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Volume 61, 1930
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Additions to the Recent Molluscan Fauna of New Zealand.
No. 3.

[Issued separately, 23rd August, 1930.]


Monodilepas otagoensis n. sp. (Fig 6).

Very close to monilifera (Hutton), the genotype, but differing in its coarser radials (less affected by the concentric ridges, so that the pits are less prominently hexagonal), more depressed shell, which is less pointed anteriorly especially in the adult, and a notably smaller foramen. The internal callus, as in monilifera, is subtriangular, the hinder margin being straight.

Length, 10 mm.; breadth, 7.8 mm.; height, 2.5 mm.

Locality—50 fathoms, 10 miles E.-N.-E. of Otago Heads, type and three others.

Type in Finlay collection.

Juveniles are difficult to separate from monilifera, but adults are easy. I have not seen this species from any other locality. Typical monilifera is in my collection from 15 fathoms, Stewart Island (topotypes); 50 fathoms, Snares Island; 50 fathoms, Oamaru; and Lyall Bay.

Monodilepas diemenensis n. sp.

Similar to monilifera, but rather more solid. Sculpture is coarser, like otagoensis, shape a cross between monilifera and skinneri Finlay, not so high as the former, not so elongate and parallel-sided as the latter, which is from the Chatham Islands (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 59, p. 236, Fig. 59, 1928). Distinguishable at sight from all the other species by the characters of the hinder margin and foramen; the hinder margin instead of being in the plane of the others is considerably raised off the ground, leaving a wide gape; the foramen is larger and more elongate than in monilifera, almost equalling skinneri in this feature, and especially has a quite different internal callus; this is hexagon-shaped instead of subtriangular, the posterior margin being strongly angled.

Length, 13.2 mm.; breadth, 9.5 mm.; height, 4 mm. (a slightly larger size than this is reached).

Locality—Cape Maria van Diemen, not uncommon cast up on the beach.

Type in Finlay collection.

There are apparently no previous records of the genus from the North Island.

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Herpetopoma mariae n. sp.

1913. Euchelus baccatus (Menke): Suter, Man. N.Z. Moll., p. 1984; not of Menke.

Shell closely related to H. aspersa (Phil.) (= baccata Menke, preoccupied). More depressed than typical Sydney examples, the earlier whorls notably more convex and globose. The suture is therefore better marked, but is not so deep; irregularity of the spiral ribs in aspersa produces a sub-canaliculation at the suture which is absent in mariae, the lowest rib on the penultimate whorl not prominent and overhanging as in the Australian species. Spiral ribbing far more regular, the ribs subequal in size (except on shoulder), without interstitial riblets, interstices subequal to or half width of ribs, narrower on base; 6 main ribs and some finer ones on shoulder on penultimate whorl, 14-16 on body whorl. Granulations on ribs notably finer than in aspersa, merely slight thickenings of growth lamellae, almost imperceptible to naked eye; tubercles are distinctly visible on aspersa. Outer lip thin and fragile instead of strongly thickened, columellar tubercle more of a spiral twist than a tooth.

Height, 10.5 mm.; width, 9.5 mm.

Locality—Cape Maria van Diemen, one specimen; this and previous species collected by the lighthouse keeper.

Type in Finlay collection.

This is undoubtedly the species Suter identified as Euchelus baccatus; a record that has already been rejected by me (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 362, 1926).

Argalista nana n. sp.

Very similar to fluctuata in general appearance, but uniformly smaller when adult. Spiral grooves same in arrangement, but considerably finer. A rather wide band round the umbilicus is free from spiral grooves in fluctuata; in nana this band is much narrower, spirals continuing almost up to perforation. Perhaps the best distinguishing character is the umbilicus, which in nana, is much smaller and almost filled up, appearing much as in Uberella vitrea (Hutton). Colour pattern much the same as in fluctuata.

Height, 9 mm.; width, 2.5 mm.

Locality—12 fathoms, Awanui Bay, type and several others; also 6 fathoms, Doubtless Bay, several; 25 fathoms, Hen and Chickens, one, and 38 fathoms, Cuvier Island, one.

Type in Finlay collection.

I have one typical specimen of fluctuata from 38 fathoms, Cuvier Island, otherwise all my shells of this species are from southern localities. Nana may be the northern representative of fluctuata, but the occurrence of both forms together off Cuvier Island seems to negative this. Nana is somewhat the size of Cirsonella densilirata Suter (a species very easily confused with the young of Argalista), but is much more tightly coiled, and has the typical Argalista pad, etc.

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On the Names of New Zealand Periwinkles.

Melarhaphe oliveri n. sp.

Suter, in the Manual of the New Zealand Mollusca, 1913 (pp. 187, 188) has used the name Litorina cincta Q. and G. and mauritiana Lamk. for our two common species. Iredale (Trans. N.Z. Inst. vol. 47, p. 447, 1915) preferred Melarhaphe Menke as the generic name and rejected mauritiana as inapplicable to the austral forms. He stated that the “next name is L. unifasciata Gray, 1826, given to an Australian shell,” but noted that “the Neozelanic shell may prove subspecifically separable.” In 1926 (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 375) I acted on this suggestion and rejected unifasciata as a New Zealand form. Owing, however, to a curious and unpardonable misconception of species I described the wrong shell. This was kindly pointed out to me by Mr. W. R. B. Oliver, of the Dominion Museum, who suggested that according to my figure, I had not renamed the New Zealand “mauritiana” at all, and that my zelandiae n. sp. was a synonym of cincta Q. and G. On looking up the Voy. Astrolabe, vol. 2; Pl. 30, Figs. 20, 21, I found that this was certainly the case, and that ever since I began collecting I had reversed the determinations of these two species. Accordingly, Melarhaphe zelandiae Finlay, 1926 sinks into the synonymy of M. cincta (Q. and G., 1833); neither Mr. Oliver nor myself can find any prior proposition of the combination Litorina cincta, so that my name is of no use whatsoever.

