A Revision of the Genus Dracophyllum.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 27th June, 1928; received, by Editor, 5th October, 1928; issued separately, 25th March, 1929.]
The genus Dracophyllum with its allies forms a well marked group characterized by acicular or grass-like leaves aggregated in tufts at the end of the branches, and more especially by the peculiar placentation of the ovules. The ovary is 5-celled with several ovules in each cell attached to a placenta suspended from a short stipes arising from the top of the axis. The group is distributed over the whole of Australia, Tasmania, New Caledonia, Lord Howe Island, and New Zealand. Three genera are now recognized as forming this group. They may be thus distinguished.
Richea.—Corolla with the lobes not separating, the upper calyptriform portion falling off entire, leaving a persistent ring.
Sphenotoma.—Corolla with spreading lobes, tube narrow, the throat almost closed by longitudinal folds at the base of the lobes.
Dracophyllum.—Corolla with spreading lobes, and a cylindrical tube without folds.
The three genera as thus defined form natural easily recognized groups, and moreover have different distributional areas. Richea consists of 8 Tasmanian species, one of which extends also to Victoria. Sphenotoma contains 6 species and is confined to Western Australia. Dracophyllum includes, according to the following account, 45 species and 9 hybrids distributed over Tasmania, Eastern Australia, New Caledonia, Lowe Howe Island, and New Zealand. It may be divided into three sub-genera one of which, Oreothamnus, contains 25 species confined, except one species in Tasmania, to New Zealand; another, Eudracophyllum, consists of 18 species distributed over the whole area of the genus, while the third, Cordophyllum, includes but a single species confined to New Caledonia. The most primitive forms constituting a section of the subgenus Oreothamnus have their headquarters in New Zealand, while the most advanced group Eudracophyllum has the widest range. The explanation of this distribution must be sought in a former land-connection between New Zealand and Australia by way of New Caledonia The genus would originate in the New Caledonian region, where there is at present most diversity in the advanced species. The primitive forms became superseded in this region but developed extensively in New Zealand. The presence of D. minimum in Tasmania is to be regarded either as a survival of the primitive section of the genus on the western side of the Tasman Sea or as an accidental straggler from New Zealand.
It will be noticed that the above explanation is based upon the theory that an evolving group advances in evolution most at its point of origin, while the primitive forma get pushed towards the periphery. The distribution of Dracophyllum supports the theory of a former land-connection between New Zealand and New Caledonia and thus indirectly with Australia.
The multiplication of species of the subgenus Oreothamnus in New Zealand points to long isolation of the area and an extension of the land-surface. This however does not conflict with the theory advanced above that the genus originated in the New Caledonia region.
Acknowledgements.—In order to determine the relationships of all the known species of Dracophyllum it was necessary for me to examine as many specimens as possible. In Wellington the Dominion Museum, Petrie and Kirk herbaria are available. Further afield are other important collections containing species not represented in Wellington. I therefore applied for and was courteously loaned specimens by Dr. Darnell-Smith, Director of the Sydney Botanic Gardens, Mr. C. T. White, Government Botanist, Brisbane, and Mr. J. W. Audas, Acting-Government Botanist, Melbourne. A similar courtesy was extended by Mr. Gilbert Archey, Curator of the Auckland Museum, under whose charge is the Cheeseman herbarium. Mr. H. Carse very kindly spent much time and trouble in selecting the specimens I required, besides sending me a series from his own herbarium. At a later date I personally examined the specimens of Dracophyllum in the Cheeseman Herbarium. To Dr. A. W. Hill, Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, I am indebted for a portion of the type specimen of Dracophyllum scoporium. To all the above-mentioned gentlemen I desire to record my sincere thanks. I have also to thank Drs. L. Cockayne and H. H. Allan, and Messrs. R. M. Laing and F. G. Gibbs for the loan of specimens; Mr. L. Rodway, Government Botanist, Hobart, for sending a specimen of D. minimum; and Professor Arnold Wall for kindly examining and reporting on the type specimen of D. rosmarinifolium in the British Museum. The photographs (except Fig. 22) have been prepared by Mr. B. Osborne of the Museum staff.
The first species of Dracophyllum to be described was D. longifolium, for which with two other species of New Zealand plants Forster (Char. Gen. 1776) founded the genus Epacris. Epacris in this sense has been abandoned, and the name is now used for an Australian genus containing none of the species enumerated by Forster. A second species of Dracophyllum (D. rosmarinifolium) was referred to Forster's genus Epacris in 1786 (Forster Fl. Ins. Austr. Prodr.). Labillardiere in 1800 (Voy. Nov. Holl., p. 211) founded the genus Dracophyllum for D. verticillatum of New Caledonia. This is one of the advanced forms related to the larger New Zealand species. The first enumeration of the New Zealand species of the genus was Richard's account (Voy. Astrolobe Bot. 1832) in which 4 species are mentioned. This and later accounts of the New Zealand species are tabulated below:—
|Richard, Voy. Astrolobe Bot. 1832||4 species.|
|Cunningham, Ann. Nat. Hist., vol. 2, 1838||5 "|
|Decandolle, Prodr. Syst. Nat., vol. 7, 1838.||5 "|
|Hooker, Flora Antarctica 1844||12 "|
|Raoul, Choix Pl. N.Z. 1846||11 "|
|Hooker, Flora Nov. Zel. 1853||14 "|
|Hooker, Handb. N.Z. Flora 1864||11 "|
|Cheeseman, Man. N.Z. Flora 1906||18 "|
|Cheeseman, Man. N.Z. Flora 1925||20 "|
In the present account 32 species are admitted as belonging to the New Zealand region.
Habitat.—The New Zealand species of Dracophyllum are for the most part plants of the scrub above the forest-belt. On all the mountain ranges in New Zealand there is above the forest-belt a zone of scrub which in many cases has a species of Dracophyllum as a dominant member. Thus D. rosmarinifolium is common in the South Island with D. pronum or D. politum as a prostrate scrub higher up the mountain side. In the North Island D. recurvum is found from the forest-line to nearly the upper limit of vegetation. In swamps the tall shrubby species D. longifolium and D. filifolium are often found. In the forest are the arborescent species such as D. latifolium, D. Traversii, D. filifolium, D. longifolium and others.
Habit.—The life forms of the species of Dracophyllum range from small dense cushion-plants a few cm. in diameter (D. muscoides) to forest trees 10-15m. tall. The habit is a useful character for recognizing the species but is not of any taxonomic value.
Leaf.—The characters of the leaves are used in delimiting the species and also in defining the groups of species. I value the leaf-characters for the smaller groups of species higher than those of the inflorescence because they appear to be more constant. This is shown by the fact that no considerable amount of variation in the leaf occurs in any species except D. longifolium, whereas the same species may have flowers arranged singly or in few-flowered racemes.
In all the species the leaf consists of a distinct lamina and sheath. The lamina may be stiff and acicular with the adaxial surface hollowed, or it may be flat and grass-like.
In the more primitive species the leaf is acicular; in the large specialized kinds it is large and flat. If the species be arranged in a series beginning with those with solitary flowers and ending with those with compound panicles, then the leaves roughly fall in a parallel series from acicular to broad flat lamina.
No similar series is shown by the leaf-sheath. In the species with acicular leaves (D. pronum, for instance) it is the suddenly-expanded and membraneous base of the leaf. In those species having racemes with deciduous bracts it is highly developed and auricled above (D. longifolium, D. filifolium). It may be least developed in the panicled species, D. fiordense for example showing no definite sheath and having a narrow base of attachment.
Bracts.—The bracts (floral leaves of Bentham) are of some taxonomic importance as they exhibit degrees of specialization corresponding with that of the inflorescence on which I have based the
classification given below. In the group of species possessing solitary flowers there is a gradual transition from foliage-leaves to sepals, the latter being not all of the same size. In the outer ones the lamina and sheath are abruptly marked off as in the leaves, the sepals end in a hard point which below gradually widens into the sheath (D. rosmarinifolium). In the higher groups, namely, those possessing racemes or panicles, there are distinct bracts each accompanied by two bracteoles. The bracts are most specialized in the panicled species. In D. longifolium, which has racemes, there is to each flower a leaf-like bract with a short acicular point and two small broad membranous bracteoles. The sepals in this species are of unequal size. In D. Traversii which belongs to the group with panicled inflorescences there is a larger bract subtending each fascicle of flowers. Within this are two small bracteoles. Each flower is also subtended by a bract and two bracteoles. The calx-segments are of equal size. Thus differentiation of the bracts proceeds apace with complexity in the inflorescence. There is a conspicuous exception to this rule of evolution. D. involucratum has a long compound inflorescence, hut each flower is borne on a separate pedicel clothed with bracts resembling the leaves of those more primitive species of the genus which have solitary flowers. Thus evolution in the genus has proceeded along different lines affecting different organs differentially, for in D. involucratum one may say that while the inflorescence and leaves have advanced far, the flower-bearing branches have remained in their primitive state.
Inflorescence.—The inflorescence has been used as a basis for dividing the genus into subgenera. There is a distinct break between the raceme and panicle and another between either of these and the peculiar spike-like raceme of D. involucratum. With these changes correspond others, such as specialization in the bracts and differences in the relation between anthers and corolla-tubes.
In the subgenus Oreothamnus, the inflorescence is either a solitary flower or a raceme. One passes gradually into the other by the flowers becoming clustered and the subtending bracts becoming differentiated according to their position, the lowest being most leaf-like. When the bracts fall early as they do in D. longifolium a move specialized racemose inflorescence results. In the subgenus Eudracophyllum the fascioles are to a lesser or greater degree compound and the bracts are deciduous. The panicle may terminate the large leaf-clusters or it may be below it. In the latter case, though described as latereal, it really terminates a short lateral branch. In the species D. involucratum, which alone forms the subgenus Cordophyllum, there is a terminal spike-like raceme with the flowers in whorls, each on a separate pedicel clothed with small bracts.
Flowers.—The corolla is in most of the species narrow tubular with the anthers included. In certain species of the panicled forms, however, namely the groups containing D. Menziesii, D. latifolium, and D. verticillatum, the corolla-tube is short and wide and the anthers are exserted. In the group of D. Fitzgeraldi the corolla-tube is long and the anthers exserted.
The sepals in the subgenus Oreothamnus are bract-like and of different sizes. In the subgenus Eudracophyllum they are in those species with short corolla-tubes, short, rounded, and of equal size.
In the following synopsis the hybrids are attached to those species groups with the diagnoses of which their prevalent forms most agree, but it must be remembered that a series of hybrids between any two species may include forms grading into both parents.
Synopsis of the Species.
Subgenus Oreothamnus. Flowers solitary or in simple racemes. A. Flowers mostly solitary, sometimes in few-flowered racemes.
(a) Group of D. minimum. Flowers terminal. Leaves acicular.
muscoides.—Leaves 2-3 mm., narrow.
minimum.—Leaves 4-6 mm., broad.
prostratum.—Leaves 5-6 mm., broad.
pronum.—Leaves 6-12 mm., narrow.
politum.—Leaves 10-12 mm., broad, stout.
Pearsoni.—Leaves 30 mm., stout. Flowers mostly in few-flowered racemes.
X erection.—Leaves 7-9 mm., narrow.
X saxicolum.—Leaves 13 mm., broad.
(b) Group of D. rosmarinifolium. Flowers axillary; leaves acicular.
rosmarinifolium.—Leaves 30 mm., broad.
peninsulare.—Leaves 100-120 mm., narrow.
palustre.—Leaves 30 mm., narrow.
subulatum.—Leaves 20 mm. Flowers mostly a few-flowered racemes.
(c) Group of D. Kirkii. Flowers axillary. Leaves broad, grass-tike.
pubescens.—Leaves pubescent. Flowers mostly in few-flowered racemes.
B. Flowers in racemes. Bracts persistent.
(1) Racemes lateral.
(a) Group of D. scoparium. Leaves short, narrow, ciliolate.
scoparium.—Leaves 30-60 mm., tomentose above.
paludosum.—Leaves 30-40 mm., margins ciliate.
arboreum.—Leaves 50-80 mm., juvenile leaves 100 mm.
(b) Group of D. urvilleanum. Leaves long, narrow, acicular.
Urvilleanum.—Leaves 70 mm. Corolla short. Bracts with short sheaths.
filifolium.—Leaves 130-160 mm. Corolla short. Bracts with long sheaths.
collinum.—Leaves 80-100 mm. Corolla long, 6 mm. Sepals equal to corolla tube.
