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Volume 56, 1926
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Descriptions of New Zealand Fishes.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, 25th November, 1924; received by Editor, 6th September, 1924; issued separately, 26th April, 1926.]

Plates 9398.

Family Muraenidae.
Genus Gymnothorax Bloch.

Gymnothorax prionodon Ogilby. (Plate 93.)

Gymnothorax prionodon Ogilby, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, ser. 2, vol. 9, p. 270, 1895.

Length of head 4 in trunk or 8 ¾ in total. Height of body rather more than 7 in trunk or 1 ⅛ in tail. Eye 9 in head or 2 in snout; gill-opening rather more than ½ diameter of eye. Length of anterior nasal tube subequal with width of gill-opening. Snout 5 in head; mouth 2 ¼ in same. Teeth on sides of jaws 14 above, 16 below. Palatine teeth 7; vomerine teeth 3.

Body moderately compressed for three-fourths of length, after which it becomes much compressed to tip of tail. Occipital region elevated, fleshy. Snout convex above, swollen on sides, curved downwards anteriorly. Cleft of mouth extends behind eye. Teeth in jaws uni-serial, subtriangular, acute, getting gradually smaller towards the angle. Vomerine teeth (if present) subulate or triangular and depressible. Palatine teeth very small, in a short even row. None of teeth serrated. Tongue immovable. A series of 3 pores on ramus. Posterior nostril an oblong slit surrounded by low rim, placed above anterior quarter of eye. Branchiostegal sac moderately developed. Origin of dorsal fin vertically above gill-opening, the fin is thick and fleshy. Anal fin similar to dorsal, but much lower, less than half height of former, both fins surround tip of tail.

Colour.—The whole fish when alive was a uniform dark brown above, with a greyish shade below from throat to vent. Numerous short wavy transverse streaks black in colour are spread over the whole fish as far as tip of tail, also three distinct longitudinal lines reaching from the branchiostegal sac to tip of tail. Folds of gill-membrane well marked with five or more black zigzag lines. Angle of the mouth black. Cream-coloured spots varying in size cover head, body, and dorsal fin, but no spots are found on anal fin. The spots are largest about centre of fish, smaller on occipital region and sides of head, minute on snout. Anal fin uniform very dark brown.

Described and figured from an adult specimen which is 714 mm. long from snout to tip of tail. The length from tip of snout to vent is 328 mm.; vent to tip of tail, 386 mm.; snout to gill-opening, 82 mm.; greatest height of body, 60 mm.

Variation.—I have received two specimens of this interesting species; the one described was caught at the Mokohinau Islands in April, 1922, and the second one, which is far larger, was taken at the Alderman

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Islands in the following August. The total length of the second specimen is 848 mm., and its greatest height 80 mm. There are several other differences, which may be noted here: The vomerine teeth are reduced to 2, placed close together, and close to base of anterior maxillary teeth. They are both triangular in shape, not subulate as in specimen figured. One pore only is found on the ramus, situated nearer angle than middle of jaw. The general colour of the fish and form of spots shows a marked variation, the former being a light-golden brown in life, while the spots vary from single round and oval ones to groups of from 2 to 4 placed in close juxtaposition, the latter being disposed mostly about the middle portion of the body and dorsal fin. The difference in colour, form of spots, and the reduced number of vomerine teeth may be due entirely to age. Mr. A. R. McCulloch, Zoologist to the Australian Museum, in writing me after examining these two eels, says: “The type of the species is a young specimen and has no vomerine teeth, and its maxillary ones are not so uniform as in your larger specimen, but these differ in your two, the vomerine teeth being proportionately smaller in the younger of your specimens. In very young examples I believe you will find the vomerine teeth undeveloped.”

Locality.—Mokohinau and Alderman Islands, Auckland Provincial District.

Type in Australian Museum, “believed” to have been taken in Port Jackson Harbour, but has not been recognized from that locality since.

Gymnothorax prasinus Richardson. Green Eel.

