Go to National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa
Volume 56, 1926
This text is also available in PDF
(4 MB) Opens in new window
– 659 –

Popular Names of New Zealand Plants.

[Read at the New Zealand Institute Science Congress, Palmerston North, January, 1921 received by Editor, 22nd August, 1924; issued separately, 10th May, 1926.]

The number and diversity of the popular names of our New Zealand plants are made more evident when these popular or common names are gathered together and placed side by side. Their heterogeneous nature is no doubt largely due to the partial isolation of the various early settlements of the Islands in the midst of a new, vigorous flora, and also to the innate independence or obstinacy of thought that will often induce a man to give a new name even where one already exists.

The names of a few of the plants were well known from the works of Cook and other explorers; but there was a very great number quite unfamiliar to the settler, and to such of these as brought themselves under his notice, either through their use or the reverse, he set about giving names, or adopting or corrupting such Maori names as he could learn or would tolerate.

There are many reasons influencing the choice of a name:—

(1.)

The name chosen may describe the plant as a whole or characteristic parts of it: broadleaf, whitewood, bluebell.

(2.)

It may refer to its use medicinally: scurvy-grass, Maori painkiller.

(3.)

It may refer to its use as food: cabbage-tree, tea-tree, Maori cabbage.

(4.)

It may refer to its similarity to some other object: lacebark, lemonwood, turpentine-tree.

(5.)

It may refer to its similarity in a humorous aspect: Captain Cook's ropes, vegetable boa-constrictor.

(6.)

It may refer to its similarity to some other familiar plant: New Zealand oak, New Zealand ash, New Zealand teak.

(7.)

It may refer to its habitat: bog-lily. mountain-ribbonwood, sandgunnera.

(8.)

It may be altogether fantastic: wild-irishman, spaniard or bloody spaniard, bush-lawyer.

Curious contradictions occur at times. For instance, Pteris lremula, besides being known as the “trembling fern,” is known as the “scented fern” and the “stinking fern.” Whilst the latter names appear anomalous, both have their justification; for Field remarks, “It…may be at once distinguished by the strong aromatic odour, something like camomile, which its foliage emits when bruised. In the summer-time, surveyors cutting lines through the warm sheltered gullies in which it abounds often find the smell so strong as to be unpleasant, and I have heard it called the ‘stinking fern’ on this account, though many people rather like the scent.” (Field, Ferns of N.Z., p. 90.) Again, it is difficult to understand why the broadleaf was so called. There are plants with leaves much broader, and it is evidence of the persistence of a name, however seemingly inappropriate, that this is now the universally known name for Griselinia littoralis.

– 660 –

The manner in which different people are influenced by different parts of the same plant is well illustrated in the various names given to Coprosma lucida—-broadleaf, orange-leaf, shining coprosma, coffee-tree, yellow-wood

The names in the category 2 (medicinal) above were originally the chief of the names given, since the study of plants was wholly from a medicinal point of view. Innumerable names remain as evidence of this—self-heal, wart-weed, fever-few, &c.; and the evil days that have overtaken the herbal science are shown by the very few names now given because of supposed medicinal properties.

The name “cabbage-tree” was given by Captain Cook's people. The following remarks appear in the Journal of 10th October, 1774: “These cabbage-trees or palms were not thicker than a man's leg, and from ten to twenty feet high. They are of the same genus with the cocoa-nut tree; like it they have large pinnated leaves, and are the same sort as the second sort found in the northern parts of New South Wales [vide Hawksworth, Voyages, vol. 3]. The cabbage is, properly speaking, the bud of the tree; each tree producing but one cabbage, which is at the crown, where the leaves spring out, and is enclosed in the stem. The cutting off the cabbage effectually destroys the tree; so that no more than one can be had from the same stem. The cocoa-nut tree, and some others of the palm kind, produce cabbage as well as these. The vegetable is not only wholesome, but exceedingly palatable, and proved the most agreeable repast we had had for some time.” (Cook, Voyage to Pacific Ocean, 1777, vol. 2, pp. 148–49.)

The remarks that the leaves are pinnate, that each tree produces but one cabbage, and that the cutting of it destroys the tree, lead one to suspect that the tree referred to is not a Cordyline. The entry in the Journal was made at Norfolk Island, not New Zealand, but there is no indication in Cook as to what tree is referred to. Even the botanist Forster gives no help. In speaking of the vegetation of Norfolk Island he says, “The productions of New Zealand were here united to those of New Caledonia and the New Hebrides; for the cypress of the one, and the cabbage palm which we had seen in the latter, flourished here in the greatest perfection. It was chiefly on these two species, that we bestowed our attention; the former supplied the carpenter with several spare brooms, and pieces of timber; and the latter offered us a most welcome and palatable refreshment We cut down several of them, and took on board the central shoot, or heart, which in taste more resembles an almond than a cabbage.” (George Forster, A Voyage round the World, 1772–75, Lond., 1777, vol. 2, pp. 345–46.) In his Plantis esculentis Insularum Oceani Australis, 1786, he includes Cordyline (as Dracaena) and Rhopalostylis (as Areca), and says of Areca sapida (p. 66), “Reperitur spontanea in nova Zeelandia usque ad aestuarium Charlottae reginae, et frequens in Norfolciae insula deserta. Huius praecipue Cor sive Caput in deliciis est apud nautas Europaeos, et cum oleo et aceto parari solet.” There is a more definite clue in Banks (Journal of the Right Hon. Sir Joseph Banks…during Captain Cook's First Voyage…1768–71, Lond., 1896, p. 227), where he writes of New Zealand plants, “We also once or twice met with a herb like that which the country people in England call ‘lamb's-quarters’ or ‘fat-hen,’ which we boiled instead of greens; and once only a cabbage-tree, the cabbage of which made us one delicious meal…” A footnote identifies the former as Atriplex patula Linn., identical with the English fat-hen, and the latter as Areca sapida Soland., of which Hooker gives the range (Handbook of the

– 661 –

New Zealand Flora, 1867, p. 288)—“Northern and Middle Islands; as far south as Queen Charlotte's Sound, Banks and Solander, &c. Very closely related to the Norfolk Island A. Baueri, which is a larger plant. Young inflorescence eaten.” He says nothing of the eating of the young shoots of the Cordyline.

It would appear, then, that primarily the term “cabbage-tree” or “cabbage-palm” was applied to Areca Baueri, but has become transferred exclusively to Cordyline. In one place there is the remark, “We also found one cabbage-tree which we cut down for the cabbages” Cook's First Voyage, 1768–71, in Hawksworth, vol. 2, p. 322). This entry is on 29th October, 1769, when Cook was at Tolaga Bay, and seems to refer to Cordyline; in Cook's own Journal, however, the last word of the quotation is “cabbage,” not “cabbages.”

Both Cordyline and Rhopalostylis (Areca) were found by Cook in Norfolk Island; if the hearts of both were not eaten as cabbage there, they apparently were in New Zealand; and it was possibly the much more common occurrence of Cordyline in these islands that caused the name “cabbage-tree” to be transferred exclusively to that species. Colenso (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 1, ed. 1, p. 32 of his Essay, “On the Botany…of the New Zealand Group), when writing of the fruits and trees used as vegetables, says: “The young inner blanched leaves and heart of the Ti, or “Cabbage-tree” (Cordyline australis), and of the Nikau, or New Zealand Palm (Areca sapida), were eaten both raw and cooked.” I have seen a long row of Cordyline in a public garden struggling to grow beyond the reach of schoolboys, who persisted in pulling the young central shoots, eating them with relish.

One would suppose that Kirk had forgotten the origin of the name when he says, “Settlers and bushmen generally apply the unmeaning name of ‘cabbage-tree.’” (Kirk, Forest Flora of N.Z., p. 295.) Cheeseman, too, says, “Universally known to New Zealand residents by the inappropriate name of ‘cabbage-tree’” (Cheeseman, Manual of N.Z. Flora, p. 707). Thomas explains the name, and errs in doing so: “It receives its name from the arrangement of its leaves in tufts or heads at the ends of the branches” (Clark, A Southern Cross Fairy-tale, p. 53). Butler remarks, “The cabbage-tree or ti-palm is not a true palm, though it looks like one. It has not the least resemblance to a cabbage.” The settlers and bushmen followed Cook in using the young heart as a vegetable, and in their naming of the tree; and when the reason for the name is known its inappropriateness disappears. To one section of the public it will always be the cabbage-tree; to the other section, let it be lily-palm. “Ti-tree” and “ti-palm” should certainly be banned, because of the hopeless confusion with tea-tree. Froude, in Oceana, constantly writes “ti-tree” when he refers to manuka scrub (tea-tree); and Cockayne notes a worse confusion in the naming of a railway-station Ti-tri (Cockayne. N.Z. Plants and their Story).

Tea-tree, too, is a name that has come through Cook's people. Manukaleaves were used for tea during his first visit, when the name “tea plant” was given. The plant is described and figured, and Cook writes in May, 1773, “The leaves, as I have already observed, were used by many of us astea, which has a very agreeable bitter, and flavour, when they are recent, but loses some of both when they are dried. When the infusion was made strong, it proved emetic to some in the same manner as green tea.” (Cook, Voyage towards the South Pole, 1779, vol. 1, p. 101; illus., p. 100.)

– 662 –

From the leaves of the rimu Cook brewed “spruce beer,” and the black-pine furnishes a beverage known to bushmen as “pine-beer,” The tree containing beer may usually be known by a black, smutty-looking stain that extends some way up the trunk; and if a hole be bored at the base the tree may be plugged and tapped like a barrel.

In the names of categories 4 and 5 (similarity to other objects) observation and imagination play a prominent part, and many pleasing names result. Ribbonwood, lacebark, and thousand-jacket, are most appropriate names, all applied to Gaya, Hoheria, and Plagianthus. Lemonwood is a good name for Pittosporum eugenioides, though the property is more obviously in the leaves than in the wood. The young leaves, when bruised between the fingers, emit a very agreeable fragrance resembling lemon. A scent was in the sap, for it was from this tree, the tarata, that the Maori gathered gum which he used for manufacturing a favourite perfume. He made incisions in the bark, and gathered the congealed drops on their oozing through.

The names of category 6 (similarity to other plants) show some observation, though little imagination. A number of these names persist—as “New Zealand holly,” for Olearia ilicifolia; “New Zealand teak,” for Vitex lucens. Many of them have been disused, the similarity proving too superficial for adoption and perpetuation of the name. There is a name of this kind lately given—“New Zealand hawthorn”—to Carpodetus serratus, one of our most graceful and beautiful flowering trees, and a tree New-Zealander, which Dr. Cockayne, in The Cultivation of New Zealand Plants (p. 109), commends as suitable for adoption as the national flower. This tree is not in the least like the hawthorn—in shape, foliage, colour or texture of bark, ramification, or fruit. The sole resemblance is in the flower, and in the appearance of the clustered flower only; scent and colour differ from the hawthorn. Moreover, this very name was given to the English tree to signify the thorn that bears a haw; and Carpodetus has neither haw nor thorn. Carpodetus itself is an attractive name: why should it not be adopted? Or why not adopt the Maori name, putaputaweta, or the recorded shorter form punaweta? Or, seeing that the point of resemblance is in the flower, and that the flower of the hawthorn is known as “may,” why not “Maori may”? Carpodetus much more closely resembles the silver birch, in general shape of the tree, shape and suspension of leaf, ramification, colour and texture of the bark—resemblances visible all the year round. “Maori silver birch” would be a much more appropriate name, were it not for the fact that there is already a name “silver beech,” and that the name “birch” has become anathema. The name “New Zealand hawthorn” might more appropriately be given to the already irrevocably named wildirishman, or scented thorn, or matagowry, whose leafless winter appearance is very like the lifeless appearance of the dry twisted hawthorn as seen in a hedge; and the scented white flower in spring gives one a leap of pleasure as does the hawthorn, with its “white sheet blanching on the hedge.”

The word “native” has been prefixed to almost as many names as the words “New Zealand”—native aniseed, native convolvulus, &c. This word may perhaps be descriptive if used within New Zealand and between NewZealanders; but if used outside—say, in Australia—its meaning will be quite changed; for should the New-Zealander speak of the “native teak,” the Australian would think not of a New Zealand but of an Australian tree. The confusion might be avoided were the word “Maori” used instead of “native,” and, indeed, instead of the long doublet “New Zealand.” There

– 663 –

is “Maori cabbage,” “Maori onion”—why not “Maori aniseed,” “Maori convolvulus,” &c.?

The names of category 8 (fantastic names) show the imagination running riot; they seem appropriate, though often it is impossible to give any definite reason for the name. No trace has been found of any reason for the name “wild-irishman” as applied to Discaria toumatou. Many old settlers have been questioned without result, or with such barren result as the following: One, being asked, “Why was the wild-irishman called the wild-irishman?” answered, “I suppose because it is like a wild Irishman.” “What characteristics have they in common?” “Well, I—I—I really can't say.” And so it is; it is a name that every one-understands, but no one can explain. Whilst it is often written with a capital, “Irishman,” it is now as often written with a small letter, “irishman”; and when it is the plant that is referred to the small letter should be used, leaving the form “wild Irishman” to signify the Sinn-Feiner. The same remark applies to the name for Aciphylla—“spaniard”—another name of unexplained origin. There seems even less connection between the human Spaniard and the vegetable spaniard than between the human wild Irishman and the vegetable wild-irishman; and the conjectured corruption “spine-yard,” whilst improbable, is no more improbable than the fabled “Bill's-yard” as the origin of “billiard.” The name “missionary-plant,” given by the Maori to the sweet-brier (Boyd, Our Stolen Summer, p. 77), does not come into this category, as the humour of it, more readily perceived, perhaps, by the agriculturist or pastoralist, was not intentional: it was so named as it was brought, for dear association' sake, by the homesick wife of a missionary.

Many of the names show considerable gifts of observation, imagination, and ingenuity there are others that show the namers to have been almost destitute of all three. Kirk in 1875 remarked: “…the term ‘birch’ may be regarded as a generic name applied by bushmen to any small-leaved tree, and qualified by the prefixes ‘black,’ ‘white,’ or ‘red,’ at the caprice of the individual, or as may be suggested by the colour of the foliage, bark, or timber.” (Reports on the Durability of N.Z. Timber, 1875, p. 16.) So the term “black birch” was in many districts applied to Pittosporum tenuifolium, and to Weinmannia racemosa in Otago—the latter tree being also known as “brown birch.” and “red birch.” Myrsine Urrillei was known as “red birch,” and Carpodetus serratus and Quintinia serrata as “white birch.” It was principally to trees of the species Nothofagus (then known as Fagus) that the term “birch” was applied, and a distinguishing of the various kinds by the prefixing of a descriptive word was a step in the right direction; but in this instance the step was on a path that led to a quagmire. To take only the instance of Nothofagus Solandri (formerly Fagus Solandri) this was known as “black” birch in the Wellington district; “black,” “white”, “red,” and “brown” birch in Canterbury; “white” birch in Nelson; “white,” “black,” and “black-heart” birch in Otago. “In the Oxford Bush” (Canterbury), says Kirk, “I learned that the tree [N. Solandri] was termed ‘red birch,’ ‘brown birch,’ ‘white birch,’ ‘black birch,’ and ‘yellow birch’ at different stages of its growth, but the application of these terms varied greatly; perhaps ‘black birch’ was most generally applied to the mature condition before decay commenced, and ‘white birch’ to the young state; but there were too many exceptions to allow of the names being other than misleading.”

– 664 –

The confusion created has been endless; it has at times even resulted in commercial loss; yet so strong is habit that confusion was preferred before a change of name. And, indeed, the bushmen might well ask what name they should adopt; for the scientists came and added to the confusion by pointing out that the trees usually called “birch” were not birch at all, but beech—when a fresh crop of names resulted: “black beach,” “red beech,” “dusky beech,” &c. The scientists themselves, however, in calling the species Nothofagus “beech,” took care—that is, usually took care—to make the distinguishing prefix one that would not lead to a repetition of the old confusion. N. Solanderi was accordingly called “entire-leaved beech”; N. cliffortioides, “mountain beech”; N. Menziesii, “round-leaved beech”; N. fusca, “tooth-leaved beech.” It was some time before even these names were agreed upon; and “silver beech” finally took the place of “round-leaved beech” for N. Menziesii. A note may here be made of the fact that, whilst the entire-leaved beech was Fagus Solandri, on Fagus being changed to Nothofagus, Solandri was altered to Solanderi; but this has been altered back again to Solandri, for that was the original and not incorrect spelling of the word.

Again, these common, unimaginative names may take a double form—“tree-nettle” and “nettle-tree”; “tree-fuchsia” and “fuchsia-tree”; “tree-grass” and “grass-tree.” The form taken depends upon the name-giver thinking, say, of the fuchsia, “This tree is like a fuchsia”—whence “fuchsia-tree”; or “This fuchsia is like a tree”—whence “tree-fuchsia.” “Fuchsia” and “tree” become the descriptive part of the name according to the thought perceiving the plant as a tree or a fuchsia. Were the names to be retained, therefore, the correct form would be “tree-nettle,” “tree-fuchsia,” seeing that the plants are primarily nettle and fuchsia, and secondarily tree-like. Of the names “tree-grass” and “grass-tree” as applied to Cordyline, however, “grass-tree” would be the correct form, seeing that this plant is tree primarily, and grass-like secondarily. When Dr. Cockayne called Olearia sp. “daisy-tree” he used the correct form. In the second edition of New Zealand Plants and their Story, however, he changed it to “tree-daisy,” bringing it into line with other similar compounds—“tree-coprosma,” “tree-fuchsia,” “tree-heath,” “tree-moss,” “tree-lupin,” &c.—all of which are correct; for in these instances the plants are larger in growth than ordinary—so large that in comparison with related forms they seem tree-like. The Olearia, however, is not a daisy of such giant growth that it is like a tree, but a tree that bears flowers like daisies; it is, in fact, a tree that reminds one of a daisy—not a daisy that reminds one of a tree. He calls the false mountain-holly (O. macrodonta) a “tree-daisy”; but had this plant been like a daisy that had grown as big as a tree it would never have been called a holly: the tree is holly-like in general appearance, daisy-like in the flower; and what is meant when it is said that the false mountain-holly is a daisy-tree is that it is a holly-like tree with a daisy-like flower. “Cabbage-tree” has not been changed to “tree-cabbage,” and rightly; nor should “daisy-tree” have been changed to “tree-daisy.” The name “palm-lily,” again, should be “lily-palm”; for primarily the tree is, in resemblance at least, a palm: it is a palm with lily-like flower. To the casual observer—and that means the usual observer—the tree is more like a palm than the flower is like a lily. One authority is quoted for the form “lily-palm.”

These compound names, too, show a curious tendency towards coalescence. This is revealed in writing and printing; their coalescence

– 665 –

there reveals the coalescence in the thought. They start as two words, then the two words are hyphened, and finally the hyphen is dropped, the two being then written and pronounced as one word—broad leaf, broad-leaf, broadleaf. When this takes place there is a subtle change of accent, more or less marked. As two words, each word has its own accent: as a compound the first word retains its accent, but the accent on the second is subdued or suppressed. Many New Zealand names occur in the three forms—blue bell, blue-bell, bluebell; duck weed, duck-weed, duckweed; supple jack, supple-jack, supplejack; lace bark, lace-bark, lacebark; &c. The distinction in the accent is clearly heard if we say aloud, “The bluebell has a white or blue bell; and its blue bell caused it to be called the bluebell.” Occasionally three words are connected, or even four: forget-me-not, love-in-a-mist. I have seen as many as six—“Jack-go-to-sleep-at-noon,” or “Jack-go-to-bed-at-noon,” for Ornithogalum umbellatum and Tragopogon pratensis. The hyphens have not yet been dropped, and tha names probably do not occur in literature as forgetmenot and loveinamist. Forget-me-not is printed as one word in German—vergissmeinnicht. Whilst the hyphening and compounding may be, and probably is, in large measure due to the writers, it is possible that in many instances they are due to the printer, or at least to the publisher's reader. A good reader will decide upon a certain course, consistent as may be maintained, and writers may find a difficulty in throwing him off that course; or they may be indifferent, which furnishes the reader with his justification.

There are certain words that have long resisted the hyphening tendency. The words “white pine,” “black pine,” &c., have from the beginning appeared as two words. In writing of, say, the last fifteen years, however, the forms “black-pine,” “white-pine,” “silver-pine,” “silver-beech,” &c., have become common. The hyphening of these seems to date from about 1905, and is now the rule rather than the exception. This remark, however, needs some modification; for a great number of the papers and books from which the hyphened words have been gathered are the work of one writer, Dr. Cockayne. But there is this to be said: When a leading writer, and a writer of authority, uses names in a certain form, his lead is almost sure to be followed; so that his introduction of hyphening will go a long way towards establishing the custom—the more so since his writing covers the whole New Zealand botanical field so thoroughly. As far back as 1889, however, the most unusual forms “blackpine” and “blackmaire” appear; but since these are given as English names in a French work—Fleurs sauvages et bois precieux de la Nouvelle-Zélande, by Mrs. Hetley and M. Raoul—they can hardly be taken as indicating a tendency in the English language, though certainly they do indicate a general linguistic tendency. At first the names look strangely and startlingly unusual; but the strangeness soon wears off; and, as the hyphen is perhaps no more than the indication that two words are in process of becoming a compound word, “blackpine” should naturally follow from “black pine” and “black-pine.” “Black-moor” of “Paradise Regained” (iv, 72) is now “blackamoor.” In the opening of “The Cherrie and the Slae” Montgomery has “with gallant gold-spinks gay”; but Bewick prints the word “goldspink”; and “goldfinch” is now always one word. It cannot be said, however, that it will always be one word; for even the long-familiar name “blackbird” appears occasionally as two unhyphened words, “blackbird.” In My New Zealand Garden, 1902, p. 74, it occurs as two words twice on one page, whilst “goldfinch” occurs on the same page as one word.

– 666 –

Uncensored writing and printing furnish curious evidence of the working of the human mind: some minds seem to need no hyphens in compound words; others seem to require them as cautious alpine climbers require a rope. Moreover, there is change in the habits even of the habitual writer. In the first edition of the well-known New Zealand Plants and their Story the words “bracken fern” are used early in the book: seventy pages on they are hyphened, “bracken fern”; had the book been half as long again we may have had the form “brackenfern.” Again, in the same book the hyphened “candlennt,” proceeds to “candlenut,” and “willow-herb” to “willowherb.” Again, the sea-side brome grass” of Buchanan (? Kirk) becomes the “seaside brome-grass” of Cockayne.

Is there any danger of words with two descriptive prefixes becoming one word—for instance, “yellow silver pine”? It already has one hyphen, and there is a form “yellow-pine,” so “yellow-silver-pine” is not impossible: is “yellowsilverpine”? It is almost to be hoped that it is not possible, or we may fall in the rugged way of Teutomic agglutination. The appropriate but little-used “wait-a-bit” is not in this category, as it is a name, not merely a description. The name “paper-mulberry-tree,” of Mueller is in the category, and in it the second hyphen at least seems unnecessary. If the oak be also called “tree” it is not “oak-tree,” but “oak-tree”: the hyphen adds nothing to the meaning, nor does it remove any ambiguity. The name “forget-me-not” as a flower is practically one word, yet it loses nothing of its homogeneity if printed as Armstrong prints it, without hyphens, “forget me not,” for it is the expression of a desire, as well as a flower.

The hyphening tendency, and the following agglutination, appear, however, to be natural tendencies, betraying a species of Teutonic outcrop in our flexible, composite language; and their appearance is by no means confined to botanists or scientists. The word “castiron” appeared in the local Dominion newspaper in June, 1919; whilst the Oxford University Press Rules for Compositors and Readers includes “cast iron” in a list of compound words that should be printed without the hyphen. In the first editions of Tennyson's poems the following compounds appear, amongst others: In “The Lady of Shalott, 1833—yellowleavèd, greensheathèd, overtrailed, silken sailed, pearlgarland, barleysheaves, thickjewelled; and in “Mariana,” 1830—casementcurtain and marishmosses. In the Collected Poems of 1851, both “yellowleavèd,” and “greensheathèd, “which appeared in stanza 1, were dropped in the remodelling of that stanza; “overtrailed” and “silkensailed” became “barges trail'd” and “silken-sail'd”; the “pearlgarland” was dropped altogether; “barleysheaves” became two words—“barley sheaves”; “thickjewelled” and others were hyphened—“thick-jewell'd.” The two compounds from “Mariana.” were also hyphened, and so they have remained. Tennyson himself, speaking of the word “tendriltwine” in Poems by. Two Brothers, says, “I had an absurd antipathy to hyphens, and put two words together as one word.” His antipathy had been conquered, apparently, by 1851. In “The Lady of Shalott,” however, appear the compounds “village-churls,” “market-girls,” “bower-eaves,” “saddle-leather”; these remain in 1851, all but “market-girls,” where the hyphen is dropped—“market girls”—and this distinction still remains. Whilst the poet is not quite consistent in his practice, it is evident he perceived and followed a principle; and so with others—there is a percentible drift towards the hyphening or agglutination, especially of words of one syllable. At the same time there is apparent

– 667 –

a resistance to the drift, so that words that look and sound as though they might well coalesce, break again even if they coalesce for a time—as though these were a more or less definite size natural to the idea-crystals, at least in English.

