Dracophyllum filifolium Hook. f.
Dracophyllum filifolium Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. 1, 169, 1853. D. setifolium Stchegel, Bull. Soc. N.H. Mosc. 32, 23, 1859. D. pungens Colenso, Trans. N.Z. Inst. 28, 602, 1896. D. virgatum and D. heterophyllum Colenso, l.c., p. 605, 1896.
This form has been much misunderstood, Cheeseman for instance recording it as occurring from the Bay of Islands to Stewart Island. Evidently several species as defined in this paper are involved in this conception.
Characters.—A shrub or small tree. Leaves very long and narrow, 130-160 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, hollowed above except near the tip, sheath 10-15 mm. long. Racemes narrow terminating slender lateral branches with a few leaves below them, 7-9 flowered; bracts usually persistent, the sheath narrowing abruptly to the tip. Sepals equal in length to the corolla-tube, margins ciliate, 5 mm.
Compared with D. Urvilleanum, which is its nearest ally, this species differs in its racemes having more flowers with persistent bracts and in the slightly different form of the bracts. Usually the leaves are longer than in D. Urvilleanum and the racemes are longer and narrower.
Forms.—Differences are observed when specimens from different localities and habitats are compared. The leaves of plants from the Tararua Ranges are very long, reaching 160 mm.; those from plants from the Waimarino Plains are considerably shorter, the longest being about 100 mm.
Hybrids.—D. filifolium hybridizes freely with D. recurvum (X D. arcuatum), and with D. subulatum (X D. vulcanicum).
Distribution.—From Mount Egmont, Mount Ruapehu, and the Ruahine Range southwards to Cook Strait, ascending to 4,500 feet. (Specimens examined)—Mount Egmont, Mount Ruapehu, Waimarino Plains, Ruahine Range, Mount Holdsworth, Mount Marchant, Mungaroa.
Dracophyllum collinum n. sp. (Fig. 7a.)
Frutex erectus; foliis augustatis, subulatis, 80-100 mm. longis, 1.5 mm. latis; floribus racemosis, 6 mm. longis, bracteis persistenbibus, sepalis acumuatis. Type locality, Tinline Valley, Marlborough.
I have seen this species only from one locality, but it does not resemble any species or hybrid with which I am acquainted, so I am describing it as a new species.
Characters.—Evidently a slender erect shrub. In the specimens examined the shoot extends 25 cm. beyond the cluster of racemes. Leaves narrow but sufficiently wide at the base to describe them as subulate; widening abruptly into the sheath. Racemes terminating short lateral branches with a few leaves below them, 8-10 flowered. Corolla rather long, 6 mm. Bracts persistent, large, with long points, the sheath narrowing gradually to the point.
D. collinum is placed in the group of D. Urvilleanum because of its narrow leaves. They are, however, slightly wider at the base than in the mature leaves of D. Urvilleanum or D. filifolium. The sheath is shouldered but not auricled above. The racemes are larger, the corolla-tube longer, and the bracts wider than in D. Urvilleanum. The sepals also are longer and more acuminate than in D. Urvilleanum.
Distribution.—Tinline Valley, Marlborough.
Dracophyllum Lessonianum A. Rich.
Dracophyllum. Lessonianum. A. Rich. Voy. Astrol. Bot. 223, 1832. Homb. & Jacq. Bot. Voy. Astrol. * Zel. 85, pl. 29, 1853. D. robustum Hook. f. Fl. Ant. 1, 49, 1844.
References in literature to this species, or variety of D. Urvilleanum. as it has sometimes been classed, are quite confusing, more than one form evidently being included. Thus the range given in Cheeseman's Flora, namely, Rotorua to Stewart Island, is wholly outside its area of distribution as given in this revision. Nor could such a distributional area be correct, as Richard's specimens probably came from the Bay of Islands, which is one of the localities in which Lesson collected during his visit to New Zealand in the Astrolobe. Hooker (Handb. N.Z. Fl. p. 182, 1864) gives the distribution of D. Lessonianum as north of Auckland only.
Characters.—A shrub or small tree 10 m. tall. Leaves narrow, 60-100 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, hollowed above for more than half the distance from the base; sheath auricled. Racemes long, terminating short lateral branches, clustered towards the ends of the branches; bracts, persistent, with long narrow sheaths; sepals acuminate, slightly exceeding the corolla-tube; corolla-tube long, 6 mm. The juvenile leaves are wider than the mature leaves, lamina length 60 mm., width 3 mm.
D. Lessonianum is easily distinguished from the other members of the group by tis generally shorter leaves, but especially by the long racemes, with long acuminate sepals and long flowers; the bracts with narrow sheaths are also characteristic. The dense clusters of racemes gives the plant a distinct appearance.
Forms.—In Mr. Carse's herbarium are specimens from the same locality (Pukemiro) which show considerable differences in size. In one the leaf is 100 mm. and the flower 6 mm. long; in another the leaf is 50 mm. and the flower 4 mm. long, but what status should be given these forms I am unable to decide.
Hybrids.—At Tauhei (Piako County) it hybridizes with D. subulatum (X D. marginatum); in the Mangonui County, it crosses with D. squarrosum (X D. densiflorum).
Distribution.—Auckland Province north of S. Lat. 38°. (Specimens examined)—Kaitaia, Mount Camel, Pukemiro, Kaimaumau, Fairburn, Maropui (Kaihu Valley), Whangarei, Great Omaha, Bay of Islands, Tauhei (Piako), Te Aroha.
X Dracophyllum vulcanicum n. hybr. sp.
(D. filifolium X D. subulatum.)
Frutex erectus, gracilis; foliis filiformis 40-50 mm. longis; basis auriculatis; racemis paucifloris, Iateralibus, bracteis angustatis.
Characters.—This form is found in association with D. filifolium and D. subulatum. Its characters are a combination of some from each of these species, so that it is with little doubt a hybrid between them. It is a slender strict shrub, much like D. subulatum. Its leaves are very narrow, like those of D. filifolium, but they are much shorter, no doubt due to the influence of D. subulatum. The flowers, like those of D. subulatum, are small and solitary or in few-flowered racemes. Bracts with narrow sheaths, and light-coloured margins.
Distribution.—Waimarino Plains, Ngauruhoe.
X Dracophyllum marginatum n. hybr. sp.
(D. Lessonianum X D. subulatum.)
Frutex gracilis; ramis tennibus; foliis filiformis; basis truncatis; racemis paucifloris, lateralibus vel terminalibus.
Characters.—The plants grouped under this hybrid look very different, but agree in being slender shrubs with short filiform leaves, and short few-flowered racemes of small flowers. The leaf sheaths are like those of D. Lessonianum, that is, narrower and not auricled on those leaves near the tips of the branchlets but auricled on leaves lower down, and they have whitish margins. The lamina may not be longer than in D. subulatum but is shorter than in D. Lessonianum and has the large sheaths of D. Lessonianum, The racemes are much as in D. subulatum, but are clustered and terminate the branches as in D. Lessonianum.
The plants examined were all collected at Tauhei, Piako County, by Mr. H. Carse, in association with D. Lessonianum and D. subulatum. There can scarcely be any doubt that they are hybrids between these species. They resemble quite closely X D. vulcanicum the hybrid between D. filifolium and D. subulatum.
Distribution.—Tauhei (Piako County, New Zealand).