Muraena prasina Richardson, Ichth. Ereb. and Terr., p. 93, 1847; M. krullii Hector, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 9, p. 468, pl. 8, fig. 107a, 1877.

When Hector described and figured this eel as a new species under the name of M. krullii he probably overlooked Richardson's description, or for some other reason thought his specimen differed specifically. For some time there has been a doubt as to whether our very common green eel (sometimes called “yellow eel” by local fishermen) should be classed as a new species under Hector's nomenclature; and in order to settle this important matter I forwarded a fine example of the eel to Mr. McCulloch for comparison with the New South Wales species. He now informs me that G. krullii is synonymous with their common green eel, G. parasinus. He adds that the dentition of this species is very variable, and that he has seen none in which it quite agrees with Richardson's description, but there is no room for doubt as to the identity of the New South Wales species, and that my specimen agrees in all details with Australian specimens of similar size.

Gymnothorax ramosus n. sp. (Plate 94.)

Length of head 8 ½ in total or 7 ½ in trunk. Height of body ½ length of head, or rather more than 5 in trunk, or 8 in tail. Eye 10 in head or 2 in snout; gill-opening about as wide as eye. Nasal tube equal to width of eye. Snout 5 ¼ in head; mouth 2 ½ in same. Teeth on sides of jaws, 14 above, 14 below. Palatine teeth 10; vomerine teeth (when present) 2.

Body compressed, becoming very compressed towards tip of tail. Occipital region elevated, fleshy, swollen on sides behind eyes. Snout convex. flattened on sides. Cleft of mouth extends behind eye. Teeth

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in jaws compressed, uniserial, subtriangular, acute, directed slightly backward, and getting gradually smaller towards angle. Vomerine teeth subulate, depressible, posterior one longer than anterior. None of teeth serrated. Tongue immovable. Posterior nostril situated above the anterior quarter of eye, rather small, rounded. Branchiostegal sac moderately developed. Origin of dorsal fin some little distance in advance of gill-opening; it is thickened at base, becoming gradually thinner towards margin. It is high throughout entire length, highest in centre, where it is rather more than half height of body. There is a decided notch in dorsal a little distance from tip of tail. Anal fin much lower than dorsal, of uniform height throughout. Tip of tail surrounded by fins.

Colour.—Golden brown covered with broad highly defined dark-brown reticulations, beneath which is a conspicuous network of very small reticulations of same colour as the larger ones. The reticulations extend to margin of dorsal fin. Dorsal fin narrowly margined with white between reticulations. Anal fin uniform black all along base, margin being pure-white. Inside of mouth cream-coloured, with reticulations same as the smaller ones found on body.

Variation.—I have received two specimens only of this most striking eel. This description is of the type specimen, which is about half-grown: its greatest length is 624 mm.; head, 74 mm.; greatest height of body, 45 mm.; eye, 7 mm. The paratype, which is an adult, is 1,040 mm. long; height of body, 70 mm.; eye, 12 mm. Beyond some difference in the measurements, doubtless due to age only, the two specimens are identical.

Affinities.—I sent one of these specimens to Mr. A. R. McCulloch for his opinion, and in writing me later he makes the following statement: “When I first saw this eel I felt certain that it was identical with a species from Lord Howe Island which I have previously identified as Gymnothorax berndti Snyder (Bull. U.S. Fish Comms., vol. 22, pl. 4, and vol. 23, pl. 15), the striking colour-marking of the two being very similar. But a glance at its teeth showed that yours has compressed and roughly subtriangular teeth, whereas those of the Lord Howe Island specimen are long and subulate; further, the latter has a long row of vomerine teeth, and its eye is much smaller than in yours, with a much broader space separating it from the mouth. In my opinion you are pretty safe in regarding it as a new species.”

Localities.—Whangaroa and Bay of Islands, North Auckland districts.

Holotype and paratype in Auckland Museum.

Family Serranidae.

Genus Epinephelus Bloch.