The reason for the coalescence appears to be this: The prefixed word, whilst at first merely descriptive, gradually comes to be regarded as part of the word; and as a matter of fact it is part of the word. Take the familiar name “blackbird.” It is evident that the original name-givers recognized this songster simply as a black bird. There were doubtless many other black birds, but this one attracted attention so much, to the exclusion of others, that it became the black bird, the two names joining, with the idea, as one—“blackbird.” So it is with other compound names: once the prefixed word comes to be regarded as actually part of the name—when word and description are one in thought—coalescence takes place. There is no whitebird, though there are white birds; there is a whitethroat, however; a blackcap; a redpoll; and so on. There appears to be no necessity for hyphening the prefixed descriptive word unless the compound word resulting differs in meaning from the unhyphened words. If the descriptive word be a substantive there seems to be more logic in inserting the hyphen, though the example given by the American writer on this subject, F. Horace Teall, does not cover all instances. He points out that “paper-box” means a box made of paper, whereas “paper-box” means a box for holding paper. When Paratrophis was called the “milk-tree,” however, the name merely meant “the tree with milk-like sap,” and that is the meaning that would almost certainly be assumed by any one first seeing the name. Omission of the hyphen would not change the meaning to “the tree made of milk,” and “milk tree” is as clear in meaning as “milk-tree.” Milk is one substance, however, and tree is another; and when both are used as one name there seems to be some natural tendency to join them with a hyphen and make them one word. In the instance “oak tree,” oak is already a tree, and does not need the second word at all, nor would the coalescence of the words change the meaning in any degree. On further descriptive words being prefixed to “milk-tree,” as in “large-leaved milk-tree,” a second hyphen is required to join the two descriptive words. If it were intended to say that the milk-tree was a large tree with leaves, then “large leaved milk-tree” would be sufficient; but in this instance the “large” refers to the leaf and not to the tree. “Silver pine” does not mean a pine made of silver, any more than “milk tree” means “tree made of milk.” The debatable ground appears when the question arises as to whether “silver” is a substantive or an adjective; if an adjective, there is no need for the hyphen between it and the substantive following: that is, adjective is hyphened to adjective, substantive to substantive—“golden-haired,” but “golden hair.” Thus the forms “cranesbill” and “parrotsbill” are better than “crane's bill” and “parrot's bill.” The latter may refer to the actual bill of a crane or a parrot; the former has quite another significance An illustrative example is the name “hanging-tree spleenwort” given by Potts to Asplenium flaccidum. The hyphening is here incorrect. As at present, it means the spleenwort growing on the hanging-tree, whereas it was intended to mean the hanging spleenwort which grows on a tree. The form should therefore be “hanging tree-spleenwort.”

All statements must, however, be made with caution, for refutation may be met on every hand. Should the forms be “yellow wood” and

– 668 –

“white wood,” or “yellow-wood” (yellowwood) and “white-wood” (whitewood)? The latter seem preferable, if only for the reason that “yellow wood” and “white wood” may mean wood that is yellow or white. “Yellowwood,” again, seems to offer an objection in the doubled w, and the hyphen is usually present in words like “yellow-wort,” “yellow-weed,” “mallow-wort”; but “chaffinch” had at first to contend with a tripled consonant “chaff-finch”: it simply ignored one of them, and a w might similarly be ignored—“yellowood” if two seem objectionable—“yellowwood.”

In passing, two recent names of this kind may receive a moment's attention—“red tea-tree” and “white tea-tree,” given, on account of the colour of their wood, to Leptospermum scoparium and L. ericoides respectively. As however, there are red and white-flowering manuka, and the flowers are far more evident to the ordinary observer than the cut wood, it is inevitable that it will be supposed that the names were given because of the flowers, and confusion must follow. It would be better to nip these names in the bud.

The whole argument regarding the hyphening or otherwise of words seems to become unnecessary, and to collapse when it is remembered that in speech there is no indication, or no certain indication, of the presence or absence of a hyphen. The slight difference in accent between “black bird” and “blackbird” is too slight to be relied on; and, moreover, accent varies with individuals, and even with mood. Yet the fact that one compound may appear objectionable when written, and another unobjectionable, shows that there is a linking-up in the thought, even if unconscious; and and it is this mental linking-up that affects the pronunciation. Confusion is less likely to occur in writing than in speaking, and in the written sentence the context will show if the words “black cap” are to be taken as the bird or as the cap that is black.

F. Horace Teall, already mentioned, has attempted the formulation of rules for the compounding of English words; but the rules arrived at are altogether too complex, and also appear incapable of application. He gives a long list of phrases or words which should not be joined, and a list of words which should not be separated. In the following, a few of the former are given in the first column, a few of the latter in the second:—

Black bryony Blackbird
Black currant Blackcap
Black pine Blackthorn
Blue grass Blueweed
Green linnet Greenbird
Red birch Redbud
Red cedar Redcap
Red pine Redwood
White ash Whiteear
White pine Whitethorn
Wild oat Wildcat
Yellow pine Yellowweed

There appears to be no reason, other than usage, for one form more than the other; and if usage be urged as the reason for the difference then the rule is usage—a rule that cannot possibly be set down. It is true that in one case the second word is more particular, in the other more general; “pine” is a particular class, as “red pine,” but “wood” is a general term, so “redwood.” “Grass” is a particular class, so “blue grass,” whilst “weed” is general, so “blueweed.” Yet we have the form “black-pine”;

– 669 –

and in speaking of “Kentucky blue grass,” does not the decided accent on the “blue” as compared with the light accent on the “grass,” together with the shortening of the pause between the two words, show that in thought the words are coalesced—“blue-grass” if not “bluegrass”? Then if “greenbird” to distinguish it from the general class of green birds, why not “greenlinnet” to distinguish it from other linnets? “Goldfinch” and “chaffinch” might be quoted to illustrate the coalescence; but it might then be pointed out that these are two substantives, not adjective and substantive. Teall complains that the makers of dictionaries apparently make no attempt to use the hyphen according to some definite rule. He is right: no attempt is made, and the reason is given by the editors of the Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1911. “We have also to admit,” they write, “that after trying hard at an early stage to arrive at some principle that should teach us when to separate, when to hyphen, and when to unite the parts of compound words, we had to abandon the attempt as hopeless, and welter in the prevailing chaos.” Not all dictionarymakers are so pessimistic, however; and in the 1923 edition of Funk and Wagnall's New Standard Dictionary F. Horace Teall has made the heroic attempt to maintain a consistent system of hyphening through the two big volumes.

In the Oxford University Press Rules for Compositors, 1912, referred to above, an attempt has been made to formulate a few rules that may guide, if they cannot direct and control:—

“The hyphen need not, as a rule, be used to join an adverb to the adjective which it qualifies: as in—a beautifully furnished house; a well calculated scheme. When the word might not at once be recognized as an adverb, use the hyphen: as—a well-known statesman; the best-known proverb: a good-sized room; a new-found country.

“When an adverb qualifies a predicate, the hyphen should not be used: as—this fact is well known.

“Where either (1) a noun and adjective or participle, or (2) an adjective and noun, in combination, are used as a compound adjective, the hyphen should be used: a poverty-stricken family; a blood-red hand; a nineteenth-century invention.

“A compound noun which has but one accent, and from familiar use has become one word, requires no hyphen: bla'ckbird; hai'rbrush; ha'nd-book; ma'ntelpiece; scho'olboy; whe'elbarrow.

“Compound words of more than one accent, as a'pple-tre'e, che'rry-pie’, gra'vel-wa'lk, as well as others which follow, require hyphens: air-man; arm-chair; death-rate; farm-house; hour-glass; jaw-bone; new-built; race-course.”

Thus far the rules may be followed, since they appear formulated on some comprehensible reason, though the words last quoted seem to be in a half-way condition; for surely no hyphen is needed in airman, farmhouse, hourglass, jawbone, racecourse. The last rule, however, appears rather to be an arbitrary instruction; for after saying that “half an inch,” “half a dozen,” &c., require no hyphen, it is added: “Print the following also without hyphens: cast iron; court martial; easy chair; high road; plum pudding; post office.” It has been objected that whilst no hyphen is needed in “jawbone” considered by itself, yet it is found convenient to compound it as one of a large category of similar expressions, some of which would not make good consolidated words, as “arm-bone,” “leg-bone,” thigh-bone,” &c. Yet it is a matter of custom; for “jawbone” and “backbone” do not come amiss, and why should “armbone” and “legbone”?

– 670 –

This paper was written before these Rules for Compositors were seen, and the writer was gratified to find himself so much in accord with the Rules; but this last instruction seems to flout the rules themselves, and it will not be observed. “Highway” is an accepted form—why not “high-road” or even “highroad”? The latter is used, and, as noted above, “castiron” has been used. “Court-martial,” too, follows rule, as do “plum-pudding” and “post-office.” In speech, one can only tell uncertainly from the accent if the speaker conceives of the compound as one word or two.

The Maori was a prolific name-giver; and his names show him to have been possessed of a keen sense of discrimination, so that many of those names may be adopted without fear of confusion, and more are being adopted from year to year. In his new edition of New Zealand Plants and their Story, Dr. Cockayne has finally adopted “rimu,” “matai,” “kahikatea,” instead of the English “red,” “black,” and “white” pine. He has adopted “koromiko” in place of “veronica”—an adoption that will help to keep in mind the distinction between the English and New Zealand forms of veronica. Like the bushman, though not to the same extent, the Maori was puzzled by the various species of beech, and Kirk excepts his beech-names when recommending the adoption of Maori names generally. “In the great majority of cases,” says he, “the Maori names are much better adapted for commercial use than those commonly employed” (Kirk, Forest Flora of N.Z., Pref., p. vi). There is now no attempt made to supplant such names as “kauri,” “totara,” “pukatea;” “karaka,” “ngaio,” “tawa”—partly because the distinctiveness of the trees made adoption of the names easier than the invention of others. Unsuccessful attempts were made to supplant “puriri,” “titoki,” “kowhai,” with “New Zealand teak,” “New Zealand ash,” “New Zealand laburnum.” Maori and European names have been used indifferently in “rimu,” “matai,” “kahikatea”—red, black, and white pine; “kotukutuku” and “kohutuhutu” have given way to “fuchsia,” or to the now less common misnomer “konini-tree,” unless used in the sense that “pear-tree” is used; “makomako” has given place to “wineberry,” or “New Zealand currant.” In some instances the Maori name has been adopted but corrupted: “matagowry” for “tumatakuru,” where “wild-irishman” is not used; “biddy-bid” for “piripiri”; “bunger” (now fortunately seldom heard) for “ponga”; “cracker” (also falling into disuse) for “karaka.” “Kowhai” went through many stages—“goa,” “gohi,” &c., before settling to the two forms “kowhai” in the North and “gowhai” or “gowai” in the South. In one instance the Maori name has been adopted in a translated and shortened form—” parrot's-beak,” or “kaka-beak,” for “kowhaingutukaka.” In some instances the varieties of the trees have been distinguished by the prefixing of a European term to a Maori name—“black mapau,” “white mapau”; or the name has, by corruption, been made quite European, and quite wrong, by changing “mapau” to “maple.” The various ratas have been more or less distinguished as “shining rata,” “southern rata,” “white-flowering rata,” &c. At first the Maori names were used with hyphens separating the parts—“kowhai-ngutu-kaka”; and, whilst this may be a convenience, enabling easier analysis of a long word, Archdeacon Williams rejects the hyphens and joins the parts—.“kowhaingutukaka”—as in the good English “cranesbill.” With him the Maori substantive has almost completely shed the hyphen.

– 671 –

Is there any way of arriving at some uniformity of nomenclature, and of avoiding the confusion too often occasioned by the loosely-given common names? “Yes,” answers the scientist, one of the most observant of nature's observers, “by the adoption of a fixed nomenclature based on words derived from Latin or Greek; when the name, once adopted, is recognized throughout the scientific world, and may be recognized by the unscientific world also.” Devoutly-wished consummation! But the “once adopted” is a stumbling-block and an offence. We were taught by the scientists to speak of the nikau always as Areca sapida. That name became quite familiar, when it was discovered that the plant belonged to another genus, and we were bidden to think and write of the nikau no longer as Areca sapida, but as Rhopalostylis sapida, the genus Areca remaining, though the nikau is no longer in its fold, and Areca sapida becoming no more than a synonym. Relief from the birch-cum-beech confusion was found in Fagus: and later we were required to prefix Notho-, referring to our beeches as Nothofagus (the southern fagus), and to remember at the same time that Noto-when prefixed to other of our plants, as Notosparlium and Notothlaspi, was not a misprint but meant something quite different from Notho—“false,” to wit. Even when, in spite of widespread wont, we had accustomed ourselves to thinking and writing of birch as “beech,” we were bidden go one further and think and write of it as “southern beech.” Panax became partly Nothopanax and partly Pseudopanax. From these changes—and the changing of scientific names is by no means a phenomenon of recent date—has arisen a multiplicity of synonyms (see the pages of Cheeseman, whose lists are not exhaustive) almost equalling in number the synonyms of the bushman; and we begin to suspect the supplanter Jacob the scientist to be no better than his brother Esau the bushman. Potts, knowing a certain fern as Hymenophyllum montanum, gave it the common name “the mountain broad-leaved filmy fern.” But H. atrovirens, the original name, must stand, and the common name remains as witness to the defection of its scientific fellow. His rendering of Lomaria duplicata as the double fern was good, but unfortunately did not prevent the original name, L. capensis, being adopted. And now, L. capensis (= Blechnum capensis) being found only at the Cape, the name is to be Blechnum procerum!

The changes in the scientific names, however, are not due to any mere casual drift; a goal is in view, and a course has been set out. The Rules of Botanical Nomenclature, adopted by the Vienna Congress in 1905, and published in 1906, were sound and good. In every instance the name first given and placed on record is the name to be recognized and finally adopted. A plant may be given a new name provisionally; but if it is found subsequently that it has been placed in the wrong genus the generic name may be changed, but the specific name stands: thus it was that Areca sapida became Rhopalostylis sapida. By these means a uniformity of nomenclature is certainly a possibility (supposing, of course, that the names are adopted by scientists the world over); and by the complete co-operation of scientists the possibility will speedily become an actuality. The piling of synonyms merely means the shedding of discarded names in favour, not of a new one, but of an earlier and the final one. The synonyms are names that have been given somewhat in the manner that the common names have been given; but whereas it is impossible to say which, if any, of the common names will finally be adopted, in scientific nomenclature there is now a certainty because there is a definite rule, with a definite end in view.

– 672 –

There is much to be said, too, for scientific nomenclature. It offers universal intelligibility. It is, moreover, based on the principle adopted by primeval and uncultured man himself, and by his successors, the settler and bushman. It is in the giving of a name that savage, settler, and scientist alike display imagination or the lack of it. As a general rule, though there are many exceptions, and some dreadful exceptions, the characteristic features of the plant are taken and expressed in the tongue adopted, be it Greek or Latin. Brachy-glottis, “broad leaf,” is a name that appeals at once to any one familiar with the characteristic foliage of the rangiora. So, too, does Aci-phylla, the sharp leaf, to any one familiar with the spaniard: and who is not? Pteris aquilina, the “eaglet's wing,” is a beautiful name, of instant appeal; and when esculenta is added, the appeal is there, though it may be of a lower order. Nor does it matter that pteris was the general name in Greek for fern; the poetry of the name-giving is simply more ancient in date—its lineage is proven to be well founded in antiquity. But here we have to remember that in future this form of a name—Pteris aquilina var. esculenta—is a synonym only; the new name is Pteridium esculentum. So pitto-sporum, the “pitchy seed”; hymeno-phyllum, the “membranous leaf”; ptero-stylis, the “winged style”—these are apt names; and, were Greek and Latin vulgar tongues, the names would be adopted at once, and permanently adopted—as pteris was adopted. This adoption might be ensured were the signification of the name added in brackets, at least until the name became familiar. This could well be done in popular books and in text-books; the unlettered are not unresponsive to the appeal of beauty, and many of the scientific names are undoubtedly beautiful in meaning. This translation of the scientific name has been done, in a manner, in The Plants of New Zealand, by Laing and Blackwell—only there appears to be but little use and not much more help in translating Chenopodium triandrum as the “triandrous cheno-podium”; Ixerba brexioides as the “brexia-like ixerbia”; Pennantia corymbosa as the “corymbose pennantia”; and Calystegia Soldanella as the “soldanella-like calystegia.” The adoption of many scientific names is proof that they are not regarded with rooted aversion, or with an aversion so deeply rooted that it cannot be eradicated.

Geranium, pelargonium, rhododendron, chrysanthemum, gladiolus, calceolaria—all are apt names, pleasing in sound and poetical in concept. But it must be confessed that it was probably neither the aptness nor the poetry that influenced their adoption, for the adopter was usually ignorant of both. Rather their adoption was an indication of the paucity of imagination; adoption, though difficult, was less difficult than invention. How else could antirrhinum be adopted—and eschscholtzia—and even fuchsia?—names of perpetual bane to unfortunate youth. The pronunciation of the last two, furthermore, by no means agrees with the language from which they are derived; and it is an added hardship that as a rule no explanation of the name is offered to the struggling mind; the name is nothing but an unreasonable aggregation of letters. The names are, moreover, inappropriate, being merely names of botanists,—Fuchs (Fox) and Eschscholtz; nor is the latter much easier when we are told that the t may now be dropped, “eschscholzia.” Without doubt memory is a miraculous gift, and is most patient under abuse. A quotation from Domett may not be out of place:—

Life's the green Cone-cap hiding for its hour
That golden Californian poppy-bud;
Death pulls it off—outbursts the Soul—the flower!

Ranolf and Amohia, Bk. 1, Can. 5, Sec. 14.

– 673 –

He says of the second line, “The circumlocution…necessitated by the infinitely barbarous scientific name given to the beautiful flower ‘Eschscholtzia’ !” Of names of this kind there are many adopted—“lobelia,” “camellia,” “godetia,” “boronia”—names immortalized, and in how fugitive creations! “Kniphofia” has not been adopted, and there is little wonder in that. Gardeners use the alternative name “tritoma”; but the popular names are “torch-lily,” “red-hot poker”; and to which namer must be awarded the palm for imagination?

Scientists often have themselves to blame if their names are rejected: what cause other than perversity originated such names as Tmesipteris, Ehrharta, Staehelina, Mniarum, Rhabdothamnus? They do but court rejection, and deserve it. An excellent usage, too, has been too seldom followed: why not use the Maori name as the specific name? This was done in Podocarpus totara, in Beilschmiedia taraire, in Beilschmiedia tawa. It is too late to remedy the omission now, or we might have Alectryon titoki, Aristotelia makomako, Edwardsia kowhai, and the like graceful wedding of the old and the new.

Setting aside, too, the difficulties presented by a strange tongue to innocence when it meets an unusual word like pteris, the scientist in his speech often still further disguises and makes repellant the name which otherwise might appeal. As often as not, he pronounces “pit'to-sporum” “pittos'porum”; “a'ci-phylla” “aciph'ylla”; and so on. Mr. G. M. Thomson gives a little sage advice on this point: “I take it,” he says, “that without being pedantic the pronunciation should as far as possible follow the derivation.” The inconsistency of accentuation, too, is a puzzle: if “pittos'porum,” and not “pit'to-sporum,” why not “dracoph'yllum” and “pteros'tylis,” and not “drac'o-phyllum” and “pter'o-stylis”? And, whilst he has not heard it, the writer learns that “pteros'tylis” is not unknown. Field has a paragraph to the point: “As my book is intended chiefly for unlearned readers, to the names of the ferns at the heads of the descriptions and elsewhere I have appended a guide to the pronunciation, to prevent such common mistakes as pronouncing Hymenophyllum (Hymen-o-phyl-lum), which means ‘filmy leaf’; Hymenophilum (Hymenoph-il-um), which would mean ‘film-loving,’ and be nonsense: or calling Gleichenia, in which the ei has the hard sound of i in ‘file,’ the ch is a guttural, and the second e scarcely sounded, as if it were written Glikeenia or Gleekeenia.” In the pronunciation of “Hymenophyllum” he follows Johnson, who in The Gardener's Dictionary gives it as “Hymenophy'llum,” and Wright, who in his Encyclopaedia of Gardening gives it as “Hymen-ophyl-lum.” The name “Alsophila” Field prints “Al-soph-il-a,” and here the accent is correctly placed on the “o,” following Johnson and Wright, who print a word of similar derivation, gypsophila, “gypso'phila” and gypso'ph-ila respectively. The reason for the difference is in the difference of the root:—

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Hymen, a membrane; phyllon, a leaf.
Alsos, a forest; phileo, to love.
Gypsos, chalk; phileo, to love.

The confusion in accentuation is no doubt partly due to the close resemblance of the words; but the confusion might be avoided were the roots and meaning given with the name in the first place—unless, that is, botany is to be only a written science.

It is true, too, that this curious shifting of the accent appears to follow an inexplicable tendency in our language; for whilst we say tel'egraph, arith'metic, ad'vertise, we say teleg'raphy, arithmet'ical, adver'tisement:

– 674 –

the derivation is revealed in one word, concealed in its fellow. In following this apparently instinctive law, we say, not te'tra-ptera, but tetrap'tera, giving a fuller sound to the p than it had, or than we suppose it had, in the original. In ptera the p was so subdued that the pt is ordinarily represented by t; and it is no doubt due to the desire for easier pronunciation of what looks like the representation of a double sound that the p and t have been separated, making two sounds of what should be one. Tetrap'tera has its parallel in another science—entomology—where tetrap'terous is used instead of tetra-pterous (four-winged). Here, too, a whole series of generic names is given an English accent—lepidop'tera, hymenop'tera, neurop'tera, dip'tera, &c., instead of le'pido-ptera (scaly-winged), hy'meno-ptera (membranous-winged), neu'ro-ptera (nervenet-winged), di'-ptera (two-winged), &c.; yet in the parallel words lep'idosau'ria, lep'idosi'ren, and lep'idoden'dron the root accent is given.

If this shifting of the accent be in obedience to a linguistic law, we must, will we, nill we, abide by it, contenting ourselves merely with pointing out that the law is inconsistent, and that certain persons do aid and abet it in its inconsistency. But then, our vigorous and felicitous tongue is such an agglomeration of inconsistencies, to our seeming, that a few more or less hardly matter—except to the unfortunate struggling for expression. Parallel formations exert an influence, and the familiar pronunciation of the combination apt would no doubt present itself unconsciously to the thought when a new combination, such as apteryx was met, and hence the common ap'-teryx, instead of a-pte'ryx (without wings). In pte'ro-dactyl the sound of the p has been dropped since the pt begins the word: why not when it begins the syllable within the word?

In volume 51 of the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, pp. 409–14, Professor A. Wall expresses himself in a paper, wide in interest, if pessimistic in tone, regarding the pronunciation of scientific terms. He suggests the adoption of certain classical pronunciations, to be decided upon by a proposed committee, and adopted by future scientists. But even if, in the first place, the scientists themselves were able to agree on the pronunciations to be adopted, and would use them consistently when adopted, they form but a small section of the public, and any attempt of theirs to stem the set of popular pronunciation would be, as Professor Wall fears, foredoomed to failure. If certain linguistic laws govern the sound of phonetics when adopted by one language from another, Latin and Greek phonetics cannot escape that law, nor can the change be prevented, however much it may offend the ear: it were perhaps easier to remove the offence by modifying the individual ear. Then, too, pronunciation is not fixed; and the committee, if appointed, were like to prove a perennial—and a struggling perennial. Moreover, botanical treatises are far more often written than spoken, and in writing or reading pronunciation is of no moment; and, as one leading scientist has said, “whichever way the word is pronounced, I know what is meant, and that is the main thing.”

It has been noted that in giving the generic name some characteristic of the plant has been seized on, and from this many good names result. There is more difficulty in giving the specific name, though here advantage may be taken of minor distinguishing characteristics. This is well seen in the specific names of the genus Veronica—buxifolia, diosmaefolia, dasyphylla, leiophylla, ligustrifolia, pinguifolia, salicifolia, where the leaf-difference has been taken as the characteristic; acutiflora, parviflora, uniflora, where the flower has been taken; cupressoides, loganioides, lycopodioides, pimeleoides, where its resemblance to some other plant has been taken; and so on. But there is nothing descriptive in such specific names as Balfouriana,

– 675 –

Barkeri, Benthami, Bidwillii, Buchanani, Buxbaumii—to take the Bs only in this variable genus. Sometimes this proper name is the name of the discoverer of the species, and it is then tolerable; sometimes it is the name of a good worker in this or another science, when it is barely tolerable; sometimes it is the name of a friend of the name-giver, when it becomes unreasonable. The aggravation is as acute when the common name is made merely a translation of a name of this kind—Buchanan's veronica; and it is a pleasure to find that in Dr. Cockayne's book, already referred to, this system of common naming has been discarded. There is surely no plant so undistinguished that it has no characteristic of which advantage may be taken in giving a name; it certainly can have no common name unless it have some characteristic, in appearance, or use, or obtrusiveness, upon which the common mind is able to fasten, even if it receive a name like the “innominate” of osteology.

