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Volume 56, 1926
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7. Alcithoe h. and A. Adams, 1858.

Type: Buccinum arabicum Martyn.

Synopsis of Species.
1. Large shells, generally over 70 mm. in height.
A. Spire less than two-thirds apertural height.
(1.) Body tubercles strong.
  (a.) Body tapering regularly.
   Four folds.
    Body-shoulder steep hurupiensis.
    Body-shoulder not steep familiaris.
   Five folds.
    Columella padded compressa.
    Folds not very oblique armigera.
    Shoulder appressed robusta.
    Shoulder abutting jaculoides.
(b.) Body slightly inflated, contracted below.
   Angle about middle of spire-whorls arabica.
   Angle low down, near suture.
    Nodules very long, sharp on spire arabicula.
    Spire almost smooth, very strong, sharp, tubercles on body transformis.
    Shell very large, body expanding suddenly oliveri.
    Moderate size, nodules blunt, inner lip with raised edge depressa.
(2.) Body tubercles weak or absent.
   (a.)Diameter one-third height of shell, tubercles weak acuta.
   (b.)Diameter over one-third height of shell.
    Body cylindrical, inner lip thin cylindrica.
    Body inflated, base gradually contracting, inner lip with raised edge, tubercles often absent swainsoni.
    Body inflated, base quickly contracting, inner lip thin, no tubercles larochei.
(3.) Axially ribbed.
   (a.) Whorls angled haweraensis.
   (b.) Whorls rounded, irregular spirals on early whorls residua.
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B. Spire two-thirds height of aperture.
(1.) Axial ribs scarcely tuberculate whakinoensis.
(2.) Well-developed tubercles.
   (a.) Strong axials.
    Sharp tubercles turrita.
    Blunt tubercles sequax.
   (b.) Weak axials.
    Columella padded, 6 folds wekaensis.
    Columella straight, 5 folds; inner lip thick, raised detrita.
    Columella straight, 4 folds; inner lip thin, not raised lutea.
(3.) Whorls smooth nukumaruensis.
2. Small shells, generally under 70 mm.
A. Diameter one-third height or less.
Tapering body with ribs mackayi.
Cylindrical, smooth body hedleyi.
B. Diameter more than one-third, less than one-half height of shell.
(1.) Four folds.
   (a.) Spire nearly as high as aperture
    Body strongly ribbed gatesi.
    Body smooth exigua.
    Body knobbed finlayi.
   (b.) Spire much lower than aperture.
    Spire conic.
    Body inflated, lip dilated irregularis.
    Body not inflated, lip not dilated scopi.
   (c.) Spire turreted.
    Axial ribs on body subgracilis.
    Body smooth or tubercled gracilis.
   (2.) Five folds.
Columella straight.
    Lip reflexed reflexa.
    Lip not reflexed lepida.
    Columella padded neglecta.
C. Diameter one-half height of shell.
   Body with axial ribs.
    Thirteen ribs, spire conic solda.
    Seventeen ribs, spire turreted brevis.
    Body tuberculate.
    Four folds dilatata.
    Five folds parva.

Alcithoe turrita (Suter). (Plate 66, fig. 8.)

1917.

Fulgoraria (Alcithoe) arabica var. turrita Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 5, p. 39, pl. 5, fig. 4.

1920.

Fulguraria (Alcithoe) turrita Suter, Marsh. & Murd., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 52, p. 132.

Axial ribs on spire narrow but strong, and tubercles on body-whorl much compressed. Columella bent sharply to rear below, ending in sloping knife-like edge about ¼ in. long.

Other than the type, no example of this species has been seen; but there is a related species from Mount Brown, and another from Nuku-maru.

Locality.—Blue Cliffs, South Canterbury.

Alcithoe wekaensis n. sp. (Plate 68, fig. 4.)

Shell large, fusiform, strong. Spire turreted, slightly less than two-thirds height of aperture. Nucleus scaphelloid, of about 2 ½ smooth whorls. Post-embryonic whorls 5, obtusely angled about the middle and with a

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Fig. 1.—Waihaoia thomsoni n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 2.—Waihaoia suteri n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 3.—Waihaoia confusa n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 4.—Mauia angusta (Suter): lectotype.
Fig. 5.—Waihaoia allani n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 6.—Waihaoia regularis (Finlay): holotype.
Fig. 7.—Waihaoia buthgatei (Finlay): holotype.
Fig. 8.—Mauia huttoni (Suter): holotype.
Fig. 9.—Mauia maoriana (Suter): holotype.
Fig. 10.—Waihaoia superstes n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 11.—Waihaoia phymatias (Finlay): holotype.
Fig. 12.—Waihaoia dyscrita (Finlay): holotype.
Fig. 13.—Mauia angusta (Suter): plesiotype.
Fig. 14.—Mauia insignis n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 15.—Mauia biconica (Suter): holotype.

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Fig. 1.—Waihaoia (Teremelon) elegantissima (Suter): holotype.
Fig. 2.—Waihaoia (Teremelon) tumidior (Finlay): holotype.
Fig. 3.—Spinomelon benitens (Finlay): holotype.
Fig. 4.—Waihaoia (Teremelon) awamoaensis n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 5.—Waihaoia (Teremelon) cognata (Finlay): holotype.
Fig. 6.—Spinomelon enysi n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 7.—Waihaoia (Teremelon) pretisa (Finlay): holotype.
Fig. 8.—Spinomelon parki (Suter): Mount Harris.

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Fig. 1.—Waihaoia (Pachymelon) amonaformis n. sp. : holotype.
Fig. 2.—Alcithoe nukumaruensis (Marsh. & Murd.): holotype.
Fig. 3.—Waihaoia (Pachymelon) lutea (Watson): after Watson.
Fig. 4.—Alcithoe swainsoni n. sp.: Recent, Paekakariki
Fig. 5.—Waihaoia (Pachymeioa) murdochi n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 6.—Alcithoe larochei n. sp.: holotype.