Lessonianum.—Leaves 60-100 mm. Corolla long, 6 mm. Sepals longer than corolla tube.
X vulcanicum.—Leaves short, narrow, base auricled.
X marginatum.—Leaves short, narrow, base not auricled in upper leaves.
(c) Group of D. squarrosum. Leaves broad.
squarrosum.—Leaves 50 × 3 mm., juvenile leaves 140 × 7 mm.
patens.—Leaves 40 × 6 mm. Thick.
viride.—Leaves 55 × 5 mm. Thin. Racemes lax. Juvenile leaves 160 × 8.
X densiflorum.—Leaves 30 mm.
(2) Racemes terminal.
Group of D. recurvum.
recurvum.—Leaves 20 mm., recurved.
X varium.—Leaves 50 mm., broad.
X arcuatum.—Leaves 30-40 mm., narrow.
C. Flowers in racemes. Bracts deciduous.
Group of D. longifolium. Leaves broad.
longifolium.—Leaves long, stout.
Adamsii.—Leaves short, thin.
X acicularifolium.—Leaves 30-60 mm. Flowers solitary or in racemes.
X insulare.—Leaves 40-60 mm., tomentose above.
Subgenus Eudracophyllum. Flowers panicled.
A. Panicles below the leaves, drooping.
Group of D. Menziesii.
Menziesii.—Leaves 100-150 mm. Width 15 mm.
Townsoni.—Leaves 170 × 11 mm. to 260 × 14 mm.
fiordense.—Leaves 670 × 48 mm.
B. Panicles terminal.
(1) Panicles with few flowers in the lateral branches. Anthers included in corolla tube (except Thiebautii).
Group of D. secundum.
strictum.—Leaves 80 × 7 mm. Sepals short. Corolla 4 mm.
ramosum.—Leaves 125 × 11 mm. Sepals long.
secundum.—Leaves 140 × 7 mm. Sepals long. Corolla 6 mm.
Vieillardii.—Leaves 70 × 6 mm. Sepals long. Corolla 6 mm.
amobile.—Leaves 80 × 6 mm. Sepals short. Corolla 4 mm.
gracile.—Leaves subacicular 50 × 1.5 mm.
Thiebautii.—Leaves narrow, 120 × 4 mm. Anthers exserted.
(2) Panicle compound. Anthers exserted.
(a) Group of D. Milligani. Corolla long, sepals acute.
Sayeri.—Bracts short, tapering. Sepals short.
dracaenoides.—Bracts not seen. Sepals short.
Milligani.—Bracts long, tips recurved. Sepals long.
Fitzgeraldi.—Bracts short, broad suddenly narrowed to short point. Sepals nearly as long as corolla tubes.
(b) Group of D. latifolium. Corolla short, sepals obtuse.
latifolium.—Bark rough. Leaves large. Panicles erect. Flowers reddish. Mathewsii.—Bark rough. Leaves small. Panicles decurved. Flowers purple.
Traversii.—Bark smooth, pedicels short. Branches of panicle at acute angles.
recurvatum.—Bark smooth, pedicels short. Branches of panicle at right angles.
(c) Group of D. verticillatum. Spike very long. Few flowers in lateral fascicles.
verticillatum.—Spike 70 cm. Leaf 45 cm.
Subgenus Cordophyllum. Flowers in dense fascicles each on a separate pedicel clothed with numerous bracts.
involucratum.—Spike 40 cm. Leaf 30 cm.
Oreothamnus F. v. Muell.
Oreothamnus F. v. Muell. Fragr. Phytogr. Austr. 1, 39, 1858.
Type D. minimum F. v. Muell.
Flowers solitary or in simple racemes. Sepals acute, equal to the length of the corolla-tube. In some species such as D. Pearsoni, D. subulatum, D. pubescens, and D. scoparium both solitary flowers and few-flowered racemes may be present on the same plant.
The subgenus Oreothamnus includes all those species of Dracophyllum which I regard as the most primitive members of the genus. This theory is based on the relative simplicity of the inflorescense and bracts, and on the fact that in some species the leaves, bracts, and sepals form a graded series. The flower might be considered as specialized in its united petals and filaments, but this is a character of the family.
With the exception of one species in Tasmania (D. minimum) the subgenus is confined to the New Zealand region, being especially developed in the scrublands though several species are arborescent and belong to the middle foliage-tier of the forest.
Group of D. minimum.
Prostrate or semi-prostrate shrubs. Leaves acicular. Flowers generally terminal, solitary or sometimes in few-flowered racemes. The members of this group can usually at once be recognized by their low stature, small acicular leaves, and solitary flowers. D. muscoides differs from all the other species in its very small leaves; D. minimum
and D. prostratum are most alike in possessing short leaves clothing the branchlets; D. pronum has short leaves in tufts at the end of the branchlets; D. politum and D. Pearsoni have stout acicular leaves clothing the branchlets.
D. minimum is confined to Tasmania; of the remainder, four are found in the extreme south of New Zealand, and one is distributed through the mountains of the South Island. The distribution of this group illustrates the law of primitive species being found at the periphery of the area covered by a genus.
Dracophyllum muscoides Hook. f.
Dracophyllum muscoides Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 183, 1864 (Alps of Otago). Cheeseman, Man. N.Z. Fl. 710, 1925. Buchanan, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 14, 346, pl. 26, 1882.
Characters.—D. muscoides possesses the smallest leaves of all the species of Dracophyllum. The leaf including the sheath is about 3 mm., the lamina being narrow, but widens rather suddenly into a broad sheath. The branches are clothed with closely-imbricated leaves. Sepals reaching to the top of the corolla tube which is 2-2.5 mm. long. The plants form low dense cushions a few cm. in diameter. It is nearest allied to D. prostratum, but differs in its more compact habit and shorter leaves and flowers.
Distribution.—The area in which this species is found includes the dry mountains of South Canterbury and northern and eastern Otago between 1,200 and 2,000 m. altitude. Outside this region it has been discovered on The Hump in the Fiord district, altitude 1,067 m. (Specimens examined) Rock and Pillar Ra., Mt. St. Bathans, The Hump. Mt. Earnslow, Old Man Ra. Mt. Pisa, Mt. Alta. (Recorded), Hector Mtns., Mt. Ernest, Mt. Cardrona, Ben Lomond.
Dracophyllum minimum F. v. Muell. (Fig. 1.)
Dracophyllum minimum F. v. Muell., Fragm. Phytogr. Austr. 1, 39, 1858. (Mount La Perouse). Bentham, Fl. Austr. 4, 265, 1869.
Characters.—Forms small cushions 5 cm. across and 1.5 cm. high, or the erect clustered branches may be 4-5 cm. tall. Leaves 5-6 mm., lax or closely appressed to the stem. Flowers solitary, terminal, corolla-tube 4 mm. long, anthers included. This species resembles D. prostratum but has rather broader leaves; in habit it is more compact, and the corolla-tube is considerably longer being 4 mm. instead of 3 mm.
As indicated by the difference in habit, there may be two species in Tasmania. If so, the name minimum should apparently be applied to the prostrate species as it is this form which is represented in the Melbourne Herbarium.
Distribution.—Western mountains of Tasmania. (Specimens examined) Lake Dora, Mount Rufus. (Recorded) Mt. Humboldt, Mt. La Perouse (type).
Dracophyllum prostratum Kirk.
Dracophyllum prostratum Kirk. Trans. N.Z. Inst. 13, 384, 1881 (Mountains above Lake Harris), Cheeseman Man. N.Z. Fl. 710, 1925.
Characters.—A prostrate plant with creeping stems giving off long terminal branches clothed with small acicular leaves. In this last character it is allied to D. minimum and D. muscoides, but differs from D. pronum in which the ultimate branches are usually short with the leaves tufted at the tips. Other distinctive characters are the small flowers, corolla 3 mm., and small acicular leaves, 5-6 mm. in length including the sheaths. The branches are flexible and the bark brown.
Hybrids.—On Maungatua this species hybridzes freely with D. rosmarinifolium producing a series of forms (X. D. erectum).
Distribution.—The dry mountains of South Canterbury and north and east Otago, from 800 to 1,500 m. altitude. (Specimens examined) Mountains above Lake Harris (type), Mount St. Bathans, Hooker Valley, Maungatua Hill, Longwood Range, Takitimu Mountains. (Recorded) Clinton Valley, Blue Mountains, Ben Lomond.
Dracophyllum pronum W. R. Oliv., new name. (Fig. 2.)
D. rosmarinifolium Hook. f. Fl. Ant. 1, 48, 1844. Fl. Nov. Zel. 1, 171, 1853; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 183, 1864 (in part, not R. Br.). D. rosmarinifolium Cheeseman Man. N.Z. Fl. 427, 1906; 2nd Ed. 709, 1925 (not R. Br.). D. muscoides Armstrong, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 13, 342, 1881 (not Hook. f.). D. rosmarinifolium Betts, Trans. N.Z. Inst. 51, 155, 1919 (not R. Br).
This species was first included by Hooker under Forster's name rosmarinifolium, and, with or without D. politum, has since always been referred to by the same name. Actually however, as shown below, Forster's plant is the one generally known as uniflorum. D. politum is a distinct species, so that it becomes necessary to give the present species a new name. Cheeseman suspected that his rosimarinifolium might not be the same as Forster's, but not having seen Forster's type made no alteration.
Characters.—The distinctive characters of D. pronum are the prostrate habit, with stiff branches covered with grey bark, and bearing the leaves in tufts at their tips. The young shoots are covered with leaves for some distance from their tips. Leaves acicular, with a short, broad membranous sheath; sheath 3-4 mm., lamina 6-11 mm. long. Flowers solitary, terminating the lateral branches; corolla-tube 4 mm. long. Sepals as long as the corolla-tube.
D. pronum differs from D. prostratum in its longer leaves disposed in tufts at the tips of the branches, in its rigid habit, its grey bark and larger corolla-tube. From D. politum it differs in its usually longer leaves disposed in tufts, and its exposed flowers. It looks very different from the densely-foliaged D. politum where the flowers are almost concealed. Dried specimens of D. pronum may be recognized by the greenish leaves in small tufts, and grey bark, characters which distinguish it from both D. prostratum and D. politum.
Forms.—Dracophyllum pronum shows certain differences in life form and size according to habitat. In exposed alpine stations it is a low prostrate shrub closely hugging the rocky surface, and with scant foliage in tufts at the tips of the branches. In such situations the leaves are often reduced to 5-6 mm. in length. In shrub formations at lower altitudes the plants are more laxly branched and, taller with the leaves 10-11 mm. in length. In bogs the species becomes a scrambling shrub with long wiry stems with few branches. These observations were made on the mountains above Arthurs Pass.
Hybrids.—In the Arthurs Pass district D. pronum grows in association with D. Kirkii, and there is occasionally found a form which seems best explained by being a hybrid between these two species (X D. saxicolum).
Distribution.—Mountain districts from north Otago through Canterbury to Nelson from 800 to 1,800 m. altitude. (Specimens examined) Mount Rochfort, Mount William, Mountains above Arthurs Pass, Ben More, Mount Torlesse, Hooker Glacier, Mount Arnold, Mount Ida, Mount Dobson Range, Wairau Mountains (Nelson), Mount Captain (Amuri), Eweburn Creek, Broken River.
Dracophyllum politum (Cheesem.) Ckne. (Fig. 3.)
D. rosemarinifolium var. politum Cheeseman, Man. N.Z. Fl. 427, 1906. D. politum (Cheeseman) Cockayne, Bot. Surv. Stewart Id. 43, 1909, Cheeseman Mem. N.Z. Fl. 709, 1925.
Characters.—A prostrate shrub with the branchlets densely clothed with stout acicular leaves with broad sheathing bases. The leaves dry reddish-brown and the ultimate branches have brown bark. The flowers are solitary and almost hidden by the leaves. In the closely-imbricating leaves this species resembles the much smaller D. prostratum. I consider, however, that its nearest ally is D. pearsoni which it resembles in its densely-imbricating brown leaves, but in D. Pearsoni the leaves are much longer and the flowers are usually in few-flowered racemes.
Habitat forms.—Always a prostrate shrub, this species may be wide spreading as is usually the case in sub-alpine scrub. On the exposed top of the Remarkable Range in the south of Stewart Island it occurs as a compact almost cushion-like mass with short branches and compact foliage. The leaves of such specimens are 7 mm. including the sheath. In the ordinary state the total length of the leaf is about 10 mm.