Epinephelus octofasciatus n. sp. (Plate 95.)

Br. 7; D. xi/XIV; A. iii/IX; P. xvii; V. i/V; C. xiv/1/1.

About 130 scales between upper posterior margin of operculum and hypural joint; 31 between origin of dorsal fin and lateral line; and 57 more to ventral surface.

Depth before ventrals 2 ½ in length to hypural joint; head 2 ¾ in same. Eye 5 ½ in head, and 2 in snout. Maxillary ¾ diameter of eye; inter-orbital space 4 ¾ in head. Caudal peduncle 7 ¾ in length to hypural joint.

Body compressed, covered with small ciliated scales, very much smaller on nape and along base of first dorsal fin. They get suddenly larger below second dorsal, about subequal with those in centre of body, then becoming

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Gymnothorax prionodon Ogilby.

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Gymnothorax ramosus n. sp.

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Epinephelus octofasciatus n. sp.

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Fig. 1.—Blennius laticlavius n. sp.
Fig. 2.—Echeneis lineata Menzies.

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Tripterygion bucknilli n.sp.

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Cristiceps aurantiacus Castelnau.

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very small again on base of pectoral and over abdomen as far as vent. Very small “cycloid” scales cover membrane and rays of fins, but all spines are free from scales except at base. Lateral line with origin at upper posterior margin of operculum well defined. It runs obliquely backward as far as fifth-sixth dorsal spines, then, bending steeply downward to middle of caudal peduncle, passes into caudal.

Interorbital space, cheeks, and operculum covered with small cycloid scales, those on posterior and lower margin of preoperculum, suboperculum, and lower jaw being more or less embedded in skin. Nostrils placed close together, posterior one very large. Maxillary with supplemental bone, naked, exposed, and extending backward as far as anterior ¼ of eye. Pre-maxillary naked. Lower jaw projects slightly beyond upper, and furnished with strong lips. Throat naked. An outer set of small fixed canine teeth in both jaws, while all the inner ones are hinged at base and depressible, arranged in a band which is broadest in front, getting much narrower towards angle. A few slightly longer curved canines are found scattered about among smaller ones in both jaws. Strong fixed teeth present on vomer and palatine bones, tongue smooth. Operculum with upper posterior margin developed into a strong scaly flap, lower portion of which is produced forming a flexible spine. Three strong fixed spines on operculum, placed one above the other: top one small, exposed; centre one large, well exposed, and about in line with upper margin of flexible spine on the opercular flap; lowest spine the smallest, situated near base of central spine, and almost entirely hidden among the scales of operculum. Preoperculum with a strongly serrated posterior margin and angle, the serrae being directed obliquely upward on upper half, straight in centre, and downward at angle where they are a very little stronger. Gills 4; gill-rakers long, 15 on lower half of anterior limb; gill-membrane separate, pseudobranchiae present. Dorsal fin with origin in the vertical from the posterior margin of operculum composed of strong spines and rays. Its first spine very short, the fourth-sixth longest, equal to three times length of first, and about 3 in head; those following decrease in length gradually backward as far as last spine, which is a little longer than preceding one. Second dorsal somewhat elevated, rays directed backward, seventh the longest, a little longer than longest spine. Pectorals rounded, subsymmetrical, reaching backward to vertical from ninth-tenth dorsal spines. Ventrals with very strong spine somewhat longer than fourth dorsal spine. Anal with 3 very strong spines, the first short; nearly 2 in the third, which is subequal with ninth dorsal spine. Anal rays similar to second dorsal. The spines in all the fins covered with strong scaleless membrane, except tips, which are exposed. Caudal truncate.