Dr. Cockayne has made a considerable beginning in the invention of common names for the lesser known New Zealand plants; and, whilst he shows inconsistency, it is palpably no more than the inconsistency of a mind working towards a definite end in the midst of much difficulty and obscurity. He adopts one name, and later on discards it for one he considers more appropriate. Many of the names given bear their own warrant of adoption, many as sure a warrant of their rejection. In the naming of ferns he has in most instances followed Potts, one of our early and most prolific name-givers; and in the naming of grasses he has followed Buchanan—hyphen in hand. Objection has already been taken to the naming of Carpodetus serratus “New Zealand hawthorn”; and objection must also be made to such names as “common mountain shrubby groundsel,”. “persicaria-leaved pond-weed,” “broad-leaved tussock oat-grass.” This is not name-giving, it is description. And the objection of length may almost as reasonably be urged against these names as against such scientific names as Anthurium Scherzerianum album maximum flavescens, the name given to the white-flowered anthurium (Gardener's Chronicle, 1886, p. 187). “Gentian” is a good name; “New Zealand gentian” is hardly a new name, still less is “common New Zealand gentian”—they simply modify an old name. So the various willowherbs are distinguished by a characterizing adjective; but these are not names. It is not necessary that all willowherbs should have that name with modifying adjective. True, the “bottle-campion” is a variety of the campion, as are the “red campion” and the “white campion”; but so are the “ragged robin,” the spotted catch-fly, and the “German catch-fly.” The mind to which a common name appeals is not concerned whether or no that name reveals the relation of the plants one to another; if the name and the plant are well mated, that is sufficient. “Hart's-tongue” and “maiden-hair” are sufficient without the addition of “fern”; the names catch the imagination. “Oak” and “poplar” need no addition to tell the common mind they are trees. In Dr. Cockayne's book, “three-square” as a name for Scirpus americanus is a true name, and seems good; good names, also, are “starlily,” “coral-shrub,” “bell-vine,” “pen-wiper plant”; and there is little doubt that once our New Zealand plants become thoroughly well known, through such excellent books and papers as Dr. Cockayne's, many of his tentative names will irrevocably be discarded for others, more concise if perhaps less descriptive. And one of the first to accept the new names will be Dr. Cockayne. It is no easy matter to invent a new name; and it is not, perhaps, the scientist to whom we should look for the new names, but his complement, the poet; and he does no more than give expression to feelings that had first to be general before he might win the power of

– 676 –

enduring expression. It is this general feeling that gives the charm to Bridges's poem “The Idle Flowers”:—

I have sown upon the fields
Eyebright and Pimpernel,
And Pansy and Poppy-seed
Ripen'd and scatter'd well,
And silver Lady-smock,
The meads with light to fill,
Cowslip and Buttercup,
Daisy and Daffodil;
King-cup and Fleur-de-lys
Upon the marsh to meet
With Comfrey, Watermint,
Loose-strife and Meadowsweet;
And all along the stream
My care hath not forgot
Crowfoot's white galaxy
And love's Forget-me-not:
And where high grasses wave
Shall great Moon-daisies blink,
With Rattle and Sorrel sharp
And Robin's ragged pink.
Thick on the woodland floor
Gay company shall be,
Primrose and Hyacinth
And frail Anemone,
Perennial Strawberry-bloom,
Woodsorrel's pencilled veil,
Dishevel'd Willow-weed
And Orchis purple and pale,
Bugle, that blushes blue,
And Woodruff's snowy gem,
Proud Fox-glove's finger-bells,
And Spurge with milky stem.

And so for thirteen stanzas more. These are real and enduring names, and many of the wildings gracing them have been acclimatized here. When will the names of our New Zealand wildings be acclimatized in British poetry?

The following lists cannot and do not claim to be complete: the net has been cast widely, but it is certain that many names have not been caught. The lists, will, however, serve as a basis, to which other names may be added from time to time as discovered or created. In many instances the authorities quoted do not adopt the name or use it themselves, but simply quote it as being in common use. The list of scientific names is published with this paper; the list of popular names and the list of authorities will be published in the next volume.

It is unsafe to make any rule; it is almost unsafe to make any suggestion: language has an individuality of its own, a complex individuality that will not brook interference; its users, too, have an individuality that will brook less: but might it be suggested that the common name marked with a star appears to commend itself for general adoption. There is, of course, always room for a good name, always room for a better; and these need not be regarded as fixed stars. When the starred name is enclosed in brackets it is a name that the author has not met in print, but is suggested as appropriate. It seems hardly necessary to suggest any name at all when the plant is so undistinguished as usually to pass unobserved; a scientist needs only the scientific name; to the layman a suggested name would mean no more than the scientific name: when the plant becomes noticeable, through closer association, its name will come with it. It is probable that popular names come largely through children and unlettered people, and are introduced into literature by poets.

A few naturalized plants have been included, some because they have received Maori names, some because they have joined a family well represented in New Zealand. In these cases a dagger † precedes the scientific name. Garden varieties such as Brachyglottis rangiora purpurea (bronze-leaved rangiora), Phormium tenax Williamsii variegata (broad-leaved flax with yellow variegations), have not been included; they might be included could they be identified with Maori varieties, and should be included did they become recognized fixed varieties. A few plants now recognized as hybrids have been marked X.

– 677 –

Scientific, Maori, and Common Names of New Zealand Plants.

Names suggested for adoption starred *; if in brackets, the name has not appeared in literature, at least in the form suggested. Naturalized plants are marked † hybrids. X.

  • Acaena adscendens: 1

    • silver piripiri

  • Acaena inermis:

    • spineless piripiri

  • Acaena microphylla:

    • small-leaved acæna

  • Acaena novae-zelandiae:

    • New Zealand acæna

    • New Zealand burr

    • red biddy-bid

    • red New Zealand burr

    • red piripiri

    • *(red burr)

  • Acaena ovina:

    • Australian piripiri

    • Acaena Sanguisorbae:

      • huruhuru-o-Hinenuitepo

      • hutiwai

      • kaia

      • kaiarurerure

      • kaikaia

      • kaikaiaruhe

      • kaikaiarure

      • pirikahu

      • *piripiri

      • piriwhetau

      • beta-beta

      • bid-a-bid

      • biddy-bid

      • biddy-biddy

      • *biddybiddy

      • bidi-bidi

      • common burr

      • green biddy-bid

      • native burr

      • New Zealand burr

    • Acaena Sanguisorbae var. minor:

      • antarctic burr

      • antarctic piripiri

      • *(polar burr)

    • Acaena Sanguisorbae var. pilosa:

      • mountain piripiri

    • Aciphylla Ashcroftii:2

      • speargrass

    • Aciphylla Colensoi:

      • kurikuri

      • taramea

      • bayonet grass

      • bayonet-grass

      • bayonet plant

      • bayonette grass

      • bloody Spaniard

      • bloody-Spaniard

      • Colenso's Spaniard

      • Spaniard

      • *spear-grass

    • Aciphylla Colensoi var. maxima:3

      • greater-spaniard

    • Aciphylla Lyallii:

      • bayonet plant

    • Aciphylla Lyallii var. crenulata:

      • saw-leaved Spaniard

    • Aciphylla maxima:

      • giant spaniard

    • Aciphylla Monroi:

      • alpine spear grass

      • little spaniard

      • Monro's Spaniard

      • tiny spear-grass

      • *(pigmy spear-grass)

    • Aciphylla squarrosa:

      • karamea

      • kurikuri

      • papaii (= the young form)

      • *taramea

      • tumatakuru

      • bayonet plant

      • rough Spaniard

      • *spaniard

      • spear grass

      • spear-grass

      • speargrass

      • spur-grass

      • wild Spaniard

    • Aciphylla Traillii:

      • Stewart Island spaniard

      • Stewart Island spear-grass

    • Ackama rosaefolia:

      • makaka

      • *makamaka4

    • Adiantum:

      • *maidenhair

    • Adiantum aethiopicum:

      • African maidenhair

      • creeping maiden hair

      • English maidenhair

      • maidenhair

      • *rock-fern

      • small-leaved maidenhair

    • Adiantum affine:

      • common maidenhair

      • Cunningham's maiden hair fern

      • large-leaved maidenhair

      • maiden hair

    • Adiantum diaphanum:

      • little maidenhair

      • thin-leaved maidenhair

    • Adiantum formosum:

      • giant maiden-hair

      • giant maidenhair

      • *plumed maidenhair

      • plumed maiden hair fern

    • Adiantum fulvum:

      • brown-stemmed maiden-hair

    • Adiantum hispidulum:

      • hairy maidenhair

      • hairy maiden hair fern

    • Aecidium kowhai:

    • myopori:

      • *witches-broom

    • Agaricus adiposus:

      • harore (also a general term for fungi)

    [Footnote] 1 Found only on Macquarie Island, the mainland plant being A. saccaticupula.

    [Footnote] 2 No such name now recognized.

    [Footnote] 3 Name not now recognized; the same as A. maxima.

    [Footnote] 4 The name Ackama is intended as an anagram of makamaka.

    – 678 –
    • Agathis australis:

      • kapia (= the resin)

      • *kauri

      • caudie

      • coudy

      • cowdy

      • cowrie-pine

      • cowry

      • kaudi

      • kaudi-tree

      • kauri pine

      • king-pine

      • koudi pine

      • kowdie-pine

      • New Zealand fir

      • New Zealand yellow pine

      • olive-leaved cedar

      • yellow pine

    • Ageratum conyzioides:

      • cherry pie

      • cherry-pie

      • *wild heliotrope

    • Agropyron multiflorum:

      • short-awned wheat grass

    • Agropyron scabrum:

      • patiti

      • patiti-taranui

      • blue-grass

      • blue wheat grass

    • Agropyron squarrosum:1

      • blue grass

      • Agropyron Youngii

      • blue grass var.

    • Agrostis Dyeri:

      • brown bent

      • brown bent grass

      • New Zealand bent-grass

      • *(Maori bent)

      • Agrostis Forsteri (Deyeuxia filiformis and D. Forsteri):

      • *perehia

      • repehina

      • toheraoa

      • turikoka

      • toothed bent grass

      • toothed bent-grass

      • *(toothed bent)

    • Agrostis parviflora:

      • slender bent grass

      • small-flowered bent-grass

      • Agrostis pilosa (Deyeuxia filiformis var. pilosa):

      • pilose bent grass

    • Agrostis. subulata:

      • alpine bent grass

      • alpine bent-grass

      • dwarf mountain bent grass

    • Alectryon excelsum:

      • tapitapi

      • *titoki

      • titongi

      • tokitoki

      • tongitongi

      • topitopi

      • lofty alectryon

      • native ash

      • New Zealand ash

      • New Zealand oak

      • pitoko

    • Aleurites moluccana:

      • candle-nut

      • *candlenut

    • Alopecurus geniculatus:

      • knee-jointed fox-tail grass

      • marsh foxtail

    • Alseuosmia Banksii:

      • matukuroimata

      • *pere

      • Alseuosmia linearifolia

      • matukuroimata

    • Alseuosmia macrophylla:

      • horopito

      • *karapapa

      • kokotaika

      • toropapa

      • honeysuckle

      • large-leaved alseuosmia

      • shrubby honeysuckle

    • Alseuosmia quercifolia:

      • *matukuroimata

      • *toropapa

      • oak-leaved alseuosmia

    • Alsophila Colensoi:

      • creeping tree fern

      • golden tree-fern

      • grove fern

      • mountain tree-fern

      • *(grove-fern)

    • Alternanthera sessilis:

      • mahuri

      • nahui

    • Angelica geniculata:

      • climbing-aniseed

      • jointed angelica

      • *(climbing-anise)

    • Angelica Gingidium:2

      • naupiro

      • native anise

    • Angelica montana:

      • anis

      • anise

      • aniseed

      • native aniseed

      • New Zealand aniseed

      • *(Maori anise)

    • Angelica rosaefolia:

      • kohepiro

      • *koheriki

      • kumarahou

      • aniseed

      • *rose-leaved anise

    • Angelica trifoliolata:

      • *bog-anise

    • Anisotome:

      • pinakitere

      • native parsley

      • *(Maori parsley)

    • Anisotome aromatica:

      • *kopoti

      • common alpine ligusticum

      • common anisotome

    • Anisotome carnosulum:

      • fleshy ligusticum

    • Anisotome Enysii:

      • rock-anisotome

    • Anisotome latifolium:

      • broad-leaved ligusticum

    • Anisotome Lyallii:

      • *Maori parsnip

    • Anisotome piliferum:

      • bristly ligusticum

    • Apium australe:3

      • tutaekoau

    [Footnote] 1 No such name now recognized; perhaps syn. for A. scabrum.

    [Footnote] 2 Name not now recognized; the same as A. montana.

    [Footnote] 3 Name not now recognized: the same as A. prostratum.

    – 679 –
    • Apium filiforme:

      • slender celery

      • slender New Zealand celery

      • wild celery

    • Apium prostratum:

      • Australian celery

      • celery

      • native celery

      • New Zealand celery

      • prostrate parsley

      • *(Maori celery)

    • X Aristotelia Colensoi:

      • Colenso's wineberry

    • Aristotelia fruticosa:

      • *mountain-currant

      • mountain wineberry

      • shrubby aristotelia

    • Aristotelia serrata (racemosa):

      • *makomako

      • light-wood

      • lime tree

      • moko-mok

      • moko-moko

      • native currant

      • New Zealand currant

      • New Zealand wineberry

      • racemose aristotelia

      • wine berry

      • wine-berry

      • *wineberry

    • Arthropodium candidum:

      • repehina-papa

      • *star-lily

      • white arthropodium

    • Arthropodium cirratum:

      • maikaika

      • popohui

      • rengarenga

      • curled arthropodium

      • Mabel Island lily

      • New Zealand lily

      • North Island lily

      • renga lily

      • rock lily

      • rock-lily

      • *(renga-lily)

    • Arthropteris tenella:

      • tender polypody

    • Arundo conspicua:

      • *toetoe

      • toetoe-kakaho

      • kakaho (= the culms)

      • kokaho (prob. kakaho)

      • Arundo conspicua—cont.

      • cutting grass

      • erect-plumed tussock-grass

      • flag

      • New Zealand reed

      • pampas grass

      • plumed tussac grass

      • plume grass

      • *plume-grass

      • sword-grass

      • toe-toe grass

      • toetoe grass

      • toetoe-grass

      • tohe-tohe

      • tohi grass

      • toi-grass

      • toi-toi grass

    • Arundo fulvida:

      • erect plumed tussac grass

    • Ascarina lucida:

      • *hutu

      • glossy ascarine

    • Asperella gracilis:

      • slender glumeless grass

    • Asperula perpusilla:

      • dwarf bedstraw

      • *woodroof

    • Asplenium adiantoides:

      • peretao

      • *petako

      • ware

      • drooping spleenwort

      • *lance-leaved spleenwort

      • shining-spleenwort

    • Asplenium bulbiferum:

      • maku

      • manamana

      • mauku

      • moku

      • *mouki

      • mouku

      • carrot-top

      • common spleenwort

      • mother-fern

      • proliferous spleenwort

      • *(cradling fern)

    • Asplenium caudatum:

      • tailed spleenwort

    • Asplenium Colensoi:

      • Colenso's spleenwort

    • Asplenium falcatum:

      • peretao

      • *petako

    • Asplenium flabellifolium:

      • drooping spleenwort

      • drooping-spleenwort

      • necklace fern

      • *necklace-fern

      • rat-tail spleenwort

      • whip-cord

    • Asplenium flaccidum:

      • maireire

      • *makawe

      • pohutukawa

      • raukatauri

      • whiri-o-Raukatauri

      • drooping spleenwort

      • drooping-spleenwort

      • hanging-tree spleenwort

      • pendant spleenwort

      • *pendent spleenwort

    • Asplenium Hookerianum:

      • Hooker's spleenwort

      • *maidenhair spleenwort

    • Asplenium lucidum:

      • *huruhuruwhenua

      • panako

      • paranako

      • parenako

      • paretao

      • *shining spleenwort

      • shining-spleenwort

    • Asplenium Lyallii:

      • Lyall's spleenwort

    • Asplenium obtusatum:

      • panako

      • *paranako

      • parenako

      • paretao

      • blunt leafed spleenwort

      • lime-spleenwort

      • sea spleenwort

      • sea-spleenwort

      • shore spleenwort

      • *shore-spleenwort

    • Asplenium Richardi:

      • carrot fern

      • Richard's spleenwort

      • Richards' spleenwort

      • *(carrot-fern)

    • Asplenium scleroprium:

      • toothed shore spleenwort

    • Asplenium Trichomanes:

      • maidenhair spleenwort

      • rook spleenwort

      • wall spleenwort

    – 680 –
    • Astelia:

      • mauri

      • cotton plant

      • perching-lilies

    • Astelia Banksii:

      • horahora

      • kowharawhara

      • puwharawhara

      • *wharawhara

      • shore-kowharawhara

    • Astelia Cockaynei (montana):

      • alpine astelia

      • alpine bush-flax

      • *mountain-astelia

    • Astelia Cunninghamii:

      • kahakaha

      • *kokaha

      • kowharawhara

      • takahakaha (= when in flower)

      • perching-kowharawhara

    • Astelia linearis:

      • dwarf astelia

      • Astelia montana. See A. Cockaynei.

    • Astelia nervosa:

      • kakaha

      • bush flax

      • bush-flax

      • *bush-lily

      • common astelia

      • giant astelia

      • swamp-astelia

      • swamp-asteliad

    • Astelia Solandri:

      • *kahakaha

      • perching kahakaha

      • perching lily

      • *tree-flax

    • Astelia subulata:

      • sharp-leaved creeping astelia

    • Astelia trinervia:

      • kauri grass

      • *kauri-grass

    • Atriplex crystallina (Billardieri):

      • New Zealand orache

    • Atriplex patula:

      • spreading-orache

    • Atropis novae-zealandiae:

      • New Zealand atropis

    • Atropis stricta:

      • *salt grass

      • sweet grass

    • Avicennia officinalis:

      • *manawa

      • paetai

      • tuputupu

      • waikure

      • *mangrove

      • white mangrove

    • Azolla rubra:

      • karerarera

      • *retoreto

      • floating water-fern

      • *red azolla

    • Barbarea vulgaris:

      • toi

    • Beilschmiedia taraire:

      • *taraire

      • laurel-tree

    • Beilschmiedia tawa:

      • mariri (=the unripe fruit)

      • pokere (= the fruit)

      • pokerehu (= the fruit)

      • *tawa

      • New Zealand's damson

    • Bidens pilosa:

      • *kamu

      • koheriki

      • *cowage

    • Blechnum (Lomaria):

      • *hard fern

      • hard-fern

    • Blechnum alpinum:1

      • narrow hard-fern

    • Blechnum Banksii:

      • Bank's hard fern

      • Banks' hard fern

      • shore hard-fern

      • Blechnum capense. 2 See B. procerum.

    • Blechnum discolor:

      • *petipeti

      • piupiu

      • taniwhaniwha

      • common hard fern

      • *crown-fern

      • fishbone-fern

      • New Zealand's bird's nest fern

    • Blechnum durum:

      • coastal hard-fern

      • thick-leaved hard fern

      • thick-leaved hard-fern

    • Blechnum filiforme:

      • panako

      • climbing hard fern

      • climbing hard-fern

      • *thread-fern

    • Blechnum fluviatile:

      • kawakawa

      • *kiwikiwi

      • creek fern

      • *creek-fern

    • Blechnum Fraseri:

      • Frazer's fern

      • mimic tree-fern

      • miniature tree-fern

    • Blechnum lanceolatum:

      • nini

      • *rereti

      • lance-leaved fern

      • lance-leaved hard fern

      • Tasmanian hard fern

    • Blechnum membranaceum:

      • membrane-leaved fern

    • Blechnum nigrum:

      • black hard fern

      • black hard-fern

    • Blechnum Norfolkiana:

      • thin-leaved hard fern

    • Blechnum paleacea: 3

      • bronze-leaved fern

    • Blechnum Patersoni:

      • peretao

      • broad-leaved hard-fern

      • Paterson's fern

    • Blechnum penna marinum: 4

      • alpine hard fern

      • alpine hard-fern

      • little hard fern

    [Footnote] 1 Now included in B. penna marina.

    [Footnote] 2 Name to be changed to B. procerum, which see.

    [Footnote] 3 No such name now recognized.

    [Footnote] 4 This is now the accepted name also of B. alpinum.

    – 681 –
    • Blechnum procerum (Forst. f.) J. C. Andersen = B. capense Schlecht. in Cheeseman, Man. N.Z. Flora, ed. 2, pp. 58–59:

      • horokio

      • *kiokio

      • korokio

      • koropiu

      • piupiu

      • tupari

      • double fern

      • long hard fern

      • long hard-fern

      • palm-leaved fern

    • Blechnum rulcanicum:

      • korokio

      • triangular hard fern

      • triangular hard-fern

    • Bolbophyllum pygmaeum:

      • pygmy bolbophyllum

    • Botrychium:

      • *moonwort

    • Botrychium australe:

      • moonwort

    • Botrychium flabellifolium: 1

      • parsley fern

      • Botrychium lunaria

      • *moonwort

    • Botrychium ternatum:

      • patotara

      • moonwort

      • parsley fern

      • parsley-fern

      • rattle-snake fern

      • *rattlesnake fern

    • Brachycome odorata:

      • *roniu

    • Brachycome Sinclairii:

      • daisy

      • *grassland-daisy

      • native daisy

      • Sinclair's brachycome

    • Brachyglottis rangiora:

      • *rangiora

    • Brachyglottis repanda:

      • pukapuka

      • pukariao

      • rangiora

      • raurakau

      • *wharangi

      • wharangitawhito

      • Brachyglottis repanda—ctd

      • paper leaf

      • wavy-leaved rangiora

      • *(paper-leaf)

    • Brassica campestris:

      • keha

      • korau

      • nani

      • pohata

    • Brossica oleracea:

      • paea

      • Captain Cook cabbage

      • Maori cabbage

    • Bromus arenarius:

      • sea-side brome grass

      • *seaside biome-grass

    • Bulbinella Rossii: 2

      • Ross's bulbinella

    • Bulbophyllum pygmaeum:

      • piripiri

    • Caladenia Lyallii:

      • Lyall's caladenia

    • Caladenia minor:

      • lesser caladenia

      • Calamagrostis. See Dey-euxia

      • Calceolaria. See Jovellana.

    • Callitriche:

      • *water-starwort

    • Callitriche Muelleri:

      • southern water star-wort

    • Caltha novae-zelandiae:

      • marsh marygold

      • New Zealand caltha

      • New Zealand marsh-mari-gold

      • *(Maori marigold)

    • Calystegia sepium:

      • akapohue

      • nahinahi

      • panahe

      • panahi

      • *panake

      • pohue

      • rauparaha

      • bell climber

      • *bell-vine

      • bind-weed

      • bindweed

      • convolvulus

    • Calystegia Soldanella:

      • bindweed

      • sand bindweed

      • sand-convolvulus

      • shore convolvulus

      • shore-convolvulus

      • soldanella-like calystegia

      • *(sandbine)

    • Calystegia tuguriorum:

      • powhiwhi

      • climbing convolvulus

      • climbing-convolvulus

      • native convolvulus

      • New Zealand convolvulus

      • smaller bindweed

      • *(Maori convolvulus)

      • Cardamine in part. See

      • Radicula Nasturtium.

    • *Cardamine depressa:

      • ladies' smock

    • Cardamine heterophylla:

      • hanea

      • *panapana

      • bitter-cress

      • hairy bitter-cress

      • hairy cardamine

      • New Zealand cress

      • *(Maori cress)

      • Cardamine heterophylla var.

    • uniflora:

      • few-leaved bitter-cress

    • Cardamine hirsuta:

      • land-cress

    • Carex appressa:

      • tall sedge

      • tupak grass

    • Carex comans:

      • *maurea

      • hair-like sedge

    • Carex Darwini var. uro-lepsis:

      • sedge

    • Carex dissita:

      • flat-leaved sedge.

    • Carex dissita var. monticola:

      • mountain-sedge

    • Carex litorosa:

      • salt-marsh sedge

      • *sea-sedge

    [Footnote] 1 No such name now recognized.

    [Footnote] 2 Now included in Chrysobactron Rossii.

    – 682 –
      • Carex longiculmis

      • long-stalked sedge

    • Carex lucida:

      • *mania

      • maurea

      • *shining sedge

    • Carex Oederi var. catarra-tae:

      • *yellow sedge

      • Carex pseudo-cyperus var.

