The Male Genitalia of the New Zealand Crambidae.
[Read before the Auckland Institute, 30th July, 1929; received by Editor, 1st October, 1929; issued separately, 30th November, 1929.]
The Crambidae are numerically well represented in New Zealand, but this is chiefly owing to the large number of species of Crambus, New Zealand being the headquarters of the type genus. Of this genus 47 species are listed out of a total of 86 for the family. In Australia, though the specific strength of the family is about half as many again as in New Zealand, the type genus includes only a few forms. Dipty-chophora is the second largest genus in New Zealand, having a total of 17 known species. Orocrambus, a mountain relative of Crambus, has a dozen members, there being also, according to Dr. Jefferis Turner, a single representative in Australia. Of the other genera which make up New Zealand's total, Protyparcha, Scenoplaca and Gadira are monotypic and endemic, while Talis and Argyria are wide-spread genera which are represented by one or two species only.
The chief characteristics of the male genitalia of the family are the well developed but simple uncus and gnathos, the more or less tubular aedeagus, the tendency of the lateral arms of the vinculum to become triangularly dilated and the prominence (usually) of the costa of the harpes. The genitalia are normally more or less withdrawn within the eighth segment, the latter being seldom modified to any extent.
Gadira Walker (Fig. 1).
Monotypic and endemic, the species being G. acerella Walk., a fairly common insect in both islands.
Tegumen rather narrow, firmly attached to, but not fused with vinculum, the shoulders clothed with long hairs which extend above the uncus; uncus long, thin, curved, acutely pointed. Gnathos with long tongue, apex directed caudally. Aedeagus rather short, stout, sinuate, a small tubercle on left side at about ¾. Juxta a shield-shaped plate which apically embraces aedeagus and has on the left side a short curved horn-like process, while on the right is a similar but much longer and less curved one. Harpes simple, long, moderately broad, narrowed apically, clothed within with scattered weak hairs. Vinculum narrow; saccus not developed.
Diptychophora Zeller (Figs. 2 to 17).
A fairly large genus with a preponderance of species in New Zealand, but with representatives in South Africa, South America, Australia and the Indo-Malayan region.
Tegumen usually rather short, narrow to moderately broad, fused narrowly with vinculum or firmly attached thereto, frequently with a brush of long thin hairs rising from junction; uncus varying from short to very long, narrow, more or less curved. Gnathos well developed, lateral arms fusing to form a long narrow tongue which is usually a little shorter than the uncus and upturned slightly at apex.
Aedeagus moderately long, slender to stout, frequently armed with a series of minute cornuti but occasionally with a single large one. Juxta a simple convex plate, usually oblong or triangular. Harpes more or less triangular, bifid apically or with a prong or protuberance on costal margin; clothed within with scattered rather weak hairs. Vinculum with broad subtriangular lateral arms and rounded scoop-like base; saccus absent or not differentiated.
|1. Harpes with slight pointed protuberance on costal margin||2|
|Harpes with prong on costal margin||4|
|2. Harpes with apex pointed||parorma Meyr.|
|Harpes with apex rounded||3|
|3. Aedeagus with apex much narrowed and bent vertically; vinculum with lateral arms narrower than base||pyrsophanes Meyr.|
|Aedeagus with apex not much narrowed; vinculum with lateral arms broader than base||holanthes Meyr.|
|4. Harpes with two prongs on costal margin||auriscriptella Walk.|
|Harpes with not more than one prong on costal margin||5|
|5. Harpes with apex bifid||6|
|Harpes with apex not bifid||7|
|6. Harpes with costal prong not extending beyond apex||chrysochyta Meyr.|
|Harpes with costal prong extending beyond apex||elaina Meyr.|
|7. Harpes with small pointed protuberance on costal margin||8|
|Harpes without pointed protuberance on costal margin||10|
|8. Harpes with protuberance at base of prong; prong sinuate||helioctypa Meyr.|
|Harpes with prong straight or slightly curved||9|
|9. Harpes with costal prong straight; protuberance at base of prong||lepidella Walk.|
|Harpes with costal prong slightly curved; protuberance much below base of prong||bipunctella Walk.|
|10. Harpes with costal prong lying close to margin||11|
|Harpes with costal prong not close to margin||13|
|11. Harpes with apex markedly and abruptly narrowed||12|
|Harpes with apex not abruptly narrowed||metallifera Butl.|
|12. Aedeagus moderately stout; juxta battledor-shaped||leucoxantha Meyr|
|Aedeagus very slender; juxta suboval with apex produced||interrupta Feld.|
|13. Uncus and gnathos very long||selenaea Meyr.|
|Uncus and gnathos short or moderately long||14|
|14. Harpes with apex very narrow||microdora Meyr.|
|Harpes with apex moderately broad||15|
|15. Harpes with costal margin markedly dilated below base of prong; aedeagus slender with a small cornutus near apex||epiphaea Meyr.|
|Harpes with costal margin not dilated below base of prong; aedeagus moderately stout with a long curved cornutus near apex||harmonica Meyr.|
Talis Guenee. (Fig. 18).
