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Volume 57, 1927
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Hepialidae (Figs. 8 to 23).

The Hepialidae are a very isolated family, and the study of the maxillae gives little help towards discovering its relationships. Though excessively reduced in most cases, I have not examined any genus in

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Figs. 2–23.

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which some trace of the maxillae could not be found. Generally what remains of the organ takes the shape of a cluster of bulbous protuberances at the base of the labium and curving transversely round it. The basal or lower piece is usually more strongly chitinized laterally, which gives it the appearance of a link-shaped structure when viewed from above. As there is no articulation or defined divisions between the parts it is not possible to homologize them with certainty with the parts composing the normal maxillae, more especially as the position of the structure has been so altered. In systematic works on the Lepidoptera it is usually stated that the maxillary palpi are absent in the Hepialidae. This, however, is by no means always, or even generally, the case. Reference to the figures will show that in Trictena, Perrissectis, and Sthenopis (argenteomaculatus) there is a distinct one-segmented palp present, though the rest of the organ is extremely reduced. In Porina dinodes a similar palp occurs, apparently resting on a distinct palpifer; in other species of this genus, as P. jocosa, the palp appears to be absent. Hepialus humuli also shows a palpal segment, though less defined than that of P. dinodes. In passing, it may be noted that the labial palps in this species have practically disappeared, being represented only by a pair of rounded palpigers. Oncopera mitocera has the most vestigial maxillae of any of the Hepialidae. They amount merely to minute protuberances bearing a few rather long hairs. As the eyes in this genus nearly meet in the middle line of the face there is little room left for upturned mouth-parts and the labium is consequently greatly compressed, while the labial palpi tend to become thread-like. The gigantic Australian Leto staceyi possesses the least reduced maxillary palpi of any species of the family examined. There are here two well-developed segments, the basal one articulating with what is probably a palpifer as the much reduced galea fuses with it basally. The terminal segment of the palp is longer than the preceding one and tapers to a fine point. The whole structure lies less transversely to the labium than usual,

  • Fig. 2.—Sabatinca aurella Huds. Maxilla.

  • Fig. 3.—Micropteryx calthella L. Maxilla.

  • Fig. 4.—Epimartyria aurinella Wlshm. Maxilla.

  • Fig. 5.—Mnemonica auricyanea Wlshm. Maxilla.

  • Fig. 6.—Eriocrania semipurpurella Steph. Maxilla.

  • Fig. 7.—Mnesarchaea loxoscia Meyr. Maxilla.

  • Fig. 8.—Trictena labyrinthica Don. Maxilla.

  • Fig. 9.—Perrissectis australasiae Don. Maxilla and labium.

  • Fig. 10.—Sthenopis argenteomaculatus Harr. Maxilla and labium.

  • Fig. 11.—Porina dinodes Meyr. Maxilla.

  • Fig. 12.—P. jocosa Meyr. Maxilla, labium and labial palpi.

  • Fig. 13.—P. jocosa Meyr. Maxilla and labium.

  • Fig. 14.—P. signata Walk. Maxilla and labial palp.

  • Fig. 15.—Oncoptera mitocera Turn. Maxilla and labial palp.

  • Fig. 16.—Leto staceyi Scott. Maxilla.

  • Fig. 17.—Charagia virescens Dbld. Maxilla.

  • Fig. 18.—Pielus hyalinatus H.S. Maxilla.

  • Fig. 19.—Hepialus humuli L. Maxilla and labium.

  • Fig. 20.—Hectomanes sp. Maxilla.

  • Fig. 21.—H. simulans Walk. Maxilla.

  • Fig. 22.—H. bilineata Meyr. Haustellum and maxillary palp.

  • Fig. 23.—H. sp. Maxilla.

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the palp projecting obliquely above that organ. The Maxillae in Hectomanes show some extremely interesting features. Seven species have been available for examination. Four of these, H. fusca, H. polyspila, H. crocea, and an undetermined species, have a rounded one-segmented palp with a very minute tubercle arising from its apex; this may be the vestige of a second segment. The galea is represented by a rounded projection bearing some rather strong spines. In H. simulans, H. bilineata, and a second undetermined species, however, the galea is present as a true haustellum, though one which has been subject to great reduction. The labial palp in these species, as in the other three, consists of only two short segments, the haustellum, when present, being of about the same length as the palpi. In the second undetermined species the haustellum is rather broad, finger-like, and clothed with short hairs; in H. simulans and H. bilincata it is narrower, rather longer than the labial palpi and has more the appearance of a normal functional haustellum.

Species examined: Oncopera mitocera Turn., Perrissectis australasiae Don., Sthenopis argenteomaculatus Harr., Pielus hyalinatus H.S., Trictena labyrinthica Don., Porina jocosa Meyr., P. dinodes Meyr., P. signata Walk., P. fuscomaculata Walk., Charagia virescens Dbld., Hepialus humuli L., H. gracilis Grt., Leto staceyi Scott, Hectomanes crocea Luc., H. fusca Luc., H. polyspila Meyr., H. simulans Walk., H. bilineata Meyr., H. spp. (2).