    • fascicularis:

      • cyperus-sedge

    • Carex pumila:

      • creeping-sedge

      • dune sedge

      • *dune-sedge

      • sand-sedge

    • Carex pyrenaica:

      • Pyrenees sedge

    • Carex secta:

      • *purei

      • nigger head

      • nigger-head

      • *niggerhead

    • Carex Solandri:

      • Solander's sedge

    • Carex stellulata var. aus-tralis:

      • *prickly sedge

    • Carex teretiuscula:

      • *makura

      • mata

      • purekireki

    • Carex ternaria:

      • *rautahi

      • toetoe-rautahi

      • cutting-grass

    • Carex testacea:

      • *slender sedge

    • Carex trifida:

      • *great sedge

      • sedge

    • Carex uncifolia:

      • hook-leaved sedge

      • *(hook-sedge)

    • Carex virgata:

      • Maori head

      • nigger-head

      • smaller swamp-sedge

      • small swamp-sedge

    • Carmichaelia australis:

      • *makaka

      • tainoka

      • taunoka

      • austral broom

      • austral-broom

      • New Zealand broom

      • red-seeded broom

      • southern carmichaelia

      • tall native broom

      • *(Maori broom)

    • Carmichaelia Enysii:

      • Enys's native broom

    • Carmichaelia flagelliformis:

      • *maukoro

      • native broom

      • New Zealand broom

      • slender broom

      • slender native broom

      • slender New Zealand

      • broom

      • whip-like carmichaelia

      • *(whip-broom)

    • Carmichaelia gracilis:

      • climbing-broom

      • climbing New Zealand

      • broom

    • Carmichaelia grandiflora:

      • large-flowered broom

      • large-flowered New Zea-land broom

      • Carmichaelia grandiflora

      • var. alba

      • *alpine broom

      • Carmichaelia Monroi

      • stout dwarf broom

    • Carmichaelia nana:

      • common dwarf broom

      • dwarf carmichaelia

    • Carmichaelia odorata:

      • pink broom

      • scented broom

      • *sweet-broom

      • tall New Zealand broom

    • Carmichaelia paludosa:

      • *swamp-broom

    • Carmichaelia subulata:

      • common New Zealand

      • broom

      • leafless common New Zealand broom

      • native broom

    • Carpha alpina:

      • alpine carpha

      • common carpha

    • Carpodetus serratus:

      • kaiweta

      • piripiriwhata

      • *punaweta

      • putaputaweta

      • New Zealand hawthorn

      • oak

      • serrate carpodetus

      • snow-tree

      • weta

      • white birch

      • white mapau

      • white maple

      • white matipo

      • *(Maori may)

    • Cassinia fulvida:

      • *golden cottonwood

      • yellow cassinia

      • yellow shrub

    • Cassinia leptophylla:

      • tauhinu-korokio

      • taihinu-koromiko

      • cottonwood

      • narrow-leaved cassinia

      • *(fragrant cottonwood)

    • Cassinia Vauvilliersii:

      • mountain cassinia

      • *mountain-cottonwood

      • Vauvillier's cassinia

      • yellow-leaved mountain cottonwood

    • Cassytha paniculata:

      • mawhai

      • konene (= the fruit)

    • Celmisia:

      • horse daisy

      • mountain aster

      • New Zealand daisy

      • *(Maori daisy)

    • Celmisia argentea:

      • silver couhion-celmisia

      • silvery celmisia

      • silvery cushion-celmisia

      • silvery mountain-daisy

    • Celmisia bellidioides:

      • green cushion-celmisia

    • Celmisia coriacea:

      • tikumu

      • cotton plant

      • leather plant

      • leathery celmisia

      • mountain daisy

      • silvery cotton-plant

      • white mountain daisy

    • Celmisia discolor:

      • *mountain-musk

    – 683 –
    • Celmisia glandulosa var. latifolia:

      • bog celmisia

      • *bog-celmisia

    • Celmisia gracilenta (longi-folia):

      • *pekepeke

      • common celmisia

      • cotton grass

      • cotton-grass

      • long-leaved celmisia

    • Celmisia holosericea:

      • pekepeke

      • aster

    • Celmisia incana:

      • mountain musk

      • mountain-musk

      • *white mountain-musk

    • Celmisia intermedia:

      • *hoary mountain-musk

    • Celmisia laricifolia:

      • cotton plant

      • *needle-leaved celmisia

    • Celmisia linearis:

      • *narrow-leaved celmisia

      • Celmisia longifolia. See C. gracilenta.

    • Celmisia Lyallii:

      • blunt-leaved spaniard

      • blunt spaniard

    • Celmisia Monroi:

      • rock cotton-plant

    • Celmisia rigida:

      • Stewart Island celmisia

    • Celmisia sessiliflora:

      • short-flowered celmisia

      • white cushion-celmisia

    • Celmisia Sinclairii:

      • mountain-musk

      • Sinclair's celmisia

    • Celmisia spectabilis:

      • *puakaito

      • puhaeretaiko

      • puwharetaiko

      • tikumu

      • common cotton-plant

      • cotton plant

      • cotton-plant

      • leather-plant

    • Celmisia Traversii:

      • brown mountain daisy

      • Travers' celmisia

    • Celmisia vernicosa:

      • varnished celmisia

    • Celmisia viscosa:

      • *snow-celmisia

    • Centella uniflora (Hydro-cotyle asiatica):

      • Asiatic hydrocotyle

      • Asiatic marsh pennywort

      • Asiatic marsh-pennywort

    • Chaetomorpha Darwinii:

      • mermaids beads

      • *(mermaids-beads)

    • Cheilanthes Sieberi:

      • Sieber's fern

      • rock-fern

    • Cheilanthes tenuifolia:

      • thin-leaved cheilanthes

    • Chenopodium album:

      • huainanga

    • Chenopodium detestans:

      • fish-guts plant

    • Chenopodium glaucum var. ambiguum:

      • oak-leaved goose-foot

    • Chenopodium pusillum:

      • parahia

    • Chenopodium triandrum:

      • *poipapa

      • spinach

      • triandrous chenopodium

    • Chrysobactron Hookeri:

      • Maori onion

      • *swamp-lily

    • Chrysobactron Hookeri var. angustifolium:

      • *bog-lily

    • Chrysobactron Rossii: 1

      • Maori onion

      • orange-coloured swamp-lily

    • Cladium articulatum:

      • jointed twig-rush

    • Cladium Gunnii:

      • Gunn's twig-rush

    • Cladium junceum:

      • swamp twig-rush

    • Cladium Sinclairii:

      • pepepe

      • toetoe-tuhar

      • *tuhara

    • Cladium teretifolium:

      • common twig-rush

    • Cladium Vauthiera:

      • square-stemmed twig-rush

    • Clathrus cibarius (Ileodic-tyon cibarium):

      • kokirikiri-whetu

      • kopura-whetu

      • kopuru-whetu

      • korokoro-whetu

      • paru-whatitiri

      • pukurau

      • tutae-kehua

      • tutae-whatitiri

      • *tutae-whetu

      • wheterau

      • basket fungus

      • devil's purse

      • fairy's closet

      • lattice fungus

      • net fungus

      • shepherd's basket fungus

      • *(basket-fungus)

    • Clematis:

      • virgin's bower

    • Clematis afoliata:

      • leafless clematis

      • yellow-flowered leafless clematis

    • Clematis Colensoi:

      • yellow clematis

    • Clematis hexasepala:

      • pikiarero

      • poananga

      • potaetae

      • puatataua

      • *puataua

      • puatautaua

      • six-sepaled clematis

      • smaller white clematis

      • small white clematis

      • traveller's joy

    • Clematis indivisa:

      • pikiarero

      • puapua

      • *puawananga

      • puawhananga

    [Footnote] 1 Includes Bulbinella Rossii, which see.

    – 684 –
      • Clematis indivisa—cont.

      • clematis

      • entire-leaved clematis

      • native clematis

      • New Zealand clematis

      • traveller's joy

      • white clematis

    • Clematis parviflora:

      • akangakaukiore

      • ngakaukiore

      • pokopokonuiahura

    • Clianthus puniceus:

      • kowhai-ngutukaka

      • glory pea

      • kaka beak

      • kaka-bill

      • parrotbill

      • parrot's beak fuchsia

      • parrot's bill

      • parrot's-bill

      • red kowhai

      • red parrot's bill

      • scarlet clianthus

      • *(parrotsbill)

    • Colensoa physaloides:

      • *koru

      • oru

      • physalis-like colensoa

      • thin-leaved oru

    • Colocasia antiquorum:

      • *taro

      • Cultivated varieties—

      • akarewa

      • awanga

      • haukopa

      • kahuorangi

      • kakatarahae

      • kinakina

      • koareare

      • kohuorangi

      • kohurangi

      • makatiti

      • mamaku

      • matatiti

      • ngaue

      • ngongoro

      • paeangaanga

      • pakaue

      • patai

      • pehu

      • pongi

      • potango

      • takatakapo

      • tanae

      • taro-hoia (recently introduced)

      • tautamahei

      • tokotokohau

      • turitaka

      • upokotiketike

      • wairuaarangi

    • Convolvulus erubescens:

      • blushing convolvulus

      • common convolvulus

      • *(blush-convolvulus)

    • Coprosma:

      • coffee-bush

      • New Zealand coffee

      • *(Maori coffee)

    • Coprosma acerosa:

      • tarakupenga

      • tatarahake

      • tataraheke

      • acerose coprosma

      • dune coprosma

      • dune-coprosma

      • *sand-coprosma

    • Coprosma arborea:

      • mamangi

      • tree coprosma

      • tree-coprosma

      • tree karamu

    • Coprosma areolata:

      • areolate coprosma

      • thin-leaved coprosma

    • Coprosma Banksii:

      • Banks's coprosma

      • Coprosma Baueri See C. retusa.

    • Coprosma chathamica:

      • tree-karamu

    • Coprosma ciliata:

      • hairy coprosma

    • Coprosma Colensoi:

      • Colenso's coprosma

    • Coprosma crassifolia:

      • stiff-stemmed coprosma

    • Coprosma cuneata:

      • wedge-leaved coprosma

    • Coprosma depressa:

      • prostrate coprosma

    • Coprosma foetidissima:

      • hupirau-ririki

      • *hupiro

      • karamu

      • naupiro

      • pipiro

      • evil-smelling hupiro

      • evil-smelling karamu

      • foetid coprosma

      • luma-luma

      • sterile wood

      • stinkwood

    • Coprosma grandifolia:

      • *kanono

      • kapukiore

      • karamukueo

      • kawariki

      • kueo (= berries)

      • manono

      • papauma

      • patutiketike

      • raurakau

      • raurekau

      • tapatapauma

      • large-leaved coprosma

      • yellow wood

    • Coprosma linariifolia:

      • mikimik

      • narrow-leaved coprosma

      • yellow karamu

      • yellow wood

      • yellow-wood

    • Coprosma lucida:

      • kakaramu

      • karamu

      • karangu

      • patutiketike

      • broad-leaf

      • coffee tree

      • orange-leaf

      • shining coprosma

      • yellow-wood

    • Coprosma microcarpa:

      • small-fruited coprosma

    • Coprosma parviflora:

      • leafy coprosma

      • small-flowered coprosma

      • small-leaved coprosma

    • Coprosma Petriei:

      • Petrie's coprosma

      • turfy coprosma

    • Coprosma propinqua:

      • mingi

      • common coprosma

      • kindred coprosma

    • Coprosma ramulosa:

      • straggling coprosma

    • Coprosma repens:

      • alpine creeping coprosma

    • Coprosma retusa (Baueri):

      • angiangi

      • mamangi

      • naupata

      • *taupata

      • coastal coprosma

      • retuse coprosma

    – 685 –
    • Coprosma rhamnoides:

      • red-fruited coprosma

    • Coprosma robusta:

      • kakaramu

      • kakarangu

      • *karamu

      • karamuramu

      • karangu

      • common karamu

      • glossy coprosma

      • glossy karamu

      • red-berry

      • robust coprosma

    • Coprosma rotundifolia:

      • round-leaved coprosma

    • Coprosma rugosa:

      • heath-like coprosma

    • Coprosma tenuicaulis:

      • *hukihuki

      • slender coprosma

      • swamp-coprosma

    • Coprosma tenuifolia:

      • soft-leaved coprosma

    • Corallospartium crassicaule:

      • *coral-broom

      • sticks (of the shepherds)

    • Corallospartium racemosum: 1

      • coral-broom

    • Cordyline:

      • mahonge (= a cultivated variety)

      • tahanui (= a cultivated variety)

      • lily-wort

    • Cordyline australis:

      • houka (prob. kouka)

      • kauka

      • kouka (= tikouka)

      • kouka tarariki (= a narrow-leaved variety)

      • kouka wharanui (= a broad-leaved variety)

      • ti

      • ti-awe

      • ti-kauka

      • ti-kouka

      • ti-pua

      • ti-rakau

      • ti-whanake

      • whanake

      • asphodel

      • cabbage palm

      • Cordyline australis—cont.

      • cabbage-palm

      • cabbage tree

      • *cabbage-tree

      • dragon-tree

      • grass tree

      • *lily-palm

      • palm lily

      • palm-lily

      • palm tree

      • te tree

      • ti palm

      • ti-ti

      • ti tree

      • ti-tree

      • ti-tri

    • Cordyline Banksii:

      • hauora

      • kapu (= ti-kapu)

      • ti-kapu

      • *ti-ngahere

      • ti-parae

      • ti-torere

      • palm-lily

      • slender cabbage-tree

    • Cordyline indivisa:

      • ti-kapu

      • ti-kupenga

      • ti-matakutai

      • ti-toi

      • *toii

      • broad-leaf cabbage tree

      • *broad-leaved cabbage-tree

      • mountain cabbage-tree

      • mountain palm

    • Cordyline pumilio:

      • mauku

      • ti-awe

      • ti-kapu

      • ti-koraha

      • ti-kupenga

      • ti-papa

      • *ti-rauriki

      • *dwarf cabbage-tree

    • Cordyline terminalis:

      • *ti-pore

      • dwarf cabbage palm

      • Coriaria angustissima

      • annual herbaceous tutu

      • ground tutu

    • Coriaria lurida (thymi-folia):

      • tutuheuheu

      • tutupapa

      • Coriaria lucida (thymi-folia)—cont.

      • alpine tutu

      • ground tutu

      • mountain tutu

      • small ground tutu

      • thyme-leaved tute

      • *(thymy tutu)

    • Coriaria sarmentosa (rusci-folia):

      • huarua (= the seeds)

      • puhou

      • taweku

      • tupakihi

      • *tutu

      • common tute

      • elder-berry

      • ink-berry

      • ruscus-leaved coriaria

      • toot

      • toot plant

      • tree toot

      • tree tutu

      • tua-tutu

      • wine-berry shrub

      • Coriaria thymifolia. See C. lurida.

    • Corokia buddleoides: 2

      • korokio

      • *korokio-taranga

      • whakatata

      • buddleia-hke corokia

      • Corokia Cotoneaster

      • cotoneaster-like corokia

      • mountain-korokiu

      • wiry corokia

    • Corokia macrocarpa:

      • hokataka

      • whakatata

    • Corynocarpus laevigata:

      • *karaka

      • kopi

      • kopia (= kernels)

      • cracker

      • kopi-tree

      • kraka

      • laurel

      • New Zealand laurel

      • smooth corynocarpus

    • Coryanthes macrantha:

      • large-flowered corysan-thes

      • large-flowered spider-orchid

      • *silverback

    [Footnote] 1 Formely C. crassicaule var. racemosa.

    [Footnote] 2 The name Corokia is from Korokio, originally spelt korokia.

    – 686 –
    • Corysanthes rotundifolia:

      • round-leaved spider-orchid

    • Cotula atrata:

      • *black daisy

    • Cotula coronopifolia:

      • coronopus-leaved cotula

      • swamp cotula

      • swamp-cotula

      • water-buttons

      • *yellow-button

    • Cotula dioica:

      • salt-meadow cotula

      • *shore-cotula

    • Cotula Featherstonii:

      • mutton-bird plant

    • Cotula pyrethrifolia:

      • mountain-cotula

    • Cotula Traillii:

      • Stewart Island cotula

    • Crantzia lineata:

      • common crantzia

    • Craspedia minor:

      • small craspedia

    • Craspedia uniflora:

      • puatea

      • one-flowered craspedia

    • Crassula moschata:

      • shore stonecrop

      • *shore-stonecrop

    • Cuscuta densiflora:

      • dense-flowered cuscuta

    • Cyathea Cunninghamii:

      • ponga

      • punui

      • Cunningham's tree-fern

      • gully fern (gully-fern in MS.)

      • *gully-fern

      • ponja

    • Cyathea dealbata:

      • kaponga

      • katote

      • *ponga

      • bunga-bunga

      • bunger (or bunga)

      • silver king

      • silver-king

      • silver ponga

      • silver tree fern

      • *silver tree-fern

      • silvery tree-fern

      • white tree fern

    • Cyathea kermadecensis:

      • Kermadec tree-fern

    • Cyathea medullaris:

      • korau

      • *mamaku

      • mamuku

      • pitau

      • black-fern

      • black tree fern

      • *black tree-fern

    • Cyathea Milnei:

      • Milne's tree-fern

    • Cyathodes acerosa:

      • hukihukiraho

      • inakaporiro

      • inangaporiro

      • kukuku

      • miki

      • mikimiki

      • mingi

      • mingimingi

      • ngohungohu

      • patotara

      • *taumingi

      • totara

      • tumingi

      • prickly styphelia

      • pungent mingimingi

      • sharp-leaved heath

    • Cyathodes robusta:

      • *rutitira

      • Chatham mingimingi

    • Cyclophorus (Polypodium) serpens:

      • *creeper-fern

      • thick-leaved polypody

      • twining polypody

      • Cystopteris novae-zelandiae (fragilis)

      • bladder fern

      • *bladder-fern

      • brittle bladder fern

      • brittle bladder-fern

      • fragile bladder-fern

    • Dacrydium Bidwillii:

      • bog pine

      • bog-pine

      • mountain pine

      • *mountain-pine

      • tar-wood

    • Dacrydium biforme:

      • tar-wood

      • tarwood

      • *yellow pine

      • yellow-pine

    • Dacrydium Colensoi:

      • manoao

      • bog pine

      • golden pine

      • Hall's totara

      • *silver pine

      • silver-pine

      • tar-wood

      • Westland pine

      • Westland silver-pine

      • white silver pine

      • yellow pine

      • yellow-pine

    • Dacrydium cupressinum:

      • huarangi (= the fruit)

      • mapara (= the heart-wood)

      • ngapara (= the resinous heart-wood)

      • puaka

      • *rimu

      • black pine

      • drooping pine

      • giant rimu

      • New Zealand red pine

      • *red pine

      • red-pine

      • spruce fir

      • spruce tree

    • Dacrydium intermedium:

      • Hall's totara

      • mountain pine

      • yellow-pine

      • *yellow silver pine

      • yellow silver-pine

    • Dacrydium Kirkii:

      • *monoao

      • Kirk's pine

    • Dacrydium laxifolium:

      • rimu

      • dwarf-pine

      • loose-leaved dacrydium

      • mountain rimu

      • *pigmy pine

      • pygmy pine

    • Dacrydium pendulum (nomen nudum)—a variety of D. cupressinum:

      • weeping pine

    • Dactylanthus Taylori:

      • pua-o-te-reinga

      • *puareinga

    • Danthonia australis:

      • carpet-grass

      • *hassock-grass

      • wiry-leaved oat grass

    • Danthonia Buchanani:

      • Buchanan's oat grass

      • *desert-danthonia

    – 687 –
    • Danthonia crassiuscula:

      • alpine oat-grass

    • Danthonia Cunninghamii:

      • hunangamoho

      • toetoe-hunangamoho

      • Cunningham's snow-grass

      • small-flowered oat tussac grass

      • tussock oat-grass

    • Danthonia flavescens:

      • broad-leaved oat tussa grass

      • broad-leaved tussock oat-grass

      • broad-leaved snow-grass

      • snow grass

      • *(broad-leaved snowgrass)

    • Danthonia nuda:

      • naked oat grass

      • Thomson's naked oat grass

    • Danthonia pilosa:

      • hairy oat-grass

      • hard oat grass 1

      • purple-awned oat grass 1

      • *purple-awned oat-grass

      • racemed oat grass 1

    • Danthonia pungens:

      • bayonet-grass

      • *(needle-leaved oat-grass)

    • Danthonia Raoulii:

      • haumata

      • narrow-leaved oat tussac grass

      • red-tussock

      • snow-grass

      • *snowgrass

    • Danthonia Raoulii var. rubra:

      • red-tussock

      • *(red tussock)

    • Danthonia semiannularis:

      • alpine oat grass 2

      • common oat-grass

      • desert oat-grass

      • dwarf ring grass

      • New Zealand oat grass 2

      • sheep oat grass 2

    • Daucus brachiatus:

      • carrot

      • native carrot

      • wild carrot

      • *(Maori carrot)

      • Davallia novae zealandiae.

      • See Leptolepia.

    • Dawsonia superba:

      • *pahau-kakapo

      • *giant moss

    • Dendrobium Cunninghamii:

      • common dendrobe

      • Cunningham's dendrobium

    • Deschampsia caespitosa:

      • tufted hair grass

      • *tufted hair-grass

    • Deschampsia Chapmani:

      • southern hair-grass

    • Deschampsia tenella:

      • alpine whorl grass

      • *(alpine whorl-grass)

    • Desmoschoenus spiralis (Scirpus frondosus):

      • pinao

      • *pingao

      • sand-grass

      • yellow sand-sedge

      • Deyeuxia (Calamagrostis)

    • Deyeuxia avenoides:

      • oat-like bent grass

      • oat-like bent-grass

      • *(oat-bent)

    • Deyeuxia Billardieri:

      • Billardier's bent grass

      • sand bent-grass

      • *(sand-bent)

      • Deyeuxia filiformis. See Agrostis Forsteri.

      • Deyeuxia filiformis var. pilosa. See Agrostis pilosa.

      • Deyeuxia Forsteri. See Agrostis Forsteri.

    • Deyeuxia Petriei:

      • Australian bent grass

    • Deyeuxia quadriseta:

      • spiked bent grass

      • spiked bent-grass

      • spiked reed grass

      • *(spiked bent)

    • Deyeuxia setifolia:

      • alpine bent grass

      • alpine bent-grass

      • bog bent-grass

      • *(bog-bent)

    • Deyeuxia Youngii:

      • *Mount Cook bent

      • Young's bent grass

    • Dianella intermedia:

      • pepepe

      • piopio

      • *rena

      • turutu

      • blue berry

      • *blueberry

      • intermediate dianella

      • Dichelachne crinita

      • long-awned plume grass

      • long-haired plume-grass

      • long-hair plume grass

      • plume-grass

      • *(long-awned plume)

    • Dichelachne sciurea:

      • short-hair plume grass

      • *(short-awned plume)

    • Dichelachne stipoides:

      • wiry dichelachne

      • *(wiry plume)

    • Dichondra repens:

      • common dichondra

      • creeping dichondra

    • Dicksonia antarctica:

      • weki-ponga

      • southern Dicksonia

    • Dicksonia fibrosa:

      • karanuipaka

      • kuranuipaka

      • *kuripaka

      • punui

      • tukirunga

      • weki

      • wheki-kohunga

      • wheki-ponga

      • fibrous-stemmed tree-fern

      • fibrous tree-fern

      • golden punga

      • golden tree fern

      • sturdy tree-fern

      • woolly tree fern

      • *(golden tree-fern)

    [Footnote] 1 Three varieties of D. pilosa.

    [Footnote] 2 Three varieties of D. semiannularis.

    – 688 –
    • Dicksonia lanata:

      • stemless tree fern

      • stumpy tree fern

      • woolly Dicksonia

      • woolly tree-fern

      • *(stemless tree-fern)

    • Dicksonia squarrosa:

      • atewheki

      • pakue

      • pehiakura

      • tio

      • tuakura

      • tuokura

      • uruuruwhenua

      • weki

      • *wheki

      • hard tree fern

      • rough tree-fern

      • slender dicksonia

      • *slender tree-fern

    • Discaria toumatou:

      • karo

      • tumatakuri

      • tumatakuru

      • Irishman

      • matagowry

      • native thorn

      • New Zealand thorn

      • prickly thorn

      • scented thorn

      • wild Irishman

      • *wild-irishman

    • Dodonea viscosa:

      • ake

      • *akeake

      • akerautangi

      • black akeake

      • lignum vitæ

      • lignumvitæ

      • New Zealand lignum vitæ

      • viscid dodonea

    • Donatia novae-zelandiae:

      • *alpine donatia

      • common alpine donatia

      • common donatia

      • cushion-plant

      • New Zealand donatia

      • *(alpine cushion)

    • Doodia caudata:

      • mokemoke

      • mokimoki

      • *mukimuki

      • sacred-fern

      • *scented doodia

      • tailed doodia

    • Doodia media:

      • pukupuku

      • *large-leaved doodia

    • Dracophyllum arboreum:

      • *Chatham tree-heath

      • tree-heath

    • Dracophyllum latifolium:

      • emiemi

      • *neinei

      • taritari

      • taritariawha

      • broad-leaved grass-tree

      • grass tree

      • spider-wood

      • *spiderwood

    • Dracophyllum longifolium:

      • inaka

      • *inanga

      • grass tree

      • grass-tree

      • long-leaved grass-tree

      • long-leaved heath

      • native heath

      • needle-leaved heath

      • stunted inaka

    • Dracophyllum paludosum:

      • *bog-heath

      • swamp-heath

    • Dracophyllum Pearsoni:

      • Pearson's needle-leaved heath

    • Dracophyllum politum:

      • cushion-forming heath

    • Dracophyllum recurvum:

      • *red heath

    • Dracophyllum rosmarinifolium:

      • prostrate needle-leaved heath

    • Dracophyllum scoparium:

      • *fern-strangler

    • Dracophyllum strictum:

      • totorowhiti

    • Dracophyllum subulatum:

      • *monoao

    • Dracophyllum Traversii:

      • mountain neinei

      • *mountain-neinei

    • Dracophyllum uniflorum:

      • one-flowered grass-tree

      • turpentine-shrub

    • Dracophyllum Urvilleanum:

      • *wharekohu

      • common needle-leaved heath

      • grass-tree

      • northern needle-leaved heath

      • smaller grass-tree

    • Drapetes Dieffenbachii:

      • common drapetes

    • Drapetes Lyallii:

      • Lyall's drapetes

      • Drimys. See Wintera.