As the “mauritiana” form in New Zealand is thus still without a name, I now propose for it the name Melarhaphe oliveri n. sp., selecting a holotype (in my collection) from Hampden, East Coast of the South Island, and referring for a general description and a good figure to Suter, 1913 (Man. N.Z. Moll., p. 188) and Bucknill, 1924 (Sea Shells of New Zealand, p. 37; Pl. 7, No. 22). I have compared New Zealand specimens (from Cape Maria, Auckland, Wellington, Hampden, Dunedin, and Taieri Beach) with Australian shells (from Sydney, N.S.W.; Mornington, Vic.; and Yorke's Peninsula, S.A.) and find the following differences:—The New Zealand species differs in its smaller shell, higher and more slender spire, with almost straight instead of distinctly convex whorls, notably smaller aperture, and darker more prominent and better defined blue band, which is not just at the peripheral angle but a little above it. The Sydney (Peronian) specimens differ a little from the Mornington and Yorke's Peninsula (Adelaidean) ones, but not nearly to the extent that they all differ from the Neozelanic shells.

The name Litorina diemenensis was proposed by Quoy and Gaimard for a Tasmanian species, but New Zealand specimens were also referred here by those authors. It was described as “caerulescente …. long 51,” and with a “bandalette,” which fixes it as the mauritiana type of shell, but Tasmanian specimens seem to be allied to unifasciata rather than to oliveri. The name is sunk in synonymy by Australian writers, and May's figure (Illust. Ind. Tas. Shells, 1923; Pl. 22, Fig. 19) shows a very Adelaideanlike shell.

Oliver has noted (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 54, p. 498; 1923) that the New Zealand “unifasciata” is not found below low-water level,

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neap tides, and has in the same paper made many other interesting observations on its habits and ecology. My thanks are due to him for discovering my error, and I am pleased to bestow his name on this wide-spread New Zealand periwinkle.

Genus Nobolira Finlay.

Powell has recently proposed (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 60, p. 537, 1930), a new subgenus Adolphinoba, genotype A. finlayi Powell, for Noboliras with “thin simple peristome, not thickened and duplicated.” This was done under misapprehension of these characters in the genotype of Nobolira, Lironoba polyvincta Finlay, which is much closer to finlayi than it is to bollonsi, described by Powell as a true Nobolira. There is, however, every gradation between the extremes of aperture he figures, and no subordinate group can be set up on this account. He has since agreed with me (in litt.) that Adolphinoba is a synonym.

Larochella alta Powell.

I can record this species, described from 6-12 fathoms, Mangonui and Awanui Bay (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 540; F. 6; 1927) also from 25 fathoms off the Hen and Chicken Islands, Hauraki Gulf. The two specimens from here show no difference at all from Awanui Bay shells. Powell supposed that Larochella was a seaweed-frequenting genus, evolved from the deeper water sand-frequenting “Aclis” succincta Suter, but it appears that the bathymetric range of Larochella is greater than he thought.

Linemera gallinacea n. sp. (Fig. 41).

Shell fairly large for the genus, tall, fairly wide, with subobsolete spiral sculpture, strong axials, weakening on later whorls, and an almost smooth base. Embryo well developed, of two smooth and rather globose whorls, ending abruptly in a sudden contraction, generally followed almost immediately by the first axial rib. Succeeding whorls 4½, faintly convex; the early ones flat, with a narrow horizontal shoulder and blunt angle almost at the upper suture, fading out on lower whorls, which becomes cut in more at lower suture. Axial ribs on first two whorls strong, wide, and wellspaced (own width or more apart), on subsequent whorls progressively weaker, narrower, and closer (interstices becoming only one half to one-third their own width on penultimate and last whorls), 14 ribs on first whorl, 20 on second, 24 on third, variable and irregularly developed on body whorl. At first no spiral sculpture, then a faint groove on the subangled periphery just above lower suture, on penultimate and body whorls this becomes a well marked groove bordered by two narrow spiral cords, sharply marking off the flatly convex base; the axial ribs stop immediately below second of these cords, and just below that again is sometimes a third weaker spiral cord emerging from suture (generally absent); rest of base practically smooth except for obscure spiral markings indicating indefinite ribs. A distinct umbilical chink is present, over which the pillar is slightly reflexed and is then continued to form a distinctly

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effuse anterior lip to the suboval inclined aperture, behind which is a weak varix. Peristome continuous, sharp. (Rarely, a fourth spiral cord may appear on body whorl just above the two peripheral threads).

Height, 3.1 mm.; width, 1.6 mm. (type).

Height, 3.7 mm.; width, 1.8 mm. (paratype).

Height, 3.5 mm.; width, 1.7 mm. (Poor Knights paratype).

Locality—25 fathoms, off Hen and Chicken Islands, type and many others; also from 35 fathoms, Colville Channel (sent to me by Odhner as “Aclis semireticulata Suter,” vide Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 404, 1926), 38 fathoms off Cuvier Island, and 60 fathoms off Poor Knights Islands. The numerous specimens from the last named locality are on the whole a trifle more slender, and have the sculpture on the last whorl slightly weaker, but are not worth separating as a bathymetric variety.

Type in Finlay collection.

This is the largest New Zealand species of Linemera, and is not very closely related to any other, though probably an offshot from gradata (Hutton). From that species it is easily distinguished by its larger size, suppressed spiral sculpture, and smooth base. The pingue and gradata series, though having many points in common, are evidently by now quite distinct, since a new species, which is a pingue relative, lives together with gallinacea as a perfectly separable form; no hybrids have been seen. There do not, however, seem to be sufficient grounds, at least at present, for erecting a subgenus for the pingue-exserta group.

Linemera gradatoides n. sp. (Fig. 40).