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Fig. 1.—Lyria zelandica Finlay: holotype.
Fig. 2.—Alcithoe familiaris n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 3.—Alcithoe hurupiensis n. sp.: syntype.
Fig. 4.—Spinomelon mira n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 5.—Waihaoia scitula n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 6.—Waihaoia aculeata (Hutton): holotype, × 2.
Fig. 7.—Spinomelon speighti n. sp.: holotype.

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Fig. 1.—Alcithoe armigera n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 2.—Alcithoe dilatata n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 3.—Alcithoe cylindrica n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 4.—Alcithoe compressa n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 5.—Alcithoe robusta n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 6.—Alcithoe parva n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 7.—Alcithoe sequax n. sp.: holotype.

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Fig. 1.—Notoplejona lata n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 2.—Notoplejona necopinata (Suter): Waihao Downs.
Fig. 3.—Alcithoe acuta n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 4.—Alcithoe arabicula n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 5.—Notoplejona necopinata (Suter): Kakahu.
Fig. 6.—Alcithoe detrita n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 7.—Alcithoe neglecta n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 8.—Alcithoe turrita (Suter): holotype.

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Fig. 1.—Alcithoe transformis n. sp.: holotype.
Figs. 2, 3.—Alcithoe irregularis n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 4.—Alcithoe depressa (Suter): holotype.
Fig. 5.—Alcithoe oliveri n. sp.: holotype.

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Fig. 1.—Alcithoe lepida n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 2.—Alcithoe jaculoides Powell: paratype.
Fig. 3.—Alcithoe arabica (Martyn): Tauranga, Recent.
Fig. 4.—Alcithoe wekaensis n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 5.—Alcithoe lutea Marwick: holotype.
Fig. 6.—Alcithoe reflexa n. sp.: holotype.

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Fig. 1.—Alcithoe finlayi n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 2.—Alcithoe scopi n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 3.—Alcithoe solida n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 4.—Alcithoe exigua n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 5.—Alcithoe gracilis (Swainson): Castlecliff.
Fig. 6.—Alcithoe brevis n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 7.—Alcithoe mackayi n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 8.—Alcithoe hedleyi (Murdoch and Suter): holotype.
Fig. 9.—Alcithoe subgracilis n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 10.—Metamelon minima n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 11.—Metamelon clifdenensis (Finlay): holotype.
Fig. 12.—Metamelon marshalli n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 13.—Mauia curvispina n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 14.—Metamelon inermis (Finlay): holotype.
Fig. 15.—Metamelon reverta (Finlay): holotype.

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Fig. 1.—Waihaoia (Pachymelon) waitakiensis n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 2.—Waihaoia (Pachymelon) firma n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 3.—Alcithoe residua (Finlay): holotype.
Fig. 4.—Waihaoia rugosa n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 5.—Alcithoe haweraensis n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 6.—Alcithoe whakinoensis n. sp.: holotype.
Fig. 7.—Alcithoe gatesi new name: holotype.

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very steep shoulder; body-whorl slightly convex below shoulder, contracting gradually to large rounded fasciole which is turned strongly inwards and backwards. Sculpture: spire-whorls with about 14 rather weak axial ribs which scarcely reach sutures and are raised into blunt angle about middle of whorl, penultimate whorl with 10 and body-whorl with 8 large strong tubercles which do not extend far axially. Aperture high, triangular, deeply and broadly notched below, channelled above. Outer lip slightly distended, reflexed and thickened, especially at a point slightly lower than central line of tubercles, ascending somewhat on penultimate whorl. Columella swollen in region of folds, which are 6 in number, anterior one weak; columella bent rather strongly backwards and ends in sharp convex edge. Inner lip spreading as thick glaze for some distance from aperture.

Holotype in collection of Mr. H. J. Finlay.

Height, 110 mm.; diameter, 42.5 mm.

Locality.—Lower shell-bed in uppermost Mount Brown beds.

Distinguished from A. turrita by its stronger build, lower spire, weaker axials, blunter tubercles, and different disposition of anterior part of columella and fasciole; also, columellar folds are more numerous and placed on prominent convexity.

Alcithoe detrita n. sp. (Plate 66, fig. 6.)

Shell large, fusiform. Spire narrow, nearly as high as aperture. Spire-whorls at first slightly convex, then bluntly angled about middle; body-whorl with prominent shoulder, below which it is straightened, then contracted fairly quickly to prominent fasciole, which is convex and curves inwards. Sculpture: surface is generally eroded, but a fine specimen in Mr. Allan's collection shows 11–12 obsolete nodules on shoulder of spire-whorls, body-whorl with 5–8 strong rounded, knobs on shoulder-angle. Aperture wide, contracted to channel above, deeply notched below. Outer lip thickened, slightly reflexed, ascending to angle; most specimens show a marked contraction in posterior extension of aperture during thickening of outer lip. Columella straight, with 5 strong folds, posterior often weak. Inner lip thickly calloused, sometimes with raised edge in fasciolar region.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 185 mm.; diameter, 47 mm.

Localities.—Brown sands at boat-landing, Nukumaru; 1105, arenaceous mudstone, Mangatahi Stream, Ngaruroro River.

This is the knobbed shell identified as Alcithoe turrita by Marshall and Murdoch (1920, p. 132). A. turrita has a narrower and more regularly tapering body-whorl; its tubercles are more numerous, sharper, and elongated into axial ribs on spire and body; and the inner lip is not raised into a calloused pad. A. wekaensis is more closely related, but can be distinguished by wider spire-angle, pad on columella, which bears 6 folds, decreasing in strength from centre, also by thinner lip and more numerous and longer axials on spire-whorls.

A. nukumaruensis differs only in the absence of tubercles, and narrower body-whorl.

Alcithoe nukumaruensis (Marshall and Murdoch). (Plate 63, fig. 2.)

Fulguraria (Alcithoe) turrita nukumaruensis Marh. & Murd., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 52, p. 133, pl. 9, figs. 18, 19.

Locality.—Nukumaru, brown sands at boat-landing.