This genus, well represented in Australia, has one species in New Zealand, the endemic and rather local I. leucopthalma Meyr.
Tegumen long, not fused with, but rather closely attached to, vinculum, apical portion covered with long hair; uncus narrow, curved, pointed. Gnathos band-like with long pointed tongue curved caud-aily. Aedeagus moderately long, clavate, weakly chitinised apically, with a pair of minute lateral flaps near base. Juxta a rounded fan shaped plate with two pairs of well chitinised curved lateral prongs springing from apex, the upper pair twice the length of the lower (between these prongs lies the aedeagus). Harpes long, rather narrow, costal margin with a narrow pointed process before middle, inner surface clothed with weak scattered hairs. Vinculum very narrow at base, arms slightly expanded; saccus not developed.
Scenoplaca Meyrick. (Fig. 19).
Endemic and monotypic. The species, S. petraula Meyr., has, so far, been found only in a restricted area (Lyttelton Hills) in Canterbury.
Tegumen moderately broad, not fused with, but closely attached to, vinculum; uncus moderately long, curved, pointed. Gnathos with well developed, evenly curved, pointed tongue. Aedeagus very short, long-pointed. Juxta a rounded plate ending apically in a pair of strong sinuate lateral prongs. Harpes simple, long, rather narrow, apically slightly narrowed, weakly haired within. Vinculum, with lateral arms triangularly dilated, base wider; saccus little developed.
A small endemic genus, the members of which are found on mountains at elevations of from about 4,000 ft. upwards.
Tegumen moderately broad, the lateral arms long and tapering to a point, not fused with vinculum; uncus rather short, curved. Gnathos with short curved tongue. Aedeagus short, swollen at entrance of ductus ejaculatorius, apex more or less truncate. Juxta a convex plate passing into a pair of large pointed lobes lying on either side of the aedeagus. Harpes simple, hardly narrowed apically, clothed within with weak hairs. Transtilla a more or less quadrangular plate projecting from the upper basal angles of the harpes and connected by a membranous band. Vinculum small, arms narrow and saccus hardly developed. Between the lower basal angles of the harpes there is a minute chitinous plate; it is possible that this is the true juxta, the part described as that structure being the greatly modified anellus.
|1. Juxta with a single pair of apical prongs||2|
|Juxta with two pairs of apical prongs||trapezitis Meyr.|
|2. Apical lobes of juxta abruptly narrowed; band connecting transtillae narrow||notabilis Philp.|
|Apical lobes of juxta gradually narowed; band connecting transtillae broad||gorgopis Meyr.|
[Footnote] *During the examination of the members of this genus, it was found that T. glaucophanes Meyr. exhibited entirely different genitalic characters from any of the other species. This fact, together with the difference in venation, has been deemed sufficient for the erection of a new genus for the reception of glaucophanes and this will be undertaken in the writer's next paper on new species.
Two New Zealand species of this large and widely spread genus have been described, but the genitalic characters of the two forms differ in so marked a degree that their generic identity seems extremely doubtful. The diagnoses of the species will therefore be dealt with separately.
Argyria pentadactyla Z. (Fig. 23).
Tegumen moderately broad and long, not fused with vinculum; uncus rectangularly bent at about ⅓. Gnathos with thin sinuate tongue upturned apically. Aedeagus short, simple, tube-like. Juxta a small weakly-chitinised simple convex plate embracing aedeagus, Harpes long, narrow, costa with long thin free apical portion diverging from main structure; a rather long medium process projecting obliquely over costa, its apex thin and bent sharply backwards. Vinculum rather broad basally, merging into pointed saccus.
A. strophaea Meyr. (Fig. 24).
Tegumen broad, narrowly fused with vinculum; uncus broad at base, narrow on apical ½, slightly curved. Gnathos with arms extending caudally and ending in a pair of short pointed processes, arms not fused but united by a membranous plate. Aedeagus strongly bent, apex divided into a pair of lateral plates with dentate extremities. Juxta a reversed s-shaped convex plate embracing aedeagus. Harpes long, broad, parallel-sided, apex broadly rounded, a series of 9 or 10 stout spines along costal margin towards base, clothed within with weak hairs. Vinculum small; saccus rounded and indented apically.