    • Drosera:

      • fly-catcher

      • *sundew

    • Drosera arcturi:

      • alpine sun-dew

      • *alpine sundew

      • forked sundew

    • Drosera auriculata:

      • *climbing sundew

      • ear-shaped drosera

      • field sundew

    • Drosera binata:

      • fern-flower

      • fly-catcher

      • forked-leaved sun-dew

      • old man's eyebrow

      • *scented sundew

      • strap-leaved sundew

      • twin-leaved drosera

    • Drosera pygmaea:

      • pygmy drosera

      • sun-dew

      • *(pigmy sundew)

    • Drosera spathulata:

      • spathulate-leaved drosera

      • spoon-leaved sun-dew

      • *spoon-leaved sundew

      • sun dew

    • Drosera stenopetala:

      • subantarctic sun-dew

      • Dryopteris (Nephrodium and part of Polypodium)

    • Dryopteris cordifolia:

      • ladder fern

      • sword-fern

      • *(ladder-fern)

    • Dryopteris decomposita:

      • common boss fern

      • *(common boss-fern)

    – 689 –
    • Dryopteris dentata (molle):

      • soft boss fern

      • soft buckler-fern

      • *(soft boss-fern)

    • Dryopteris glabella:

      • smooth boss fern

      • *smooth boss-fern

    • Dryopteris hispida:

      • hairy boss fern

      • hairy fern

      • hairy-fern

      • hairy-stemmed fern

      • hardy-stemmed fern

      • *(hairy boss-fern)

      • Dryopteris molle. See D. dentata.

    • Dryopteris pennigera:

      • pakau-roharoha

      • piupiu

      • feather-crowned polypody

      • *feather-fern

    • Dryopteris gongylodes (unitum):

      • rare boss fern

      • swamp fern

      • Dryopteris punctata. See Hypolepis punctata.

      • Dryopteris pustulata. See Polypodium pustulatum

    • Dryopteris Thelypteris var. squamulosa:

      • lady fern

      • marsh buckler-fern

      • marsh fern

      • swamp-fern

      • *(lady-fern)

      • Dryopteris unitum. See D. gongylodes.

    • Dryopteris velutina:

      • dirty fern

      • velvet boss fern

      • velvet fern

      • *(velvet-fern)

    • Durvillaea antarctica (utilis):

      • *rimurapa

      • *bull-kelp

      • kelp

    • Dysoxylum spectabile:

      • kohe

      • *kohekohe

      • kohepi (= the flowers)

      • maota

      • cedar

      • handsome dysoxylum

      • native cedar

      • New Zealand cedar

    • Earina autumnalis: 1

      • *raupeka

      • *fragrant earina

      • sweet-scented earina

    • Earina mucronata:

      • *pekaawaka

      • pointed-leaved earina

      • sharp-pointed earina

      • *(sharp-leaved earina)

      • Earina suaveolens. See E. autumnalis.

    • Echinopogon ovatus:

      • rough-bearded grass

      • Edwardsia. See Sophora tetraptera, footnote.

    • Elaeocarpus dentatus:

      • *hinau

      • pokaka

      • whinau

      • black hinau

      • bokako

      • toothed elæocarpus

    • Elaeocarpus Hookerianus:

      • hinau

      • mahimahi

      • *pokaka

      • whinaupuka

      • bocarro

      • bokaka

      • bokako

      • white hinau

    • Elaeocharis acuta:

      • Australian spike-rush

    • Elaeocharis Cunninghamii:

      • Australian spike-rush

      • slender spike-rush

      • spike rush

    • Elaeocharis sphacelata:

      • kutakuta

      • *ngawha

      • paopao

      • great spike-rush

      • tall spike-rush

    • Elatine americana:

      • American water wort

    • Elatine americana var. australiensis:

      • water-wort

    • Elatostema rugosum:

      • *parataniwha

      • native begonia

      • New Zealand begonia

      • wrinkled elatostema

      • *(begonia-fern)

    • Elytranthe (Loranthus) Colensoi:

      • *korukoru (= when in flower)

      • pirita

      • Colenso's mistletoe

      • scarlet-flowered mistletoe

      • *scarlet mistletoe

    • Elytranthe (Loranthus) flavidus:

      • *yellow mistletoe

      • Elytranthe tetrapetala (Loranthus Fieldii and L. tetrapetalis):

      • pikirangi

      • *pirirangi

      • four-petalled mistletoe

      • red mistletoe

      • *scarlet mistletoe

    • Enargea parviflora:

      • *nohi

      • puwatawata

      • forest snowberry

      • *forest-snowberry

      • marginate luzuriaga

      • snowberry

    • Entelea arborescens:

      • hauama

      • houama

      • *whau

      • whauama

      • whauma

    [Footnote] 1 Now includes also E. suaveolens.

    – 690 –
      • Entelea arborescens—cont.

      • cork tree

      • cork-wood

      • corkwood

      • native cork wood

      • native mulberry

      • New Zealand mulberry

      • shrubby entelea

      • *(Maori mulberry)

    • Epacris alpina:

      • *nehenehe

      • alpine epacris

    • Epacris pauciflora:

      • *tamingi

      • *bog-epacris

      • common New Zealand epacris

      • few-flowering epacris

      • native heath

    • Epilobium:

      • willow-herb

      • *(willowherb)

    • Epilobium Billardierianum:

      • red-stemmed willow-herb

    • Epilobium chionanthum:

      • pale-leaved willow-herb

    • Epilobium chloraefolium:

      • mountain willow-herb

    • Epilobium cinereum: 1

      • narrow-leaved willowherb

    • Epilobium crassum:

      • thick-leaved willow-herb

    • Epilobium erectum:

      • tall willowherb

    • Epilobium glabellum:

      • glossy-leaved willow-herb

    • Epilobium insulare:

      • creeping marsh willow-herb

      • Epilobium junceum. See E. cinereum.

    • Epilobium linnaeoides:

      • forest willow-herb

    • Epilobium macropus:

      • mountain water-willow-herb

    • Epilobium microphyllum:

      • papakoura

    • Epilobium neterioides:

      • wrinkled willow-herb

    • Epilobium neterioides var. minimum:

      • short-stemmed willowherb

    • Epilobium novae-zelandiae:

      • pale willow-herb

    • Epilobium nummularifolium:

      • creeping willow-herb

    • Epilobium pallidiflorum:

      • large white willow-herb

      • swamp willow-herb

      • *(swamp-willowherb)

    • Epilobium pedunculare:

      • long-stalked willow-herb

      • long-stemmed willowherb

    • Epilobium pictum:

      • variegated willow-herb

    • Epilobium pubens:

      • soft-leaved willow-herb

    • Epilobium rotundifolium:

      • round-leaved willow-herb

    • Erechtites arguta:

      • *woolly fireweed

    • Erechtites diversifolia:

      • Petrie's fireweed

    • Erechtites glabrescens:

      • Kirk's fireweed

    • Erechtites prenathoides:

      • common fireweed

      • native groundsel

      • prenanthes-like erechtites

    • Erechtites quadridentata:

      • *pekapeka

      • *white fireweed

    • Erechtites scaberula:

      • scabrid fireweed

      • °Erigeron canadensis

      • haka

      • kaingarua

      • porerarua

      • pouhawaiki

      • Canadian flea-bane

    • Eryngium vesiculosum:

      • Australian sea-holly

      • eryngo

      • sea holly

      • *(sea-holly)

      • small sea-holly

      • vesiculate eryngium

    • Eugenia maire:

      • mairetawake

      • *mairetawhake

      • puka

      • tuhuhi

      • whawhakou

      • *black maire

      • red-fruited maire

    • Euphorbia glauca:

      • waiuatua (= spirit-milk)

      • waiu-o-Kahukura (= milk of Kahukura)

      • caper spurge

      • glaucous euphorbia

      • New Zealand spurge

      • spurgewort

      • sun spurge

      • *(Maori spurge)

    • Euphrasia Cockayniana:

      • eyebright

      • *yellow eyebright

    • Euphrasia cuneata:

      • tutaekiore

      • *tutumako

      • eye-bright

      • tall eye-bright

    • Euphrasia Dyeri:

      • Dyer's eye-bright

    • Euphrasia Monroi:

      • *alpine eyebright

      • eyebright

    • Euphrasia repens:

      • shore-eyebright

      • snowy eye-bright

      • *(snowy eyebright)

    • Euphrasia tricolor:

      • North Island eyebright

      • *(three-hued eyebright)

    • Euphrasia zelandica:

      • antarctic eyebright

      • eye-bright

      • New Zealand eyebright

      • small eyebright

      • *(Maori eyebright)

    [Footnote] 1 Now includes also E. junceum.

    – 691 –
    • Festuca Coxii:

      • Chatham Island fescue

      • *(Chatham fescue)

    • Festuca littoralis:

      • *hinarepe

      • matiatia

      • matihetihe

      • pouaka

      • *sand-fescue

      • sand fescue-grass

      • sandhill-fescue

      • sandhill fescue-grass

      • sand tussock-grass

    • Festuca ovina var. novae-zelandiae:

      • New Zealand sheep's fescue

    • Festuca multinodis:

      • drooping-fescue

      • *(drooping fescue)

    • Festuca novae-zelandiae:

      • *fescue-tussock

      • hard fescue grass

      • hard tussock

      • hard-tussock

      • tussock-fescue

    • °Festuca rubra:

      • *red fescue

    • Forstera sedifolia:

      • common forstera

    • Forstera sedifolia var. oculata:

      • large-flowered forstera

    • Freycinetia Banksii:

      • *kiekie

      • patangatanga (= the fruit)

      • peia

      • tarapapa (= the flowers)

      • tawhara (= the flowers)

      • teure (= the fruit)

      • tirori (= the fruit)

      • ureure (= the fruit)

      • boa

      • geigei

      • giegie

      • gigi

      • native screw-pine

      • New Zealand screw-pine

      • New Zealand's pine-apple

      • wild pine-apple

      • *(Maori screw-pine)

    • Fuchsia Colensoi:

      • Colenso's fuchsia

      • shrubby fuchsia

      • *shrub-fuchsia

      • slender fuchsia

    • Fuchsia excorticata:

      • hona (= the fruit)

      • kohutuhutu

      • *kotukutuku

      • konini (= the fruit)

      • mati (= the fruit)

      • takawa (= the fruit)

      • bucket-of-water wood

      • fuchsia

      • fuchsia tree

      • fuchsia-tree

      • konini tree

      • native fuchsia

      • New Zealand fuchsia

      • tree fuchsia

      • *tree-fuchsia

    • Fuchsia procumbens:

      • creeping fuchsia

      • prostrate fuchsia

      • *shore-fuchsia

    • Funaria hygrometrica:

      • *warua

      • Fusanus Cunninghamii. See Mida salicifolia.

    • Gahnia:

      • mapere

      • *(cutting grass)

    • Gahnia gahniaefolia:

      • cutting grass

    • Gahnia lacera:

      • *tarangarara

      • toetoe-kiwi

      • toetoe-tarangarara

      • cutting grass

    • Gahnia pauciflora:

      • cutting-grass

    • Gahnia procera:

      • South Island gahnia

    • Gahnia xanthocarpa:

      • cutting grass

      • cutting-grass

      • giant cutting-sedge

      • *giant gahnia

      • sedge

    • Gaimardia ciliata:

      • *bog-cushion

      • bog pincushion

      • bog-pincushion

    • Galium:

      • *bedstraw

    • Galium tenuicaule:

      • bed straw

    • Galium umbrosum:

      • *mawe

      • New Zealand bed-straw

      • *(Maori bedstraw)

    • Gastrodia Cunninghamii:

      • *huperei

      • maukuuku

      • para (= tuber used as food)

      • perei

      • uhiperei

      • Cunningham's gastrodia

    • Gaultheria antipoda:

      • koropuka

      • papapa

      • takapo

      • *taupuku

      • tawiniwini

      • chuckie chucks (= the fruit)

      • erect snowberry

      • native heath

      • snow berry

      • snow-berry

      • *snowberry

    • Gaultheria depressa:

      • *mountain-snowberry

    • Gaultheria oppositifolia:

      • kama

      • *niniwa

      • waiuatua

    • Gaultheria perplexd:

      • narrow-leaved snowberry

      • *wiry snowberry

    • Gaultheria rupestris:

      • snow berry

      • snowberry

      • *(vale-lily snowberry)

    • Gaya Lyallii: 1

      • hohere (prob. houhere)

      • whauwhau

      • whauwhi

      • giant-flowered southern lacebark

      • lace bark

      • lace-bark

      • lacebark

      • large-flowered ribbonwood

      • mountain ribbon-wood

      • mountain ribbonwood

      • *mountain-ribbonwood

      • ribbon tree

    • Gaya ribifolia:

      • hoary mountain-ribbon-wood

    [Footnote] 1 Now includes also Plagianthus Lyallii.

    – 692 –
    • Geniostoma ligustrifolium:

      • hangehange

      • * hengahenga

      • pahengahenga

      • papa

      • papahenga

      • whangewhange

      • New Zealand privet

      • privet-leaved geniostoma

      • * (Maori privet)

    • Gentiana bellidifolia:

      • common mountain-gentian

      • common New Zealand gentian

      • * mountain-gentian

    • Gentiana cerina:

      • * waxy gentian

    • Gentiana chathamica:

      • * Chatham gentian

      • gentian

    • Gentiana corymbifera:

      • mountain gentian

      • * snow-gentian

      • stupid gentian (hardly a name)

    • Gentiana Griesbachii:

      • common New Zealand

      • gentian

      • March-flowering gentian

      • small New Zealand gentian

    • Gentiana lineata:

      • *tiny gentian

    • Gentiana montana:

      • gentian

    • Gentiana saxosa:

      • coastal gentian

      • gentian of the rocks

      • *shore-gentian

      • white gentian

      • white shore-gentian

    • Gentiana Townsoni:

      • * bog-gentian

      • white bog-gentian

    • Geranium:

      • crane's bill

      • cranes'-bill

      • * cranesbill

    • Geranium dissectum:

      • * matuakumara

      • pinakitere

      • white carrot

      • Geranium dissectum var. australe. See G. pilo-sum.

    • Geranium microphyllum:

      • native geranium

      • slender cranesbill

      • slender geranium

      • small-leaved crane's-bill

      • *small-leaved cranesbill

    • Geranium molle:

      • *namunamu

      • Geranium pilosum (dissectum var. australe):

      • * cut-leaved geranium

    • Geranium sessiliflorum var. glabrum:

      • * short-flowered crane's-bill

      • * short-flowered cranesbill

    • Geranium Traversii:

      • * Chatham cranesbill

      • Chatham Island cranes-bill

    • Geum parviflorum:

      • avens

    • Geum uniflorum:

      • * alpine avens

    • Geum urbanum var. strictum (urbanum):

      • kopata

      • kowhai

      • common avens

      • herb bennett

    • Gleichenia alpina:

      • alpine tangle-fern

      • alpine umbrella fern

      • *alpine umbrella-fern

      • mountain umbrella-fern

    • Gleichenia circinata:

      • mataua-rarauke

      • matuku

      • waewaekaka

      • waewaekotuku

      • waewaematuku

      • climbing umbrella-fern

      • curved tangle-fern

      • scrambling umbrella fern

      • scrambling umbrella-fern

      • tangle-fern

      • * (cranesfoot) (= waewae-kotuku)

    • Gleichenia Cunninghamii:

      • rarauheriki

      • tapuwae-kotuku

      • * waekura

      • * bush umbrella-fern

      • umbrella fern

      • umbrella-fern

    • Gleichenia dicarpa:

      • rarauhe

      • bog umbrella fern

      • climbing umbrella-fern

      • woolly tangle-fern

      • swamp fern

      • swamp umbrella fern

      • tangle-fern

    • Gleichenia dichotoma:

      • forked umbrella-fern

    • Gleichenia flabellata:

      • fan fern

      • * fan-fern

      • fan-leaved fern

      • fan-like umbrella fern

      • fan umbrella fern

    • Glossostigma elatinoides:

      • elatine-like glossostigma

    • Gnaphalium:

      • everlasting

      • * (cudweed)

    • Gnaphalium collinum:

      • hill cudweed

      • * (hill-cudweed)

    • Gnaphalium japonicum:

      • Japanese cudweed

    • Gnaphalium keriense:

      • puatea

      • river daisy

      • * (river-daisy)

    • Gnaphalium luteo-album:

      • pukatea

      • common cudweed

      • white cudweed

      • yellowish-white gnaphalium

      • * (flannel-leaf)

    • Gnaphalium Lyallii:

      • * rock-cudweed

    • Gnaphalium paludosum:

      • marsh cudweed

      • * (marsh-cudweed)

    • Gnaphalium purpureum:

      • purple cudweed

    – 693 –
    • Gnaphalium trinerve:

      • * three-nerved cudweed

    • Griselinia littoralis:

      • kapuka

      • maihiihi

      • * papauma

      • paraparauma

      • tapatapauma

      • broad leaf

      • broad-leaf

      • * broadleaf

      • New Zealand laurel

    • Griselinia lucida:

      • * puka

      • broad leaf

      • broadleaf

      • large broadleaf

      • shining broadleaf

      • * (greater broadleaf)

    • Gunnera albocarpa:

      • white-fruited gunnera

    • Gunnera arenaria:

      • * sand-gunnera

    • Gunnera dentata:

      • red-fruited gunnera

    • Gunnera Hamiltonii:

      • Southland gunnera

    • Gunnera monoica:

      • solitary gunnera

    • Gunnera prorepens:

      • crceping gunnera

      • creeping-gunnera

    • Gymnogramme leptophylla:

      • Jersey-fern

      • * Jersey fern

    • Gymnogramme rutaefolia:

      • alpine rue-leaved fern

      • rue-leaved fern

      • * (rue-fern)

    • Haastia pulvinaris:

      • cushion-like haastia

      • vegetable sheep

      • * (giant vegetable-sheep)

    • Halorrhagis alata:

      • toatoa

    • Halorrhagis erecta:

      • toatoa

      • erect haloragis

      • tall haloragis

    • Halorrhagis incana:

      • piripiri

      • heath haloragis.

    • Halorrhagis micrantha:

      • piripiri

      • marsh haloragis

    • Halorrhagis procumbens (tetragyna):

      • piripiri

    • Hebe (Veronica) amabilis var. blanda:

      • large-flowered veronica

    • Hebe (Veronica) annulata:

      • * rock-koromiko

    • Hebe (Veronica) brevirace-mosa:

      • * Kermadec koromiko

    • Hebe (Veronica) buxifolia:

      • box-leaved koromiko

      • New Zealand box

      • * (box-koromiko)

    • Hebe (Veronica) buxifolia var. odora:

      • box-leaved veronica

      • New Zealand box

      • * (globe-koromiko)

    • Hebe (Veronica) buxifolia var. prostrata:

      • prostrate New Zealand box

    • Hebe (Veronica) cupres-soides:

      • * cypress-koromiko

    • Hebe (Veronica) diosmae-folia:

      • aute

      • heath-veronica

      • shrubby speedwell

      • * (heath-koromiko)

      • Hebe (Veronica) elliptica:

      • coastal veronica

      • * shore-koromiko

      • speedwell

    • Hebe (Veronica) epacridea:

      • epacris-like veronica

      • trailing-veronica

      • * (trailing-koromiko)

    • Hebe (Veronica) haustraia:

      • * scoop-leaved koromiko

    • Hebe (Veronica) Hulkeana:

      • New Zealand lilac

      • * (lilac-koromiko)

    • Hebe (Veronica) Laingii:

      • Laing's whipcord veronica

      • Hebe (Veronica) Lavaudi-and:

      • Lavaud's veronica

    • Hebe (Veronica) leiophylla:

      • smooth-leaved koromiko

      • Hebe (Veronica) linifolia T

      • wet-rock koromiko:

    • Hebe (Veronica) lycopodioides:

      • common whipcord koromiko

      • lycopodium-like veronica-whipcord veronica

      • * (whipcord-koromiko)

    • Hebe (Veronica) monticola:

      • mountain-loving veronica

      • * (mountain-koromiko)

    • Hebe (Veronica) parviflora:

      • kokomuka-taranga

      • koromiko-taranga

    • Hebe (Veronica) salicifolia:

      • kokomuka

      • kokoromiko

      • kokoromuka

      • koromiko

      • koromuka

      • common koromiko

      • common veronica

      • New Zealand willow

      • willow-leaved veronica

      • * (willow-koromiko)

      • Hebe (Veronica) salicifolia var. Atkinsonii:

      • Cook Strait koromiko

    • Hebe (Veronica) speciosa:

      • * napuka

      • titirangi

      • handsome veronica

    • Hebe (Veronica) subalpina:

      • subalpine koromiko

    • Hebe (Veronica) tetragona:

      • pumice whipcord koromiko

      • square-stemmed veronica

      • whipcord koromiko

    – 694 –
    • Hebe (Veronica) tetrasticha:

      • semi-whipcord koromiko

    • Hebe (Veronica) Traversii:

      • Travers's veronica

    • Hectorella caespitosa:

      • tufted hectorella

    • Hedycarya arborea:

      • kaiwhiria

      • poporokaiwhiri

      • * porokaiwhiria

      • pigeon-wood

      • * pigeonwood

      • tree-like hedycarya

    • Helichrysum bellidioides:

      • false edelweiss

      • mountain daisy

      • mountain-daisy

      • native everlasting

    • Helichrysum coralloides:

      • coral-shrub

    • Helichrysum filicaule:

      • slender everlasting

    • Helichrysum glomeratum:

      • niniao

    • Helichrysum Selago:

      • selago-like everlasting

    • Hemitelia Smithii:

      • katote

      • neineikura

      • *whe

      • green tree-fern

      • pale-leaved tree-fern

      • Smith's tree-fern

      • soft-leaved tree-fern

      • soft tree fern

      • * soft tree-fern

    • Herpolirion novae-zelandiae:

      • * grass-lily

      • ground-lily

      • New Zealand herpolirion

      • pale-blue grass-lily

    • Hibiscus trionum:

      • New Zealand hibiscus

      • *starry hibiscus

    • Hierochloe Fraseri:

      • alpine holy grass

      • *alpine holy-grass

      • holy grass

      • Hierochloe redolens:

      • *karetu

      • broad-leaved cattle grass

      • cutting grass

      • holy grass

      • holy-grass

      • scented grass

      • sweet-scented holy grass

      • sweet-scented sacred grass

      • sweet-scented swamp grass

      • sweet-scented vernal grass

      • sweet vernal grass

      • *(sweet vernal)

    • Hirneola auricula-Judae:

      • Jew's-ear fungus

      • *(ear-fungus)

    • Hirneola polytricha:

      • hakeka

      • hakekakeka

      • hakeke

      • hakekeke

      • hokeke

      • keka

      • kekeke

      • paheke

      • tarawhata

      • taringakuri

      • tarumga-o-Tiakiwai

    • Histiopteris (Pteris in part) incisa:

      • matata

      • cut-leaved bracken

      • green fern

      • toothed-leaf bracken

      • water fern

      • *water-fern

    • Hoheria angustifolia:

      • houhipuruhi

      • lacebark

      • *narrow-leaved lacebark

    • Hoheria populnea: 1

      • hoherie (prob. houhere)

      • hoihere

      • *houhere

      • houhi

      • houi

      • hungere (= small-leafed variety)

      • whauwhi

      • lace-bark

      • lace-bark

      • *lacebark

      • Hoheria populnea—cont.

      • lace wood

      • New Zealand orange-blossom

      • poplar-like ribbon-wood

      • ribbon wood

      • ribbon-wood

      • ribbonwood

      • thousand-jacket

      • thousand jackets

    • Hoheria sexstylosa:

      • *long-leaved lacebark

    • Hydrocotyle americana:

      • American marsh-pennywort

    • Hydrocotyle asiatica: See Centleta uniflora.

    • Hydrocotyle dissecta:

      • cut-leaved marsh pennywort

    • Hydrocotyle elongata:

      • long-stemmed marsh-pennywort

    • Hydrocotyle microphylla:

      • small-leaved marsh-pennywort

    • Hydrocotyle moschata:

      • sharp-toothed marsh-pennywort

    • Hydrocotyle novae zelandiae:

      • New Zealand hydrocotyle

      • New Zealand marsh pennywort

      • New Zealand marsh-pennywort

      • *(Maori marsh-pennywort)

    • Hymenanthera chathamica:

      • mahoe

      • *Chatham mahoe

    • Hymenanthera crassifolia:

      • thick-leaved hymenan-thera

    • Hymenophyllum:

      • mauku

      • filmy-ferns

      • *(filmy fern)

    • Hymenophyllum Arm-strongii: 2

    • Armstrong's fern

    [Footnote] 1 Popularly these names are given indifferently to all the species of Hoheria, not only to N. populnea, which is the rarest of them all.

    [Footnote] 2 Now includes H. Cheesemanir.