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Alcithoe cylindrica n. sp. (Plate 65, fig. 3.)

Shell large, subcylindrical, strong. Spire turreted, under half height of aperture. Whorls 4 remaining, bluntly angled about the middle, with a very steep slightly concave shoulder; body-whorl contracting very little to large curved slightly convex fasciole, from which it is separated by broad low ridge. Sculpture: spire-whorls with about 12 low axially elongated tubercles, 8 on penultimate and 6 obsolete ones on body-whorl. Aperture high, triangular, channelled above, deeply and broadly notched below. Outer lip thickened and reflexed, ascending to angle of penultimate whorl. Columella thickly padded in region of folds, which are 6 in number, the anterior and posterior being weakest. Inner lip extending some distance from aperture, and sometimes thickly coated.

Holotype in collection of Mr. H. J. Finlay.

Height, 125 mm.; diameter, 46 mm.

Locality.—Shell-bed, Target Gully, Oamaru.

Alcithoe compressa n. sp. (Plate 65, fig. 4.)

Shell fairly large, heavy. Spire about one-half height of aperture. Spire-whorls with diameter twice height, bluntly angled below middle and with a long sloping shoulder; body-whorl with high concave shoulder, below which it is slightly convex and gradually contracted to fasciole. Suture undulating. Sculpture: spire-whorls at first with about 12 broad weak axial ribs, penultimate whorl with 11, last 4 raised into strong blunt tubercles extending axially to suture below but not over shoulder; body-whorl with 6 strong sharp laterally-compressed tubercles which extend a short distance anteriorly, between them whorl is deeply concave and flattened. Aperture long and narrow, channelled above, deeply notched below. Outer lip thickened, a little reflexed, and ascending with a shallow sinus to line of shoulder. Columella padded, with 6 oblique plaits, anterior and posterior weak, others very strong, interspaces equal to folds. Parietal wall with thick pad of callus.

Holotype in the collection of Mr. H. J. Finlay.

Height, 85 mm. (estimated); diameter, 35 mm.

Localtly.—Shell-bed, Target Gully.

Alcithoe armigera n. sp. (Plate 65, fig. 1.)

Shell of moderate size, heavy. Spire conic, under half height of aperture. Nucleus missing. Post-embryonic whorls 4 ½, early ones convex, later ones with a flattened shoulder, angle blunt and only slightly above suture; body-whorl with broad concave shoulder, below which it contracts somewhat quickly, then straightens out for short distance before reaching prominent fasciole, which is bounded above by ridge and curves inward. Sculpture: early whorls with large number of weak axials, probably about 30 per whorl, these increase rapidly in strength; on penultimate whorl about 16 blunt knobs extending to anterior suture but not above shoulderangle; on body-whorl are 7 strong sharp tubercles with steeper anterior than posterior slope, and elongated anteriorly but not advancing far on shoulder. Aperture wide, angled above, deeply notched below; outer lip convex, ascending, thickened and reflexed. Columella with 5 strong plaits, strongest in middle. Inner lip spread out well over body, edge not defined.

Holotype in collection of Mr. H. J. Finlay.

Height, 75 mm.; diameter, 35 mm.

Locality.—Shell-bed, Ardgowan.

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Alcithoe robusta n. sp. (Plate 65, fig. 5.)

Shell large and heavy. Spire conic, about one-third the height of aperture. Spire-whorls with height from half to two-fifths of diameter, bluntly angled below middle, shoulder long, sloping and concave; body-whorl contracting slowly below shoulder to fasciole, which is not prominently raised. Suture undulating. Sculpture: body-whorl with 8 strong blunt nodules, which are extended somewhat anteriorly to form low axials; penultimate whorls with 10 and previous one with 12 broad low axial ribs forming blunt tubercles on shoulder-angle but weakening quickly posteriorly. Aperture long and narrow, deeply notched below, outer lip slightly convex, thickened and reflexed, ascending to shoulder-angle. Columella with 5 strong oblique plaits, the second and third from below slightly thicker than others. Parietal wall with pad of callus. Inner lip forming a thin glaze extending well out across shell.

Holotype in collection of Mr. H. J. Finlay.

Height, 94 mm; diameter, 40 mm.

Localities.—Mount Harris; 559, Black-birch Creek, Blairich (smaller than Mount Harris specimen).

Alcithoe sequax n. sp. (Plate 65, fig. 7.)

Shell of moderate size. Spire turreted, over half height of aperture. Only 3 ½ whorls remaining, top one obtusely angled slightly above mid-point, penultimate with concave shoulder and prominent angle well above mid-point, body-whorl also with strong concave shoulder below which it contracts fairly quickly to beak; fasciole well marked, somewhat flattened along outer part. Sculpture: spire-whorl with 11 rounded axial ribs which die away on shoulder; on penultimate whorl 9 strong axials with wide interspaces, forming blunt knobs on shoulder-angle but weakening rapidly above and below; body-whorl with 7 strong tubercles increasing in size until sixth, which is very large, last one quite small. Aperture rather wide, deeply notched anteriorly. Outer lip convex, ascending, thickened and reflexed. Columella with 5 low broad plaits, middle one strongest. Inner lip thick, widespread.

Holotype in collection of Mr. H. J. Finlay.

Height, 78 mm.; diameter, 32 mm.

Locality.—Mount Harris.

Easily distinguished from A. robusta and A. armigera by the high shoulder of the spire-whorls, also by the fewer axials.

Alcithoe familiaris n. sp. (Plate 64, fig. 2.)

Shell large. Spire turreted, about three-fifths height of aperture. Spire-whorls at first lightly convex but soon becoming obtusely angled about middle, later the angulation becomes sharper and shifts lower down on whorl, forming a sloping shoulder, at first slightly, later decidedly convex; body-whorl contracting below shoulder rather quickly. Sculpture at first of about 11 rounded axial ribs extending from anterior suture up to angle but very weak across shoulder; later the axials decrease to 10, then 9, they become broad and low and bluntly knobbed at angle; penultimate whorl with 7 sharp strong tubercles with wide interspaces, axially extended below suture; body-whorl with 6 very strong high sharp tubercles, front face steeper than back, extending axially for short distance down shell. Aperture wide. Outer lip convex, ascending, thickened, reflexed.