Distribution.—Stewart Island, South Otago, from 300 to 1,100 m. altitude. (Specimens examined) Rakiahua, Remarkables, and Mount Anglem in Stewart Island. Maungatua Hill, the Hump, Mt. Barber, and Mount Aspiring, in Otago.
Dracophyllum Pearsoni Kirk.
Dracophyllum Pearsoni Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst. 17, 223, 1885. Cheeseman Man. N.Z. Fl. 706, 1925.
Characters.—A small erect shrub. Leaves stout, acicular, brown, densely clothing the branches, sheath 6, lamina 20 mm. Flowers in few-flowered racemes near the ends of the branches. This species
resembles D. politum in the imbricating brown leaves but differs in the leaves being straighter and longer, in the flowers being in small racemes, and in the erect habit of the plant.
Distribution.—Stewart Island, from 300 to 950 m. altitude. (Specimens examined) Fraser Peaks, Remarkables, Mount Anglem, Smiths Lookout.
X Dracophyllum erectum n. hybr. sp.
(D. prostratum X D. rosmarinifolium.)
Frutex parvus erectus; foliis acicularibus, 10-12 mm. longis, imbricatis; floribus, solitaries, terminalibus, 4 mm. longis.
Found on Maungatua in association with D. prostratum and D. rosmarinifolium. In its characters it is intermediate between these two species and it is therefore presumed to be a hybrid between them.
Characters.—A small erect shrub with the ultimate branches long and laxly clothed with small acicular leaves. Leaf-sheaths broad, membranous, edged with white. Flowers solitary terminal. The elongated branchlets clothed with acicular leaves is a character of D. prostratum, but the length of the leaves and their white-edged sheaths seems to be due to the influence of D. rosmarinifolium.
Distribution.—Maungatua Hill, 900 m. altitude. Hunter Mountains.
X Dracophyllum saxicolum n. hybr. sp.
(D. pronum X D. Kirkii.)
Frutex prostrates; foliis linearibus, planis, 13 mm. longis fasciculis; floribus solitariis, 6 mm. longis.
This form occurs sparingly on the mountains above Arthurs Pass in company with D. pronum and D. Kirkii. The leaves are intermediate between those of these species so that it is presumed that it is a hybrid between them.
Characters.—A prostrate shrub, the branches flattened against the ground as in D. Kirkii. Leaves linear, but broader and flatter than in D. pronum, and slightly glaucus and ribbed, thus resembling D. Kirkii. Corolla-tube 6 mm. D. saxicolum resembles D. pronum in the small leaves disposed in clusters at the tips of the branches, but it departs from this species and approaches D. Kirkii in the slightly broad glaucous leaves and large flowers.
Distribution.—Mountains above Arthurs Pass.
Group of D. rosmarinifolium.
Erect shrubs with acicular leaves, 20-120 mm. long, and axillary flowers, solitary or in few-flowered racemes. This group is distinguished from the group of D. minimum by its upright habit, and axillary flowers, that is, the flowers are borne on short lateral branches. D. rosmarinifolium and D. peninsulare are dense shrubs with large flowers; the other species are slender shrubs with small flowers, those of D. palustre being solitary, while those of D. subulatum are usually in few-flowered racemes. D. palustre is found sparingly throughout the South Island; D. rosmarinifolium is more frequent there and extends to the Tararua Range as well; D. subulatum is confined to the central portion of the North Island, D. peninsulare to Banks Peninsula.
Dracophyllum rosmarinifolium (Forst.) R. Br. (Fig. 4.)
Epacris rosmarinifolia Forst. Fl. Ins. Austr. Prodr. 13, 1786 (Dusky Sound). Dracophyllum rosmarinifolium R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 556, 1810 (not Hook. f. Fl. Ant. 1, 48, 1844 nor subsequent authors). D. uniflorum Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 182, 1864, Cheeseman Man. N.Z. Fl. 709, 1925. D. acerosum Berggren, Minn. Fisiog. Soll. Lund. 15, 1877.
Forster described Epacris rosmarinifolia from specimens collected at Dusky Sound during Cook's second voyage to New Zealand. His name was listed in several subsequent works including Brown's Prodromus where it was mentioned as belonging to Labillardiere's genus Dracophyllum. The first botanist to apply the name to specimens collected in New Zealand after Forster's visit was Sir J. D. Hooker and he associated it with the species in this account, named D. pronum. Hooker was followed by all subsequent authors who wrote on the plants of New Zealand. Doubt of the correctness of Hooker's action was however raised by the fact that New Zealand botanists had not collected the species (D. pronum) in or near the locality visited by Forster. Cheeseman in his Flora stated that the D. rosmarinifolium of his work may not correspond with Forster's type which he had not been able to see. During the time I was writing this paper, Professor Arnold Wall, of Christchurch, was visiting England, so I asked him specially to examine Forster's type with a view to settling its identity. This Professor Wall did, and very kindly wrote to me from London under date June 14th, 1928, as follows:—
“To-day I went to the British Museum (South Kensington) and saw Forster's type. There is one small twig only with no fruit or flower, locality not stated, but certainly Dusky Bay, as I also saw Forster's drawing of the plant which shows flowers and an analysis thereof and gives Dusky Bay as locality. The leaves are exactly one inch long. The only other specimen of D. rosmarinifolium there is one of Kirk's from Amuri, which is exactly the same plant as Forster's (in the drawing the plant is called Epacris rosmarinifolia). It was plain to me at once that Forster's plant (and Kirk's) is simply what we now call D. uniflorum. I got out the specimens of that species and Dr. Rendle agreed with me that they perfectly match the D. rosmarinifolium of Forster.”
This finally settles the identity of Forster's Epacris rosmarinifolia, and New Zealand botanists are in debt to Professor Wall for clearing up the point.
Characters.—As pointed out by Hooker the characters by which this species may be recognized are the short pungent leaves and the large solitary flowers. The leaves are, however, longer than Hooker states, averaging 30 mm., though many examples have them only 20 mm. The corolla-tube is 6 mm. in length. Generally this species forms an erect, dense shrub, which when dominating the alpine scrub may be recognized at a distance as dark patches often forming a belt above the forest-line. D. rosmarinifolium is allied to D. palustre by its small leaves and solitary flowers, but its dense habit easily marks it off while the leaves are broader and longer and the flowers longer.
Forms.—At least two forms, apparently not depending on habitat, may be recognized. In one the leaves are narrow, less than 1 mm. in width, and may reach a length of 35 or 40 mm. This seems to be the prevalent form of the Tararua Ranges, Nelson, and Canterbury. The other form has short leaves, up to 25 mm. in length, and 1.5 mm. broad. This form is found in Otago (Mount Barber). Forster's type agrees with this broad-leaved form. A form perhaps depending on habitat has been sent me by Messrs. J. Scott Thomson and G. Simpson. It forms a shrub with pendant branches 1½ m. long and narrow leaves 30-50 mm. long. It occurs on rock faces near Deep Stream in Central Otago.
Hybrids.—D. rosmarinifolium appears to hybridize with D. longifolium, wherever the two species come together (X D. acicularifolium). It also crosses with D. prostratum on Maungatua Hill (X D. erectum).
Distribution.—In scrub above the forest-line from the Tararua Ranges to the South of Otago. Common everywhere, often the dominant plant in the formation. (Specimens examined) Mount Holds-worth, Mineral Belt, Mount Arthur, Buckland Peaks, Jacks Pass, St. James (Amuri), Ben More, Mount Torlesse, Mountains above Arthurs Pass, Maungatua Hill, Hector Mountains, Lake Wakatipu, End Peak, Takitimu Mountains, Wairau Mountains. (Recorded) Rangitata Range, Mount Fyffe.
Dracophyllum peninsulare n. sp.
Frutex erectus; foliis acicularibus, 100-180 mm. longis, 1 mm. latis, basis 20 mm. longis, auriculatis, ciliatis; floribus solitariis, sepalis acuminatis, ciliatis, corollis 7 mm. longis.
Characters.—D. peninsulare is a very distinct species, easily recognized by its large solitary flowers and long acicular leaves. It is an erect shrub 1 m. tall or more with purplish-brown bark. The leaves are narrow linear, with long oblong sheaths usually unequally truncated and auricled at the top, the shoulders being ciliated. Length of lamina 100-190 mm., breadth 1 mm., sheath 20 × 5 mm. Flowers solitary, several below the terminal clusters of leaves. Sepals long, acute, with margins and backs ciliated. Corolla-tube 7 mm. long.
The large solitary flowers place D. peninsulare in the group of D. rosmarinifolium but it differs from the other species of the group in the long acicular leaves. The leaves quite resemble those of the group of D. Urvilleanum.
Distribution.—Banks Peninsula. Abundant 480 m. and upwards. (Laing).
Dracophyllum palustre Ckne., new name.
Dracophyllum uniflorum var. virgatum Cheeseman, Man. N.Z. Fl. 427, 1906, 2nd Ed. 709, 1925. D. virgatum (Cheeseman) Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 44, 53, 1912.
Characters.—This species is distinguished by its strict habit, the long slender stems bearing flowers singly and laterally. The leaves are narrow, short acicular, 20-25 mm. long. Flowers with short
corolla-tube, 4-5 mm. long, lobes acute. D. palustre is allied to D. rosmarinifolium by its solitary flowers and narrow short leaves, but it differs in its slender strict habit, small leaves and small flowers arranged on short peduncles some distance below the tips of the branches. A character common to the two species is the pale margin to the bracts. In its habit and leaves D. palustre resembles D. subulatum, which species however has much shorter corolla-tubes and the flowers generally in few-flowered racemes. The Mount Frederic specimens of D. palustre have some of the flowers in racemes.
Distribution.—Nelson, North Westland and Otago, in swamps, sea level to 500 m. altitude. (Specimens examined) Waimangaroa River, Cedar Creek, Mount Hope, Mount Frederic, Denniston, Lake Brunner, Kumara, Mount Ida, Mount Earnslaw.
Dracophyllum subulatum Hook. f.
Dracophyllum subulatum Hoot. f. Fl. Ant. 1, 50, 1844. Cheese-man Man. N.Z. Fl. 707, 1925; Ill. N.Z. Fl. Pl. 132, 1914. D. angustifolium Colenso, Trans. N.Z. Inst. 28, 603, 1896.
Characters.—D. subulatum is characterized by the slender erect branches, small reddish leaves, 20-30 mm. long, and small flowers, 2-3 mm. long, in few-flowered racemes or solitary. A further noticeable character is the light margin to the bracts. In all these characters it resembles D. palustre, which species, however, differs in the flowers being almost always solitary, the corolla-tube being a little longer and the light margin to the bracts being more pronounced.
Habitat forms.—Growing in warm ground in Leptospermum ericoides association at Waiotapu this species tends to lose its slender form, the branches spreading out into a more bushy form. The branches are pale grey, perhaps caused partly by a deposit of sulphur, and the leaves instead of being strict are spreading and flexuose.
Hybrids.—D. subulatum hybridizes with D. filifolium where the two species mingle as on the Waimarino Plains (X D. vulcanicum) and also with D. lessonianum (X D. marginatum).
Distribution.—From the middle Waikato and Upper Thames Valleys and Rotorua to Ruapehu, the Kaimanawa and Ruahine Ranges. It is dominant over large areas on the Rangitaiki Plains. (Specimens examined)—Te Waotu, Mangapeehi, Rotorua, Patetere Plateau, Lake Tarawera, Taupo, Rangitaiki Plains, Tongariro, Ruapehu, Waiotapu, Waimarino Plains, Kaimanawa Range, Ruahine Range, Mount Blowhard (Hawkes Bay), Kuripapanga (Hawkes Bay). (Recorded)—Tarawera, Cambridge, Matamata.
Group of D. Kirkii.
Prostrate shrubs with broad grass-like ribbed leaves, and flowers either solitary or in few-flowered racemes. The two species included in this group are almost identical in appearance, but D. Kirkii has the leaves glabrous and the flowers solitary, while D. pubescens has pubescent leaves and flowers in few-flowered racemes. Their area of distribution extends through Nelson, North Westland and West Canterbury, D. Kirkii occupying the whole range while D. pubescens is found only in a restricted area to the North of the Lower Buller River.
The life history of D. pubescens might indicate an origin for the group of D. Kirkii from acicular leaved species as in the group of D. minimum. On this hypothesis D. pubescens would have advanced a stage further than D. Kirkii.
Dracophyllum Kirkii Berggren.