    – 695 –
    • Hymenophyllum atrovirens:

      • mountain broad-leaved filmy fern

    • Hymenophyllum australe:

      • crisped filmy fern.

      • Java fern

    • Hymenophyllum bivalve:

      • two-valved filmy fern

    • Hymenophyllum Cheese-manii: 1

      • Cheeseman's fern

      • Cheeseman's filmy fern

    • Hymenophyllum ciliatum:

      • fringed filmy fern

    • Hymenophyllum demissum:

      • *irirangi

      • piripiri

      • carpet fern

      • *carpet-fern

      • drooping filmy fern

    • Hymenophyllum dilatatum:

      • irirangi

      • *matuamauku

      • broad-leaved filmy fern

    • Hymenophyllum ferrugin-eum:

      • rusty filmy fern

    • Hymenophyllum flabella turn:

      • fan-leaved filmy fern

    • Hymenophyllum Malingii:

      • Maling's fern

      • silver filmy fern

      • silvery filmy fern

    • Hymenophyllum minimum:

      • little filmy fern

    • Hymenophyllum mulitifidum:

      • sharp-toothed filmy fern

    • Hymenophyllum peltatum:

      • one-sided fern

      • Hymenophyllum polyan-thos. See H. sanguino-lentum.

    • Hymenophyllum pulcherrimum:

      • beautiful filmy fern

      • tufted filmy fern

    • Hymenophyllum rarum:

      • thin-leaved filmy fern

    • Hymenophyllum rufescens:

      • Field's fern

      • reddish filmy fern

    • Hymenophyllum sanguino-lentum:2

      • piripiri

      • scented filmy fern

    • Hymenophyllum scabrum:

      • rough-stalked filmy fern

    • Hymenophyllum tunbridg-ense:

      • *Tunbridge fern

      • Tunbridge-fern

      • Tunbridge filmy fern

    • Hymenophyllum villosum:

      • alpine filmy fern

      • Colenso's filmy fern

    • Hypericum gramineum:

      St.

      John's wort

    • Hypericum japonicum:

      • Japanese St. John's wort

    • Hypnum clandestinum:

      • *wheuwheu

    • Hypolaena lateriflora:

      • *wire-rush

    • Hypolepis distans:

      • brown hypolepis

    • Hypolepis Millefolium:

      • thousand leaves

      • *thousand-leaves

    • Hypolepis (Dryopteris) punctata:

      • hairy polypody

      • sticky-fern

    • Hypolepis tenuifolia:

      • thin-leaved hypolepis

      • Ileodictyon cibarium. See Clathrus cibarius.

    • Ipomoea batatas:

      • *kumara

      • Cultivated varieties—anurangi

      • hamo

      • Ipomoea batatas—cont.

      • Cultivated varieties—ctd.

      • hawere

      • hitara

      • huiupoko

      • hutihuti

      • ihupuku

      • kaikaka

      • kairorowhare

      • kakatarahae

      • kanawa

      • katoto

      • kauto

      • kautowhau

      • kawakawa

      • kawakawa-tawhiti

      • kawau

      • kengo

      • kiokiorangi

      • kirikaraka

      • kokorangi

      • konehu

      • kongungu (= small tubers)

      • koreherehe

      • kurarangi

      • makakauri

      • makururangi

      • makutu

      • maomao

      • mapua

      • maramawhiti

      • marere (used in Maori “pure” ceremony)

      • matakauri

      • matawaiwai

      • mengirangi

      • moii

      • monenehu

      • ngakaukuri

      • ngakomoa

      • paea

      • panahi

      • pane

      • papahaoa

      • parakaraka

      • paretaua

      • patea

      • pauaatahu

      • pehu

      • pipiko-kauhangaroa

      • pohutukawa

      • pokerekahu

      • poranga

      • puatahoe

      • punuiarata

      • purata

      • raumataki

      • tanehurangi

      • taputini

      • taratamata

      • taurap

      • tetereia

    [Footnote] 1 Name not now recognized; included in H. Armstrongii.

    [Footnote] 2 Includes H. polyanthos.

    – 696 –
      • Ipomoea batatas—cont.

      • Cultivated varietie—ctd.

      • toikahikatea

      • toitoi

      • toroamahoe

      • torowhenua

      • tukou

      • tutaetara

      • tutanga

      • tutuhanga

      • ururangi

      • waiha

      • waina

      • waniwani

      • weni

      • whakakumu

    • Ipomoea palmata:

      • panahi

      • powhiwhi

    • Isachne australis:

      • equal-glumed millet

    • Isotes alpinus:

      • alpine quillwort

    • Isotes Kirkii:

      • *quillwort

    • Ixerba brexioides:

      • *tawari

      • whakou (= the flowers)

      • brexia-like ixerba

      • teddywood

    • Jovellana repens:

      • creeping New Zealand calceolaria

    • Jovellana Sinclairii:

      • New Zealand calceolaria

      • Sinclair's calceolaria

      • upright calceolaria

      • wild calceolaria

      • *(Maori calceolaria)

    • Juncus antarcticus:

      • *antarctic rush

    • Juncus effusus:

      • wi

      • wiwi

    • Juncus bufonius:

      • *toad-rush

    • Juncus lampocarpus:

      • *jointed rush

    • Juncus maritimus var. australiensis:

      • wiwi

      • Australian sea-rush

      • rush

      • *sea-rush

    • Juncus novae-zelandiae:

      • *alpine rush

      • rush

    • Juncus pallidus:

      • *giant rush

    • Juncus pauciflorus:

      • *slender rush

    • Juncus planifolius:

      • *flat-leaved rush

    • Juncus polyanthemos:

      • wi

      • wiwi

      • common rush

      • rush

    • Juncus scfieiuerioidea:

      • rush

    • Knightia excelsa:

      • *rewarewa

      • honey-suckle

      • native honey-suckle

      • New Zealand honeysuckle

      • river river

      • ruva-ruva

      • *(Maori honeysuckle)

    • Koeleria Kurtzii:

      • crested hair grass

      • *(crested hair-grass)

    • Lagenaria vulgaris:

      • *hue

      • pahau (= cultivated variety)

      • paretarakihi (= cultivated variety)

      • wenewene (= cultivated variety)

      • whangai-rangatira (= cultivated variety)

      • calabash

      • *gourd

    • Lagenophora Forsteri: 1

      • native daisy

    • Lagenophora lanata:

      • hairy native daisy

    • Lagenophora petiolata:

      • *parani

      • native daisy

      • New Zealand daisy

      • slender New Zealand daisy

    • Lagenophora pumila:

      • *papataniwhaniwha

      • Forster's lagenophora

      • native daisy

      • New Zealand daisy

      • slender New Zealand daisy

      • *(Maori daisy)

    • Lagenophora Thomsoni:

      • Thomson's daisy

    • Laurelia novae-zelandiae:

      • *pukatea

      • buckerteer

      • bukitea

    • Lemna minor:

      • karearea

      • duck weed

      • duck-weed

      • duckweed

      • floating duckweed

    • Lepidium oleraceum var. acutidentatum:

      • eketara

      • *nau

      • *Cook's scurvy-grass

      • scurvy weed

    • Lepidium sisymbrioides:

      • *pepperwort

    • Lepidium tenuicaule:

      • *shore-cress

    • Leptocarpus simplex:

      • *oioi

      • coastal jomted rush

      • jointed rush

      • red rush

      • yellow rush

      • *(gold-rush)

    • Leptolepia novae-zealand-iae: 2

      • common davallia

      • Leptopteris (Todea)

    [Footnote] 1 Name not now recognized; included in L. pumila.

    [Footnote] 2 Formerly Davallia.

    – 697 –
    • Leptopteris hymenophyl-loides:

      • heruheru

      • mauku

      • rarauhe

      • filmy todea

      • *single Prince of Wales feather

      • single crape fern

      • single crape-fern

      • single crepe fern

    • Leptopteris superba:

      • heruheru

      • huruhuru-o-nga-waewae-o-Paoa

      • ngutukakariki

      • ngutungutu

      • ngutungutukiwi

      • punui

      • tete

      • chenille fern

      • crape fern

      • crape-fern

      • double crape fern

      • double crape-fern

      • double velvet fern

      • glory of the west

      • hot-water fern

      • king's fern

      • moss fern

      • *Prince of Wales feather

      • Prince of Wales' feather

      • Prince of Wales's feather

      • royal fern

      • velvet fern

    • Leptospermum Chapmanii:

      • pink-flowered manuka

      • red-flowered manuka

    • Leptospermum ericoides:

      • *kanuka

      • kopuka

      • manuka-rauriki

      • maru

      • rauwiri

      • bush manuka

      • heath-like manuka

      • red-manuka

      • scrub manuka

      • small-leaved manuka

      • tea tree

      • tea-tree

      • teatree

      • ti tree

      • tree manuka

      • *tree-manuka

      • white manuka

      • white tea-tree

    • Leptospermum Nichollsii: 1

      • crimson-flowered manuka

      • *crimson manuka

    • Leptospermum scoparium:

      • kahikatoa

      • kaitatoa

      • katoa

      • *manuka

      • pata

      • piamanuka (=mannalike exudation)

      • rauwiri

      • gadoa

      • heath

      • manuka broom

      • red manuka

      • red tea-tree

      • tea plant

      • tea tree

      • ti tree

      • ti-tree

      • titree

      • tree manuka

    • Leucogenes (Helichrysum) grandiceps:

      • edelweiss

      • New Zealand edelweiss

      • South Island edelweiss

    • Leucogenes Leontopodium:

      • New Zealand edelweiss

      • North Island edelweiss

      • *(Maori edelweiss)

    • Leucopogon fasciculatus:

      • hukihukiraho

      • kaikaiatua

      • mingi

      • mingimingi

      • ngohungohu

      • tumingi

      • bundle-flowered leucopogon

      • tall bearded heath

      • tall mingimingi

    • Leucopogon Fraseri:

      • patotara

      • totara

      • totarapapa

      • totaraparae

      • totaratahuna

      • dwarf bearded heath

      • *dwarf heath

      • Frazer's leucopogon

      • Leucopogon Fraseri—cont-heath

      • native heath

      • prickly heath

      • pungent heath

      • sharp-leaved heath

      • small sharp-leaved heath

    • Libertia grandifolia:

      • turntu

      • large-flowered libertia

    • Libertia ixioides:

      • mangahuripapa

      • *milkoikoi

      • tukauki

      • turutu

      • common libertia

      • ixix-like libertia

      • native iris

      • *(ixia-libertia)

    • Libertia pulchella:

      • forest libertia

      • *(forest-libertia)

      • Libocedrus Biduillii

      • *pahautea

      • Bidwill's libocedrus

      • cedar

      • incense cedar

      • kawaka cedar

      • mountain cedar

      • mountain cedar

      • native cedar

      • native cypress

      • New Zealand cypress

      • silver pine

    • Libocedrus Doniana:

      • kahikawaka

      • kaikawaka

      • *kawaka

      • mokopiko

      • totara-kiri-kotukutuku

      • bastard totara

      • cedar

      • cypress

      • New Zealand arbor vitae

      • New Zealand arbor-vitae

      • New Zealand cedar

      • New Zealand cypress

    • Ligusticum. See Anisotome.

    • Lindsaya cuneata (L. micro-phylla and L. trichomanoides):

      • broad-leaved lindsaya

      • small-leaved lindsaya

    [Footnote] 1 This is purely a garden plant. The one wild plant discovered with crimson flowers was transplanted but died. From it seed were saved; when sown one crimson-flowered plant was produced, and cuttings from it have given rise to the plants known as L. Nichollsii.

    – 698 –
    • Lindsaya linearis:

      • narrow-leaved lindsaya

      • narrow lindsaya

      • Lindsaya microphylla. See L. cuneata.

      • Lindsaya trichomanoides. See L. cuneata.

    • Lindsaya viridis:

      • green lindsaya

    • Linum monogynum:

      • kaho

      • matamatahuia

      • nao

      • *rauhuia

      • flax

      • native flax

      • perennial flax

      • true New Zealand flax

      • white flax

      • white-flowered flax

      • *(tinker-bell)

    • Litsaea calicaris:

      • *mangeao

      • punui

      • tangeao

      • tangeo

    • Lobelia anceps:

      • common New Zealand

      • lobelia

      • doubtful lobelia

      • *shore-lobelia

    • Lobelia Roughii:

      • fleshy-leaved lobelia

      • Lomaria. See Blechnum.

    • Loranthus:

      • native mistletoe

      • *(Maori mistletoe)

      • Loranthus Colensoi. See Elytranthe Colensoi.

      • Loranthus flavidus. See Elytranthe flavidus.

    • Loranthus micranthus:

      • common mistletoe

      • common New Zealand mistletoe

      • loranth

      • mistletoe

      • small-flowered mistletoe

      • Loranthus tetrapetalis. See Elytranthe tetrapetala.

    • Loxsoma Cunninghamii:

      • loxsoma fern

      • *silver-green fern

    • Luzula campestris:

      • *wood-rush

      • Luzula Traversii (racemosa):

      • wood-rush

      • Luzuriaga. See Enargea.

    • Lycopodium:

      • *club-mosses

    • Lycopodium Billardieri:

      • *iwituna

      • whiri-o-Raukatauri

      • hanging club-moss

      • pendulous club-moss

      • pendulous lycopodium

    • Lycopodium cernuum:

      • creeping club-moss

    • Lycopodium densum:

      • puakarimu

      • waewaekoukou

      • tree club-moss

    • Lycopodium Drummondii:

      • Australian club-moss

    • Lycopodium fastigiatum:

      • alpine club-moss

      • small mountain club-moss

    • Lycopodium laterale:

      • bog club-moss

    • Lycopodium ramulosum:

      • club-moss

      • matted club-moss

    • Lycopodium scariosum:

      • creeping club-moss

      • mountain club-moss

    • Lycopodium Selago:

      • fir club-moss

    • Lycopodium varium:

      • nodding club-moss

    • Lycopodium volubile:

      • waekahu

      • waewaekoukou

      • antler fern

      • climbing club-moss

      • giant lycopodium

      • *(antler-fern)

    • Lygodium articulatum:

      • makaka

      • *mangemange

      • mangi mangi

      • mounga

      • tarikupenga

      • climbing fern

      • climbing-fern

      • climbing flowering fern

      • *flowering fern

      • twining string fern

    • Macropiper excelsum:

      • kawa

      • *kawakawa

      • takawa (= the fruit)

      • lofty pepper

      • native pepper

      • pepper tree

      • tall pepper-tree

      • true pepper

    • Marattia fraxinea:

      • mouku

      • *para

      • parareka

      • paratawhiti

      • uwhipara

      • ash-leaf fern

      • horseshoe fern

      • horse-shoe fern

      • king fern

      • king-fern

      • *(horseshoe-fern)

    • Mariscus ustulatus:

      • toetoe

      • toetoe-upokotangata

      • toetoe-whatumanu

      • upokotangata

      • cutting-grass

      • cutting toe-toe

      • mariscus-sedge

    • Mazus pumilio:

      • dwarf false musk

      • dwarf mazus

    • Melicope simplex:

      • *poataniwha

      • simple-leaved melicope

    • Melicope ternata:

      • houkumara

      • koheriki

      • tataka

      • *wharangi

      • wharangipiro

      • lemon-wood

      • ternate-leaved melicope

    – 699 –
    • Melicytus lanceolatus:

      • kaiweta

      • *mahoewao

      • taranga

      • lance-leaved whitewood

      • narrow-leaved hinehine

    • Melicytus macrophyllus:

      • large-leaved whitewood

    • Melicytus micranthus:

      • *manakura

      • twiggy whitewood

    • Melicytus ramiflorus:

      • hinahina

      • inihina (prob. inaina)

      • *mahoe

      • moeahu

      • branch-flowered melicytus

      • cowleaf

      • cow-tree

      • white-wood

      • *whitewood

      • whiteywood

    • Mentha Cunninghamii:

      • hioi

      • mokimoki

      • mint

      • native mint

      • New Zealand mint

      • *(Maori mint)

    • Meryta Sinclairii:

      • puka

      • cabbage-tree

      • *(paddle-leaf)

    • Mesembryanthemum:

      • pig-face

    • Mesembryanthemum australe:

      • *horokaka

      • ngarangara

      • ruerueke

      • fig marigold

      • fig-marigold

      • fig-marygold

      • ice-plant

      • native ice-plant

      • New Zealand ice-plant

      • pig-face

      • pig's face

      • pig's-face

      • pigs-face

      • pigsface

      • pigs' faces

      • Mesembryanthemum australe—cont.

      • pink-flowered mesembry-anthemum

      • southern mesembryan-themum

      • *(Maori ice-plant)

    • Mesembryanthemum edule:

      • *Hottentot fig

    • Metrosideros:

      • rata-vine

    • Metrosideros albiflora:

      • *akatea

      • white climbing rata

      • white climbing-rata

      • white-flowered rata

      • white-flowering rata

      • white rata

    • Metrosideros Colensoi:

      • hairy climbing-rata

    • Metrosideros diffusa:

      • *akakura

      • crimson climbing-rata

      • Metrosideros florida. See M. scandens (florida).

    • Metrosideros hypericifolia:

      • common climbing-rata

      • hypericum-leaved rata

      • iron wood

      • slender climbing white

      • rata

      • slender climbing white

      • rata

      • white climing rata

      • white rata

    • Metrosideros lucida:

      • rata

      • ironbark

      • iron wood

      • iron-wood

      • ironwood

      • mountain rata

      • mountain-rata

      • native teak

      • northern rata

      • shining rata

      • shrub rata

      • southern ironbark

      • Southern Island rata

      • southern rata

      • stunted southern rata

    • Metrosideros perforata (scandens):

      • aka

      • *aka-torotoro

      • koro

      • torotoro

      • whakapiopio

      • box rata

      • climbing rata

      • climbing white rata

      • clinging climbing-rata

      • myrtle

      • round-leaved climbing rata

      • small-leaved climbing rata

      • white rata

    • Metrosideros robusta:

      • rata

      • female pohutukawa

      • inland pohutukawa

      • ironwood

      • New Zealand oak-elm

      • northern rata

      • North Island rata

      • parasite-myrtle

      • rattar

      • red tree rata

      • Metrosideros scandens.1 See M. perforata.

    • Metrosideros scandens (florida):

      • aka

      • aka-kura

      • *aka-tawhiwhi

      • amaru

      • kahikahika

      • pua-tawhiwhi

      • rata

      • rata-piki

      • whakatangitangi

      • climbing red rata

      • florid rata

      • flowery rata

      • giant rata

      • large-leaved climbing

      • rata

      • rata vine

      • red climbing-rata

      • scarlet climbing-rata

      • vegetable boa-constrictor

    • Metrosideros scandens (florida) var. aurata:

      • golden rata

    [Footnote] 1 The original M. scandens is now M. perforata, and the contemporary M. florida is now M. scandens. This change has inextricably confused the application of the popular names—an application hitherto so lucid.

    – 700 –
    • Metrosideros tomentosa:

      • hutukawa

      • *pohutukawa

      • Christmas flower

      • *Christmas tree

      • Christmas-tree

      • downy ironheart

      • downy rata

      • New Zealand ash

      • New Zealand Christmas tree

    • Metrosideros villosa:

      • Kermadec pohutukawa

      • small-leaved pohutukawa

    • Microlaena avenacea:

      • bush oat-grass

      • bush rice grass

      • *bush rice-grass

      • forest rice-grass

    • Microlaena polynoda:

      • knot-jointed rice grass

      • *knotted rice-grass

      • native bamboo

    • Microlaena stipoides:

      • patiti

      • meadow rice grass

      • *meadow rice-grass

    • Microtis porrifolia:

      • onion-leaved microtis

      • *onion-leaved orchid

    • Microtis unifolia:

      • maikaika

      • onion-leaved orchid

    • Mida salicifolia (Fusanus Cunninghamii):

      • maire

      • maire taiki

      • *taiko

      • Cunningham's sandal-wood

      • native sandalwood

      • New Zealand sandal-wood

      • New Zealand sandalwood

      • sandal-wood

      • *(Maori sandalwood)

    • Mimulus repens:

      • large monkey-flower

      • musk

      • New Zealand musk

      • *(Maori musk)

    • Montia fontana:

      • water blink

      • water chickweed

      • *water-chickweed

    • Muehlenbeckia:

      • *wiggybush

    • Muehlenbeckia adpressa:1

      • black vine

      • climbing lignum

      • close-fitting muehlen-beckia

    • Muehlenbeckia Astoni:

      • shrubby pohuehue

    • Muehlenbeckia australis:2

      • puka

      • broad-leaved puhepuhe

      • large-leaved pohuehue

      • Maori-vine

      • willow plant

    • Muehlenbeckia axillaris:

      • axillary-flowered mühlen-beckia

      • creeping-pohuehue

    • Muehlenbeckia complexa:

      • *pohuehue

      • tororaro

      • waekahu

      • clasping mühlenbeckia

      • slender muehlenbeckia

    • Myoporum laetum:

      • *ngaio

      • gnaio

      • gnais

      • native laurel

      • wild mangrove

    • Myosotidium hortensia (nobile):

      • kopukapuka

      • kopakopa

      • Chatham Island lily

      • Chatham Islands lily

      • Chatham-Islands lily

      • giant forget-me-not

      • Macquarie cabbage

      • *(Chatham forget-me-not)

    • Myosotis albida:

      • coast forget-me-not

      • shore forget-me-not

      • white forget-me-not

    • Myosotis australis:

      • *yellow forget-me-not

    • Myosotis capitata:

      • capitate forget-me-not

    • Myosotis Forsteri:

      • forget-me-not

      • Forster's forget-me-not

    • Myosotis macrantha:

      • bronze forget-me-not

    • Myosotis pygmaea var. Traillii:

      • forget-me-not

      • small-flowered forget-me-not

    • Myosotis saxatilis:

      • rock forget-me-not

    • Myosotis spathulata:

      • forget-me-not

      • spathulate-leaved myosotis

      • spoon-leaved forget-me-not

    • Myosotis Traversii:

      • mountain forget-me-not

    • Myosurus novae-zealandiae (aristatus):

      • *bearded mousetail

    • Myriophyllum:

      • *water-milfoil

    • Myriophyllum elatinoides:

      • common water-milfoil

      • elatine-like myriophyllum

      • native water milfoil

      • water milfoil

      • water-milfoil

    • Myriophyllum robustum:

      • stout water-milfoil

    • Myriophyllum Votschii:

      • small water-milfoil

      • Myrsine Urvillei. See Suttonia australis.

    [Footnote] 1 Name not now recognized; includeed in M. australis.

    [Footnote] 2 Now includes M. adpressa.

    – 701 –
    • Myrtus bullata:

      • *ramarama

      • blistered-leaved myrtle

      • bush myrtle

      • embossed myrtle

      • ironwood

      • myrtle

      • native myrtle

      • New Zealand myrtle

      • rum-a-rum

    • Myrtus obcordata:

      • *rohutu

      • tuhuhi

      • ironwood

      • mouse ear

      • myrtle

      • native myrtle

      • obcordate-leaved myrtle

    • Myrtus pedunculata:

      • rohutu

      • pedunculate myrtle

      • small-leaved myrtle

    • x Myrtus Ralphii:

      • small-leaved ramarama

    • Myxomycetes:

      • *slime-fungi

      • Nasturtium. See Radicula.

      • Nephrodium. See Dryopteris.

    • Nertera depressa:

      • fruiting duckweed

      • oblate-berried nertera

    • Nertera dichondraefolia:

      • dichondra-leaved nertera

    • Nothochlaena distans:

      • hairy cloak fern

      • woolly cloak fern

      • woolly cloak-fern

    • Nothofagus:

      • beech

      • southern-beech

      • *(Maori beech)

    • Nothofagus apiculata:

      • pointed-leaved beech

    • x Nothofagus Blairii:

      • Blair's beech

    • Nothofagus cliffortioides:

      • tawhai-rauriki

      • black birch

      • black-birch

      • cliffortia-like beech

      • mountain beech

      • *mountain-beech

      • mountain birch

      • mountain southern-beech

      • white birch

      • white-birch

    • Nothofagus fusca:

      • hutu

      • hututawai

      • tawai

      • tawhai

      • tawhai-raunui

      • black beech

      • black birch

      • blackpine

      • bull birch

      • dusky beech

      • large leaved birch

      • red beech

      • *red-beech

      • red birch

      • red-birch

      • red kamai

      • red southern-beech

      • tall red southern-beech

      • tooth-leaved beech

    • Nothofagus Menziesii:

      • tawai

      • tawhai

      • beech

      • brown birch

      • clinker birch

      • Menzie's beech

      • native beech

      • red birch

      • round-leaved beech

      • silver beech

      • *silver-beech

      • silver birch

      • silver southern-beech

      • white birch

      • white-birch

      • white kamai

    • Nothofagus Solandri:

      • tawai-rauriki

      • tawhai

      • tawhai-rauriki

      • black beech

      • *black-beech

      • black birch

      • black-heart birch

      • black southern-beech

      • brown birch

      • entire-leaved beech

      • red birch

      • Nothofagus Solandri—cont.