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Columella with 4 strong folds, the central ones stronger. Inner lip thin, wide-spreading.

Holotype in collection of Mr. H. J. Finlay.

Height (estimated), 120 mm.; diameter, 54 mm.

Locality.—Mount Harris.

Not unlike A. arabica, but with fewer axials, although a wider shell. Further, there are only 4 folds on the columella, and the ribs develop into spines at an earlier stage.

Alcithoe irregularis n. sp. (Plate 67, figs. 2, 3.)

Shell rather small. Spire conic, between one-half and one-third height of aperture. Nucleus and early conch-whorls missing; later spire-whorls obscurely angled low down near suture, and with a long sloping shoulder; body-whorl inflated, with concave shoulder, below which it is convex and does not contract for some distance, then it slopes regularly to the anterior end; fasciole, flattened, not conspicuous. Sculpture: spire-whorls almost smooth with obsolete axial ribbing, body-whorl same for first third, then knobs on shoulder become stronger, the last two being well raised, blunt and fairly prominent. Aperture wide and high, moderately notched below. Outer lip slightly convex, ascending, thickened and reflexed. Columella projecting well beyond outer lip, folds obscured by hard matrix but probably 4 in number. Inner lip wide-spreading, edge well defined.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 55 mm.; diameter, 27 mm.

Locality.—68, Akuaku, East Cape.

Alcithoe hurupiensis n. sp. (Plate 64, fig. 3.)

Shell large, strong, fusiform. Spire less than half height of aperture. Whorls prominently angled low down, with concave sloping shoulder; body-whorl convex below shoulder, contracting to large prominent fasciole. Suture undulating. Sculpture of strong sharp spines on shoulder-angle, 14 on early whorls, decreasing to 9 on penultimate and 7 on body-whorl; on spire tubercles are elongated into low axial ribs, but these are absent on body, the tubercles of which have steep anterior face and convex posterior one. Aperture large, channelled above, deeply and widely notched below. Outer lip thickened and slightly reflexed, ascending to shoulder-angle. Columella swollen in middle and with 4 strong well-spaced folds which decrease in height anteriorly. Inner lip spreading as thin callus well over body-whorl.

Syntypes in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Locality.—Hurupi Creek, Palliser Bay.

The type material consists of two small imperfect specimens collected by the Wellington Philosophical Society excursion, 1922; and a large specimen (see Plate 64, fig. 3) with the outer lip missing, from the Geological Survey collection. It bears a locality label numbered 188 = Rotella beds, Kereru, Hawke's Bay; but the preservation and matrix are unlike other specimens in that collection and are the same as Hurupi shells. It therefore seems likely that this specimen was lost from the Palliser Bay collection and became mixed with the Kereru one. To avoid any possible trouble the large shell has not been selected as holotype.

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Alcithoe arabicula n. sp. (Plate 66, fig. 4.)

Shell fairly large, broadly fusiform. Spire turreted, two-fifths height of aperture. Whorls prominently angled with broad concave shoulder; body-whorl convex below angle, contracted to prominent fasciole which is limited above by sharp ridge, outer part of fasciole corresponding to notch is concave and sunken, the inner corresponding to extremity of columella, narrowly ridged. Sculpture: penultimate whorl with 9 strong sharp tubercles on shoulder, body-whorl with 7, tubercles not extended far axially. Aperture broad, channelled above, deeply notched below. Outer lip broken, ascending, probably reflexed. Columella with 5 strong spaced plaits. Inner lip very thin and wide-spread.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height (estimated), 70 mm.; diameter, 35 mm.

Locality.—996, Kaawa Creek, Auckland.

The height of the shoulder above the suture is intermediate between A. depressa and A. arabica, from both of which it is distinguished by its short, broad shape, thin inner lip, and much less oblique columellar plaits.

Alcithoe lutea Marwick. (Plate 68, fig. 5.)

1924.

Alcithoe lutea Marwick, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 55, p. 200, p1. 17, fig. 17 (not Cymbiola lutea Watson).

Locality.—Blue clays below Petane limestone, Okouawa Creek, Ngaruroro district.

Closely related to A. detrita, but with a shorter, broader spire. The specific name lutea was applied by a foolish oversight, which was pointed out in litteris both by Mr. Iredale and Mr. Finlay. Had Watson's species been a true Alcithoe a new name could be given to the fossil, but the shells are generically distinct, the former being probably a Waihaoia (Pachymelon). It is not an Alcithoe, for it has only a shallow anterior sinus and no well-defined flattened fasciole.

Alcithoe transformis n. sp. (Plate 67, fig. 1.)

Shell moderate to fairly large. Spire conic, under half height of aperture. Nucleus large, scaphelloid, of about 3 whorls with 2 weak spirals and indistinct axials. Post-embryonic whorls with obsolete axials which finally disappear, for a space whorl is practically smooth, then low blunt tubercles appear on penultimate or body whorl, these increase quickly in strength till broad, high, and pointed; spire-whorls convex to bluntly angled; body-whorl with prominent shoulder, below which it contracts, at first very slowly, then more rapidly, to well-marked fasciole. Aperture wide, deeply notched below. Outer lip thickened, reflexed, ascending, slightly convex. Columella with 5 folds, anterior and posterior much weaker than others.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 87 mm.; diameter, 38 mm. (type): height, 117 mm.; diameter, 54 mm. (paratype).

Locality.—Kai Iwi.

This species is easily distinguished from A. arabica and A. lutea by conic (not turreted) spire, and strong tubercles of body-whorl having arisen only at a late stage following a smooth or almost smooth whorl. A. swainsoni occurs at Kai Iwi, but not A. arabica. At a lower horizon, between Ototoka Stream and Nukumaru, occurs a closely related shell with a more inflated body-whorl quickly contracted to a straightened neck and weaker tubercles; it is included in A. transformis for the present, but may not be a direct ancestor. Each of these knobbed forms may have been given off by A. swainsoni at different times.