Protyparcha Meyrick. (Fig. 25).
Endemic and monotypic, the species, P. scaphodes Meyr. is known only from Auckland Island.
Tegumen moderately broad, not fused with vinculum; uncus long, narrow, upper half bent slightly downwards. Gnathos with long straight blunt-pointed tongue extending beneath uncus, slightly upturned apically. Aedeagus rather short, simple, curved, truncate at apex, narrowed on basal ½. Juxta a rather long narrow plate, widest at base. Harpes broad, simple, apically somewhat narrowed but broadly rounded. Vinculum very small, arms a little dilated apically; saccus undeveloped.
A large and world-wide genus exceptionally well represented in New Zealand, where 47 species, all endemic, have been described.
Tegumen moderate to broad, not fused with vinculum, lateral arms more or less truncate apically; uncus narrow to moderately broad, moderate or long, straight or slightly curved. Gnathos a ring-like band with a median tongue—which may be shorter or longer than the uncus—usually narrow, straight and bent slightly up or down apically. Aedeagus usually more or less tubular, short or moderate, the lower portion above entrance of the ductus ejaculatorius membranous
and the well chitinised upper portion bearing a short projection or “thorn” towards apex; there may be a series of minute cornuti or a group of larger ones. Juxta absent normally, but in at least one species, C. cyclopicus Meyr. there is a small triangular keeled chitinous piece lying between the lower basal angles of the harpes and above this a small V-shaped piece, the arms lying along the base of each harpe; perhaps the latter may function as the juxta the aedeagus being in this species unusually long. Harpes broad, the lower margin usually well rounded and the apex somewhat narrowed; in a few species the costa is separated apically as a long lobe, but in most instances this part is dilated basally (forming the pars basalis of Petersen) and terminates in a curved flange extending inwardly towards a similar but smaller flange near the lower margin; occasionally there is a pointed projection on the lower margin at about ⅔; the armature within consists of a rather thin coating of weak hairs. Vinculum broad, arms usually subtriangular and with a narrow process extending behind the arms of the tegumen; saccus usually long and thin, but occasionally broad and hardly differentiated from the vinculum.
|1. Costa of harpe ending in a separate lobe||2|
|Costa of harpe not ending in a separate lobe||4|
|2. Apex of costa acute; costa free for about half its length||apicellus Z.|
|Apex of costa not acute; costa free for not more than ⅓ of its length||3|
|3. Costa free for about ¼ of its length, apex narrow, rounded||ornatus Philp.|
|Costa free for about ⅓ of its length, apex broad, subtruncate||tuhualis Feld.|
|4. Lower margin of harpe with sharp process||5|
|Lower margin of harpe without such process||6|
|5. Gnathos parallel-sided; aedeagus with 3 large and 2 or 3 small cornuti||apselias Meyr.|
|Gnathos tapering to apex; aedeagus with 5 or 6 moderate cornuti||ramosellus [ unclear: ] Dbld.|
|6. Costa of harpe more or less triangularly projecting at apex||7|
|Costa of harpe rounded at apex||9|
|7. Vinculum very broad, saccus hardly differentiated||heteraulus Meyr.|
|Vinculum moderately broad; saccus well differentiated, narrow||8|
|8. Apex of harpe narow; apex of costa not incurved; aedeagus with 4 or 5 moderately large cornuti||enchophorus Meyr.|
|Apex of harpe moderately broad; apex of costa incurved; aedeagus with linear series of 9 or 10 closely set cornuti||vulgaris Butl.|
|9. Saccus more or less excavate||10|
|Saccus not excavate||12|
|10. Saccus deeply excavate; apex of harpe hardly narrowed||heliotes Meyr.|
|Saccus moderately excavate; apex of harpe much narrowed||11|
|11. Gnathos very broad basally, tapering to acute point on apical ½; aedeagus without thorn||dicrenellus Meyr.|
|Gnathos rather narrow, slightly constricted above middle, apex not sharp; aedeagus with thorn||corruptus Butl.|
|12. Saccus not developed or broad and rounded||13|
|Saccus pointed or finger-like||18|
|13. Saccus not developed||14|
|Saccus broad and rounded||15|
|14. Apex of harpe broadly rounded; costa rather short, flange deeply but narrowly emarginate at middle||angustipennis Z.|
|Apex of harpe narrow; costa well developed, flange widely but not deeply emarginate at middle||ephorus Meyr.|