A Recent descendant of gradata (Hutton), nearer to it than is any other Recent species. Apex the same, but a little less depressed; 3¾ shell whorls follow. Whorls not quite so flat (due to the stronger and more median second spiral); suture still more canaliculate, the peripheral and shoulder angles being further from the suture; margined above but not below. Axial ribs a little stronger, more distant (1½ times their width apart), 16-17 on penultimate whorl, hardly more crowded near aperture, otherwise as in gradata. Four spirals on spire whorls, the lowest as in gradata, the upper three more crowded together, subequal and subequidistant; the difference is most noticeable with the second spiral, which is strong and submedian instead of subobsolete, low down, and close to third. The first and second become wider apart on body whorl, and a very weak interstitial riblet may develop between them. The fourth spiral continues strongly on base below periphery, as in gradata, and 4 more subequal, close, and subequidistant smooth cords occupy the rest of the base; the groove between peripheral spiral and the one below is relatively deeper and wider than in gradata, and the segregation of the basal spirals is thus better marked. Umbilical chink and aperture as in gradata.

Height, 3 mm.; width, 1.6. mm.

Locality—50 fathoms off Oamaru, many specimens.

Type in Finlay collection.

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Rissoina larochei n. sp.

Shell very small for the genus, distantly obliquely costate. Embryo relatively large, of about two smooth whorls, the tip rather prominent and inturned, the next whorl somewhat swollen. Four and a-half whorls follow, fairly regularly convex, shoulder slightly flattened. Ten axials per whorl, their own width or a little more apart, in the shape of a shallow reversed S, but decidedly oblique, sloping forwards lower down, weaker and more distant on shoulder, vanishing on base below the convexity. Whole surface appears smooth, but is densely crowded with minute crowded spiral grooves, only perceptible under high power. Aperture like chathamensis, but basal lip projecting further down and out; relatively large for so small a shell.

Height, 2.9 mm.; width, 1.3 mm.

Locality—12 fathoms, Doubtless Bay, two shells dredged by W. La Roche.

Type in Finlay collection.

The only other Rissoina of this size in New Zealand is rufolactea Suter, which has a wider shell, flatter whorls, and much more numerous axials; its whole aspect is different.

Rissoina powelli n. sp. (Fig. 37).

Shell moderately large for the genus, with weak axial sculpture, polished and shining. Embryo dome-shaped, milk-white and glossy, of about two rather large whorls, merging imperceptibly into adult shell, tip somewhat flattened and inturned. Whorls 6, sides straight except for a slight bulge just at suture, spire straight. Axials normally about 16 per whorl, but generally irregularly developed, becoming more numerous and subobsolete on body whorl, merely very low raised ridges, 1½–2 times their width apart, somewhat like these of anguina Finlay, but a little coarser, extending in almost straight lines from suture to suture and vanishing below periphery on body whorl. Surface apparently quite smooth and shining, but irregular spiral scratches are visible under a high power, more regular and distinct on base. Colour uniformly greyish white. Aperture as in chathamensis, but somewhat more open.

Height, 8 mm.; width, 3.5 mm. (type).

Height, 7.9 mm.; width, 3 mm. (paratype).

Locality—60 fathoms, off Poor Knights Islands, numerous specimens.

Type in Finlay collection.

Very like a Zebina with axial sculpture, but lacking the aperture denticles of this genus. A more Eulimoid aspect than any other New Zealand species, and one of our most attractive Rissoinas.

Rissoina fictor n. sp. (Fig. 38).

Shell very tall and slender, smooth except for spiral grooves. Embryo as described for powelli, forming a rather blunt top to the shell. Whorls about 5, practically flat. Spire acicular, very high for the genus, more than twice height of aperture, outlines straight.

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No axial sculpture. Dense and rather prominent spiral grooving covers whole surface. One narrow brown spiral band just above middle of whorls. Aperture as in chathamensis, but more sharply angled above and below.

Height, 5.6 mm.; of aperture, 1.7 mm.; width, 1.9 mm.

Locality—38 fathoms, off Cuvier Island.

Type in Finlay collection.

This is practically an Austronoba in appearance, but has a Rissoinid aperture. The spiral grooving, colour band, and high spire are quite as in Austronoba, which, however, is smaller, and generally has axial ribs on upper whorls, and not so flat a spire. The only other New Zealand Rissoina with obsolete axials is achatina Odner but this has lightly convex spire outlines, a quite differently shaped body whorl, and very inconspicuous spiral ornament.

Rissoina fucosa n. sp. (Fig. 43).

Shell fairly small, strongly axially costate. Embryo apparently as in chathamensis (i.e., of 1½ smooth depressed whorls, nucleus prominent), but somewhat smaller. Adult whorls 5½, markedly convex, sutures well cut in, not margined. Axials 13 per whorl, very strong and distant, 2½–3 times their width apart, slightly oblique from suture to suture, strong over whole body whorl right down to basal and inner lips, just before reaching inner lip they curve sharply over almost at right-angles, and form a weak but distinct fasciole ridge surrounding the inner lip and marking previous channels of apertures. Spirals practically absent except on base, where they form extremely fine and numerous spiral ridges. Aperture as in chatham [ unclear: ] nsis, but much more deeply and narrowly channelled below.

Height, 4.8 mm.; width, 2 mm.

Locality—38 fathoms, Cuvier Island.

Type in Finlay collection.

This species strikingly simulates Rissolina Gould in the strong sculpture and tendency to form a fasciole, but the latter feature is very much stronger in typical Rissolina, and the aperture correspondingly much more deeply and laterally notched; the sutures and apex, too, are different from Rissolina. The species seems really to be closely related to chathamensis, but apart from the fasciole (which chathamensis never has), it has fewer and more distant axials, fewer and less conspicuous spirals, an unmargined suture, slightly more convex whorls, and a smaller test.

Key to the New Zealand species of Rissoina.