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Alcithoe swainsoni n. sp. (Plate 63, fig. 4.)

1821.

Voluta elongata Swainson, Exot. Conch., p1. 20, 21 (not of Solander, Portland Cat., p. 30).

For synonymy and description see Suter's Manual (1913), p. 446.

As Swainson's name is preoccupied, we have a chance of fixing an available type, so the specific name swainsoni is proposed for a Kai-Iwi fossil in the Geological Survey collection. Unfortunately, this course was decided on too late to give a figure of the type specimen.

The division of the arabica-swainsoni group of shells into satisfactory species is a difficult matter. Many of the horizons in the Pliocene section exposed in the sea-cliffs from Nukumaru to Landguard Bluff have characteristic forms; but the writer lacks a large-enough series of Recent shells to determine what is the normal range of variation. Further, the significance in classification of the shoulder-nodules and tubercles has yet to be determined.

A. nukumaruensis, for example, is apparently the smooth form of A. detrita, but as far as known the two forms are constant and do not intergrade at this horizon. Higher in the strata, in the vicinity of Ototoka Stream, we find a smooth shell similar to A. nukumaruensis but with a lower spire. In these beds there is also a stout shell, A. transformis, with a smooth spire of moderate height and a very wide body-whorl armed with blunt nodules (Plate 67, fig. 1). From a little west of Okehu Stream to Kai Iwi Stream the common shell is the typical A. swainsoni. Some are smooth except for a few ribs on the first two whorls, and others develop nodules on the body-whorl. A small smooth variety has the spire shorter than the smooth shell at Ototoka Creek. In the upper part of the section is a form with a spire like swainsoni but with very large sharp tubercles on the body. It is somewhat like A. depressa in that the suture is close below the angulation, but is classed with A. transformis for the present.

In the lower beds at Castlecliff most of the specimens are like swainsoni, but many have a considerably higher spire. The spire-whorls are convex or only bluntly angled, and the body-whorl is either smooth or has low nodules. The slender shell A. acuta (Plate 66, fig. 3) is an extreme form which occurs here. Higher still in the sequence, at Landguard Bluff, occurs the typical A. arabica, with prominently-angled spire-whorls and a tuberculate body-whorl.

Whether those which have a smooth spire and a tuberculate body should be classed as A. arabica appears doubtful, especially since the typical form of that species has not been found in the lower beds. However, A. lutea from the Nukumaruan of Hawke's Bay has spire-whorls sometimes convex and sometimes angled, and differs from A. arabica chiefly in its higher spire.

It is possible that different races developed in different districts, and that subsequent land-movements, by removing barriers (e.g., the formation of Cook Strait), enabled crossing to take place between these races, thus producing the great variety of forms.

Alcithoe larochei n. sp. (Plate 63, fig. 6.)

Shell large and strong, broadly fusiform. Spire conic, one-third height of aperture. Nucleus scaphelloid, of about 2 ½ rather worn whorls, apex flattened, last turn with indications of blunt axials and fine spirals. Post-embryonic whorls 5, convex on spire with flattened steep shoulder; body inflated, contracting fairly quickly to large well-defined fasciole bounded by ridge. Sculpture: first three whorls with about 18 rather low curved

– 295 –

axial ribs, later ones slightly angled, last two whorls smooth except for strong growth-lines. Aperture large, dilated, deeply notched below. Outer lip lightly convex, thickened, reflexed, ascending high on penultimate whorl. Columella with 4 strong folds. Inner lip thin, spread well out from aperture, not raised in fasciolar region.

Holotype in Auckland Museum.

Height, 98 mm.; diameter, 46 mm.

Locality.—Off Opotiki, 30 fathoms.

This specimen was kindly forwarded by Mr. W. La Roche, of Auckland. It resembles Voluta (Cymbiola) lutea Watson at first sight, but is easily distinguished by the deep anterior notch and the different outline of the spire. The species is closely related to A. swainsoni but is much more squat. A specimen from Castlecliff in the Geological Survey collection is fairly close to A. larochei, but is less inflated and has a small pad on the fasciole.

Alcithoe arabica Martyn (1784). (Plate 68, fig. 3.)

For synonymy and description see Suter's Manual (1913), p. 445.

The only typical specimens found fossil were from Landguard Bluff, in the highest beds of the Castlecliffian.

Alcithoe jaculoides Powell. (Plate 68, fig. 2.)

1924.

Alctihoe arabica jaculoides Powell, Proc. Malac. Soc., vol. 16, p. 108, figs. 1, 2.

Distinguished from A. arabica by the narrow outline, fewer spines, very high outer lip, and absence of inner-lip pad. No fossil occurrences are known.

Alcithoe acuta n. sp. (Plate 66, fig. 3.)

Shell fairly large, narrowly fusiform. Spire four-sevenths height of aperture. Nucleus scaphelloid, of 3 whorls, with a few faint spirals of which two are more distinct, crossed by numerous equally faint axials. Postembryonic whorls 5, angled about the middle with steep shoulder; body-whorl not contracted for some distance below shoulder, then tapering quickly to well-marked fasciole which is bounded by low ridge. Sculpture: early whorls with about 13 indistinct axial ribs slightly knobbed at shoulderangle, later axials shorten to low tubercles and number decreases to 10 or even 9. Aperture wide, deeply notched below. Outer lip dilated, thickened, slightly reflexed, slightly convex, ascending penultimate whorl almost to angle. Columella with 4 plaits, anterior one weak. Inner lip spread well out.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 113 mm.; diameter, 38 mm.

Locality.—Castlecliff (near base of series).

Alcithoe oliveri n. sp. (Plate 67, fig. 5.)