|15. Costa very broad; gnathos extending well beyond uncus||xanthogrammus Meyr.|
|Costa not very broad; gnathos hardly extending beyond uncus||16|
|16. Saccus truncate apically, very broad; harpe with apex narrow||melitastes Meyr.|
|Saccus rounded apically, not very broad; harpe with apex moderately broad||17|
|17. Harpe with lower margin almost rectangularly bent at about ⅔; flange of costa simple||flexuosellus Dbld.|
|Harpe with lower margin rounded; flange of costa deeply emarginate at middle||oppositus Philp.|
|18. Tongue of gnathos very short||19|
|Tongue of gnathos moderate or long||22|
|19. Saccus tapered to apex||20|
|Saccus parallel-sided; flange of costa pointed in profile||saristes Meyr.|
|20. Gnathos constricted at middle; flange of costa not prominent in profile||meritus Meyr.*|
|Gnathos not constricted at middle; flange of costa prominent in profile||21|
|21. Flange of costa narrow, finger-like in profile; tongue of gnathos forming narrow process||antimorus Meyr.|
|Flange of costa broad, round-pointed in profile; tongue of gnathos broad, evenly tapered||heteranthes Meyr.|
|22. Saccus long, narrow, tapering or finger-like||23|
|Saccus short, broad-based, apex rounded or truncate||27|
|23. Aedeagus with 6 or 7 moderately large thorn-like cornuti; uncus very narrow; tongue of gnathos apically blunt||siriellus Meyr.|
|Aedeagus with linear series of minute cornuti or dense patch||24|
|24. Aedeagus with linear series of minute cornuti||25|
|Aedeagus with dense patch of linear cornuti||26|
|25. Harpes with lower margin sharply bent at about middle, costa not prominent; saccus parallel-sided to near apex||vitellus Dbld.|
|Harpes with lower margin evenly rounded, costa prominent; saccus evenly tapered||obstructus Meyr.|
|26. Saccus very narrow, tapering round-pointed; flange of costa rather narrow but deep||schedias Meyr.|
|Saccus narrow, finger-like; flange of costa normal||callirrhous Meyr.|
[Footnote] *I am not at present able to separate meritus and autistes Meyr., but as the specimen dissected was from the locality of the type material of meritus, I treat it as that species.
|27. Saccus with truncate apex||28|
|Saccus with acute or rounded apex||30|
|28. Arms of vinculum hardly dilated; saccus short, oblong, without keel||simplex Butl.|
|Arms of vinculum dilated; saccus tapering, narrow, with keel or moderately broad, without keel||29|
|29. Saccus moderately broad; strongly tapered, without keel; aedeagus without cornuti||harpophorus Meyr.|
|Saccus narrow, tapered, with keel; aedeagus with a large dense patch of minute cornuti||isochytus Meyr.|
|30. Saccus with apex acute||scutatus Philp.|
|Saccus with apex rounded||31|
|31. Harpes tapering to narrow apex, lower margin evenly rounded; genitalia proportionately small||crenaeus Meyr.|
|Harpes not tapering||32|
|32. Costa of harpe prominent||33|
|Costa of harpe hardly noticeable||34|
|33. Uncus moderately broad, parallel-sided, slightly expanded apically; apex blunt; aedeagus with 4 or 5 long stout cornuti||cydopicus Meyr.|
|Uncus narrow, tapering, pointed; aedeagus with dense oval patch of minute cornuti||diplorrhous Meyr.|
|34. Harpes subtriangular; flange of costa indicated by small chitinised papilla||paraxenus Meyr.|
|Harpes normal but bent rather upwards apically; flange of costa well developed, narrow but deep||scitulus Philp.|
Orocrambus Meyrick. (Figs. 61 to 68).
A moderate genus almost confined to New Zealand, but with at least one representative in Australia.
The genitalia are normally entirely withdrawn into the eighth segment. From the base of the tegumen and arms of the vinculum a quantity of long fine hair rises and enfolds the structures. (This has been omitted in most of the figures). Tegumen similar to Crambus, not fused with vinculum; uncus proportionately rather narrow, pointed, slightly curved downwards apically. Gnathos usually broader than uncus, tongue tapering to point. Aedeagus as in Crambus, but chitinised apical portion tending to extend further beyond orifice. Juxta, when present, a small flattish plate. Harpes broad, lower margin strongly rounded to blunt apex; costa usually well developed with prominent flange. Vinculum broad and deep, usually continued without delimitation into short broad saccus; occasionally the saccus is rather long.