      • silver-birch

      • Solander's beech

      • white beech

      • white birch

      • yellow birch

    • Nothofagus truncata:

      • *clinker-beech

    • Nothopanax anomalum:

      • wawaupaku

      • anomalous nothopanax

      • shrubby panax

      • supra-divaricating whau-whaupaku

    • Nothopanax arboreum:

      • houhou

      • parapara

      • *puahou

      • whauwhau

      • whaupaku

      • whauwhaupaku

      • black ash

      • common ivy-tree

      • five-finger

      • five-fingered Jack

      • *ivy-tree

      • shittimwood

    • Nothopanax Colensoi:

      • *orihou

      • Colenso's nothopanax

      • gum tree

      • ivy tree

      • ivy-tree

      • *mountain ivy-tree

      • mountain panax

      • New Zealand gum tree

    • Nothopanax Edgerleyi:

      • haumangoroa

      • houmangaroa

      • homanoroa (prob. houmanoroa)

      • koare

      • koareare

      • *raukawa

      • rauraua

      • Edgerley's nothopanax

      • Edgerley's panax

      • lemon-wood

      • orange wood

      • *orange-wood

    • Nothopanax lineare:

      • narrow-leaved nothopanax

    • x Nothopanax parvum:

      • small-leaved panax

    – 702 –
    • Nothopanax simplex:

      • *haumakoroa

      • haumangoroa

      • kaiwiria

      • simple-leaved nothopanax

      • simple-leaved panax

    • Nothopanax Sinclairii:

      • mountain panax

      • Sinclair's panax

      • Notospartium

    • Carmichaeliae:

      • pink broom

    • Notospartium torulosum:

      • New Zealand pink broom

    • Notothlaspi rosulatum:

      • pen-wiper plant

      • penwiper plant

      • *penwiper-plant

      • rosette-like notothlaspi

      • rosette plant

    • Olea:

      • New Zealand olive

      • *(Maori olive)

    • Olea apetala:

      • black maire

      • *broad-leaved maire

      • ironwood

      • New Zealand olive

    • Olea Cunninghamii:

      • *maire

      • maire-raunui

      • black maire

      • black-maire

      • cedar

      • marie

      • New Zealand

      • sandal-wood

      • white maire

      • Olea lanceolata

      • maire

      • maire raunui

      • black maire

      • *white maire

      • white-maire

      • Olea montana

      • maire kotae

      • maire roro

      • maire rauriki

      • *rororo

      • narrow leaved maire

      • narrow-leaved maire

    • Olearia:

      • daisy tree

      • *daisy-tree

      • tree-daisy

    • Olearia albida:

      • Auckland tree-daisy

    • Olearia angustifolia:

      • *teteaweka

      • daisy-tree

      • purple-flowered daisytree

    • Olearia arborcscens (nitida):

      • daisy-tree

      • glossy-leaved daisy-tree

      • glossy tree-daisy

      • shining olearia

      • Olearia avicenniaefolia

      • akeake

      • avicennia-leaved olearia

      • *mountain-akeake

    • Olearia chathamica:

      • *keketerehe

      • Chatham tree-daisy

      • *(Chatham daisy-tree)

    • Olearia Colensoi:

      • kumarahou

      • *tupare

      • Colenso's daisy-tree

      • common mountain treedaisy

      • large-leaved tree-daisy

      • mountain tree-daisy

      • musk-tree

      • mutton bird scrub

      • mutton-bird scrub

      • mutton-bird-wood

      • *mutton-wood

      • Olearia Cunninghamii. See O. rani.

    • Olearia cymbifolia:

      • boat-leaved tree-daisy

    • Olearia divaricata:

      • divaricate tree-daisy

      • stiff-branched daisy-tree

    • Olearia excorticata:

      • fuchsia-barked olearia

      • Olearia Forsteri. See O. paniculata.

    • Olearia fragrantissima:

      • fragrant tree-daisy

    • Olearia furfuracea:

      • *akepiro

      • kumara-kai-torouka

      • tanguru

      • wharangipiro

      • bran-like olearia

      • daisy-tree

    • Olearia Hectori:

      • thin-leaved tree-daisy

    • Olearia ilicifolia:

      • hakeke

      • holly-leaved olearia

      • *Maori holly

      • mountain-holly

      • native holly

      • New Zealand holly

      • Olearia insignis. See Pachystegia insignis.

    • Olearia lineata:1

      • twiggy tree-daisy

    • Olearia Lyallii:

      • tupari

      • antarctic tree-daisy

      • subantarctic tree-daisy

    • Olearia, macrodonta:

      • *arorangi

      • wharangikuria

      • false mountain-holly

      • false New Zealand holly

      • large-toothed olearia

      • native holly

    • Olearia moschata:

      • musky olearia

      • musky tree-daisy

      • *(musky daisy-tree)

    • Olearia nummularifolia:

      • hard-leaved tree-daisy

      • small-leaved tree-daisy

    • Olearia odorata:

      • odorous tree-daisy

    • Olearia operina:

      • tupari

    • Olearia paniculata (Forsteri):

      • akepirau

      • *akiraho

    [Footnote] 1 Now includes O. virgata var. lineata.

    – 703 –
      • Olearia paniculata (Forsteri)—cont.

      • Forster's daisy-tree

      • Forster's olearia

      • golden akeake

      • golden-akeake

      • rock-akeake

      • yellow akeake

    • Olearia rani (Cunninghamii):

      • akewharangi

      • *heketara

      • ngungu

      • taraheke

      • wharangipiro

      • forest daisy-tree

    • Olearia semidentata:

      • hangatare

      • *makora

      • Chatham Island aster

      • purple-flowered tree-daisy

      • purple tree-daisy

      • toothed olearia

    • Olearia Solandri:

      • coastal daisy-tree

    • x Olearia Traillii:

      • Traill's daisy-tree

    • Olearia Traversii:

      • akeake

      • bastard sandal-wood tree

      • bastard sandalwood tree

      • *Chatham akeake

      • Chatham Island akeake

      • sandalwood

      • silver akeake

    • Olearia virgata:

      • swamp tree-daisy

      • twiggy daisy-tree

      • twiggy olearia

      • *(swamp daisy-tree)

    • Olearia virgata var. lineata:1

      • slender daisy-tree

    • Ophioglossum:

      • adder's-tongue

    • Ophioglossum coriaceum:

      • adder's-tongue

    • Ophioglossum lusitanicum:

      • large adder's tongue

      • little adder's tongue

      • little adder's-tongue

      • narrow adder's tongue

      • narrow-leaved adder's

      • tongue

    • Ophioglsosum vulgatum:

      • adders' tongue

      • adder's tongue fern

      • adder's-tongue fern

      • common adder's tongue

      • *(adders-tongue)

    • Oplismenus undulatifolius:

      • slender panic-grass

      • slender panick grass

    • Oreobolus pectinatus:

      • common oreobolus

    • Oreobolus strictus:

      • narrow-leaved oreobolus

    • Orthoceras Solandri:

      • *ikaika

      • Solander's orthoceras

    • Orthoceras strictum:

      • maikaika

      • *mamaika

      • para (=tuber used as food)

      • paratawhiti

    • Ourisia caespitosa:

      • creeping mountain-foxglove

      • creeping ourisia

      • tufted ourisia

    • Ourisia Colensoi:

      • Colenso's ourisia

    • Ourisia glandulosa:

      • glandular ourisia

    • Ourisia macrocarpa:

      • snowy mountain-foxglove

    • Ourisia macrophylla:

      • hue-o-Raukatauri

      • alpine foxglove

      • large-leaved ourisia

      • *mountain-foxglove

      • mountain primula

      • Mount Egmont primula

    • Ourisia modesta:

      • tiny ourisia

    • Ourisia prorepens:

      • Petrie's ourisia

    • Ourisia sessilifolia:

      • hairy ourisia

    • Oxalis corniculata:

      • creeping yellow wood-sorrel

      • horned oxalis

      • wood-sorrel

      • *yellow oxalis

    • Oxalis lactea (magellanica):

      • tutaekaahu

      • Magellan's oxalis

      • sorrelwood

      • *white oxalis

      • white sorrel

      • wood-sorrel

    • Pachycladon novae-zelandiae:

      • New Zealand pachycladon

    • Pachystegia (Olearia) insignis:

      • mountain daisy

      • remarkable olearia

      • rock tree-daisy

      • *(rock daisy-tree)

    • Paesia (Pteris) scaberula:

      • matata

      • carpet fern

      • hard fern

      • lace fern

      • lace-fern

      • *rough bracken

      • scented fern

      • slender bracken

    • Paratrophis Banksi:2

      • coast milk-tree

    • Paratrophis heterophylla:

      • ewekuri

      • pukariao

      • towai

      • *turepo

    • Paratrophis microphylla:

      • milk tree

      • *milk-tree

      • milk-wood

      • milkwood

    • Paratrophis opaca:3

      • *large-leaved, milk-tree

    [Footnote] 1 Name not now recognized; included in O. lineata.

    [Footnote] 2 Name not now recognized; included in P. opaca.

    [Footnote] 3 Now includes P. Banksi.

    – 704 –
    • Paratrophis Smithii:

      • *Three Kings milk-tree

    • Parietaria debilis:

      • pellitory

      • weak-stemmed parietaria

    • Parsonsia capsularis:

      • akakaikiore

      • *akakiore

      • kaiku

      • kaiwhiria

      • totoroene

      • capsulate parsonsia

      • rosy New Zealand jasmine

      • small-flowered New Zealand jasmine

    • Parsonsia capsularis var. rosea:

      • pink New Zealand jasmine

      • *(pink akakiore)

    • Parsonsia heterophylla:

      • akakaikiore

      • *kaihua

      • kaiku

      • kaiwhiria

      • tawhiwhi

      • New Zealand jasmine

      • varied-leaved parsonsia

      • *(Maori jasmine)

    • Paspalum distichum:

      • *sea-side millet

    • Paspalum scrobitulatum:

      • tarakoi

      • *taranui

      • tuhui

      • ditch millet

      • *(ditch-millet)

      • Passiflora. See Tetra-pathaea.

    • Pelargonium australe:

      • kopata

      • pukupuku

    • Pellaea falcata:

      • hook-leaved black fern

    • Pellaea rotundifolia:

      • tarawera

      • round-leaved fern

    • Pennantia corymbosa:

      • hine-kaikomako

      • kahikomako

      • *kaikomako

      • bridal tree

      • corymbose pennantia

      • *maori fire

      • ribbon-wood

      • ribbonwood

      • smutwood

    • Pentachondra pumila:

      • little mountain-heath

    • Peperomia Urvilleana:

      • D'Urville's peperomia

    • Persoonia toru:

      • mihimihi

      • toro

      • *toru

    • Phebalium nudum:

      • *mairehau

      • maireire

      • aromatic-leaved maireire

      • naked phebalium

    • Phormium Colensoi (Cookianum):1

      • korari-tuauru

      • *wharariki

      • hill flax

      • *hill-flax

      • mountain flax

      • mountain flax

      • New Zealand flax

    • Phormium tenax:

      • *harakeke

      • harapere

      • harareke

      • kauhangaroa

      • korari (=flower-stalk)

      • kurawaka (=seed-capsule)

      • Varieties—

      • aoanga (variegated)

      • aohanga (variegated)

      • aorangi (striped)

      • atemango

      • ateraukawa

      • atewheke

      • awanga (variegated)

      • hurahura-hika

      • maomao

      • oue

      • parekoritawa (variegated)

      • paritaniwha

      • pikoko

      • potango

      • rataroa

      • Phormium tenax—cont.

      • Varieties—cont.

      • rerehape

      • rongotainui

      • rukutia

      • taiore

      • takirikau (strong-fibred varieties)

      • taneawai (bronzy foliage)

      • tapoto (strong-fibred varieties)

      • taroa

      • tihore (very strong fibre)

      • tika (ordinary varieties)

      • wharanui

      • flag

      • *flax

      • flax lily

      • flax-lily

      • hemp

      • koradi

      • native flax

      • native hemp

      • New Zealand flax

      • New-Zealand flax

      • New Zealand flax-plant

      • *(Maori flax)

    • Phyllachne clavigera:

      • club-leaved phyllachne

    • Phyllachne Colensoi:

      • Colenso's phyllachne

      • common phyllachne

    • Phyllocladus alpinus:

      • alpine celery pine

      • alpine celery-pine

      • celery-leaved pine

      • celery pine

      • celery topped pine

      • celery-topped pine

      • mountain celery pine

      • mountain celery-pine

      • mountain toatoa

      • mountain-toatoa

      • mountain totoa

      • New Zealand hickory pitch pine

      • *(alpine toatoa)

    • Phyllocladus glaucus:

      • *toatoa

      • celery-pine

    • Phyllocladus trichomanoides:

      • ahotea

      • niko

      • *tanekaha

      • tawaiwai

      • toatoa

    [Footnote] 1P. Cookianum is now included in P. tenax.

    – 705 –
      • Phyllocladus trichomanoides—cont.

      • celery-leaved pine

      • celery-pine

      • celery-topped pine

      • celery top pine

      • New Zealand pitch pine

      • pitch pine

    • Pimelea arenaria:

      • aute-taranga

      • *aute-tauranga

      • toroheke

      • *sand-pimelea

    • Pimelea buxifolia:

      • box-leaved pimelea

      • Pimelea laevigata. See P. prostrata.

    • Pimelea longifolia:

      • koromiko-taranga

      • *taranga

      • long-leaved pimelea

      • New Zealand daphne

      • *(Maori daphne)

    • Pimelea Lyallii:

      • Lyall's pimelea

    • Pimelea prostrata (laevigata):

      • *pinatoro

      • wharengarara

      • common pimelea

      • creeping pimelea

      • native thyme

      • smooth pimelea

      • Strathmore weed (?)

    • Pimelea virgata:

      • twiggy pimelea

      • Piper excelsum. See Macro piper).

    • Pisonia Brunoniana:

      • *parapara

      • puhaureroa

      • puwhaureroa

      • bird-catcher

      • bird-catcher plant

      • bird catching plant

      • *bird-catching-plant

    • Pittosporum Colensoi:

      • rautawhiri

      • black mapau

      • Colenso's pittosporum

      • maple

    • Pittosporum cornifolium:

      • karo

      • *tawhirikaro

      • wharewhareatua

      • cornel-leaved pittosporum

      • perching-kohuhu

      • straggling pittosporum

    • Pittosporum crassifolium:

      • kaikaro

      • *karo

      • kihihi

      • thick-leaved pittosporum

      • turpentine tree

    • Pittosporum eugenioides:

      • kihihi

      • *tarata

      • black mapau

      • citron

      • eugenia-like pittosporum

      • lemon matipo

      • lemon-tree

      • lemon wood

      • lemon-wood

      • *lemonwood

      • maple

      • mapu

      • New Zealand oak

      • turpentine

      • turpentine tree

      • white mapau

      • white maple

    • Pittosporum Fairchildii:

      • *Three Kings karo

    • Pittosporum Kirkii:

      • Kirk's pittosporum

      • thick-leaved kohuhu

    • Pittosporum obcordatum:

      • cohou-cohou

      • obcordate-leaved pittosporum

      • small-leaved kohuhu

    • Pittosporum Ralphii:

      • Ralph's pittosporum

    • Pittosporum rigidum:

      • shrubby pittosporum

      • weeping-matipo

    • Pittosporum tenuifolium:

      • kaikaro

      • *kohuhu

      • kohukohu

      • koihu

      • kowhiwhi

      • mapauriki

      • powhiri

      • rautawhiri

      • Pittosporum tenuifolium—cont.

      • tawhiri

      • tawhiwhi

      • black birch

      • black mapau

      • black maple

      • black mapou

      • bucket-of-water-wood

      • maple

      • silver birch

      • small-leaved tarata

      • thin-leaved pittosporum

      • turpentine tree

    • Pittosporum tenuifolium var. variegata:

      • silver matipo

      • *(silvery kohuhu)

    • Pittosporum umbellatum:

      • *haekaro

    • Plagianthus betulinus:

      • houi

      • *manatu

      • whauwhi

      • birch-like ribbon-wood

      • lace-bark tree

      • lacebark

      • lowland ribbonwood

      • ribbon tree

      • ribbon-tree

      • ribbon wood

      • ribbon-wood

      • ribbonwood

      • South Island ribbon wood

      • *(lowland-ribbonwood)

    • Plagianthus chathamicus:

      • *Chatham ribbonwood

    • X Plagianthus cymosus:

      • hybrid ribbonwood

    • Plagianthus divaricatus:

      • makaka

      • runa

      • salt-marsh ribbonwood

      • shrubby ribbonwood

      • wide-branched ribbonwood

    • Plagianthus Lyallii:1

      • alpine ribbonwood

      • lace bark

      • lace-bark

      • lace bark tree

      • mountain ribbonwood

      • ribbon-scrub

      • ribbon wood

      • West Coast ribbonwood

      • wild cherry

    [Footnote] 1 Name not now recognized; included in Gaya. Lyallii.

    – 706 –
    • Plantago:

      • parerarera

    • Plantago Brownii:

      • Brown's plantain

    • Plantago Hamiltonii:

      • glossy plantain

    • Plantago lanigera:

      • plantain

    • Plantago Raoulii:

      • kopakopa

      • common New Zealand plantain

      • New Zealand plantain

      • Raoul's plantain

      • *(Maori plantain)

    • Plantago spathulata:

      • kauparerarera

    • Pleurophyllum criniferum:

      • hairy pleurophyllum

    • Pleurophyllum speciosum:

      • handsome pleurophyllum

      • *(goblet-aster)

    • Poa acicularifolia:

      • needle-leaved poa

    • Poa anceps:

      • broad-leaved poa

      • nodding plumed poa

    • Poa anceps var. breviculmis:

      • hard short-stemmed poa

    • Poa anceps var. debilis:

      • slender poa

    • Poa anceps var. densiflora:

      • dense-flowered poa

    • Poa anceps var. elata:

      • nodding plumed poa

    • Poa Astoni:

      • seashore poa

    • Poa breviglumis:

      • short-glumed poa

    • Poa caespitosa:

      • wi

      • common tussock-grass

      • silver-tussock

      • tussac poa

      • tussock

      • tussock grass

      • yellow tussock

      • *(silver tussock)

    • Poa chathamica:

      • *bog-poa

    • Poa Colensoi:

      • *blue tussock

      • blue-tussock

      • blue tussock-grass

      • Colenso's poa

    • Poa exigua:

      • little poa

    • Poa foliosa:

      • Auckland Islands poa1

      • large-flowered poa1

      • minute poa1

      • short-flowered meadow grass

      • southern islands poa

      • *tussock-grass

    • Poa imbecilla:

      • weak poa

      • weak-stemmed poa

    • Poa intermedia (Colensoi var. intermedia.):

      • mountain tussock grass small tussac poa

    • Poa Kirkii:

      • Kirk's poa

    • Poa Kirkii var. Mackayi:

      • brown mountain poa

    • Poa Lindsayi:

      • brown-flowered poa

    • Poa litorosa:

      • poa-like fescue

    • Poa novae-zealandiae:

      • large flowered poa

      • large-flowered poa

    • Poa pusilla:

      • minute creeping poa

      • slender poa

    • Poa pygmaea:

      • dwarf poa

    • Poa sclerophylla:

      • white-flowered poa

    • Poa uniflora:

      • one-flowered poa

    • Podocarpus acutifolius:

      • acute-leaved totara

      • sharp-leaved totara

    • Podocarpus dacrydioides:

      • kahika

      • *kahikatea

      • kaikatea (prob. kahikatea)

      • kapara (= the resin)

      • katea

      • koroi (= the fruit)

      • mapara (= the heartwood)

      • dacrydium-like podocarpus

      • swamp pine

      • white pine

      • white-pine

      • yellow pine

    • Podocarpus ferrugineus:

      • *miro

      • toromiro

      • black pine

      • black-pine

      • rusty podocarpus

    • Podocarpus Hallii:

      • alpine totara

      • *fuchsia-barked totara

      • large-leaved totara

      • thin-bark totara

      • mountain-totara

      • thin-barked totara

    • Podocarpus nivalis:

      • tauhinu

      • alpine totara

      • creeping totara

      • mountain totara

      • *mountain-totara

    • Podocarpus spicatus:

      • kai

      • kakai (= the young form)

      • mai

      • *matai

      • black pine

      • black-pine

      • black rue

      • black rue pine

      • red pine

      • spiked podocarpus

    • Podocarpus totara:

      • amoka

      • mauri (= dark-coloured timber)

      • *totara

      • tuanui (= a variety)

    [Footnote] 1 Given as three varieties in Buchanan's Indigenous Grasses of New Zealand.

    – 707 –
      • Podocarpus totara—cont.

      • fir

      • mahogany pine

      • mahogany-pine

      • New Zealand mahogany pine

      • New Zealand yew

      • red pine

      • totara pine

      • totarro

    • Polygonum aviculare:

      • makakaka

    • Polygonum serrulatum:

      • *tutunawai

      • water persicaria

      • Polypodium Billardieri1

      • hound's tongue

      • narrow-leaved polypody

      • *hounds-tongue

    • Polypodium dictyopteris (Cunninghamii):

      • Cunningham's polypody

    • Polypodium diversifolium:2

      • kowaowao

      • *maratata

      • paraharaha

      • raumanga

      • Billardier's polypody

      • *climbing polypody

      • climbing-polypody

      • common climbing polypody

      • common climbing-polypody

      • common polypody

      • narrow-leaved polypody

    • Polypodium grammitidis:

      • saw-edged polypody

    • Polypodium novae-zealandiae:

      • giant polypody

    • Polypodium pumilum:

      • dwarf polypody

    • Polypodium pustulatum:

    • (Dryopteris pustulata):

      • mokimoki

      • scented polypody

      • fragrant-fern

      • Polypodium. See also Dryopteris.

    • Polystichum:

      • shield fern

      • *(shield-fern)

    • Polystichum aculeatum:3

      • puniu

    • Polystichum adiantiforme:

      • climbing shield fern

      • thick-leaved shield fern

      • thick-leaved shield-fern

    • Polystichum aristatum:4

      • awned shield fern

    • Polystichum cystostegium:

      • alpine fern

      • alpine shield fern

      • alpine shield-fern

      • Egmont fern

      • snow shield fern

    • Polystichum oculatum:5

      • long-stalked shield fern

      • spotted shield fern

      • *(argus shield-fern)

    • Polystichum Richardi:6

      • pikopiko

      • *pipiko

      • tutoke

      • black shield fern

      • black shield-fern

      • hard shield-fern

      • Richards' shield fern

    • Polystichum vestitum:7

      • prickly shield fern

      • prickly shield-fern

    • Polytrichum dendroides:

      • tree-moss

    • Pomaderris apetala:

      • nonokia

      • *tainui

      • ti mi

    • Pomaderris Edgerleyi:

      • kumarahou

    • Pomaderris elliptica:

      • kumarahou

      • papapa

      • dwarf tainui

      • elliptical-leaved pomaderris

      • yellow tainui

    • Pomaderris phylicaefolia:

      • taihinu

      • *tauhinu

      • cotton wood

      • heath-like pomaderris

      • heath-like tainui

      • phylica-leaved pomaderris

    • Potamogeton:

      • pond-weed

      • *pondweed

    • Potamogeton Cheesemanii:

      • *manihi

      • rerewai

      • Cheeseman's pond-weed

      • common New Zealand

      • pondweed

      • common pond-weed

      • *(Maori pondweed)

    • Potamogeton natans:

      • manihi

      • *rerewai

      • pond weed

      • pond-weed

    • Potamogeton polygonifolius:

      • persicaria-leaved pond-weed

    • Potentilla anserina:

      • silver-weed

      • Potentilla anserina var.

    • anserinoides:

      • *kowhaikura

      • *silverweed

    • Pratia angulata:

      • *panakenake

      • common pratia

      • creeping pratia

      • creeping-pratia

    • Pratia arenaria:

      • big-fruited pratia

    • Pseudopanax chathamicum:

      • hoho (prob. houhou)

      • *Chatham lancewood

    • Pseudopanax crassifolium:

      • hohoeka

      • *horoeka

      • koeka

      • kokoeka

    [Footnote] 1 Name not now recognized; included in P. diversifolium.

    [Footnote] 2 Now includes also P. Billardieri.

    [Footnote] 3 Name not now recognized; included in P. vestitum.

    [Footnote] 4 Name not now recognized; included in P. Richardi.

    [Footnote] 5 Name not now recognized; included in P. Richardi.

    [Footnote] 6 Now includes also P. aristatum and P. oculatum.

    [Footnote] 7 Now includes also P. aculaetum.

    – 708 –
      • ohoeka

      • tara-a-Maui (= trifoliate variety)

      • fish-bone tree

      • grass tree

      • grass-tree

      • ivy tree

      • lance-wood

      • *lancewood

      • thick-leaved lancewood

      • umbrella tree

    • Pseudopanax discolor:

      • bronze panax

    • Pseudopanax ferox:

      • savage lancewood

      • *toothed lancewood

      • toothed-leaved lancewood

    • Pseudopanax Lessonii:

      • houmapara

      • *houpara

      • houparapara

      • oho

      • parapara

      • whauwhau

      • northern lancewood

      • shore panax

    • Pseudopanax lineare:

      • mountain lancewood

      • true lancewood

    • Pleridium esculentum (Pteris aquilina var. esculenta):

      • aruhe (= the rhizome)

      • kakaka (= the stem)

      • koeata (= the young shoots)

      • komeke (= the rhizome prepared for eating)

      • mahunu (= the young shoots)

      • manehu

      • meke (= the rhizome)

      • mohani (= the rhizome)

      • moheke (= the rhizome)

      • monehu (= the young shoots)

      • motuhanga (= the rhizome)

      • pakakohi (= the rhizome)

      • parara (= the rhizome)

      • rahurahu

      • *rauaruhe

      • rarahu

      • rarauhe

      • renga (= the rhizome)

      • roi (= the rhizome)

      • takaka

      • bracken

      • bracken fern

      • *bracken-fern

      • brake

      • brown fern

      • common bracken

      • common English bracken

      • common fern

      • fern

    • Pteris comans:

      • scarce bracken

      • Pteris incisa. See Histio-pteris.