Shell very large and broad. Spire low, about one-quarter height of aperture. Spire-whorls mostly broken in type; body-whorl increasing very quickly with broad concave shoulder below which it is scarcely contracted for some distance, then tapering quickly. Sculpture: penultimate whorl with 12 fairly strong tubercles just above suture, body-whorl with 9 (perhaps 10 if complete) strong tubercles extending forward for some distance as low broad axials. Aperture large, channelled above. Outer

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lip reflexed, surmounting shoulder and reaching nearly to posterior suture. Columella with 4 strong spaced folds and a fifth faint posterior one. Inner lip wide, spreading.

Holotype in Dominion Museum, presented by Mr. W. R. B. Oliver.

Height, 160 mm.; diameter, 77 mm.

Locality.—Cliffs north of mouth of Waipara River.

Resembles A. depressa, but is much larger and the outer lip ascends higher. The body-whorl is also relatively broader and the shoulder more nearly horizontal. The exact age is uncertain, but in the aperture of the type is a large Eumarcia sp. such as occurs at Waipipi and Nukumaru.

Alcithoe depressa (Suter). (Plate 67, fig. 4.)

For synonymy and description see Suter's Manual (1913), p. 447.

This species is distinguished from A. arabica by the shape of the spire, which is almost regularly conic, caused by the suture being almost on the line of the shoulder-tubercles. The spire of A. arabica is strongly gradate, the suture being well below the angle of the shoulder.

Localities.—Recent (type), Spirits Bay; Castlecliff.

Alcithoe lepida n. sp. (Plate 68, fig. 1.)

Shell rather small, narrowly fusiform. Spire conic, over half height of aperture. Nucleus scaphelloid, of 2 ½ smooth volutions. Post-embryonic whorls 5, early ones slightly convex, later ones obscurely angled below mid-point and with steep shoulder; body-whorl also with steep shoulder above obtuse shoulder-angle, below which whorl is slightly convex and contracts gradually, then straightens out to a rather long beak bearing convex fasciole not bounded by ridge. Sculpture: spire-whorls with 13 or 14 low rounded axial ribs about their own width apart, weaker on shoulder and finally not crossing it; body-whorl with 11 low pointed tubercles on shoulder, only slightly extended axially. Aperture narrow; sides subparallel, channelled above, fairly deeply notched below. Outer lip convex, ascending a little, thickened and dilated but not refiexed. Columella with 5 fairly strong plaits, decreasing in height anteriorly and posteriorly from second posterior one. Inner lip thin, not advancing far from aperture.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 56 mm.; diameter, 20 mm.

Locality.—175, one mile south of Devil's Bridge, Oamaru (= Ardgowan shell-bed).

Closely related to A. reflexa, but axial ribs stronger on spire and more persistent, angulation of whorls more obtuse, nodules on body-whorl weaker, anterior notch slightly shallower and aperture not so dilated. It is therefore not so advanced as, and perhaps directly ancestral to, A. reflexa.

Alcithoe reflexa n. sp. (Plate 68, fig. 6.)

Shell of moderate size, fusiform, thin. Spire slightly under half height of aperture. Nucleus narrow, scaphelloid, of about 2 ½ smooth whorls. Post-embryonic whorls 5 ½, first two with almost straight outlines, third slightly convex in lower part, fourth obtusely angled about mid-point; body-whorl with concave fairly broad shoulder, below which it contracts scarcely at all for a distance, then fairly quickly, finally straightening out again before reaching well-marked fasciole which is rather flattened and

– 297 –

sunken along outer part corresponding to notch, but with ridge on inner part formed by projecting columella. Sculpture: spire-whorls with many obsolete axial ribs blending with growth-lines, about 13 on penultimate whorl; on body-whorl 8 strong sharp knobs are developed on shoulder but do not extend far axially. Aperture dilated, broadly angled above, deeply notched below. Outer lip convex, ascending half-way up penultimate whorl, conspicuously reflexed. Columella with 5 folds, all but anterior strong, second posterior one is highest, columella projects well below outer lip and is curved backwards. Inner lip thin, spreading.

Holotype in collection of Mr. H. J. Finlay.

Height, 64 mm.; diameter, 27 mm.

Localities.—Pukeuri (type); Rifle Butts, South Oamaru.

Alcithoe finlayi n. sp. (Plate 69, fig. 1.)

Shell of moderate size and strength, elongate, biconic. Spire about four-fifths height of aperture. Nucleus scaphelloid, of 2 or 3 smooth whorls. Post-embryonic whorls 4 ½, height more than half diameter, first ones lightly convex, others bluntly angled below middle, with long sloping slightly concave shoulder; body-whorl only slightly convex, below shoulder contracting gradually to large fasciole which is bounded by low ridge. Suture somewhat undulating. Sculpture of about 12 low blunt tubercles on shoulder of each whorl, on body they are only slightly elongated anteriorly, but on spire-whorls they reach anterior suture, on first two conch-whorls they also reach posterior suture. Aperture hastate, channelled above, deeply notched below. Outer lip thin and rounded, slightly convex, retreating below, edge not reflexed, ascending only slightly towards shoulder. Columella with 4 strong oblique folds, decreasing in height anteriorly. Inner lip spread as a thin glaze for a moderate distance from aperture.

Holotype in collection of Mr. H. J. Finlay.

Height, 60 mm.; diameter, 22 mm.

Locality.—Shell-bed, Target Gully, Oamaru. (= Fulgoraria gracilis of Suter, 1921, p. 81.)

This species is the commonest Volute in the shell-bed.

Alcithoe scopi n. sp. (Plate 69, fig. 2.)

Shell of moderate size, strong, fusiform. Spire a little over half height of aperture. Nucleus scaphelloid, very large, of 2 ¼ depressed whorls. Post-embryonic whorls 4 ½, height less than half diameter; spire-whorls slightly convex; body-whorl with fairly long sloping shoulder, bluntly angled, lightly convex and contracting below to large only slightly raised fasciole. Sculpture on spire-whorls of 10–12 axial ribs with weak nodule, low down, forming obscure shoulder-angle; axials obsolete on penultimate and body whorl, so that their number cannot be determined. Suture undulating. Aperture hastate, channelled above, widely and moderately deeply notched below. Outer lip slightly convex, retreating below, edge rounded not reflexed, ascending only slightly on penultimate whorl. Columella with 4 strong oblique plaits, decreasing in height anteriorly. Inner lip thin, restrained.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 53 mm.; diameter, 21 mm.