Dracophyllum Kirkii Berggr. Journ. Bot. 17, 104, 1880. Cheese-man Man. N.Z. Fl. 708, 1925. D. uniflorum Berrgr. Minn. Fisiog. Sall. Lund. 15, pl. 4, 1877 (not Hook. f.).
Characters.—The distinctive characters are the prostrate habit, broad glabrous grass-like leaves, and solitary flowers. Leaf sheath 4-5 mm., lamina 20-35 mm. long, 2-4 mm. broad. Corolla-tube 5 mm. long.
Forms.—Specimens from southern localities (Copland River, Black Birch Creek, Hooker Valley) have leaves narrower, 1.5-2.5 mm. broad, than those from more northern districts, 4-4.5 mm. broad, these in this character approaching D. pubescens.
Hybrids.—In the Arthurs Pass district hybrids between D. Kirkii and D. pronum have been detected where the two species are growing together in open scrub (X D. saxicolum).
Distribution.—South. Nelson, North Westland, West Canterbury from 800-2,000. m. altitude. (Specimens examined)—Mountains above Arthurs Pass, Rangi Taipo, Kellys Hill, Griffin Range, Ashburton Mountains, Copland River, Black Birch Creek, Hooker Valley. (Recorded)—Lake Tennyson, Mount Torlesse.
Dracophyllum pubescens Cheeseman.
Dracophyllum pubescens Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 426, 1906; 2nd Ed. 708, 1925.
Characters.—Characterized by its semi-prostrate habit, its broad pubescent grass-like leaves and its flowers in few-flowered racemes. The flowers are occasionally solitary. Leaf-sheath 6 mm., lamina 45-50 mm. long, 4-8 mm. broad. Corolla-tube 5 mm. long.
In the young plant the first leaves are acicular, 4-5 mm. long, and about .5 mm. wide. These persist on lateral branches near the base. The next leaves are broad, like the mature leaves but smaller, blade 22 × 2.5 mm. From this position the leaves increase in size up the stem until they become larger than the mature leaves.
Distribution.—On mountains to the north of the lower Buller Valley, 500-1,000 m. altitude. (Specimens examined)—Mount Rochfort, Mount Frederic, Mount Augustus, Burnetts Face.
Group of D. scoparium.
Erect shrubs on trees, with narrow, ciliolate leaves. Flowers in Few-flowered racemes with persistent bracts, or solitary. The flowers are small, corolla-tube 4 mm. D. scoparium from Campbell Island and D. paludosum from Chatham Island are closely allied and if growing on the same island could scarcely have been defined. D. arboreum from Chatham Island is evidently an ally though differing from the other two in its larger wider leaves and distinct juvenile form. The group is not represented on the main islands of New Zealand, but it approaches nearest the group of D. rosmarinifolium.
Dracophyllum scoparium Hook. f.
Dracophyllum scoparium Hook. f. Fl. Ant. 1, 46, Pl. 33 (except capsule and seed), 1844. Campbell Id. Cheeseman Man. N.Z. Fl. 706, 1925. D. Urvilleanum var. scoparium Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 736, 1867. D. subantarcticum Cockayne, Veg. N.Z. 265, 1921 (name only). D. Urvilleanum Filhol Miss. Ile Camp. Bot. 6, 1885 (not A. Rich). Dracophyllum sp. Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 36, 271, 1904.
There has been a certain amount of confusion in the nomenclature of this species owing to Hooker associating it with D. Urvilleanum, to which it bears little resemblance, and to the plate in the Flora Antarctica not quite representing the species but partly showing the habit of D. arboreum. Through the courtesy of the Director of the Kew Herbarium I have been enabled to examine a portion of the type specimen and it is undoubtedly the species that grows abundantly in Campbell Island. Botanists finding the common Dracophyllum on Campbell Island in some respects unlike the plate in the Flora Antarctica which they naturally took to represent the species described by Hooker were doubtful as to the correct name to be applied to it. The Director of the Kew Herbarium informs me, however, that the description and figures in the original account, with the exception of the eapsule and seed and probably the habit figure, which are based on Chatham Island material, refer to the species herein delimited.
Characters.—An erect shrub, 2 m. tall, with dense foliage. Leaves narrow, 30-60 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, tomentose above. Flowers solitary or in few-flowered racemes. Sepals and bracts with white ciliate margins and pubescent within near the tips. D. scoparium is very closely allied to D. paludosum differing mainly in the longer narrower leaves which are tomentose above instead of being ciliate only on the margins as in D. paludosum.
Hybrids.—D. scoparium crosses freely with D. longifolium with which it associated on Campbell Island, producing a series of intermediate forms (X D. insulare).
Distribution.—Campbell Island, forming the principal constituent of the scrub.
Dracophyllum paludosum Ckne.
Dracophyllum paludosum Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst. 34, 318, 1902. D. scoparium var. paludosum Cheeseman Man. N.Z. Fl. 707, 1925. D. rosmarinifolium Buchanan, Trans. N.Z. Inst. 7, 338, 1875 (not Forst.).
Characters.—A shrub which in its flowering state varies from a few cm. to 2 m. tall. Leaves narrow, 30-40 mm. long, 1-1.5 mm. wide, the margins minutely ciliated. Flowers solitary or in few-flowered racemes. Sepals and bracts with pale ciliate margins. In a flowering plant 15 cm. tall, which I collected in a swamp on Chatham Island the flowers were all solitary, each one subtended by a few leaf-like bracts.
Distribution.—Chatham Island, chiefly in swamps.
Dracophyllum arboreum Ckne. (Fig. 5.)
Dracophyllum latifolium var. ciliolatum Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 736, 1867. D. arboreum Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst. 34, 318, 1902. Cheeseman Man. N.Z. Fl. 707, 1925. D. scoparium Mueller, Veg. Chatham Id. 42, 1864 (not Hook. f.).
D. scoparium var. major Cheeseman, Man. N.Z. Fl. 425, 1906.
This species was first described by Hooker under the varietal name ciliolatum. It would be in accordance with the principle of the law of priority to use this name for the species, but in deference to a rule in the same code I adopt the name arboreum. As showing the complexity of the code Cheeseman bestowed a third name major under the impression that he was abiding by the rules.
Characters.—A shrub or small tree, up to 10 m. tall. Leaves with densely-ciliate margins, and at the base pubescent above. Juvenile leaves large, 120-180 mm. long; mature leaves 80 mm. long. Flowers in racemes with broad persistent bracts with ciliate margins; corolla-tube 5 mm. long. This species looks different from D. scoparium and D. paludosum but the disposition of the cilia on the leaf-margins seems to ally it to the group of D. scoparium, as a member which has advanced considerably in size, diversity of leaf and definiteness in the raceme.
Group of D. Urvilleanum.
Erect shrubs or trees. Leaves long, very narrow, hollowed above, except at the tip, more or less of which is flat above. Flowers in racemes with the bracts persistent or deciduous.
This group includes those species of Dracophyllum which have long, very narrow leaves and flowers in racemes. Two, D. Urvilleanum and D. filifolium, are very closely allied, and in their partly deciduous bracts approach the group of D. longifolium. D. collinum is related to D. Urvilleanum, but has a longer flower, and long persistent bracts. D. Lessonianum is quite distinct from the other species by reason of tis long sepals and clustered racemes.
D. Urvilleanum and D. collinum occupy different districts in the north of the South Island, D. filifolium is found over most of the North Island south of latitude 38° S., while D. Lessonianum is only found to the north of this line. Such a type of distribution, that is, species occupying adjacent but indistinct areas is not uncommon for related species.
Dracophyllum Urvilleanum A. Rich. (Fig. 6.)
Dracophyllum Urvilleanum Richard, Voy, Astrol. Bot. 223, 1832.
The accounts published under this name are in such utter confusion that it is useless to quote any further references. It is in fact quite impossible to tell what form is meant when the name Urvilleanum is used in botanical publications. It has been applied not only to 3 of the species in the group of D. Urvilleanum as here defined but also to other species such as D. scoparium, and D. longi
folium. I am here restricting the name Urvilleanum to the species found on the north coast of the South Island. It was originally collected by D'Urville in Tasman Bay.
Characters.—An erect shrub. Mature leaves very narrow acicular, hollowed above, sheaths narrowing abruptly to the leaf-lamina. Leaf-sheath 6, lamina 70 mm.; width 1 mm. Juvenile leaves larger and thinner, sheath 8, lamina 120 mm.; width 3 mm. Racemes terminating short lateral branches bearing a few leaves below them; few-flowered, bracts with sheaths suddenly narrowing to an acicular point, deciduous. Sepals acute, margins sparingly ciliate. Corolla equal in length to the sepals, 5 mm., with acute lobes.
D. Urvilleanum is very closely related to D. filifolium, differing in the bracts narrowing regularly, that is without a shoulder, in the few-flowered racemes with deciduous bracts and in the large grass-like leaves of the juvenile plant.
Distribution.—Western shores of Tasman Bay, D'Urville Island, Picton, Tennyson Inlet.
Dracophyllum filifolium Hook. f.
Dracophyllum filifolium Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. 1, 169, 1853. D. setifolium Stchegel, Bull. Soc. N.H. Mosc. 32, 23, 1859. D. pungens Colenso, Trans. N.Z. Inst. 28, 602, 1896. D. virgatum and D. heterophyllum Colenso, l.c., p. 605, 1896.
This form has been much misunderstood, Cheeseman for instance recording it as occurring from the Bay of Islands to Stewart Island. Evidently several species as defined in this paper are involved in this conception.
Characters.—A shrub or small tree. Leaves very long and narrow, 130-160 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, hollowed above except near the tip, sheath 10-15 mm. long. Racemes narrow terminating slender lateral branches with a few leaves below them, 7-9 flowered; bracts usually persistent, the sheath narrowing abruptly to the tip. Sepals equal in length to the corolla-tube, margins ciliate, 5 mm.
Compared with D. Urvilleanum, which is its nearest ally, this species differs in its racemes having more flowers with persistent bracts and in the slightly different form of the bracts. Usually the leaves are longer than in D. Urvilleanum and the racemes are longer and narrower.
Forms.—Differences are observed when specimens from different localities and habitats are compared. The leaves of plants from the Tararua Ranges are very long, reaching 160 mm.; those from plants from the Waimarino Plains are considerably shorter, the longest being about 100 mm.
Hybrids.—D. filifolium hybridizes freely with D. recurvum (X D. arcuatum), and with D. subulatum (X D. vulcanicum).
Distribution.—From Mount Egmont, Mount Ruapehu, and the Ruahine Range southwards to Cook Strait, ascending to 4,500 feet. (Specimens examined)—Mount Egmont, Mount Ruapehu, Waimarino Plains, Ruahine Range, Mount Holdsworth, Mount Marchant, Mungaroa.
Dracophyllum collinum n. sp. (Fig. 7a.)
Frutex erectus; foliis augustatis, subulatis, 80-100 mm. longis, 1.5 mm. latis; floribus racemosis, 6 mm. longis, bracteis persistenbibus, sepalis acumuatis. Type locality, Tinline Valley, Marlborough.
I have seen this species only from one locality, but it does not resemble any species or hybrid with which I am acquainted, so I am describing it as a new species.
Characters.—Evidently a slender erect shrub. In the specimens examined the shoot extends 25 cm. beyond the cluster of racemes. Leaves narrow but sufficiently wide at the base to describe them as subulate; widening abruptly into the sheath. Racemes terminating short lateral branches with a few leaves below them, 8-10 flowered. Corolla rather long, 6 mm. Bracts persistent, large, with long points, the sheath narrowing gradually to the point.
D. collinum is placed in the group of D. Urvilleanum because of its narrow leaves. They are, however, slightly wider at the base than in the mature leaves of D. Urvilleanum or D. filifolium. The sheath is shouldered but not auricled above. The racemes are larger, the corolla-tube longer, and the bracts wider than in D. Urvilleanum. The sepals also are longer and more acuminate than in D. Urvilleanum.
Distribution.—Tinline Valley, Marlborough.
Dracophyllum Lessonianum A. Rich.
Dracophyllum. Lessonianum. A. Rich. Voy. Astrol. Bot. 223, 1832. Homb. & Jacq. Bot. Voy. Astrol. * Zel. 85, pl. 29, 1853. D. robustum Hook. f. Fl. Ant. 1, 49, 1844.