Colour.—Body ground-colour dingy purple-brown, with 8 broad dark-purple bars reaching vertically downward, the first ending at top of operculum, those following descending to below middle of height. Belly dirty-white with a bluish tinge, margins of scales light purple-brown. Top of head and maxillary dark purple brown; upper half of the premaxillary dark purple-brown, the distal half becoming much lighter; lips dark purple-brown; throat light greyish-purple; Operculum dark greyish-purple; cheeks light greyish-purple; branchiostegal membrane dark greyish-purple. Eye, outer margin dark purple-brown, then a broad gold ring with the lens blue-black. Scaly membrane of first dorsal same colour as body, its upper margin, which is free from scales, being very dark brown. Second dorsal same as ground-colour of body, and broadly margined with very dark brown, almost black. Anal fin same as second

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dorsal; pectorals same as second dorsal, but with a broad blackish band running through them almost mesially. Ventrals very dark, almost black, but somewhat lighter at base. Caudal same as second dorsal, and broadly margined with blackish-brown.

Described and figured from the holotype, which is 467 mm. long to hypural joint; head 165 mm. long; diameter of eye 28 mm.; greatest depth of body 187 mm.; width of caudal peduncle 61 mm.

Affinities.—The structural details are in many ways comparative with E. septemfasciatus, a rare fish figured in Faun. Japonica, Pisces, 1842, p. 11, pl. 4, fig. 1. It is described by Boulenger in the Brit. Mus. Cat. Fish., vol. 1, ed. 2 (1895), p. 226. This species has several characters of more or less importance, and I give them here for comparative purposes. In E. septemfasciatus the eye is said to be subequal with length of snout, and maxillary to extend to posterior third, or as far as posterior border of eye. The serrae on angle of preoperculum much more pronounced with some directed forward on lower border, and bands on body are all very oblique.

Locality.—A single specimen in fine condition captured by hook and line at Arid Island, off the north-east coast of the Great Barrier Island, Auckland District, April, 1922.

Holotype in Auckland Museum.

Family Blenniidae.

Genus Blennius Linné.

Blennius laticlavius n. sp. (Plate 96, fig. 1.)

Br. 6; D. xiii/XVIII; A. xx; P. xiv; V. iii; C. xi/6/7

Depth before ventrals 4 ½ in length to hypural joint, and subequal with length of head. Eye 3 ¾ in head. Snout much longer than diameter of eye; interorbital space ¼ width of eye. Spinous dorsal as long as from tip of snout to base of pectoral rays, or nearly 3 ½ in length to hypural joint. Second dorsal nearly 3 in total length including caudal; anal fin 3 in total including caudal; pectorals subequal with length of head; ventrals equal to width of eye; caudal peduncle 3 in head.

Body oblong, somewhat tapering, naked, showing muscular structure through skin. Lateral line with its origin at upper posterior angle of operculum slightly arched over pectoral, then, bending downward in even curve beneath last dorsal spine, it becomes almost lost, but may be traced as far as anterior portion of peduncle as a series of widely spaced pores; on peduncle it is quite lost.

Head naked, anterior profile of snout subvertical; orbital tentacle well developed, composed of five filaments attached at base, anterior of which is longest. A short bifid tentacle behind anterior nostril. Mouth horizontal; maxillary reaching backward to vertical from centre of eye. Minute canine teeth in single series in both jaws; none on vomer, palatine bones, or tongue. Upper posterior angle of operculum produced into membranous flap. A line of minute pores surrounds eye, and a few are also found on posterior margin of preoperculum and on anterior margin of preorbital. Gills 4; gill-rakers 8, on lower half of anterior limb, pseudobranchiae present.

Dorsal fin continuous, spinous portion lower than rays. The fifth to ninth spines subequal, and 1 ¼ times width of eye, second spine subequal with width of eye. In second dorsal rays increase in height gradually, sixth and seventh being longest, while those following gradually decrease

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in length backward, the last being about ½ diameter of eye. The origin of anal is in vertical from first and second rays of dorsal. It is somewhat low, composed of simple thickened rays, centre ones longest, about ¾ diameter of eye. Pectorals rounded, entirely composed of thickened simple rays which reach backward as far as vertical from last dorsal spine. Ventrals jugular, composed of 3 simple rays, centre one longest, all united by membrane for more than half their length. Caudal straight on dorsal and ventral margins, rounded on posterior margin, middle rays longest.