    • Pteris macilenta:

      • thin bracken

      • Pteris scaberula. See Paesia.

    • Pteris tremula:

      • tarawera

      • turawera

      • scented fern

      • scented-fern

      • stinking fern

      • stinking-fern

      • *trembling bracken

    • Pterostylis Banksii:

      • *tutukiwi

      • Banks' pterostylis

      • common hooded orchid

      • hooded orchid

      • *(elfs-hood)

    • Pterostylis graminea:

      • grass-like hooded orchid

      • narrow-leaved hooded

      • orchid

    • Quintinia acutifolia:

      • mountain-tawheowheo

      • *(mountain-lilac)

    • Quintinia serrata:

      • kumarahou

      • *tawhewheo

      • native lilac

      • New Zealand lilac

      • white birch

      • serrated quintinia

      • *(Maori lilac)

    • Radicula Nasturtium aquaticum (N. officinale):

      • kowhitiwhiti

      • water-cress

    • Radicula Nasturtium palustre:

      • *hanea

      • panapana

      • poniu

      • marsh cress

      • small-leafed cress

    • Radicula Nasturtium (Cardamine) stylosum:

      • *matangoa

    • Ranunculus:

      • crowfoot

    • Ranuculus acaulis:

      • *shore-buttercup

    • Ranunculus Buchanani:

      • cut-leaved alpine butter-cup

      • white cut-leaved alpine buttercup

    • Ranunculus crithmifolius:

      • samphire-leaved ranun-culus

      • *(shingle-slip buttercup)

    • Ranunculus Godleyanus:

      • Godley's buttercup

      • yellow alpine buttercup

      • yellow mountain lily

      • *(yellow mountain-lily)

    • Ranunculus gracilipes:

      • slender alpine buttercup

    • Ranunculus Haastii:

      • fleshy-leaved buttercup

      • Haast's ranunculus

    • Ranunculus hirtus:

      • kopukapuka

      • *maruru

      • common New Zealand buttercup

    • Ranunculus insignis:

      • *korikori

      • hairy alpine buttercup

      • mountain-buttercup

    • Ranunculus Kirkii:

      • Stewart Island buttercup

      • *(Stewart buttercup)

    – 709 –
    • Ranunculus lappaceus:

      • butter cup

      • buttercup

    • Ranunculus lobulatus:

      • New Zealand Kaikoura buttercup

      • *(Kaikoura buttercup)

    • Ranunculus Lyallii:

      • giant white buttercup

      • Lyall's ranunculus

      • mountain lily

      • *mountain-lily

      • Mount Cook lily

      • rockwood lily

      • shepherd's lily

      • water lily

      • white buttercup

    • Ranunculus macropus:

      • *raoriki

      • *swamp-buttercup

    • Ranunculus multiscapus:

      • grassland buttercup

      • *grassland-buttercup

    • Ranunculus nivicola:

      • *Egmont buttercup

      • Mount Egmont buttercup

      • golden-yellow Mount Egmont buttercup

      • mountain yellow butter-cup

    • Ranunculus rivularis:

      • raoriki

      • waoriki

      • swamp-buttercup

      • *water-buttercup

    • Ranunculus sericophyllus:

      • silky alpine buttercup

    • Raoulia australis:

      • common raoulia

      • patch-plant

      • silvery raoulia

    • Raoulia bryoides:

      • small vegetable-sheep

    • Raoulia eximia:

      • common vegetable-sheep

      • extraordinary raoulia

      • vegetable sheep

      • vegetable-sheep

    • Raoulia glabra:

      • glabrous raoulia

    • Raoulia Goyeni:

      • Stewart Island vegetable-sheep

    • Raoulia grandiflora:

      • large-flowered raoulia

    • Raoulia Haastii:

      • green raoulia

      • Haast's raoulia

    • Raoulia lutescens:

      • native scabweed

      • scabweed

    • Raoulia mammillaris:

      • breasted raoulia

      • New Zealand pincushion

      • vegetable sheep

    • Raoulia rubra:

      • green vegetable-sheep

    • Raoulia subsericea:

      • turfy raoulia

    • Raoulia tenuicaulis:

      • tutahuna

      • mat-raoulia

      • Rapanea. See Suttonia.

    • Rhabdothamnus Solandri:

      • kaikaiatua

      • matata

      • *taurepo

      • waiuatua

      • native arbutilon

      • native bignonia

      • Solander's rhabdothamnus

      • * (Maori arbutilon)

    • Rhipogonum scandens:

      • akapirita

      • akapita

      • kakareao

      • kakarewao

      • *kareao

      • karewao

      • kekereao

      • kotau (= young shoot)

      • pirita

      • taiore

      • black vine

      • bush sarsaparilla

      • climbing lily

      • climbing rhipogonum

      • hartwhan

      • karewan

      • native sarsaparilla

      • supple jack

      • supple-jack

      • *supplejack

      • supple jack vine

      • yam-creeper

    • Rhopalostylis Cheesemanii:

      • Kermadec nikau

    • Rhopalostylis (Areca) sapida:

      • kaihuia

      • miko

      • muka

      • munga

      • *nikau

      • cabbage palm

      • cabbage tree

      • cabbage-tree

      • fern-palm

      • New Zealand palm

      • nika-palm

      • nikau palm

      • nikau-palm

      • palm

      • savory palm-tree

    • Rubus australis:

      • tarakeke

      • taramoa

      • *tataramoa

      • tataramoa-turuhunga

      • bramble

      • briar

      • bush lawyer

      • *bush-lawyer

      • bushlawyer

      • Captain Cook's ropes

      • lawyer

      • native bramble

      • New Zealand bramble

      • southern bramble

      • wait-a-bit

      • wild Irishman

    • Rubus cissoides:

      • bush-lawyer

      • ivy-like bramble

      • leafless lawyer

      • yellow-prickled lawyer

      • *(yellow-prickle)

    • Rubus parvus:

      • creeping-lawyer

      • small bramble

    • Rubus schmidelioides:

      • bush-lawyer

      • rose-leaved lawyer

      • schmidelia-like bramble

      • *swamp-lawyer

    • Rubus schmidelioides var. coloratus:

      • white-leaved lawyer

    • Rubus subpauperatus:

      • narrow-leaved lawyer

      • semi leafless lawyer

    – 710 –
    • Rumex flexuosus:

      • *runa

      • New Zealand dock

      • tortuous dock

      • *(Maori dock)

    • Rumex neglectus:

      • sea-shore dock

      • *shore-dock

    • Ruppia maritima:

      • tassel pondweed

      • *(tassel-pondweed)

    • Salicornia australis:

      • Australian glaaswort

      • glasswort

      • Indian salicornia

      • marsh-samphire

      • samphire

      • southern glasswort

      • *(austral glasswort)

    • Salsola australis:

      • southern salsola

      • *(austral saltwort)

    • Salsola Kali:

      • *prickly saltwort

    • Samolus repens:

      • *maakoako

    • Samolus repens var. procumbens:

      • New Zealand water-pimpernel

      • primrose

      • wild thyme

      • southern water-pimpernel

      • *(Maori water-pimpernel)

    • Samolus littoralis:

      • sea-side samolus

    • Schefflera digitata:

      • kohi

      • kotete

      • patate

      • *pate

      • patete

      • *five-finger

      • five fingers

      • native fig

      • New Zealand fig

      • pipewood

      • snotty gob

      • white wood

    • Schizaea australis:

      • dwarf comb fern

      • *(dwarf comb-fern)

    • Schizaea bifida:

      • forked comb fern

      • *(forked comb-fern)

    • Schizaea dichotoma:

      • broad comb fern

      • kauri fern

      • *(kauri-fern)

    • Schizaea fistulosa:

      • rush fern

      • *rush-fern

      • slender comb fern

      • slender comb-fern

    • Schoenus pauciflorus:

      • bog rush

      • false snow-grass

    • Scirpus americanus:

      • *three-square

    • Scirpus antarcticus:

      • antarctic club-rush

    • Scirpus aucklandicus:

      • Auckland Island club-rush

    • Scirpus cernuus:

      • drooping club-rush

      • nodding club-rush

      • Scirpus frondosus. See Desmoschoenus spiralis.

    • Scirpus inundatus:

      • swamp club-rush

      • water club-rush

    • Scirpus lacustris:

      • kapungawha

      • *kopupu

      • kopupungawha

      • kuwawa

      • papao

      • wawa

      • great bulrush

    • Scirpus maritimus:1

      • kukuraho

      • *ririwaka

      • club rush

      • purua-grass

    • Scirpus nodosus:

      • wiwi

      • common club-rush

      • stiff bulrush

      • stiff club-rush

    • Scirpus robustus:2

      • salt-marsh bulrush

      • *sea club-rush

    • Scirpus sulcatus Thouars var. distigmatosa:

      • proliferous club-rush

    • Scleranthus biflorus:

      • kohukohu

      • *naereere

      • common scleranth

      • cushion plant

    • Selliera radicans:

      • raumangu

      • rekoreko

      • *remuremu

      • creeping selliera

      • creeping-selliera

      • rooting selliera

    • Senecio:

      • alpine marigold

      • shrub-groundsel

    • Senecio Banksii:

      • East Cape groundsel

    • Senecio bellidioides:

      • common mountain-groundsel

      • common New Zealand groundsel

      • *(Maori groundsel)

    • Senecio Bidwillii:

      • Bidwell's shrubby groundsel

    • Senecio elaeagnifolius:

      • brown backs

      • common mountain

      • shrubby groundsel

      • *(brown-backs)

    • Senecio Hectori:

      • deciduous tree-groundsel

    • Senecio Huntii:

      • *rautini

    [Footnote] 1 Name not now recognized; included in S. robustus.

    [Footnote] 2 Now includes also S. maritimus.

    – 711 –
    • Senecio Kirkii:

      • kohurangi

      • kokohurangi

      • komingiroa

      • orooro

      • *tapairu

      • daisy shrub

      • forest-groundsel

      • forest tree-groundsel

      • Kirk's groundsel

      • shrubby forest-groundsel

    • Senecio latifolius:

      • puhaureroa

      • *puwhaureroa

    • Senecio lautus:

      • coast groundsel

      • coast-groundsel

      • elegant senecio

      • *shore-groundsel

    • Senecio Lyallii:

      • Lyall's groundsel

      • *white marigold

    • Senecio Monroi:

      • rock shrub-groundsel

    • Senecio perdicioides:

      • *raukumara

      • puarangitoto

      • shrubby groundsel

    • Senecio rotundifolius:

      • *puheretaiko

      • puwharetaiko

      • *leather-leaf

      • leathern leaf

      • mutton bird scrub

      • mutton-bird scrub

      • mutton-bird shrub

      • round-leaved shrubby

      • groundsel

    • Senecio saxifragoides:

      • Port Hills groundsel

      • *yellow rock-daisy

    • Senecio sciadophilus:

      • climbing daisy

      • climbing-groundsel

      • mutton-bird scrub

    • Senecio scorzoneroides:

      • great white groundsel

      • mountain marguerite

      • *snow-groundsel

    • Senecio Stewartiae:

      • Stewart Island shrubby groundsel

      • Stewart Island tree-groundsel

      • *(Stewart tree-groundsel)

      • Sicyos angulalus. See S. australis, footnote.

    • Sicyos australis:1

      • mawhai

      • Australian gourd

      • climbing-gourd

      • southern sicyos

      • *(climbing gourd)

      • Sideroxylon costatum. See S. novo-zealandicum, footnote.

    • Sideroxylon novo-zelandicum: 2

      • orewa

      • pou

      • *tawapou

      • New Zealand olive

    • Siegesbeckia aculeatum:

      • puniu

    • Siegesbeckia orientalis:

      • *punawaru

    • Siphonidium longiflorum:

      • slender-flowered eyebright

    • Solanum aviculare:

      • horeto (= ripe fruit)

      • kahoho (= the fruit)

      • kohoho

      • peoi

      • popopo

      • poporo

      • *poroporo

      • poroporotanguru

      • borra borra

      • bul-a-bul

      • bul-bul

      • bulli-bull

      • bulli-bulli

      • bulli-bulli

      • bullibulli

      • bullybull

      • common solanum

      • cut-leaved nightshade

      • potato plant

    • Solanum aviculare var. albiflora:

      • white poroporo

    • Solanum nigrum:

      • poroporo-raupeti

      • *raupeti

      • remuroa

      • black nightshade

      • dwarf New Zealand nightshade

      • nightshade

    • Solanum tuberosum:

      • *hiwai

      • kapana

      • maketau

      • parareka

      • parete

      • riwai

      • tiawa

      • Cultivated varieties—

      • hingongi

      • huamango

      • kotipo

      • papaka

      • pau

      • piho

      • raparaparuru

      • rape

      • rokeroke

      • ropi

      • taeaka

      • taewa

      • tatairongo

      • uwhi

      • waeruru

    • Sonchus asper:

      • kautara

      • rauroroa

      • taweke

      • wekeweke

      • *sow-thistle

    • Sonchus grandifolius:

      • Chatham Island sowthistle

      • great sowthistle

      • great sowthistle

    • Sonchus littoralis:

      • coastal sow-thistle

      • coastal sowthistle

      • fleshy-leaved sow-thistle

      • rock sow-thistle

    • Sonchus oleraceus:

      • pororua

      • puwha

      • *rauriki

      • sow-thistle

    • Sophora chathamica:

      • *Chatham kowhai

    [Footnote] 1 Now includes also S. angulatus.

    [Footnote] 2 Now includes also S. costatum.

    – 712 –
    • Sophora grandiflora:

      • kowhai

      • large-flowered kowhai

      • New Zealand acacia

      • New Zealand laburnum

    • Sophora microphylla:

      • kowhai

      • common kowhai

      • goi

      • New Zealand laburnum

      • small-leaved kowhai

      • yellow clianthus

    • Sophora prostrata:

      • dwarf kowhai

      • prostrate kowhai

      • Sophora tetraptera 1

      • (part = Edwardsia)

      • houma

      • *kowhai

      • kowhai-taepa (= drooping variety)

      • kowhai-tauiti (a variety)

      • ghoa

      • ghoai

      • goa

      • goai

      • gohi

      • goi

      • gowai

      • gowhai

      • kohai

      • kowai

      • kowhia

      • locust tree

      • locust-tree

      • native laburnum

      • native mimosa

      • New Zealand laburnum

      • yellow kowhai

      • yellow parrot's bill

    • Sparganium antipodum:

      • *maru

    • Sparganium subglobosum:

      • creeping New Zealand burr-reed

      • New Zealand burr-reed simple bur-reed

      • *(Maori burr-reed)

    • Spergularia media:

      • salt-marsh sand-spurrey

    • Sphagnum:

      • *bog-moss

      • swamß moss

      • sphagnum moss

    • Spinifex hirsutus:

      • kowhangatara

      • *puarere

      • raumoa

      • turikakoa

      • wawatai

      • *rolling-grass

      • silvery sand-grass

      • spiny rolling grass

      • spiny rolling-grass

    • Stellaria decipiens var. angustata:

      • *Antipodes chickweed

    • Stellaria gracilenta:

      • New Zealand chickweed

      • *(Maori chickweed)

    • Stellaria media:

      • kohukohu

    • Stellaria parviflora:

      • small-flowered chickweed

      • stitchwort

    • Stellaria Roughii:

      • Rough's chick weed

    • Stilbocarpa Lyallii:

      • punui

      • Lyall's stilbocarpa

      • Stewart Island stilbocarpa

    • Stilhocarpa polaris:

      • puniu

      • punui

      • polar stilbocarpa

      • sacrie

      • *(Dundonald-herb)

    • Stipa arundinacea:

      • hunangamoho

      • New Zealand wind grass

      • Styphelia. See Cyathodes.

    • Suaeda maritima:

      • *sea-blite

    • Suttonia australis (Rapanea (Myrsine) Urvillei):

      • *mapau

      • mapou

      • mataira

      • matipou

      • tapau

      • takapou

      • tipau

      • black mapou

      • D'Urville's rapanea

      • maple

      • mappo

      • red birch

      • red-birch

      • red mapau

      • red maple

      • red-maple

      • red matipo

    • Suttonia chathamica:

      • Chatham Island matipo

      • *(Chatham matipo)

    • Suttonia Coxii:

      • *swamp-matipo

    • Suttonia divaricata:

      • divaricate suttonia

      • *weeping matipo

      • weeping-matipo

      • wiry matipo

    • Suttonia (Rapanea) montana:

      • weeping tree

      • Suttonia nummularia.

      • *creeping matipo

      • creeping-matipo

    • Suttonia (Rapanea) salicina:

      • *toro

      • long leaf matipou

      • long-leaved matipo

      • willow-leaved rapanea

    • Taraxacum magellanicum:

      • New Zealand dandelion

      • *(Maori dandelion)

    • Tetragonia expansa:

      • kokihi

      • ? panamata

      • ? paraihia

      • *rengamutu

      • rengarenga

      • tutaeikamoana

      • native ice-plant

      • New Zealand spinach

      • spinach

      • summer spinach

      • *(Maori spinach)

    [Footnote] 1 Sophora tetraptera should perhaps be divided into three species of Edwardsia, but is left here to save confusion. Dr. L. Cockayne puts the whole of Sophora into Edwardsia, but admits it is a matter of opinion.

    – 713 –
    • Tetragonia trigyna:

      • kokihi

      • beach spinach

      • climbing New Zealand spinach

      • ice-plant

      • *(beach-spinach)

    • Tetrapathaea tetrandra (australis) (Passiflora tetrandra):

      • aka

      • akakaiku

      • akàkaikuku

      • akakaimanu

      • akakohia

      • akakuku 1

      • kahia

      • kaimanu

      • kohe

      • *kohia

      • kupapa

      • pohuehue

      • popohue

      • powhiwhi

      • native passion-flower

      • native passion-vine

      • New Zealand passion-flower

      • New Zealand passionflower

      • orange berry

      • passion flower

      • passion-flower

      • tetrandrous passion flower

      • *(Maori passion-flower)

    • * Theymitra longifolia:

      • *maikuku

      • common thelymitra

      • long-leaved thelymitra

    • Thelymitra pulchella:

      • *maikaika

    • Thelymitra uniflora:

      • blue thelymitra

      • *(blue maikuku)

    • Todea barbara:

      • hard todea

      • king fern

      • Todea superba. See Leptoptens superba.

    • Trichomanes:

      • bristle ferns

    • Trichomanes Colensoi:

      • Colenso's bristle fern

    • Trichomanes elongatum:

      • black bristle fern

      • bristle-fern

      • stiff bristle fern

    • Trichomanes humile:

      • drooping bristle fern

      • humble-fern

    • Trichomane Lyallii:

      • Lyall's bristle fern

      • Lyall's bristle-fern

    • Trichomanes reniforme:

      • konehu

      • kopakopa

      • *raurenga

      • kidney fern

      • *kidney-fern

      • kidney-leaf bristle fern

    • Trichomanes strictum:

      • stiff bristle fern

    • Trichomanes venosum:

      • veined filmy-fern

      • veined bristle fern

      • veined bristle-fern

    • Triglochin striatum var. filifolium:

      • southern arrow-grass

      • *three-ribbed arrow-grass

    • Triglochin triandrum:

      • arrow grass

    • Triodia exigua:

      • few-flowered oat grass

      • *mountain-twitch

    • Trisetum antarcticum:

      • native oat grass

      • shining oat grass

      • shining oat-grass

    • Trisetum subspicatum:

      • spiked oat grass

    • Trisetum Youngii:

      • Young's oat-grass

    • Tupeia antarctica:

      • kokuorangi

      • pirinoa

      • *pirita

      • tapia

      • antarctic mistletoe

      • antarctic tupeia

      • *green mistletoe

    • Tyndaridea anomala:

      • kohuwai

    • Typha angustifolia:

      • hune (= feathery seeds)

      • karito

      • koare

      • koareare (= rhizome)

      • konehu-raupo (= pollen)

      • kopupungawha

      • koreirei (= rhizome)

      • korito (= young shoots)

      • kouka (= rhizome)

      • ngawha

      • pungapunga (= pollen)

      • *raupo

      • bulrush

      • bullrush

      • cat's tail

      • flag

      • large bulrush

      • marsh reed

      • reedmace

      • rushes (ra-poo)

    • Uncinia:

      • matau

      • *hooked sedge

    • Uncinia australis See U. uncinata:

    • Uncinia caespitosa:

      • narrow-leaved uncinia

    • Uncinia comparta:

      • mountain uncinia

    • Uncinia filiformis:

      • slender uncinia

    • Uncinia leptostachya:

      • matauririki

      • tall uncinia

    • Uncinia pedicellata:

      • Stewart Island uncinia

      • *(Stewart uncinia)

    • Uncinia rigida:

      • stiff uncinia

    • Uncinia riparia:

      • matauririki

      • leafy uncinia

    • Uncinia rubra:

      • red uncinia

    • Uncinia uncinata: 2

      • *kamu

      • matau-a-Maui

      • broad-leaved uncinia

    [Footnote] 1 Abbreviation of akakaikuku (“food-vine of the pigeon”).

    [Footnote] 2 Now includes also U. australis.

    – 714 –
    • Urtica australis:

      • *taraonga

      • taraongaonga

      • subantarctic nettle

      • *(Antipodes nettle)

    • Urtica ferox:

      • *ongaonga

      • taraonga

      • taraongaonga

      • bush-nettle

      • fierce nettle

      • nettle

      • nettle tree

      • shrubby nettle

      • tree nettle

      • *tree-nettle

      • true nettle

    • Urtica incisa:

      • ongaonga

      • *dwarf nettle

      • forest-nettle

      • ground nettle

      • nettle

      • Usnea barbata;

      • *angiangi

    • Utricularia monanthos:

      • bladder-wort

      • bladderwort

      • common bladder-wort

      • *(purple bladderwort)

    • Utricularia protrusa:

      • bladderwort

      • *(floating bladderwort)

      • Veronica. See Hebe for all except the three following.

    • Veronica catarractae:

      • waterfall veronica

      • *(waterfall-koromiko)

    • Veronica Hookeriana:

      • Hooker's veronica

    • Veronica spathulata:

      • *scoria-koromiko

      • snowy veronica

    • Viola Cunninghamii:

      • common New Zealand violet

      • Cunningham's violet

      • native violet

      • New Zealand violet

      • violet

      • *(Maori violet)

    • Viola filicaulis:

      • native violet

      • *slender violet

      • thread-like violet

      • violet

    • Viola filicaulis var. hydrocotyloides:

      • *water-penny violet

    • Viola Lyallii:

      • haka

      • white violet

    • Viscum Lindsayi:

      • Lindsay's mistletoe

    • Viscum salicornioides:

      • salicornia-like mistletoe

    • Vitex lucens:

      • kauere

      • *puriri

      • boradi

      • iron wood

      • New Zealand oak

      • New Zealand teak

      • puredi

      • puridi

      • teak

    • Vittadinia australis:

      • southern vittadmia

    • Wahlenbergia albomarginata:

      • blue bell

      • blue-bell

      • bluebell

      • native blue bell

      • New Zealand blue bell

      • New Zealand blue-bell

      • New Zealand bluebell

      • *(Maori bluebell)

    • Wahlenbergia cartilaginea:

      • *rock-bluebell

    • Wahlenbergia gracilis:

      • *rimuroa

      • bell-flower

      • blue bell

      • blue-bell

      • bluebell

      • graceful blue-bell

      • hare bell

      • native harebell

      • New Zealand bluebell

      • slender blue-bell

      • slender bluebell

    • Wahlenbergia Matthewsii:

      • bell-flower

    • Weinmannia racemosa:

      • *kamahi

      • tawhero

      • towai

      • black birch

      • brown birch

      • karmai

      • racemose weinmannia

      • red birch

      • red-birch

      • white birch

    • Weinmannia silvicola:

      • *tawhero

      • towai

      • forest-loving weinmannis

    • Wintera (Drimys) axillaris:

      • *horopito

      • matou (= the fruit)

      • puhikawa

      • axil-flowered drimys

      • Maori pain-killer

      • nutmeg tree

      • pepper tree

      • *pepper-tree

      • peppertree

      • pepper-wood

    • Wintera (Drimys) colorata:

      • *oramarama

      • ramarama

      • blotched-leaved pepper-tree

      • false native pepper

      • pepper tree

      • pepper-tree

      • red-blotched horopito

      • *red horopito

    • Zea Mays:

      • kanga

      • kopakipaki

      • parate

      • maize

    • Zostera:

      • *sea-wrack

      • Zostera nana

      • *rimurehia

      • eel-grass

      • *grass-wrack

      • sea-grass

      • Zostera tasmanica

      • *sea-grass