References in literature to this species, or variety of D. Urvilleanum. as it has sometimes been classed, are quite confusing, more than one form evidently being included. Thus the range given in Cheeseman's Flora, namely, Rotorua to Stewart Island, is wholly outside its area of distribution as given in this revision. Nor could such a distributional area be correct, as Richard's specimens probably came from the Bay of Islands, which is one of the localities in which Lesson collected during his visit to New Zealand in the Astrolobe. Hooker (Handb. N.Z. Fl. p. 182, 1864) gives the distribution of D. Lessonianum as north of Auckland only.
Characters.—A shrub or small tree 10 m. tall. Leaves narrow, 60-100 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, hollowed above for more than half the distance from the base; sheath auricled. Racemes long, terminating short lateral branches, clustered towards the ends of the branches; bracts, persistent, with long narrow sheaths; sepals acuminate, slightly exceeding the corolla-tube; corolla-tube long, 6 mm. The juvenile leaves are wider than the mature leaves, lamina length 60 mm., width 3 mm.
D. Lessonianum is easily distinguished from the other members of the group by tis generally shorter leaves, but especially by the long racemes, with long acuminate sepals and long flowers; the bracts with narrow sheaths are also characteristic. The dense clusters of racemes gives the plant a distinct appearance.
Forms.—In Mr. Carse's herbarium are specimens from the same locality (Pukemiro) which show considerable differences in size. In one the leaf is 100 mm. and the flower 6 mm. long; in another the leaf is 50 mm. and the flower 4 mm. long, but what status should be given these forms I am unable to decide.
Hybrids.—At Tauhei (Piako County) it hybridizes with D. subulatum (X D. marginatum); in the Mangonui County, it crosses with D. squarrosum (X D. densiflorum).
Distribution.—Auckland Province north of S. Lat. 38°. (Specimens examined)—Kaitaia, Mount Camel, Pukemiro, Kaimaumau, Fairburn, Maropui (Kaihu Valley), Whangarei, Great Omaha, Bay of Islands, Tauhei (Piako), Te Aroha.
X Dracophyllum vulcanicum n. hybr. sp.
(D. filifolium X D. subulatum.)
Frutex erectus, gracilis; foliis filiformis 40-50 mm. longis; basis auriculatis; racemis paucifloris, Iateralibus, bracteis angustatis.
Characters.—This form is found in association with D. filifolium and D. subulatum. Its characters are a combination of some from each of these species, so that it is with little doubt a hybrid between them. It is a slender strict shrub, much like D. subulatum. Its leaves are very narrow, like those of D. filifolium, but they are much shorter, no doubt due to the influence of D. subulatum. The flowers, like those of D. subulatum, are small and solitary or in few-flowered racemes. Bracts with narrow sheaths, and light-coloured margins.
Distribution.—Waimarino Plains, Ngauruhoe.
X Dracophyllum marginatum n. hybr. sp.
(D. Lessonianum X D. subulatum.)
Frutex gracilis; ramis tennibus; foliis filiformis; basis truncatis; racemis paucifloris, lateralibus vel terminalibus.
Characters.—The plants grouped under this hybrid look very different, but agree in being slender shrubs with short filiform leaves, and short few-flowered racemes of small flowers. The leaf sheaths are like those of D. Lessonianum, that is, narrower and not auricled on those leaves near the tips of the branchlets but auricled on leaves lower down, and they have whitish margins. The lamina may not be longer than in D. subulatum but is shorter than in D. Lessonianum and has the large sheaths of D. Lessonianum, The racemes are much as in D. subulatum, but are clustered and terminate the branches as in D. Lessonianum.
The plants examined were all collected at Tauhei, Piako County, by Mr. H. Carse, in association with D. Lessonianum and D. subulatum. There can scarcely be any doubt that they are hybrids between these species. They resemble quite closely X D. vulcanicum the hybrid between D. filifolium and D. subulatum.
Distribution.—Tauhei (Piako County, New Zealand).
Group of D. squarrosum.
This group is characterized by its broad leaves, and lateral racemes with persistent bracts. The adult leaves are moderately short, but the juvenile leaves may be long. The group stands between
those of D. Urvilleanum and D. longifolium, which latter group it resembles in the acute sepals with ciliate margins and large juvenile leaves. One species (D. viride) is easily separated from the others by its thin leaves and lax racemes; of the other two, D. patens, has much broader leaves than D. squarrosum. All the species are confined to New Zealand north of S. Lat. 38°, one being restricted to the far north, and another to Great Bárrier Island.
Dracophyllum squarrosum Hook. f. (Fig. 8.)
Dracophyllum squarrosum Hook. f. Fl. Ant. 1, 48, 1844. Manukau Bay. D. Sinclairii Cheeseman, Man. N.Z. Fl. 421, 1906; 2nd Ed. 704, 1905
Under Article 50 of the International Rules of Botanical Nomenclature, Cheeseman would not be justified in rejecting squarrosum and founding the new name Sinclairii on account of the prior Dracophyllum squarrosum Brown, as this species was described as Epacris squarrosa by Poiret, was later transferred to Sphenotoma by Don, and at the time Cheeseman wrote was accepted as belonging to Sphenotoma. Brown's classification was not generally accepted. Sphenotoma is retained in De Candolle's Prodromus and Mueller's Fragmenta.
Characters.—The distinctive characters of D. squarrosum are the short moderately broad leaves of the mature plant, the large leaves of the juvenile plant, and the clustered racemes terminating short lateral branches. The sepals are acute with sparsely-ciliate margins and longer than the corolla-tube. The corolla-tube is short, 4 mm. The sheaths of the leaves are not distinctly auricled but join the lamina abruptly. The young leaves reach a length, including the sheath, of 150 mm., with a width of 7 mm. just above the sheath. Adult leaves measure 60 mm. in length and 3 mm. in breadth.
Distribution.—New Zealand north of S. Lat. 38° 30′. (Specimens examined)—Reef Point, Waitemata Harbour, Thames, Tapotopoto Bay, Mount Messenger.
Dracophyllum patens n. sp. (Fig. 9.)
Frutex parvos; ramis robustis; foliis, latis, brevibus, 45 mm. longis, 6.5 mm. latis, crassis, subulatis; racemis, paucifloris, bracteis sepalisque latis.
Characters.—The leaves resemble very closely those of D. strictum, but the lateral racemes ally the species to D. squarrosum. Leaves short, broad at the base, narrowing gradually to the apex; at the base they widen suddenly to the broad sheath which has thin scarious margins. Sheath 8 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, lamina 38 mm. long, 6.5 mm. wide at base. Racemes short stout, 5-6 flowered. Bracts with broad sheaths and short broad points. Sepals broadly acute, a few cilia on the margins near the base. Corolla-tube wide, 4 mm. long.
The nearest ally of this species is D. squarrosum, but it differs in being stouter in all its parts. The leaves of D. patens are about twice as wide as those of a similar length in D. squarrosum. I have seen no specimens of D. squarrosum from the mainland approaching it, hence I conclude that it is not a habitat form of that species.
Distribution.—Great Barrier Island, in scrub at summit of Mount Hobson.
Dracophyllum viride n. sp. (Fig. 10.)
Frutex vel arbor, ramis gracilibus; foliis, tenuibus, latis, viridibus; racemis, laxis, paucifloris, sepalis, acutis, bracteis attenuatis.
Characters.—Easily distinguished from all other species of Dracophyllum by its thin, broad, grass-like leaves, and few lax racemes immediately below the tufts of leaves which terminate the branches. According to Mr. Carse it is a small tree 3.5 m. tall, with a trunk 10-23 cm. in diameter. The ultimate branches are very slender and bear at their tips the long green leaves. The racemes are few, and consist of 5 to 6 flowers separated by short intervals on a slender rhachis. Bracts narrow, thin, acuminate. Sepals narrow, acuminate, with a few marginal cilia. Corolla-tube short, 4 mm.
Juvenile leaves reach a length of 175 mm. (including the sheath), and a width of 8 mm. Mature leaves 60-70 mm. long, 5-6.5 wide.
Distribution.—Mangonui County, North New Zealand. (Specimens examined)—Spirits Bay, Peria. (Petrie referred the Peria specimens to his D. Adamsii), Tauroa.
X Dracophyllum densiflorum n. hybr. sp.
(D. Lessonianum X D. squarrosum.)
Frutex; ramis tenuibus, apexes multo divisis; foliis subulatis, complanatis basis varginantis vix auriculatis; racemis paucifloris, ramos laterales ad apexes; bracteis sepalisque ciliatis.
Characters.—This form is recognized by the dense foliage, few-flowered racemes terminating slender lateral branches and sometimes the main branches, small flowers with ciliate bracts and sepals, and moderately narrow short leaves.
In the clustered racemes of narrow flowers this form resembles D. Lessonianum, but the corolla-tube and sepals are short as in D. squarrosum. The leaves resemble those of D. squarrosum but are narrower, showing the influence of D. Lessonianum. I conclude therefore that it is a hybrid between the two species. It comes within the geographical range of both these species, though I am unable to state definitely that in the localities in which it is found it is immediately associated with them.
Leaves 30-50 mm. long, including the sheath, 5 mm. width at base 1-1.5 mm. Sepals acuminate, ciliate, longer than the corolla-tube, 5-6 mm. Corolla-tube 4-5 mm. Racemes 7-8 flowered bracts narrow.
Distribution.—Awanui, Rangaunu Harbour (both localities in Mangaonui County, New Zealand).
Group of D. recurvum.
Prostrate shrub with recurved leaves and short dense terminal racemes with persistent bracts. In the shape of the leaf it comes near the group of D. squarrosum, but the terminal racemes separate from all groups of the subgenus Oreothamnus. A single species only; found in the central portion of the North Island is included.
Dracophyllum recurvum Hook. f.
Dracophyllum recurvum Hook, f. Fl. Ant. 1, 50, 1844 (Tongariro). Cheeseman Man. N.Z. Fl. 704, 1925; Ill. N.Z. Fl. pl. 131, 1914. D. rubrum Col. Trans. N.Z. Inst. 20, 200, 1888. D. tenuicaulis Col. l.c. 22, 476, 1890. D. brachyphyllum Col. l.c. 28, 604, 1896. D. brachycladum Col. l.c. 31, 275, 1899.
Characters.—The species is easily recognized, the recurved leaves and terminal racemes separating it from all other species of the genus. It is usually a low or prostrate shrub with wide-spreading branches covered with grey bark. Leaves about 20 mm. long, 1.2-1.5 mm. wide. Racemes about 1.5 mm. long, and nearly 1 cm. wide.
Habitat forms.—Growing among other shrubs D. recurvum may be a semi-erect shrub .5 m. tall with curved leaves 30 mm. long, but in the desert scrub of Mount Ruapehu it is a prostrate shrub a few cm. tall and with leaves 20-25 mm. long and curved to such an extent as sometimes to form more than half a circle. The leaves are reddish in such plants.
Hybrids.—D. recurvum crosses with both D. longifolium and D. filifolium producing hybrids (X D. varium, X D. arcuatum) which are very much alike in appearance but differ in the width of the leaves and the size of the racemes.
Distribution.—On mountains in the central and eastern portion of the North Island of New Zealand. (Specimens examined)—Mount Hikurangi, Tongariro, Ngauruhoe, Ruapehu, Mount Kakaramea, Ruahine Range, Rangipo Plain. (Recorded)—Kaimanawa Range.
- X Dracophyllum varium Col. (Fig. 11.)
(D. longifolium X D. recurvum.)
Dracophyllum varium Col. Trans. N.Z. Inst. 28, 603, 1896 (Ruahine Range). D. Urvilleanum var. montanum Cheeseman, Man. N.Z. Fl. 424, 1906. D. montanum (Cheeseman) Cockayne, Veg. N.Z. 218, 1921. D. Urvilleanum var. scoparium Adams, Trans. N.Z. Inst. 30, 426, 1898 (not A. Rich.).
Dracophyllum varium of Colenso as shown by the type specimen in his herbarium is a hybrid between D. recurvum and D. longifolium. On hybrids of the same parentage Cheeseman founded the name montanum, his specimens coming from Mount Hikurangi.
Characters.—The prevalent form of this hybrid is a low shrub, with stiff, straight or recurved leaves, 40-60 mm. long, 2-3 mm. wide at the base, and terminal racemes with rather large flowers. The leaves are like those of longifolium but shorter and often recurved. The racemes are intermediate between those of recurvum and longifolium, but like those of recurvum terminate the main branches as well as the lateral ones.
Distribution.—On mountains in the central and eastern portion of the North Island of New Zealand. (Specimens examined)—Mount Hikurangi, Ruahine Range, eastern base of Ruapehu, Waiotapu.