Colour.—The general colour in alcohol is—Body and lower part of head transparent yellowish-silver covered with minute purple dots. Top of head dark purple. A broad dark-purple lateral stripe passes from the eye to hypural joint. Dorsal spines and rays transparent white covered with minute purple dots, and a dark-purple streak on fourth-seventh spines. Anal with dark-purple band near tips of rays, and a row of purple dots placed alternately on membrane near body. Pectoral with dark-purple mark on two or three of its lower rays, the rest transparent white. Caudal transparent white. Muscular structure of body well marked. A row of minute open pores below lateral stripe on body, another row of minute pores on posterior margin of cheek. Eye silver and blue-black.

Described and figured from the holotype, which is 30 mm. long, to hypural joint. Head, 7 mm.; height of body, 6 mm.; eye, 1 ½ mm.; caudal peduncle, 1 ½ mm.

I have received a good number of specimens, obtained at various seasons of the year; these range in length from 12 mm. to the length of the one here described; which is the largest that has yet been found.

Locality.—Mount Maunganui, Bay of Plenty. Found in deep crevices between large boulders where the surf has free ingress and egress.

Holotype and paratype in Auckland Museum.

Genus Cristiceps Cuv. et Val.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Key to the New Zealand Species.
A. Anterior spine placed just before front margin of eye. Two dorsals separate aurantiacus.
AA. Anterior spine over hinder portion of eye. First dorsal either distinct from or joined to base of secondaustralis.

Cristiceps aurantiacus Castelnau. Crested Weed-fish. (Plate 98.)

Cristiceps aurantiacus Castlenau, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, vol. 3, p. 386, 1879; McCulloch, Rec. Austr. Mus. vol. 7, No. 1, p. 38, pl. 10, 1, 1908; Stead, Fish. Austr., 1906, frontispiece.

Br. 5; D. iii/XXIX/V + ii; A. ii/XXIV; V. iii; P. ix; C. x.

Depth of body below middle of pectoral 5 in length to hypural joint, or equal to length of head. Eye 5 ½ in head, interorbital space 7 ¾ in same. Width of caudal peduncle rather more than ½ diameter of eye. Pectoral subequal with length of head.

Body elongate, much compressed, and sparsely covered with rudimentary scales, dorsal and ventral margins subequal. Snout subconical, length about 1 ¼ times width of eye. Maxillary extends backward slightly beyond posterior border of eye. A branched tentacle on snout, and another long simple one attached to upper margin of eye. Jaws equal in front, and furnished with band of villiform teeth much more numerous and crowded

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anteriorly in upper jaw than in lower. Fine teeth are also present on vomer and palatine bones; none on tongue. Operculum oblique, pointed on its upper posterior margin. Gills 4, gill-rakers 8 on lower half of anterior limb. Lateral line curved over operculum, then, sloping steeply behind pectoral, passes to caudal. Origin of first dorsal fin just before eye. Anterior spine longest, equalling distance from tip of snout to posterior margin of operculum. Second spine subequal to first, whole third is as long as anterior rays of second dorsal, to which it is not connected by membrane, and separated from it by space equal to width of operculum. Second dorsal commences slightly in advance of middle of operculum. Its first 29 rays are simple, and are followed by 7 simple articulated rays, the last 2 of which are short and separated from the others by interspace, and then connected to middle of caudal peduncle by fine membrane. Anal fin has origin in vertical from eleventh second dorsal ray. Similar in character to second dorsal, but its rays much shorter. Ventrals jugular, simple, centre ray being longest. Pectoral reaches backward as far as twelfth second dorsal ray. Caudal similar to pectoral. Caudal peduncle long, slender.

