Mokau Subdivision. N.Z. Geol. Surv. Bull. 24 (n.s.).

von Ihering, H., 1907. Moll. foss. d. Tert. et d. Cret. Sup. Ann. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, ser. 3, tomo 7.

Marshall, P., 1918. Tertiary Molluscan Fauna of Pakaurangi Point. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 50.

Marshall, P., and Murdoch, R., 1920. Tertiary Mollusca. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 52.

Speight, R., 1917. Tertiary Beds of Trelissick Basin. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 49.

Suter, H., 1913. Manual of the New Zealand Mollusca.

—, 1914. Revision of Tertiary Mollusca. N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 2.

—, 1915. Revision of Tertiary Mollusca. N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 3.

—, 1917. New Tertiary Mollusca. N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 5.

—, 1918. Alphabetical List of New Zealand Tertiary Mollusca.

—, 1921. Lists of New Zealand Tertiary Mollusca. N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 8.

Tryon, G. W., 1882. Manual of Conchology, vol. 4.

Zittel, K., 1864. Palaeontologie von Neu-Seeland. Reise der “Novara,” Geol. Theil, 1 Band, 2 Abt.