X Dracophyllum arcuatum n. hybr. sp.
(D. filifolium X D. recurvum.)
Frutex parvus; foliis brevibus, subulatis, arcuatis basis vaginantis truncatis; racemis paucifloris terminalibus, floribus parvis.
Characters.—A small erect shrub, with short, stiff, rather narrow leaves, often slightly recurved, and few-flowered racemes terminating the branches. These chara [ unclear: ] cAters are undoubtedly produced by the crossing of D. filifolium and D. recurvum. The leaves are 30-40 mm long, and about 2 mm. wide just above the sheath. The panicles are few-flowered and small, like those of D. filifolium but are terminal, a character due to the influence of D. recurvum. The above description is based on specimens collected on Mount Ruapehu where this hybrid grows in association with D. recurvum and D. filifolium. Forms midway between these two species naturally attract attention but on close collecting it is found that there is a graded series between the two parent forms.
Distribution.—Ruapehu and Ruahine mountain ranges. (Specimens examined)—Mount Ruapehu, Waimarino.
Group of D. longifolium.
Tall shrubs or trees. Leaves long, flat, moderately narrow and with a wide sheath. Racemes with the bracts falling early, terminating lateral branches. The character of the raceme coupled with that of the leaves distinguishing this group. The raceme has advanced to the stage of losing the bracts early. The flowers are stalked and the whole raceme may droop, thus resembling in appearance the simple panicles of the subgenus Eudracophyllum. I regard this type of raceme as the most specialized in the subgenus Oreothamnus; of the two species belonging to the group, D. longifolium has stiff leaves, D. Adamsii has thin flaccid leaves. D. longifolium ranges from the East Cape to Campbell Island, while D. Adamsii is restricted to the Bay of Plenty and East Cape districts.
Dracophyllum longifolium (Forst.) R. Br. (Fig. 7b.)
Epacris longifolia Forst. Char. Gen. 20, pl. 10, 1776. E. frondosa Gaertner, Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2, 77, 1788. Dracophyllum longifolium R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 556, 1810. Hook. f. Fl. Ant. 1, 48, pl. 31, 1844. Homb. & Jacq. Bot. Voy. Astrol. Zel. 86, pl. 27, 1853. Cheeseman Man. N.Z. Fl. 704, 1925. D. Lyallii Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. 1, 169, 1853. D. longifolium var. retortum Homb. & Jacq. Bot. Voy. Astrol. & Zel. 86, 1853.
D. longifolium varies somewhat in the size of the leaf so that in botanical literature it has been many times recorded as one of the varieties of D. Urvilleanum.
Characters.—The constant characters by which this species is recognized are the long, stiff, narrow leaves, and the racemes with bracts that fall early. The loss of the bracts gives the raceme a distinct appearance resembling the simple panicle of the subgenus Eudracophyllum. This appearance is the more noticeable on account of the fact that the raceme is often drooping. The leaves, as
described below, vary very much in length, width, and stiffness, but all agree in being flattened at the base and in having the sheath wide and truncate or auricled above. D. longifolium may be a shrub 1 m. tall or a tree 12 m. tall. It is largest in the southern portions of its range.
Forms.—In different localities and habitats various differences are seen in the life-form of this species, in the racemes, and in the leaves. I do not regard all these differences as due to the environment, hence the species is compound; though on the material available I am not able satisfactorily to divide it into either genetic or habitat forms.
Possibly the three following forms are genetically distinct.
(1) Broad-leaved form from Auckland and Campbell Island. Leaves broad, stiff and spear-like, with broad sheaths. Racemes erect. Leaf from Campbell Island—sheath 18 × 14 mm., lamina 125 × 5 mm. Specimens with short leaves, evidently a habitat form, were described by Hombron and Jacquinot as variety retortum.
(2) Prevalent form in New Zealand. Leaves long, narrow, moderately stiff. Racemes often drooping. Leaf from small tree in beech forest, Lake Manapouri—sheath 14 × 8 mm., lamina 130 × 2 mm.
The life-form for the most part accords with the habitat. In forests it is arborescent with long leaves; in bogs and exposed alpine localities it is a shrub with, short leaves. The flowers are larger in the forest forms.
(3) Short-leaved form from alpine and swampy localities. Leaves short, narrow. Racemes erect, clustered. Leaf from Mount Rochfort—sheath 5 mm., lamina 40 × 1.05 mm. Similar forms come from Eweburn Creek, Upper Hawera, Mount Arthur Plateau and swamps near Lake Manapouri. (Fig. 7b.)
Hybrids.—D. longifolium freely crosses with several species with which it comes in contact. It produces hybrids with D. scoparium on Campbell Island (X D. insulare); with D. rosmarinifolium. throughout the South Island (X D. acicularifolium) and with D. recurvum in the North Island (X D. varium).
Distribution.—From the East Cape district southward to Campbell Island. (Specimens examined)—Awatere River, Mount Hikurangi, Ruahine Range, Mount Marchant, Dun Mountain, Mount Arthur, Buckland Peaks, Mount Rochfort, Wangapeka, Kellys Hill, Arthurs Pass, Hooker Valley, Eweburn Creek, Upper Hawea, Mount Peel, Lake Harris, Tapanui, Swampy Hill, Stewart Island, Auckland Islands, Campbell Island.
Dracophyllum Adamsii Petrie. (Fig. 12.)
Dracophyllum Adamsii Petrie Trans. N.Z. Inst 55, 435, 1924 (Awatere River).
Characters.—This species is at once recognized by the narrow, thin, flat leaves and slender racemes with short acute sepals ciliate to the tips and with early deciduous bracts. The racemes with deciduous bracts and the narrow flat leaves ally it to D. longifolium, but the leaves are much thinner than in that species and do not stand
up so stiffly; the flowers are smaller, and have short, broad, acute, thin sepals, ciliate along the margins to the tipe. The ultimate branches are very slender and each terminates in a raceme subtended by a cluster of leaves. Leaf sheath with hyaline margins, truncated distally. Leaf sheath 8 × 5 mm., lamina 65 × 2.5 mm. Raceme 30 mm., sepals 4 mm.
Distribution.—Kennedy Bay, Inland from Opotiki, Awatere River (Waiapu County).
X Dracophyllum acicularifolium (Cheesem.). (Fig. 13.)
(D. rosmarinifolium X D. longifolium.)
Dracophyllum uniflorum var. acicularifolium Cheeseman, Man. N.Z. Fl., 427, 1906. D. acicularifolium Cockayne, Rep. Scenery Pres. Soc. 4, 1915.
This identification is based on the result of a comparison of the specimens arranged under D. acicularifolium in the Cheeseman and Petrie herbaria, with a series of hybrids between D. rosmarinifolium and D. longifolium. from Arthurs Pass. Only those specimens with narrow leaves agreeing with those on which Cheeseman's diagnosis was based are in doubt, but one of the specimens from Arthurs Pass exactly matches a specimen from Castle Hill in the Cheeseman herbarium. This specimen may be taken as the type of Cheeseman's acicularifolium as it corresponds to his description and comes from near the only locality definitely named by him, namely, the Broken River Basin.
Characters.—The prevalent form of this hybrid is that which has solitary flowers like those of D. rosmarinifolium and leaves intermediate between those of D. rosmarinifolium, and D. longifolium. In specimens from Hooker Valley in Cheeseman's herbarium the leaves are 60 mm. long. At Arthurs Pass where D. rosmarinifolium and D. longifolium come together, hybrids are fairly frequent. They may be recognized by the fact that solitary flowers are borne on shrubs with leaves like those of D. longifolium, but shorter than would be expected in the habitat. Such plants sometimes possess both solitary and racemose flowers. Some of the hybrids have leaves as narrow as in D. rosmarinifolium but longer and these correspond with the description of Cheeseman's variety acicularifolium. A form which this hybrid sometimes takes is that in which the leaves are scarcely longer than in those of D. rosmarinifolium, but the flowers are in racemes. Specimens answering to this description come from the Dun Mountain, the Routeburn Valley, the Longwood Range, and other places.
Distribution.—Mountain districts in the South Island, New Zealand. (Specimens examined).—Dun Mountain, Mount Arthur, Ben More, Mount Torlesse, Castle Hill, Arthurs Pass, Mount Peel, Hooker Valley, Baloon Mountain, Routeburn Valley, Longwood Range.
X Dracophyllum insulare n. hybr. sp.
(D. longifolium X D. scoparium.)
Frutex; foliis angustis, subulatis, supra tomentosis, 35-50 mm. longis; racemis erectis, multifloris; sepalis pubescentibus; bracteis caducis.
The existence of this form has been recognized by several botanists, hence it is necessary to quote the following references:—
D. scoparium Kirk, Rep. A.A.A.S. 3, 224, 1891; Cockayne Trans. N.Z. Inst. 36, 322, 1904 (not Hook. f.).
Characters.—Leaf narrow, subulate, pubescent above; sheath suddenly narrowed above but not auricled. Flowers in erect racemes with deciduous bracts; sepals pubescent within towards the tip. Leaf-sheath 9 mm., lamina 35-40 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide. The pubescence of the leaves and sepals is a character of D. scoparium but the leaves are longer and wider than in that species. The racemes with deciduous bracts is a character of D. longifolium, and the influence of this species is seen in the width and length of the leaves.
Possessing characters intermediate between D. longifolium and D. scoparium, and growing in association with them, this plant is without doubt a hybrid between them.
Distribution.—Campbell Island. (Specimens examined include those collected by Kirk, Cockayne, and myself.)
Subgenus Eudracophyllum Benth & Hook.
Eudracophyllum. Benth & Hook. Gen. Plant. 2, 618, 1876. Type D. verticillatum Lab.
Flowers in panicles. Sepals acute and equal to the length of the corolla or obtuse and short. Panicles terminal or lateral.
The only character common to the members of this subgenus is the panicled inflorescence. Different species-groups, however, show advance in structure in other organs. For instance the sepals become short and obtuse and therefore less like the foliage leaves of the primitive species, and the corolla becomes short and the stamens far asserted. Differentiation has especially taken place in the bracts which may be broad and short as in D. strictum or greatly elongated as in D. Milligani. In the group of D. secundum the fascicles of the panicle bear only a few flowers; in the group of D. latifolium they are much branched producing a compound panicle. The largest trees are found in this group and the group of D. Milligani.
This subgenus is to be regarded as the most advanced in organization in the genus. Its distribution is therefore of some interest. It ranges over the whole area occupied by the genus, but the greatest diversity in species occurs in New Caledonia and New Zealand. In each of these regions it is represented by seven species belonging to three groups of species. This accords with the theory already stated that the genus originated in the New Caledonian region from which centre the primitive forms have been pushed southwards towards Tasmania and New Zealand.
Altogether the subgenus contains 18 species distributed as follows;—Tasmania 1, East Australia 2, New Caledonia 7, Lord Howe Island 1, New Zealand 7.
Group of D. Menziesii.
Panicles borne below the terminal clusters of leaves, compound, drooping. Corolla short, stamens exserted, sepals much shorter than the corolla-tube. Leaves large, broad.
D. fiordense has the largest leaves of all the species in the genus; in D. Townsoni the leaves are long and narrow, in D. Menziesii they are broad and short. The group is not found north of Cook Strait. D. Townsoni occurs near the north-west coast. D. Menziesii is more generally distributed in mountainous regions from South Canterbury to Stewart Island, while D. fiordense is only known from, south-west Otago.
Dracophyllum Menziesii Hook. f. (Fig. 14.)
Dracophyllum Menziesii Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. 1, 168, 1853. Cheeseman Man. N.Z. Fl. 703, 1925.
Characters.—This species is to be distinguished from its allies by its low shrubby habit, crowded short and broad. leaves, and rather large panicles borne on short branches below the leaves. An average-sized leaf measures 125 × 15 mm., a large specimen 170 × 17 mm.
I have seen several specimens with terminal panicles, but in all cases the branches bearing them were thin, and in cases where there were two or more branches on the same stem it was evident that the main leafy axis had been lost. Evidently therefore these branches with terminal panicles are really lateral branches which have elongated after the death of the central stem, the leaves below the panicle sharing the increase in size.
The bracts are short, broad, ovate, and suddenly contracted to a sharp point. On the small panicle-bearing branches every gradation can be found between bracts and leaves. The capsule is 5-7 valved.