Colour.—The colour of all species of this genus varies to an extraordinary degree. The specimen now under examination was a beautiful rose-pink when fresh, with a light-violet tint overlying the whole fish, the marbling on the body deep rose, a few scattered lemon-yellow spots of various sizes spread over abdomen and margins of operculum. First dorsal pale rose along base, getting deeper on margin, the light patches being transparent straw-white. Anal similar to dorsal in colour but somewhat lighter. Pectoral and caudal same as body-colour. Ventral pale rose barred darker. Tentacle on snout bright rose-pink; tentacle above eye black; eye rose-pink and pale blue-black, with a black streak descending from lower border to bottom of preoperculum, and ending in a single black dot on base of branchiostegals.

Described and figured from a specimen 139 mm. long to hypural joint. Head 29 mm. long, and greatest depth of body 27 mm.

Locality.—Great Barrier Island and the Hauraki Gulf. Specimens have also been received from Tauranga, in the Bay of Plenty.

Genus Tripterygion Risso.

Tripterygion bucknilli n. sp. (Plate 97.)

Br. 6; D. iv/xvii/XII; A. xxv; V. ii; P. xvi-xviii; C. × 3/3=xvi.

About 40 scales between upper margin of operculum and hypural joint, and about 18 in transverse series.

Greatest depth of body nearly 4 ½ in total length to hypural joint; head 3 ¾ in same. Eye 2 ¼ in head. Snout ¾ width of eye; interorbital space 3 in same. First dorsal fin as long as from tip of snout to centre of eye; second dorsal 3 times as long as first; third dorsal equals distance from tip of snout to posterior margin of preoperculum. Pectoral fin equal to length of head. Ventrals equal to height of head at centre of operculum. Caudal peduncle 3 in head.

Body oblong, compressed, upper and lower profiles subequal, and excepting abdomen (which is scaleless) the rest of body is covered in coarsely ciliated scales of fairly uniform size. Lateral line with its origin at upper angle of operculum slightly arched over base of pectoral, thence straight,

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and ending below second spine of third dorsal. Second portion of lateral line with its origin vertically beneath last spine of second dorsal, it passes to caudal.

Head wholly naked; interorbital space very narrow, concave. Nostrils 2, placed parallel to each other, the inner one provided with a short bifid tentacle.

Mouth nearly horizontal; jaws subequal, pointed, and furnished with minute canine teeth crowded anteriorly. Minute teeth also present on vomer, none on tongue.

Maxillary extends backward almost to centre of eye. Gills 4; gill-rakers 7 on lower half of anterior limb. First dorsal with origin above centre of operculum, its two middle spines subequal, while the last is somewhat shorter than first, and united by rather high membrane to first spine of second dorsal. Spines of second dorsal are highest anteriorly, second to eighth being subequal, those following decrease in length gradually backward, the last having a very low membrane united to base of first ray of third dorsal. Third dorsal entirely composed of simple rays, first being equal to distance from tip of snout to centre of eye and subequal with fourth-sixth; remainder decrease in length gradually backward. Anal with origin in vertical from seventh second dorsal spine and ending below last ray of third dorsal. It is wholly composed of simple rays, the first being somewhat less than ½ diameter of eye, thence gradually increasing in length backward, the mesial ones being equal to width of eye, but the last three get rapidly shorter. Pectoral large, pointed, reaching backward to vertical from thirteenth spine of second dorsal. Ventrals jugular, composed of two simple rays united at base. Caudal rounded and composed of branched rays, procurrent ones being simple.

Colour.—Body silver with 9–10 broad vertical black bands which extend a little distance on to dorsal fins. Head, cheeks, and opercles silvery, shaded on interorbital and nape orange; eye bright cobalt-blue; dorsal fin broadly margined with brilliant orange, then a pale transparent orange stripe runs obliquely through it, while base is somewhat deeper in colour. The whole fin is crowded with minute dark-red dots. Anal dark brownish-red; pectoral pale transparent amber; caudal brownish red margined with brilliant orange the same as the dorsal.