Locality.—Shell-bed, Target Gully, Oamaru. (= Fulgoraria gracilis of Suter, 1921, p. 81.)

– 298 –

Closely related to A. finlayi, but with lower spire and whorls and much larger protoconch; also the sculpture becomes obsolete at an early stage, though this is sometimes seen in examples of A. finlayi.

Alcithoe neglecta n. sp. (Plate 66, fig. 7.)

Shell small, fusiform, solid. Spire conic, half height of aperture. Nucleus scaphelloid, of about 3 smooth whorls. Post-embryonic whorls 4, obtusely angled rather below middle on spire and with steep shoulder; body-whorl slightly convex below shoulder, contracting to fasciole which is somewhat depressed on outer half but ridged on inner and separated by low ridge from base of body-whorl. Sculpture: spire-whorls with 16 or 17 axial ribs per whorl; ribs rounded, very low, raised into weak knob forming shoulder about one-third across whorl from anterior suture, and reaching anterior suture but scarcely as far as posterior one; body-whorl with 9 low rounded axially elongated knobs on first two-thirds of volution, on remaining third they are obsolete. Aperture high, triangular, channelled above, widely and somewhat shallowly notched below. Outer lip convex, thick, not reflexed, descending slightly for a short distance but previously ascending by same amount. Columella with a convex pad surmounted by 5 columellar folds, space between posterior two almost filled up, folds decreasing in strength anteriorly. Inner lip spreading well out from aperture.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 47 mm.; diameter, 20 mm.

Localities.—Shell-bed, Target Gully; Rifle Butts, Oamaru (more attenuated than type).

Alcithoe solida n. sp. (Plate 69, fig. 3.)

Shell rather small but very heavy, biconic. Spire two-thirds height of aperture. Nucleus depressed, scaphelloid, of 3 smooth whorls with large apex. Whorls 6, including nucleus, on spire they are bluntly angled about middle of whorl; body-whorl with a slightly concave sloping shoulder, below which it is lightly convex and contracted to fasciole, which is not raised. Suture undulating. Sculpture of about 12 strong axial ribs per whorl, they extend from suture to suture on spire, being bluntly angled on the shoulder-angle and twisted forward above, ribs persist well down over body but do not reach fasciole; towards aperture ribs inclined to die away; some specimens have whole body-whorl almost smooth. Aperture long and very narrow, channelled above, deeply notched below. Outer lip thin and rounded, slightly convex, somewhat inclined backwards from suture. Columella with 4 strong spaced plaits. Inner lip spread as thin callus a short distance over body-whorl.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 45 mm.; diameter, 21.5 mm.

Localities.—1133, coast north of Mimi Stream, Waitara Survey District; 52, White Cliffs, Taranaki (= Miomelon corrugata (Hutt.) and var. B of Suter, 1921, p. 22); 3 chains towards Tongaporutu from Okau junction, Mimi Survey District.

The single specimen from the latter locality is much more slender than the typical species. As it occurs in the Tongaporutuan, whereas the Mimi Stream shells are Urenuian, this may have stratigraphical significance.

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Alcithoe corrugata (Hutton).

1873.

Voluta (Lyria) corrugata Hutton, Cat. Tert. Moll, p. 7.

1914.

Lapparia corrugata (Hutton): Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 2, p. 27, p1. 2, figs. 4 a, b (in part).

1914.

Cymbiola (Miomelon) corrugata (Hutton): Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. 5, p. 87.

1918.

Miomelon corrugata (Hutton): Suter, Alph. List of N.Z. Tert. Moll., p. 19.

Hutton's type should never have been described. The outer surface is completely weathered away, and the ruin conveys only a rough idea of the original details of the shell. Enough remains to show that Suter was mistaken in synonymizing his Lapparia parki with V. corrugata. The body is very broad, and the ribs, which have a strong twist, extend across it. The angle of the spire is 57°, while that of L. parki is 48°. Hutton's type resembles fairly closely the shell described in this paper as Alcithoe solida, but it is slightly bigger and has a few more ribs. Until some topotypes have been secured, however, the best course is to ignore the species.

Alcithoe exigua n. sp. (Plate 69, fig. 4.)

Shell small, fusiform. Spire slightly turreted, two-thirds height of aperture. Spire-whorls bluntly angled about middle; body-whorl rounded not inflated, tapering fairly regularly to convex well-marked fasciole. Sculpture: spire-whorls with about 12 weak axials, slightly tubercled at shoulder, almost dying out towards sutures; on body-whorl axials have become obsolete. Aperture moderate, deeply notched below. Outer lip sinuous, thickened, not reflexed, ascending. Columella with 4 strong folds, anterior end twisted. Inner lip rather thick, well spread.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey, deposited by Mr. R. S. Allan.

Height, 58 mm.; diameter, 21.5 mm.

Localities.—Sands at boat-landing, Nukumaru; one-quarter mile west of Ototoka Stream (between Okehu and Nukumaru); 231, McLean's, Ngaruroro River.

The specimens from the last two localities are much worn, so the identification is doubtful. Distinguished from A. gracilis by the higher and more acute spire, more calloused aperture, and twisted columella. The type is not unlike a small A. nukumaruensis, but is comparatively narrower, and the ribbing on the spire is probably much stronger.

Alcithoe brevis n. sp. (Plate 69, fig. 6.)