Distribution.—Otago and Stewart Island, from sea-level to 1,400 m. altitude; also, according to Cheeseman, from the Ashburton Mountains in Canterbury. (Specimens examined)—Mountains above Lake Harris, Mount Bonpland, Routeburn Valley, Bold Peak, Humboldt Mountains, McKinnon Pass, Mount Barber, Lake Hauroko, Doubtful Sound, Dusky Sound, Mount Anglem (Stewart Island). (Recorded)—Ashburton Mountains, Mountains west of Lakes Wakatipu and Te Anau, Preservation Inlet.
Dracophyllum Townsoni Cheeseman.
Dracophyllum Townsoni, Cheesem. Man, N.Z. Fl. 420, 1906; 2nd Ed. 702, 1925; Ill. N.Z. Fl. pl. 130, 1914.
Characters.—D. Townsoni agrees with D. Menziesii in its dense terminal clusters of serrulate leaves and lateral panicles. It differs, however, in the narrower and longer leaves, in the more compound panicles, and in the smaller flowers with proportionately larger corolla-lobes. Leaves 170 × 11, 260 × 14 mm. Bracts broad, contracting suddenly into subulate tips.
Distribution.—South-west Nelson and North Westland. (Specimens examined)—Mount Buckland. (Recorded)—Near Liverpool Coal Mine (Westland).
Dracophyllum flordense n. sp. (Fig. 15.)
Frutex; caudicibus robustis haud ramosis; foliis latis, longis, canaliculatis, marginibus levibus, basis augustis, 60-70 cm. longis,
4-5 cm. latis; paniculis parvis, 12 cm. longis, multifloris, sepalis acutis, corolla parvo, antheris exsertis, capsulis parvis, 2 mm. longis, 2.5 mm. latis.
This species has been known to Mr. W. A. Thomson of Dunedin, Mr. J. Speden of Gore, and others for some years past. It was collected by Dr. G. Einar Du Rietz and myself in company with Mr. Murrell, on Wilmot Saddle and Mount Barber in March 1927, when I obtained the fruiting specimen described below. There are flowering specimens in Cheeseman's herbarium from The Hump. (Recorded in Trans. N.Z. Inst. 52, 11, 1920, as D. Townsoni.)
Characters.—A shrub 1-2 m. tall with erect stout unbranched stems marked with circular ridge-like sears, 3-4 mm. apart, of the fallen leaves. Stem 35 mm. in diameter. The leaves are the largest of all the species of Dracophyllum and form an immense cluster at the top of the stem. They are very broad and taper gradually to an acuminate point which often curls into a spiral. The margins are flat and smooth; the base narrows instead of widening as is usual in the genus; both surfaces are finely and regularly grooved. A mature leaf measured, length 67, breadth near base 4.8 cm.
Panicles on the stems at some distance below the leaves, 12 cm. long, curved, with a depressed rhachis giving rise to branches 2-2.5 cm. long bearing numerous small flowers. Sepals ovate acute, 2.5 mm. long; corolla-tube equal to the length of the sepals, with recurved lobes as long as the tube; anthers exserted; pistil long. Capsule small, 2 mm. long, 2.5 mm. across.
By virtue of its possessing panicles arising below the terminal cluster of leaves D. fiordense falls into the group of D. Menziesii. It differs from both D. Menziesii and D. Townsoni in its large leaves with smooth margins, and in its thick straight unbranched stems. The panicles are more branched than in D. Menziesii, but resemble those of D. Townsoni. The flowers are similar to those of D. Townsoni. The capsules are smaller than in both these species.
Distribution.—South-west Otago in scrub on the mountains between 900-1,000 m. above sea level. (Specimens examined)—Wilmot Pass and Mount Barber, The Hump.
Group of D. secundum.
Panicles terminal, with few flowers on their lateral branches. Corolla-tube long with anthers included (except in D. Thiebautii, according to its author). Leaves moderately broad and short.
The species in this group may be arranged in three sub-groups.
(1) Panicle dense, the lower branches bearing 5-9 flowers; leaves rather broad, shorter than the panicles—D. strictum, D. ramosum.
(2) Panicle slender, the lower branches bearing 3-5 flowers; leaves rather narrow, shorter than the panicles—D. secundum, D. Vieillardii, D. amabile.
(3) Panicle slender, the lower branches bearing 3 flowers; leaves marrow, exceeding the panicles—D. gracile, D. Thiebautii.
Of the seven species assigned to this group, D. strictum occurs in New Zealand, D. secundum in New South Wales, and the remainder in New Caledonia.
Dracophyllum strictum Hook. f. (Fig. 16.)
Dracophyllum strictum Hook. f. Fl. Ant. 1, 48, 1844 (Tongariro). Cheeseman Man, N.Z. Fl. 703, 1925. D. affine Hook, f. Fl. Ant. 1, 48. 1844. D. Featonianum Col. Trans. N.Z. Inst. 22, 477, 1890. D. imbricatum Col. l.c. 25, 331, 1893.
Characters.—The distinctive features of D. strictum are the usually short broad leaves, glaucous below, the moderately-dense panicles with short secondary branches and the small flowers with short sepals. Adult leaves 85 × 6, 55 × 7 mm., juvenile leaves 110 × 11. HO X 13 mm. Corolla 4-5 mm. This species bears a great resemblance to D. ramosum in its habit of branching, shape of leaf, and panicle with short branches, but it is smaller in all its parts and its sepals are proportionately shorter when compared with the corolla, also the bracts are apparently less leaf-like.
Distribution.—From the Thames Firth to Ruapehu and Tarawera; also in the north-western portion of the South Island. (Specimens examined)—Puriri, Okoroire, Tirau, Tamahere, Narrows (Waikato), Waiotapu, Ruapehu, Taupo, Mount Hauhungatahi, Tarawera (Hawkes Bay), Whangaparoa, Mount Rochfort (Nelson).
Dracophyllum ramosum Br. & Gris. (Fig. 17.)
Dracophyllum ramosum Brongn. & Gris. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 2, 156, 1864.
Characters.—A noticeable feature in the life form of this species is that 3-6 branches may arise from nearly the same point. This is also a characteristic of D. strictum. The leaves are straight, moderately broad, with expanded sheaths; length 85-125 mm., width 11 mm. They decrease in size towards the inflorescence. The panicle is 10-20 cm. in length, with the flowers on short branches covered with white pubescence. There are 7-8 flowers on the lower branches. The sepals are as long as the corolla-tube, ribbed, acute, ciliate. Corolla-lobes short. This species has already been compared with D. strictum. It might also be compared with D. secundum, which it resembles in the acute sepals reaching to the top of the corolla-tube and in the long leaves and panicles; but in D. ramosum the leaves are much broader and the flowers of the panicle denser than in D. secundum.
Distribution.—New Caledonia. (Specimens examined)—Baie du Sud, inland from Baie des Piroques, Mountains near Gatope. (Recorded)—M'bee (type locality), Ngoye.
Dracophyllum secundum (Poir) R. Br.
Epacris secunda Poir. Encycl. Suppl. 2, p. 556, 1810-16. Prionotes secunda Spreng, Syst. Veg. 1, p. 631, 1822. Dracophyllum. secundum R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Roll. 556, 1810. Benth. Fl. Austr. 4, 262, 1869.
Characters.—The leaves are long and comparatively narrow, 140 × 7, 80 × 6 mm. The panicle is long with large flowers on. rather long slender pedicels, there being four on the lower branches
Sepals long, acuminate, as long as the corolla-tube. Corolla-lobes rather long, spreading.
I associate this species with D. Vieillardii rather than with D. ramosum on account of the characters of the panicle, especially the few flowers to each branch. The sepals and corolla also agree except that in D. secundum the corolla-tube is glabrous. The leaves of D. secundum are longer than they are in D. Vieillardii.
Distribution.—Eastern New South Wales. (Specimens examined)—Oatley, Blue Mountains (Sieber's specimen). (Recorded)—Illawarra.
Dracophyllum Vieillardii Lenorm.
Dracophyllum Vieillardii lenorm. ex Guill, Ann. Mus. Col. Marseilles (2) 9, 181, 1911 (name only).
Characters.—The leaves are stiff, straight, tapering evenly to a blunt point. They are rather short, and decrease in size towards the inflorescence. Length 68 mm. (including sheath 13 mm.) width 6 mm. The panicle is long and slender, 90 mm. long, each branch hearing three flowers. Sepals equalling the corolla-tube, ribbed, ciliate on the margins. Corolla-tube 6 mm. dilate on the upper part below the lobes which are broad and obtuse. Anthers well included.
D. Vieillardii is closely allied to D. amabile agreeing with it generally in the characters of the leaves and panicles, but in D. Vieillardii there are only three flowers to each branch of the panicle instead of 5 as in D. amabile and the corolla-tube is much longer. The stamens also do not reach so far up the corolla-tube as in D. amabile.
Distribution.—New Caledonia. (Specimens examined)—Dombea (Coll. Vieillard).
Dracophyllum amabile Br. & Gris. (Fig. 18.)
Dracophyllum amabile Brongn. & Gris. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 2, 157, 1864 (Kanala.).
Characters.—A slender species with rather small leaves and longer slender panicles. Leaves tapering to a hard blunt point, widening gradually below into the sheath, margins smooth. Length 80 mm., breadth 6 mm. Panicle 120 mm. long, rhachis pubescent; generally five flowers on the lower branches. Flowers small, sepals ovate, acute, ciliate, 3 mm. long; corolla-tube 4 mm. long; stamens included. D. amabile differs from D. Vieillardi in the smaller flowers with proportionately shorter sepals and in the lower panicle branches bearing 5 flowers.
Distribution.—New Caledonia, in arid scrub country, (Specimens examined)—Mountains de Kanala.
Dracophyllum gracile Br. & Gris.
Dracophyllum gracile Brongr. & Gris. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 2, 156, 1864 (not of B. Br.).
The name gracile is retained for this species for precisely the same reason that squarrosum is reinstated for the New Zealand species
named Sinclairii by Cheeseman. The Western Australian species described under the name Dracophyllum gracile in Bentham's Flora Australiensis was originally described by Poiret as Epacris gracilis and later transferred to Sphenotoma, in which genus it is now universally placed.
Characters.—The subacicular leaves, and panicles equal to or slightly longer than them, and with, the rhachides and sepals ciliate, serve to distinguish this species from its allies. The leaves are almost acicular and are disposed in dense clusters at the tips of the branches; length 50 mm. (including the sheath 7 mm.), width of sheath 4 mm., of lamina 1.5 mm. The leaf is brown, convex below, slightly hollowed above, margins of lamina roughened, of sheath ciliate. Panicles short, only slightly projecting beyond the leaves, rhachis and pedicels pubescent. Flowers disposed in threes, twos, or singly. Sepals ovate, acute, red, ribbed, with ciliate margins. Stamens included in the corolla-tube.
In its narrow leaves and few-flowered short panicles D. gracile comes nearest to D. Thiebautii. It differs in the leaves being subacicular, the panicle about equalling the leaves in length, and in being pubescent.
Distribution.—New Caledonia, in scrub land. (Specimens examined) Hoay. (Recorded)—Arnaud (type locality), Ngoye.
Dracophyllum Thiebautii Br. & Gris.
Dracophyllum Thiebautii Brongn. & Gris. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 3, 238, 1865 ((Arama).
Characters.—This species is distinguished by its long narrow leaves, and short glabrous panicles with few flowers. It is a shrub 1 m. tall. The leaves are very narrow, and end in solid sharp points, margin indistinctly serrated, sheath expanded, length 120 mm. (including sheath 9 mm.) width of lamina 4 mm. Panicle not nearly reaching to the end of the leaves; rhachis glabrous, flowers in fascicles of threes, or twos, or solitary. Sepals ovate, acuminate, 5 mm. long. I have seen no flowers, but Brongniart and Gris describe the stamens as exserted. D. Thiebautii is to be compared only with D. gracile, but the wider leaves and relatively short panicle at once distinguish it.
Distribution.—New Caledonia. (Specimen examined)—Riodes Piroques, among rocks in the river (C T. White). (Recorded)—Arama (type locality).
Group of D. Milligani.
Trees. Leaves long and broad. Panicle large, compound. Sepals acute, corolla long and narrow, anthers slightly exserted.
This group is placed near the New Zealand group of D. latifolium because of its compound panicles, but it differs in its long narrow corolla-tube with the anthers not so far exserted. The species may be distinguished from one another by well-marked characters in the leaves and inflorescence, the shape of the bracts being especially distinctive. Geographically the four species included in the group are widely separated, being found in Tasmania, Queensland, New Caledonia, and Lord Howe Island respectively.