|1. Apex of saccus truncate||2|
|Apex of saccus rounded||4|
|2. Saccus extremely short, hardly differentiated; juxta a cordate plate||ventosus Meyr.|
|Saccus longer; juxta not cordate||3|
[Footnote] *Orocrambus subitus Philp., in spite of its very Crambid-like facies, proves to be a Scoparia.
|3. Saccus short; harpes with rather narrow apex; aedeagus without apical thorn||scoparioides Philp.|
|Saccus moderately long; harpes with dilated apex; aedeagus with apical thorn||catacaustus Meyr.|
|4. Harpes very broad apically||5|
|Harpes moderately broad apically||6|
|5. Aedeagus with apical chitinised part strongly hooked||melampetrus Meyr.|
|Aedeagus with apical chitinised part not hooked||machaeristis Meyr.|
|6. Harpes with costa little developed, flange absent||thymiastes Meyr.|
|Harpes with costa well developed||7|
|7. Saccus rather long; uncus parallel-sided, apex acute; apex of costa rounded, not prominent||mylites Meyr.|
|Saccus rather short; uncus lanceolate; apex of costa rectangular, prominent||tritonellus Meyr.|
[Footnote] Lettering: ae, aedeagus; at, anal tube; ar, arm of vinculum; bg, base of gnathos; cb, chitinised pieces between bases of harpes in Crambus cyclopicus; co, costa of harpe; cp, costal process; cpr, costal prong; cr, cornutus; cs, costal spines on harpes of Argyria strophaea; de, ductus ejaculatorius; f, flange of costa; g, gnathos; h, harpe; j, juxta; k, keel of saccus; lj, lobe of juxta; mh, median process on harpe of Argyria pentadactyla; s, saccus; t, tegumen; th, thorn or barb of aedeagus; tr, transtilla; u, uncus; v, vinculum. Unless otherwise stated, the views of the genitalia (A) are from the lateral aspect and those of the harpe (B) from within; those of the aedeagus (D) are usually lateral, but when not so the aspect is indicated by the position of the ejaculatory duct which almost invariably enters the aedeagus on its dorsal surface.
Fig. 24.—A. strophaea Meyr. A, male genitalia; B, harpe; D, aedeagus; E, juxta; H, gnathos; J, vinculum.
Fig. 27.—C. ornatus Philp. A, male genitalia; B, harpe; D, aedeagus; E, juxta; H, gnathos and uncus; J, vinculum.
Fig. 30.—C. ramosellus Dbld. A, male genitalia; B, harpe; D, aedeagus; H, gnathos; J, vinculum; L, lower margin of harpe, ventral view.
Fig. 35.—C. dicrenellus Meyr. A, male genitalia; B, harpe; D, aedeagus; E, juxta; H, gnathos; J, vinculum; M, costal margin of harpe, dorsal view.
Fig. 40.—C. melitastes Meyr. A, male genitalia; B, harpe; D, aedeagus; H, gnathos; J, vinculum; M, costal margin of harpe, dorsal view.
Fig. 43.—C. saristes Meyr. A, male genitalia; B, harpe; D, aedeagus; F, uncus; H, gnathos; I, saccus; M, costal margin of harpe, dorsal view.
Fig. 44.—C. meristes Meyr. A, male genitalia; B, harpe; D, aedeagus; F, uncus; H, gnathos; J, vinculum; M, costal margin of harpe, dorsal view.
Fig. 46.—C. heteranthes Meyr. A, male genitalia; B, harpe; D, aedeagus; F, uncus; H, gnathos; J, vinculum; M, costal margin of harpe, dorsal view.
Fig. 50.—C. schedias Meyr. A, male genitalia; B, harpe; D, aedeagus; F, uncus; I, saccus; M, costal margin of harpe, dorsal view.
Fig. 61.—Orocrambus ventosus Meyr. A, male genitalia; B, harpe; D, aedeagus; E, juxta; F, uncus; H, gnathos; I, saccus; N, flange of costa, obliquely dorsal view.
Fig. 63.—O. catacaustus Meyr. A, male genitalia; B, harpe; D, aedeagus; F, uncus; H, gnathos; I, saccus; N, flange of costa, obliquely dorsal view.
Fig. 64.—O. melampetrus Meyr. A, male genitalia; B, harpe; D, aedeagus; H, gnathos; I, saccus; M, costal margin of harpe, dorsal view.
Fig. 65.—O. machaeristes Meyr. A, male genitalia; B, harpe; D, aedeagus; F, uncus; H, gnathos; I, saccus; M, costal margin of harpe, dorsal view; N, flange of costa, obliquely dorsal view.