Shell small (under 4 mm.)
15 axials on last whorl rufolactea Suter.
10 axials on last whorl larochei Finlay.
Shell larger (over 4 mm.)
Shell very large and stout (width over 4 mm.), no axials, spire somewhat mucronate zonata Suter.
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Shell more slender (width generally under 3 mm., not exceeding 3.5 mm.), spire straigt or lightly convex.
Axials obsolete.
Spire more than twice height of aperture, spiral grooves prominent fictor Finlay.
Spire less than twice height of aperture, spirals very indistinct achatina Odhner.
Axials well developed, no fasciole.
Axials weaker or disappearing on lower half of whorls, about 24 per whorl, shell rather short anguina Finlay.
Axials generally strong over whole surface, sometimes weakening on body whorl, about 15 per whorl, shell higher cathamensis
Axials irregular, low and weak from suture to suture, normally 16 per whorl, shell shining, rather large and tall powelli Finlay.
Axials very strong, turning over on a basal fasciole, after the style of Rissolina fucosa Finlay.

True Rissoina is unknown from the New Zealand Tertiary, apart from the record of chathamensis from Castlecliff. My R. perplexa (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 55, p. 489, Fig. 11, 1924), from Clifden, has a Rissoid aperture, and does not belong to the Rissoinidae. It may be transferred for the present to Haurakia, though it is improbably congeneric with hamiltoni, the genotype. Rissoina (?) obliquecostata Marshall and Murdoch (id., vol. 52, p. 128, Pl. 6, Fig. 1, 1920), from Hampden, may be associated with Aclis costellata Hutton near Zeradina Finlay; these two will later be separated from that group, but as I have no good specimens of either, I leave them there at present.

Nozeba mica n. sp.

Shell very minute, milk-white, shining. Apex planorbid, quite flattened, but the whorls convex and the sutures well marked; thence disproportionately increasing downwards. Four whorls altogether, the last occupying most of the shell, quite different in shape from the preceding whorl, which is very convex, while the last whorl has a straight steep slope below suture and then is lightly convex to the sloping base. Surface at first sight perfectly smooth, polished and shining, but a high power shows 4-5 distinct grooves on base round canal, and extremely minute spiral grooving above periphery, which seems to be smooth. Suture well marked, margined below. Aperture pyriform, completed across parietal wall, nowhere callused, basal lip well rounded, hardly effuse. Columella concave. A minute but distinct umbilical chink.

Height, 1.4 mm.; width, 0.8 mm.

Locality—25 fathoms, off Hen and Chicken Islands.

Type in Finlay collection.

The minute size is the chief distinguishing feature of this species. Otherwise it resembles coulthardi (Webster) in sculpture and

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aperture, but has a lower spire, unthickened aperture at parietal wall, and much shallower basal notch. All the specimens are about the same size and show an adult aperture.

Socienna maoria n. sp. (Fig. 45).

Shell small, slender, elegantly clathrate. Embyro of two whorls, the first somewhat depressed, all but the tip ornamented with numerous close axial riblets, less than their own width apart. Adult whorls 7, slightly convex, sutures well cut in, finely margined above. Four spirals per whorl, the lower three always stronger, narrow and rather sharp ridges, 3-4 times their width apart, a fifth similar one emerges from suture on to base, forming a sharp undulation there, below which base is concave and smooth except for a faint spiral margining the basal notch fasciole. Spirals reticulated by similar axials (perhaps slightly weaker, about 17 per whorl, sloping slightly backwards, slightly wider apart than spirals so that the enclosed pits are a little oblong; intersections nodulous. Aperture open, oval-oblong, outer lip thin, practically no basal lip, almost the whole of the space being taken up by a very deep U-shaped notch in the concave base; pillar short, a little twisted and bent to left at its base, slightly excavated above.

Height, 4.5 mm.; width, 1.2 mm.

Locality—6 fathoms, Doubtless Bay.

Type in Finlay collection.

Very like the Tasmanian S. apicicostata May (Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas. for 1919, p. 64, Pl. 16, Figs. 21, 21a), the genotype, but with an extra rib below suture and more convex whorls; the basal rib also is not smooth but noduled like the rest.

Seilarex exaltatus Powell, just described from 5-6 fathoms, Great Barrier Island (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 60, p. 538, Fig. 3, 1930) is a true Socienna, differing from maoria in having a four-whorled apex, and the central spiral keel more prominent than the others. The type of Seilarex is a very much larger shell with no axial sculpture, though the protoconch and aperture details indicate a relationship. I have a typical ancestral Seilarex n. sp. from Balcombe Bay (Australian Balcombian) and two new species of Socienna from Target Gully (New Zealand Awamoan), so the two lines have long been separated and should be nominally distinguished.

Zeacolpus mixtus n. sp. (Fig. 42).

Shell small, similar to pagodus (Reeve) in habit and painting, but less strongly keeled. The species of this group vary principally in the relative strength and development of the original four keels, if these are lettered. A, B, C, and D, from the top downwards, the sculpture of the various forms may be described as follows. In all the species C is the first to appear, often as the continuation of a keel on the protoconch, and is the strongest; D appears after the embryonic stage, and soon becomes nearly as strong as C; A and B appear a little later as weak threads, which may become strong on later whorls. In vittatus, C and D always remain a little stronger and wider apart than A and B, but none of the keels become prominent,

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and the intercalation of subsidiary spirals, and the tendency to bulge a little at A gives the whorls a flattish, evenly sculptured appearance. In pagodus, C begins as a very strong keel and is always the most prominent, B eventually becoming the next most conspicuous, so that the whorls appear fairly sharply keeled at about the lower third, with a very slight bulge at the upper third. In fulminatus, A and C always remain the strongest, the latter rather more prominent; B and D are always inconspicuous, hardly stronger than the intercalated spirals, while a fairly strong cord develops at the lower suture and finally on the periphery of the base. In ahiparanus Powell (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 58, p. 297, Pl. 34, Fig. 4, 1927), everything remains subordinate to C, which is everywhere much stronger even than in pagodus (and thus very reminiscent of the Tertiary albolapis Finlay), A, B, and D being hardly discernible from the subsidiary spirals; a strong keel finally emerges from suture on to periphery of last whorl. In mixtus n. sp., the early stages are as in vittatus (C and D subequal and fairly strong, A and B weak); on the lower half B, C, and D are subequal, C forming a weak carina on the whorls, and A is indistinguishable from the secondary spirals; there is no sub-sutural bulge, so that the whorls are much more convex than in vittatus, but not so sharply angled as in pagodus, the angle, too, being submedian. The last whorl tends to be flatter, with the keels weaker. Aperture and base almost as in vittatus, pagodus having a more oval opening.