Shell rather small, very broadly fusiform, strong. Spire turreted, twothirds height of aperture. Nucleus large, scaphelloid, of 2 smooth volutions, upper one much flattened. Post-embryonic whorls 4 ½, first lightly convex, later ones with concave sloping shoulder gradually increasing in strength, angulation being about middle of spire-whorls; body-whorl contracting fairly quickly to anterior end; fasciole well marked, bounded by ridge. Sculpture: whorls with 13–16 strong rounded axial ribs with equal interstices, ribs decrease suddenly in strength above angle and are quite weak across shoulder, on body-whorl they persist well down towards fasciole but are quite low and sometimes become obsolete. Aperture moderately notched anteriorly, columellar side scarcely projecting. Columella with 4 strong folds, anterior weakest; between second and third folds of a paratype is a weak secondary fold. Inner lip rather thick, edge well defined.

– 300 –

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey, deposited by Dr. P. Marshall.

Height, 39 mm.; diameter, 19 mm.

Locality.—81, Castle Point.

Alcithoe subgracilis n. sp. (Plate 69, fig. 9.)

Shell rather small, fusiform. Spire turreted, about three-fifths height of aperture. Nucleus scaphelloid, of about 2 whorls with 3 or 4 weak spaced spirals crossed by equally weak axials. Post-embryonic whorls 4, angled slightly above middle, with concave sloping shoulder and perpendicular sides; body-whorl also with concave sloping shoulder and prominent angle, below which it contracts with trifling inflation to well-marked fasciole. Sculpture of 15 or 16 strong axial ribs, much weaker on shoulder but stretching well down body-whorl. Aperture moderate, deeply notched below. Outer lip thickened, slightly convex, ascending. Columella with 4 plaits. Inner lip moderately enamelled and extending.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 40 mm.; diameter, 16 mm.

Localities.—736, clays below limestone, Petane; many localities in the Petane beds of the Ngaruroro River district; 1040, Twaite's Gutting, Martinborough district.

Alcithoe mackayi n. sp. (Plate 69, fig. 7.)

Shell rather small, narrowly fusiform. Spire turreted, nearly as high as aperture. Nucleus flattened, scaphelloid, of about 2 smooth whorls. Post-embryonic whorls 4 ½, angled about middle, with slightly concave sloping shoulder persisting on body-whorl, which contracts gradually to conspicuous fasciole. Sculpture of strong axial ribs with wider interstices, ribs reach from suture to suture but are very weak on base of body-whorl, they decrease in number from 15 on early whorls to 11 on body-whorl, and are somewhat tubercular on angle of shoulder. Aperture moderate, deeply notched below. Outer lip slightly thickened, ascending a little. Columella with 4 plaits decreasing anteriorly. Inner lip well calloused.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 51 mm.; diameter, 18 mm.

Locality.—191, Blue clays, Shrimpton's, Ngaruroro River.

Probably an offshoot from A. subgracilis, from which it differs in being narrower, higher on the spire, and in having stronger axials. It is the forerunner of A. hedleyi, which marks a further advance in having a smooth cylindrical body-whorl.

Alcithoe gracilis Swainson, 1821. (Plate, 69, fig. 5.)

For synonymy and description see Suter's Manual (1913), p. 448.

The line of descent of A. gracilis has for long been separated from that of A. arabica, and probably came through A. finlayi n. sp., of Awamoan age.

The height of the spire varies from less than half to about two-thirds that of the aperture. Sometimes the shoulder-nodules are present on the body-whorl, but often they are quite obsolete.

Localities.—Recent (type); Castlecliff (plentiful); Kai Iwi; many localities in blue clays below Petane limestone, Ngaruroro River, grading into A. subgracilis.

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Alcithoe hedleyi Murdoch and Suter. (Plate 69, fig. 8.)

1906.

Fulguraria (Alcithoe) hedleyi M. & S., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 38, p 288, pl. 23, figs. 20, 21.

This is a rare shell, not known fossil. The body-whorl is cylindrical and almost the same in diameter as penultimate whorl. The fasciole is well marked, outer half being depressed, bounded above by sharp ridge and below by broad rounded ridge occupying lower half of fasciole.

Alcithoe dilatata n. sp. (Plate 65, fig. 2.)

Shell small, solid, broadly fusiform. Spire two-fifths height of aperture. Nucleus damaged, apparently scaphelloid. Post-embryonic whorls 4, with sloping concave shoulder; spire-whorls angled just above suture; body-whorl convex below shoulder, retreating somewhat quickly to large prominent fasciole which is bounded above by ridge. Suture undulating, channelled at aperture. Shoulder with 8–10 sharp strong tubercles per whorl, those on spire sometimes on line of suture; they are not laterally compressed but extend anteriorly half-way across body-whorl as low axial ribs. Aperture hastate, channelled above, deeply and widely notched below. Outer lip convex, thickened, especially posteriorly; very slightly reflexed, ascending quickly on last quarter-whorl and finally bent over to form deeply channelled suture. Columella sometimes decidedly bent to rear, with 4 strong rather close folds, anterior one very weak. Inner lip with smooth callus extending well out on body and with thick pad on parietal wall.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 34.5 mm.; diameter, 17.5 mm.

Locality.—Basal sandstones, Hurupi Creek, Palliser Bay.

Alcithoe parva n. sp. (Plate 65, fig. 6.)

Shell small, broadly fusiform. Spire two-fifths height of aperture. Spire-whorls angled just above suture, with long, sloping, slightly concave shoulder; body-whorl convex below shoulder and contracting rather rapidly to prominent fasciole, which is bounded above by ridge. Suture undulating. Sculpture of 13 axial ribs very weak on sloping shoulder but raised into low tubercles on angle; on body-whorl tubercles are sharp and fairly strong, and ribs tend to become obsolete. Aperture suboblong, channelled above, deeply and widely notched below. Outer lip thickened, slightly reflexed, ascending and cemented to penultimate whorl half-way between shoulder-angle and suture above. Columella with 5 well-separated folds. Inner lip with thick wide-spreading callus.

Holotype in collection of New Zealand Geological Survey.

Height, 37 mm.; diameter, 18 mm.

Locality.—996, Kaawa Creek.