Variation.—Described from the holotype, which is 26 mm. long to the hypural joint. I have examined nine specimens in all, and find little variations. In some specimens I counted as many as 10 vertical bands, including the narrow one on base of caudal, but beyond this they are identical in every respect.

Affinities.—At a first glance this fish appears much like T. segmentatum described by McCulloch and Phillipps in Rec. Aust. Mus., vol. 14, No. 1 (1923), p. 20, pl. 4, fig. 3, but on examination there prove to be so many differences between them that I must regard this one as a new species, and on sending a specimen to Mr. McCulloch he fully concurs with this opinion, and I have to thank him for the fine plate accompanying this description.

Locality.—Several specimens from Mount Maunganui, Bay of Plenty, where it has been taken at various seasons by Dr. C. E. R. Bucknill, after whom I have named it. It appears to be very local, and is found in the deep crevices between the outer boulders where the surf has free ingress and egress.

Holotype and paratype in Auckland Museum.

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Family Echeneididae.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Key to New Zealand Genera.
A. Inner ventral rays united by membrane free from abdomen Echeneis.
AA. Inner ventral rays attached to abdomen by membrane Remora.
Genus Echeneis Linnaeus.

Echeneis lineata Menzies. (Plate 96, fig. 2.)

Echeneis lineata Menzies, Trans. Linn. Soc., vol. 1, p. 187, tab. 17, fig. 1, 1791; Guenther, Hist. of Echeneis, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3, vol. 5, No. 29, p. 398, May, 1860.

Br. 9; D. i/XXXV; A. i/XXXIII; P. xviii; V. i/V; C. xii/3/2.

Depth of body 14 in length to hypural joint, head 7 in same. Disc rather longer than head, 7 ¼ in length to hypural joint. Eye 5 ½ in head or 2 in snout. Interorbital space 3 ½ times width of eye. Width of caudal peduncle 4 ½ in head.

Body elongate, covered with small scales partly embedded in the skin. Dorsal surface flattened for some little distance behind head. Sides also flattened below origins of vertical fins for a very short distance, but anterior and posterior to this they are much rounded.

Head depressed, tapering at jaws, and bearing an adhesive disc which contains 11 laminae, each margined with sharp closely-set cardiform tooth-like processes. The disc extends from posterior margin of maxillary to some little distance on to neck. Lower jaw extends beyond upper; it is flat and broad. Villiform teeth in both jaws, rather more numerous and crowded in lower than in upper. Teeth also present on vomer, palatine bones, and tongue. Eye of medium size, with a prominence in front. Maxillary extends backward as far as posterior nostril. Gills 4; gill-rakers 9, on lower half of anterior limb. Origin of dorsal fin vertically above that of anal, its length subequal with distance from origin to posterior margin of adhesive disc, and its last ray is produced. Anal similar to dorsal, but a trifle lower. Ventral situated below middle of pectoral. Pectoral high, almost in line with top of head. Middle caudal rays long, convex.

Colour.—Top of head and body as far as below middle of height dark blackish-blue, with a silvery lateral streak passing behind eye and pectoral and along side to caudal. Lower half of head light cream, almost white. Lower sides and belly cream-white. Dorsal fin nearly all black, tips of first to ninth rays being dull white. First to ninth rays of anal are yellowish-white, the remainder being smoky, getting gradually darker backwards but not so dark as dorsal. Pectoral dark-bluish, with a light bluish-green patch in the centre. Ventrals yellowish-white. Caudal with its outer rays yellowish-white at base, pure-white distally, all the middle rays being black.

Described and figured from a specimen 467 mm. long to hypural joint. Head, 65 mm.; eye, 12 mm.; greatest depth of body, 35 mm.; length of middle caudal rays, 64 mm.; length of adhesive disc, 70 mm.; anterior width of same, 20 mm.; posterior width, 30 mm.

Locality and Distribution.—One fine specimen received from the Bay of Islands, Auckland Provincial District, in April, 1923. This I believe to be the first record of the species being found in New Zealand waters. Guenther records it from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans between the tropics.