Height, 22 mm.; width, 6 mm.

Locality—60 fathoms, off Poor Knights Islands.

Type in Finlay collection.

An obvious derivative of vittatus (Hutton) but though living together with it and fulminatus (Hutton) (both of which I have from 60 fathoms, Poor Knights), separable at sight, and constantly distinct. For comparison and ease of identification, figures are here presented also of vittatus (Hutton) (Fig. 39), from 60 fathoms off Poor Knights Islands; pagodus (Reeve) (Fig. 44), from 25 fathoms, off Hen and Chickens; and fulminatus (Hutton) (Fig. 36), from 60 fathoms, off Poor Knights Islands.

Zegalerus tumens n. sp.

Shell very close to the Pliocene Z. crater Finlay (=alta Hutton, preoccupied), but with more globose whorls. Crater is generally a not very high shell, with almost straight sides, the sutures inconspicuous. Tumens is very elevated, but the whorls are still strongly convex, and the sutures well marked. Surface worn, but shows traces of coarse pitting. No false umbilicus, only a callus pad. Septum shows faint concentric striation.

Height, 14 mm.; width, 27 mm.

Locality—Cape Maria van Diemen, four specimens.

Type in Finlay collection.

Z. crater has been reported by me as occurring at the Chathams. The two Recent specimens I have from there differ from tumens in the same points as do Pliocene topotypes, so that crater seems still to exist in a southern habitat, tumens being a northern geminate form.

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Cochlis vafer n. sp.

Natica gualteriana of Australian authors.

Powell (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 560, 1927) has lately described a New Zealand shell from the north Cookian region as C. migratoria (see Figs. 34, 36), stating that it is identical with the Peronian gualteriana auct., which he shows is not really Recluz's species. I do not think, however, that the specific identity of the New Zealand and Australian shells can be upheld; apart from the unlikelihood of finding an animal so responsive to environment as a Naticoid unchanged on both sides of the Tasman Sea, comparison of actual specimens shows valid differences. Specimens from Shell Harbour, N.S.W. (whence Powell made his Australian identification) resemble migratoria very closely, but are slightly more vertically compressed in whorling, and the base is thus flatter. Especially is the nick between funicle and parietal callus much deeper, so that the umbilical furrow and notch in pillar form a full semicircle, instead of only a quarter to a third of a circle as in migratoria. The sutural furrows tend, on the earlier whorls at least, to be coarse and further apart. Colouring and size are the same in the two species.

Height, 15 mm.; width, 14 mm.

Locality—Shell Harbour, N.S.W.

Type in Finlay collection.

Nodiscala zelandica n. sp. (Fig. 35).

Shell small, axially costate and spirally punctured. Embryo worn, but apparently paucispiral and smooth. Whorls 7, convex, slightly excavated below suture, which is well marked, and somewhat margined below by a low band; the last whorl disproportionately bulging. About 18 axials per whorl, extending evenly across whorls, about twice their width apart, somewhat projecting at upper suture, continued down to fasciole on base, but weaker below periphery. Whole surface with extremely dense and weak spiral threads of irregular width, with linear interstices, stronger anteriorly; interstices everywhere thickly dotted with punctures. Same sculpture on base, which is regularly convex, no basal disc. Aperture obliquely oval, lips broad and quite flat, a narrow smooth and shining inner ring encased in a much broader spirally grooved and punctured outer band. A distinct but tiny fasciole marked by a slight swelling on base close to and sub-parallel with inner lip, a shallow umbilical groove between; this is shown at aperture by a slight thickening at meeting of basal and inner lips to form a tiny pad.

Height, 10 mm.; width, 3.7 mm.

Locality—75 fathoms, off North Cape.

Type in Finlay collection.

Accurate generic location of the Scalidae is very difficult in the absence of actual genotypes. Cossmann's treatment in the Ess. Pal. Comp., vol. 9, 1912 is not always dependable or lucid, and the multitude of generic names proposed (probably correctly) by the specialist de Boury makes elimination no easy task. Crassiscala de Boury type: Scalaria francisci Caillat, French Eocene) is treated

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Figs. 1, 2.—Axymene teres n. sp.: holotype. × 11.
Figs. 3, 4.—Plurigens phenax n. sp.: paratypes; 3 × ⅘, 4 × 1.1.
Fig. 5.—Zeatrophon tmetus n. sp.: holotype. × 3.
Fig. 6.—Monodilepas otagoensis n. sp.: holotype. × 5.
Fig. 7.—Zeatrophon caudatinus n. sp.: holotype. × 5.
Figs. 8, 9.—Zeatrophon tmetus n. sp.: holotype. × 1.5.
Fig. 10.—Zeatrophon tmetus n. sp.: paratype. × 6.
Fig. 11.—Plurigens phenax n. sp.: holotype. × 4/5.
Fig. 12.—Zeatrophon pulcherrima n. sp.: Cuvier Id. specimen. × 9.5.

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Figs. 13, 15.—Microvoluta biconica (M. & S.): 25 fathoms, Hen and Chickens. × 12.
Fig. 14.—Inglisella septentrionalis n. sp.: holotype. × 11.
Fig. 16.—Bonellitia superstes n. sp.: holotype. × 9.
Fig. 17.—Austromitra lawsi n. sp.: holotype. × 4.
Fig. 18.—Austromitra planatella n. sp.: holotype. × 5.
Fig. 19.—Microvoluta cuvierensis n. sp.: holotype. × 12.
Fig. 20.—Oamaruia deleta n. sp.: holotype. × 11.
Fig. 21.—Microvoluta cuvierensis n. sp.: paratype. × 12.