Dracophyllum Sayeri F. V. Muell. (Fig. 19.)
Dracophyllum Sayeri P. V. Muell. Austr. Journ. Pharm. 1887. Bailey, Queensland Fl. 3, 942, 1900.
Characters.—A tree 6-8 m. tall, the “branches intricately spreading, forming an almost impenetrable mass” (Bailey). Leaves in clusters at the tips of the branches, tapering, drawn out into a long acuminate point. Length 38 cm., width 18 mm. Panicles shorter than the leaves, the branches bearing about 20 flowers. Bracts narrowed at both ends, length 85 mm.; the distal ones with a broad base and a tapering lamina. Sepals acute, much shorter than the calyx. Corolla with long blunt-pointed lobes. Anthers exserted. Stigma club-shaped. Bailey states that the corolla may be either white with rose-coloured lobes, or entirely white.
D. Sayeri differs from its allies in the shape of the bracts. It perhaps comes nearest to D. dracaenoides resembling this species in the panicle about equalling the leaves, the short sepals and club-shaped stigma.
Distribution.—Bellenden Ker Range, Queensland.
Dracophyllum dracaenoides Schltr.
Dracophyllum dracaenoides Schlechter, Engl. Bot. Jahr. 39, 220, 1906.
Characters.—This is the only species of Dracophyllum that I have not examined. Schlechter gives a good figure from which it is safe to say that it comes very close to D. Sayeri, with which it agrees in the panicle about equalling the leaves, the short sepals and club-shaped style. But it differs in being but a shrub and in the leaves being serrulate. According to Schlechter D. dracaenoides is a shrub 2 m. tall, the leaves are 15-20 cm. long, and 7-10 mm. wide with serrulate margins. The sepals are 2 mm. and the corolla 4 mm. long; the stamens are exserted and the style club-shaped.
Distribution.—New Caledonia, mountains near Ou Hinna.
Dracophyllum Milligani Hook. f. (Fig. 20.)
Dracophyllum Milligani Hook. f. Ic. Pl. pl. 845, 1852. Bentham Fl. Austr. 4, 262, 1869. Rodway Tas. Fl. 126, 1903.
Characters.—According to Rodway D. Milligani is an unbranched shrub reaching a height of 8 feet (2.5 m.) with leaves 2 feet (60 cm.) in length. The only leaves I have seen have a broad sheathing base, from which they gradually narrow to a thick lamina ending in a long point which curls in dried specimens. The margins are finely crenulate. Length 20 cm., width above sheath 10 mm. Panicle long (1½ feet (46 cm.) according to Bentham), the branches bearing numerous flowers, rhachis ribbed, sparingly pubescent. Bracts with broad sheathing-bases suddenly contracted into long attenuated points which curl at the tips, length up to 32 cm., width 6 mm. Sepals ovate, acute, equalling in length the corolla-tube; margins ciliate. Anthers exserted. Stigma capitate.
D. Milligani seems to approach D. Fitzgeraldi more closely than any other. Noticeable differences are the longer drawn-out tips to the leaves and bracts, the longer panicles, and the longer sepals in proportion to the corolla-tube.
Distribution.—Tasmania. (Specimens examined)—Mount Zeehan. (Recorded)—Mount Sorrell, Mount La Perouse, Mount Read, Adamson Peak.
Dracophyllum Fitzgeraldi Moore & F. V. Muell. (Fig. 21.)
Dracophyllum fitzgeraldi Moore & F. V. Muell. Fragm. Phytogr. Austr. 7, 27, 1869. Oliver, Trans. N.Z. Inst. 49, 146, 1917.
Characters.—A large spreading tree with a trunk 50 cm. in diameter, covered with rough reddish-brown bark. Leaves gradually tapering and drawn out into a long acuminate tip, curling in dried specimens; gradually widening below to the sheath. Length 35 cm., width above the sheath 25 mm.; width of sheath 40 mm. Panicle shorter than the leaves; the branches with broad bases, much branched and supporting numerous flowers. Sepals shorter than the tube of the corolla, ovate, acute, with ciliate margins. Anthers exserted. Stigma capitate. Bracts broadly ovate suddenly narrowed into short acuminate tip.
D. Fitzgeraldi resembles D. Milligani in many respects but is larger and has shorter panicles and bracts. It might be compared with D. dracaenoides, but the panicle is more branched, the stigma capitate instead of club-shaped, and the sepals much longer.
Distribution.—Lord Howe Island.
Group of D. latifolium.
Trees. Leaves long and broad. Panicle compound. Sepals obtuse short; corolla short, stamens exserted.
This group is allied to that of D. Milligani, but the short sepals, short wide corolla, and far-exserted stamens separate it as a group which has advanced further from the primitive group of D. minimum. The four species included are closely allied. Two have slender panicles and leaves little expanded below—D. latifolium, D. Matthewsii; the other two have stout panicles and leaves with broad sheaths—D. recurvatum, D. Traversii. All the species are confined to New Zealand, one being found in the South Island (D. Traversii), and the three others in the North Island.
Dracophyllum latifolium A. Cunn.
Dracophyllum latifolium A. Cunn. Ann. Nat. Hist. 2, 48, 1838. Cheeseman Man. N.Z. Fl. 701, 1925; Ill. N.Z. Fl. part text only, 1914.
Characters.—A tree 5-7 m. tall with rough bark. Leaves long, wide, gradually tapering, slightly expanded below, length to 535 mm., width 23 mm., more commonly about 400 mm. long. Panicle slender, erect, branches arising at an acute angle. Flowers reddish. Capsules 2.5 mm. across on pedicels 2-2.5 mm. long.
The characters used in this description are those which are useful in contrasting it with D. Matthewsii from which it differs in its larger leaves, larger erect panicle, and reddish flowers. The flowering season too is later, being from December to January.
Distribution.—North Island from Waikaremoana northwards. (Specimens examined) Fairburn, Tutamoe, Great Omaha, Te Whaiti, Titirangi, Waikaremoana, Mount Te Aroha, Kaihu Valley.
Dracophyllum Matthewsii Carse.
Dracophyllum latifolium var. Matthewsii Carse, Trans. N.Z. Inst. 48, 238, 1916.
D. Matthewsii Carse, l.c. 56, 86, 1926.
D. latifolium Cheesem. (not A. Cunn.) Ill. N.Z. Fl. pl. 129, 1914.
Characters.—A shrub or small tree, 3-5 m. tall, Leaves short, thin, acuminate, slightly widening below, length 200-230 mm., width 17-20 mm. Panicle slender, drooping, branches arising at an acute angle. Flowers purplish, red to black. Capsules small, 2 mm. across, on pedicels 1.5 mm. long. The small size, small decurved panicles, purple flowers, and small fruit distinguish this species from D. latifolium. It flowers during September and October.
Distribution.—North Auckland. (Specimens examined)—Pukepoto, Maungatanipha, and Peria (Mangonui County). Little Barrier Island, Whangarei, Thames, Taumatamahoe Range.
Dracophyllum Traversii Hook. f. (Fig. 22.)
Dracophyllum Traversii Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 736, 1867. Cheeseman, Man. N.Z. Fl. 702, 1925.
Characters.—A tree 10-13 m. tall. Bark smooth, brown. Leaves long, with a broad base suddenly narrowing to the lamina which tapers gradually and is drawn, out into a long narrow point. Length up to 62 cm., width above the sheath 28 mm. Panicle stout. Flowers large. Capsules large 3 mm. across on short pedicels.
D. Traversii is closely allied to the North Island D. recurvatum. It may be distinguished by the leaves having fine, long, drawn-out tips, and the larger flowers and capsules. The branches of the panicle usually arise at a more acute angle.
Distribution.—Western side of the South Island from Nelson to South Westland. (Specimens examined)—Mount Arthur Plateau, Rangi Taipo (Teremakau River), Arthurs Pass, Paringa River (S. Westland). (Recorded)—Upper Takaka, Paparoa Mountains, Paparoa Range, Mount Glasgow, Mount Greenland, Franz Josef Glacier, Copland Pass, Jackson Bay, Haast River.
Dracophyllum recurvatum Col. (Fig. 23.)
Dracophyllum recurvatum Col. Trans. N.Z. Inst. 21, 93, 1889 (Lake Waikaremoana).
This species was first described by Colenso, who clearly records its distinctive characters. Colenso's name has, however, been gener-
ally regarded as a synonym of D. latifolium, and specimens in herbaria have been included with D. latifolium, though Cheeseman in the first edition of the Manual notes that a state of D. latifolium found on high peaks in the Auckland district resembles D. Traversii. In 1926 I found this species high up on Mount Hikurangi and noted its distinctness from D. latifolium by its stout panicles. Subsequently I recognized Colenso's D. recurvatum as being the same species.
Characters.—A slender tree 10 m. tall, with smooth brown or grey bark. Leaves long, tapering, with a broad base gradually narrowing to the lamina, length 50-62 cm., width above sheath 26-30 mm. Panicle stout. Capsules small, 2 mm. across, on short pedicels or sessile. Distinguished from D. Traversii by the more uniformly tapering leaves, and the smaller capsules (and presumably smaller flowers, which I have not seen). In the specimen from Mount Hikurangi the branches of the panicle arise at almost a right angle.
Distribution.—North Island from Mount Hikurangi and, Lake Waikaremoana northwards. (Specimens examined)—Little Barrier Island, Thames Goldfields, Mount Te Aroha, Mount Hikurangi. (Recorded)—Lake Waikaremoana (type locality).
Group of D. verticillatum.
A shrub with long broad leaves and very long spike-like panicle bearing the flowers in clusters at close intervals. Corolla short; anthers exserted. This group differs from the other species groups of the subgenus Eudrocophyllum in the arrangement of the flowers on the rachis of the panicle coupled with the short open corolla. Each flower cluster occupies a third of the circumference of the rhachis and consists of 10-12, or fewer by fusion, small branches each branching again and bearing several flowers. This arrangement allies the group to the group of D. secundum, but the structure of the flower separates it as a more advanced group. The only species is the type of the genus Dracophyllum and comes from New Caledonia.
Dracophyllum verticillatum Lab. (Fig 24.)
Dracophyllum verticillatum Labill, Voy. La. Per. 2, 211, pl. 40, 1800.
Characters.—“A very beautiful shrub, with the flowering spike about 5 feet high. Flowers white, buds tinged with pink. Slightly honey-scented” (C. T. White, Queensland Herbarium). Leaves long, acuminate, drawn out into a long point; margins slightly serrated; base gradually expanded into a broad sheath; length 46 cm. Paniele 70 cm. Sepals broad, obtuse; corolla-tube broad, short, lobes recurved; anthers exserted; stigma club-shaped. Capsule pentagonal, hollowed above.
Distribution.—New Caledonia, “Open exposed hillsides among scrubby vegetation” (C. T. White). (Specimens examined)—Mount Mou Mou. (Recorded)—Balade, Pic Malaoni.
Subgenus Cordophyllum, n. subg.
Rachis robustus, erectus; floribus dense confertis verticillatis; pendunculis 1-floris braeteis imbricatis; tubo corollae augusto.
Flowers in dense fascioles encircling at intervals a stout rachis, each flower on a separate peduncle clothed with bracts. Corolla narrow, anthers included. Type species Dracophyllum involucratum Br. & Gris.
The peculiar features about the species for which this submenus is founded are the primitive flowers on a specialized inflorescence. Each flowering peduncle might be compared with a separate branch of such a species as D. minimum but the spike-like inflorescence should be compared with that of D. verticillatum. Hence I propose for it a group equivalent to Oreothamnus and Eudrocophyllum. The single species, D. incolucratum, comes from New Caledonia.
Dracophyllum involucratum Br. & Gris. (Fig. 25.)
Dracophyllum involucratum Brongn. & Gris. Ann. Sci. Nat. Hot. 2, 157, 1864 (Yate).
Characters.—Leaves broad, gradually tapering from the base and extending into a long acuminate point; margins with remote minute teeth; length 30 cm., width above sheath 26 mm. Rachis 40 cm., ribbed, densely tomentose. Flowers in dense clusters surrounding the rachis at regular intervals. Peduncles 10 mm. long, clothed with small imbricating ovate, acute ciliate bracts, and bearing a single terminal flower. Stamens included in the throat of the corolla; stigma club-shaped.
Distribution.—New Caledonia. The specimen which I examined was loaned by the Government Botanist of Queensland. (Locality not stated.) The type comes from mountains near Yate.