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Figs. 22, 23.—Hochstetteria pinctada n. sp.: holotype. × 5.
Fig. 24.—Hochstetteria pinctada n. sp.: paratype. × 5.
Figs. 25, 26, 27.—Hochstetteria meleagrina Bernard: 50 fathoms, Otago Heads. × 5.
Fig. 28.—Hochstetteria munita n. sp.: Lyall Bay. × 5.
Fig. 29.—Hochstetteria munita n. sp.: holotype. × 5.
Fig. 30.—Hochstetteria munita n. sp.: paratype. × 5.
Fig. 31.—Murdochella superlata n. sp.: holotype. × 13.
Fig. 32.—Funiscala maxwelli n. sp.: paratype. × 5.6
Fig. 33.—Funiscala maxwelli n. sp.: holotype. × 5.6.
Figs. 34, 36.—Cochlis migratoria Powell: Whangaroa. × 2.4.
Fig. 35.—Nodiscala zelandica n. sp.: holotype. × 5.

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Fig. 36.—Zeacolpus fulminatus (Hutton): 60 fathoms, Poor Knights. × 3.4.
Fig. 37.—Rissoina powelli n. sp.: holotype. × 8.6.
Fig. 38.—Rissoina fictor n. sp.: holotype. × 12.
Fig. 39.—Zeacolpus vittatus (Hutton): 60 fathoms, Poor Knights. × 3.4.
Fig. 40.—Linemera gradatoides n. sp.: paratype. × 12.
Fig. 41.—Linemera gallinacea n. sp.: paratype, Poor Knights. × 12.
Fig. 42.—Zeacolpus mixtus n. sp.: holotype. × 3.4.
Fig. 43.—Rissoina fucosa n. sp.: holotype. × 12.
Fig. 44.—Zeacolpus pagodus (Reeve): 25 fathoms, Hen and Chickens. × 3.4.
Fig. 45.—Socienna maoria n. sp.: holotype. × 13.5.

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by Cossmann as a subgenus of Granuliscala of the same author, founded on the common Australian S. granulosa Q. and G. The present shell shows little resemblance to granulosa, but is very like Cossmann's figure of francisci; it certainly belongs to his subfamily Opaliinae, and the absence of the basal disc—a rare feature in other than typical Scalidae—is shown only by Crassiscala. Cossmann quotes Eocene, Oligocene, and Pliocene, but no Recent species.

On the other hand, Powell (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 60, p. 541, Fig. 10, 1930) has described as Pliciscala (Nodiscala) ahiparana a new species from 70 f. off Ahipara which is undoubtedly congeneric with the shell here described. His argument and generic location seem very reasonable, so I prefer to use Nodiscala until actual genotypes are available.

It is of course absurd to call all our species Epitonium or Scala; numerous groups are represented in New Zealand, and on the basis of Cossmann's figures and diagnoses I suggest the following locations for some of the species as a first step towards a more correct classification.

Epitonium tenuispiralis Marshall, 1919, Scalaria marginata Hutton, 1885, and possibly Epitonium (Clathroscala) cylindrellum Suter, 1917 may be transferred to Turriscala de Boury, 1890; type: Turbo torulosus Brocchi, Pliocene.

Scalaria nympha Hutton, 1885, to Funiscala de Boury, 1891; type: Scalaria speyeri Sacco, Oligocene.

Epitonium tricinctum Marshall, 1918, to Cirsotrema, near C. angulata Marwick, 1926.

Turbonilla awamoaensis Marshall and Murdoch, 1921 is not one of the Pyramidellidae, but belongs to Notacirsa Finlay. It is close to oamarutica, but has much finer spiral sculpture. I have a few specimens from Pukeuri, and one from Target Gully, but it is very much rarer than oamarutica.

Funiscala maxwelli n. sp. (Figs. 32, 33).

Shell small, of rather smooth appearance. Embyro of about 1½ whorls, smooth and shining. Subsequent whorls 7, with numerous weak axial ribs and extremely dense spiral grooves. Fifteen-sixteen axials per whorl, irregular and somewhat sinuous, sloping forward a little at upper suture, 2-2½ times their width apart, stopped by the basal disc. Extremely fine regular and dense spiral grooving over whole surface, also on and below basal disc, which is very stout and keel-like, though blunt; it emerges from suture and encloses a rather narrow concave area, just above it is a distinct concavity. Aperture sub-circular, slightly flattened basally by the area within the disc, with a narrow but blunt ring-like edge, outside of which is a moderately thick varix with the spirals running over it; no fasciole or pad at the junction of basal lip and pillar. A few other varices are irregularly distributed over the shell.

Height, 7.8 mm.; width, 2.7 mm.

Locality—50 fathoms, 10 miles E.N.E. of Otago Heads, dredged by Mr. Maxwell Young.

Type in Finlay collection.

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This seems quite close to the Pliocene Scalaria nympha Hutton, 1885 (which I have not seen), and is probably its Recent representative. The Tertiary shell has more axials, has the basal disc visible on the spire whorls as a thread margining suture, and is apparently shorter.

Murdochella tertia n. sp.

Shell close to alacer Finlay in protoconch, closer to laevifoliata M. and S. in sculpture. Embyro of two whorls, all but the first half volution with prominent axial ribs, interstices a little wider, extending regularly from suture to suture, otherwise smooth, ending in a very prominent raised varix with a thin sharp edge. Whorls about 5, flatly convex, not keeled, sutures well cut in. All whorls with 3 spirals on the lower half, the uppermost very weak on upper whorls, twice their own width apart; on lower whorls there are traces of two extra equidistant spirals above these. Axial lamellae very fine and dense, exactly as in laevifoliata, but over-riding the spirals much more prominently. A strong extra spiral ridge arises from suture on base, as in laevifoliata, but stronger; below this smooth, but indications of 3 weak spirals as in laevifoliata. Aperture typical, outer lip much less crenulated than in the other two species.

Height, 4.2 mm.; width, 1.6 mm.

Locality—75 fathoms, North Cape.

Type in Finlay collection.

In its large strongly costate embryo this species resembles alacer, laevifoliata having a minute apex, finely and faintly costate. Alacer, however, has much coarser sculpture, especially on upper whorls. Both species have very much stronger spiral ridges and keeled whorls than tertia.

Murdochella superlata n. sp. (Fig. 31).

Shell small, distinctly clathrate, with an exaggerated basal keel, Embryo tiny (same size as in laevifoliata), last whorl with fine numerous axial riblets, ending in a prominent thin-edged varix. Adult whorls about 7½, narrow and very convex, with very deep sutures Two prominent spiral keels per whorl, with faint indications of a weak thread above, between, and below them; shoulder wide, convex, and practically smooth except for axials. Thirteen lamellar axials per whorl, many times their width apart, sinuous, antecurrent at suture above, crenulated by the spirals but not nodulous, the two enclosing a series of oblong pits. A tiny thread margins suture above; this runs out on base as a very sharp high and prominent ridge, cutting off the axials and enclosing a smooth concave space; at the junction of outer and basal lips it juts out as a prominent hollow point, curved to the right. Aperture subcircular, peristome incomplete, outer lip bordered by a thin widely fringed lamella, but no varix; pillar concave.

Height, 4.4 mm.; width, 1.3 mm.

Locality—75 fathoms, North Cape.

Type in Finlay collection.

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A most extreme form of the genus. The exaggerated basal keel recalls the Rissoid genus Promerelina Powell and the Liotid one Conjectura Finlay, but the apical and other shell characters are quite different and show a close affinity to laevifoliata. Apart from the stronger basal keel, superlata differs from the other species of the genus in having far fewer axials and spirals, and differently shaped whorls; the apex is almost exactly as in the genotype.

Murdochella alacer Finlay.

This species was described (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 402, Fig. 41, 1926) from 40 fathoms, Cuvier Island. I can also record it from 25 fathoms, Hen and Chickens; at each locality laevifoliata occurs with it. The latter species I also have from 60 fathoms, Poor Knights; 12 fathoms, Doubtless Bay; and 50 fathoms, Snares Island.

Key to the New Zealand species of Murdochella.

Protoconch small, with weak axials; sculpture dense;
whorls keeled by strong spirals laevifoliata.
Protoconch large, with strong axials; sculpture dense;
whorls flatly convex; weak spirals tertia.
Protoconch large, with strong axials; sculpture coarser,
whorls keeled by strong spirals alacer.
Protoconch small, with moderate axials; distantly clathrate; whorls bicarinate-convex, a very strong
basal ridge superlata.

Austromitra planatella n. sp. (Fig. 18).

Shell of moderate size for the genus, rather stout. Embryo of 1½ whorls, smooth and polished. Five adult whorls, slightly shouldered above upper third, faintly convex below, body whorl rather inflated. About 16 axials per whorl, not prominent, 3-4 times their width apart, very faintly nodulous on shoulder, crossing whorls from suture to suture, but entirely vanishing on base. Spirals almost obsolete, about two just below suture and 2-3 and angle, periphery practically smooth, base with numerous weakly indicated cords with linear interstices. Aperture capacious, outer lip thin and sharp. Pillar sloping to left, but not much twisted, with four plaits, the upmost stronger than and rather widely separated from the rest.

Height, 10.8 mm.; width, 4.5 mm.

Locality—38 fathoms, off Cuvier Id.

Type in Finlay collection.

This seems very close to the true Pliocene Turricula planata Hutton (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 17, p. 315, Pl. 18, Fig. 3, May, 1885) from “Wanganui,” and is apparently its Recent representative; it is smaller and seems to have a more rapidly contracted beak and more numerous axials.

Austromitra lawsi n. sp. (Fig. 17).

Shell rather large for the genus, considerably resembling Uromitra Conrad in shape. Protoconch of less than 1½ turns, smooth and polished. Six adult whorls, well shouldered at about the upper

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quarter, shoulder slightly concave, slightly convex below. Axials 13-14 per whorl, more numerous and sub-obsolete on last quarter turn, about own width apart, strong and prominent from suture to suture, vanishing on base. An obscure swelling margins upper suture, shoulder smooth, 7-8 spiral cords from angle to lower suture, not conspicuous, interstices wider, similar sculpture over whole body whorl, 14 spirals down to neck of canal, then a wider one just above first plait, then a considerably stronger one continuous with first plait, then 4-6 similar gradually weakening cords on neck of canal. Body whorl rather suddenly contracted leaving an excavated space between suture and first plait; canal rather long, well twisted. Aperture narrow, contracted suddenly to canal. Outer lip smooth inside. Pillar with four plaits, the upmost strong and sub-horizontal, the next two weaker and more oblique, the lowest very weak and often practically obsolete.

Height, 12 mm.; width, 4.6 mm.

Locality—50 fathoms, 10 miles E.N.E. of Otago Heads, several shells, dredged by M. Young. Also collected by C. R. Laws, for whom the species is named.

Type in Finlay collection.

This may be the Recent representative of the Pliocene Turricula marginata (Hutton (l. c.; Pl. 18, Fig. 4), but is considerably larger and still has the axials prominent on body whorl. I have no specimens of marginata for accurate comparison. Lawsi is one of the largest and finest of our Austromitras.

Aeneator otagoensis n. sp.

Very close to A. marshalli (Murdoch) (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 55, p. 159, 1924), the genotype, from the Upper Pliocene of Castlecliff, and probably descended from it. Easily distinguished by fewer and stouter axials, 13 per whorl just before they die out, instead of about 18; interstices equal to or wider than ribs instead of narrower or sublinear. Spirals somewhat finer, less raised than in marshalli. Spire taller, considerably higher than aperture instead of subequal to it. Pillar considerably thicker.

Height, 55 mm.; of spire, 23 mm.; width, 24 mm.

Locality—22 fathoms, trawled between Otago Heads and Waikouwaiti, type and one other. Also two shells from 60 fathoms off Otago Heads, and one worn cast up shell, Taieri Beach.

Type in Finlay collection.

Perhaps all the Recent records of marshalli refer to this species.

Radulphus necopinatus n. sp.

Near Cyllene lactea Ad. and Ang., but broader and shorter; the spire is lower and the shoulder short, so that the whorls are medially sub-keeled; main spiral grooves fewer. Colour brownish, irregularly maculated with large white blotches on periphery, but shell is worn and does not show true colour. Apical whorls two, mamillate, smooth. Whorls with dense inconspicuous spiral grooving, the grooves with very faint punctures; more distinct on last whorl, eight of the linear grooves at regular distant intervals being more impressed and darker

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coloured. There are very faint traces of coarse peripheral nodules on penultimate whorl alone, about 10 per whorl. Almost the whole surface in the unique type is covered with a secondary pitting of short linear punctures, irregularly disposed and directed, probably due to a bryozoan. Fasciole strong but short. Aperture rather small, outer lip thick but fairly sharp, inner lip rather callous, a pad on parietal wall and another at base of pillar encoraching on fasciole. Pillar excavated, with a Phos-like groove below. Canal rather wide, directed to left and notched backwards.

Height, 15.5 mm.; width, 9.5 mm.

Locality—Cape Maria van Diemen, one specimen.

Type in Finlay collection.

This is the first recorded member of this genus from New Zealand, and comes rather as a surprise. For the genus Radulphus, see Iredale Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vol. 49, pt. 3, p. 270, 1924; the present species is much nearer to lactea than to royanus Iredale.

Murexsul mariae n. sp.

Like the Pliocene espinosus (Hutton), but much shorter and smaller, and relatively wider. Very squat and small for the genus, whorls inflated, regularly convex. Axials 12-13 per whorl, rounded and regular, a little less than their own width apart, hardly any further apart on body whorl. No spines. Spirals less raised than in espinosus and canal much shorter—only half as long. Three prominent ribs on neck of canal better indicated. Otherwise like the Pliocene shell.

Height 17 mm.; of spire and aperture, 7.5 mm.; width, 9 mm.

Locality—Cape Maria van Diemen, on the beach, type and ten others, quite constant; collected by lighthouse-keeper. One fresh specimen, possibly this species, but taller and more like espinosus except for canal, from Mt. Maunganui.

Type in Finlay collection.

Axymene teres n. sp. (Figs. 1, 2).

Shell small, short, stout. Embryo worn, but apparently ending in a keel. Whorls strongly keeled a little below middle, shoulder wide, steep, slightly concave, vertical below keel. Body whorl with shoulder and base steeply sloping away from a narrow sub-vertical periphery. The two angulations of this periphery are the only spiral sculpture, no threads except for one strong oblique ridge on neck of canal (typical of Axymene), and a faint indication of a second one above. Axials 7 per whorl, practically continuous from whorl to whorl, dying away on shoulder and not reaching suture, strong, projecting, and sharply angled on periphery (4-5 times own width apart), suddenly ceasing at lower angle, base not even undulated by them. Aperture and canal typical of the genus.

Height, 6 mm.; width, 3.3 mm.

Locality—50 fathoms, off Otago Heads.

Type in Finlay collection.

Closely resembles waipipicola (Webster) in habit, but shorter and stouter.

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Zeatrophon pulcherrimus n. sp. (Figs. 8, 9, 12).

Shell small, lamellose, fenestrate. Protoconch typical, of three polygyrate and conic, rather glassy, tiny convex whorls, the tip forming a very minute button, ending abruptly in a sinusigerid curve, without a varix. Adult whorls about 5½, sharply keeled just above middle, shoulder slope gentle, steeply sloping inwards below keel; body whorl subquadrate, sloping in from periphery to a second ill-defined very blunt angulation, then quickly cut in on base to a moderately long slender canal. Axials 14-15 per whorl, very narrow and sharply raised, doubly lamellose, reaching from suture to suture and on to inception of canal, antecurrent on shoulder, 3-4 times their width apart. Two prominent spiral ridges (equal to axials in width and height) on spire whorls, the peripheral one stronger, the other midway between it and suture, 2 more equidistant and just as strong emerge on base, with one slightly weaker between them, several lower but slightly coarser spirals thence down to tip of canal, 3 rather more prominent; shoulder with 3-6 much fainter spirals, appearing almost smooth, similar fine spirals between the main ones. Surface of shell cut up by this sculpture into transversely oblong pits, their bottoms concave and of a waxen sheen; intersections of axials and spirals (especially on periphery) raised into prickly but not high tubercles. Aperture and canal exactly as in ambiguus, but of course much smaller. Colour whitish, with a reddish-brown peripheral band, lower part of canal stained a lighter shade of same colour.

Height, 11.5 mm.; of spire, 5.5 mm.; width, 5 mm. (type). Larger broken shells reach 15 mm. height and 7.5 mm. width.

Locality—60 fathoms, off Otago Heads, type, not uncommon; also 38 fathoms, Cuvier Id., several small specimens (Fig. 12).

Type in Finlay collection.

Of the bonneti style, but quite distinct from that species in smaller size, lower and sharper keel, and less tabulated whorls, the two main spirals being on lower half of whorl instead of median, coarser and fewer axials, etc. The Cuvier Island shells are all juvenile, and may show differences when adult, but cannot be separated from Otago Heads shells of equal size. From the young of ambiguus these differ in finer ornament, straighter canal, and presence of three distinct cords on neck of canal.

Zeatrophon caudatinus n. sp. (Fig. 7).

At first sight differing widely from pulcherrima, but probably related, and derived from it by suppession of the main spirals, and reduction of the axials. The latter number 11 per whorl, considerably stouter and less lamellar than in pulcherrima, about 1½ times their width apart, less antecurrent on suture. Spirals same in arrangement, but differing in relative strength; the main two on spire whorls are lower down (on lower third instead of half); all the main spirals are much lower and more cord-like, the interstitial ribs approximating to them in prominence, neck of canal with much coarser and closer cords, shoulder especially with much stronger sculpture, having three quite prominent cords. Surface not cut up

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into pits, and intersections merely bluntly tubercular on periphery; all ribs with a rasp-like appearance, due to dense but much coarser lamellation than in pulcherrimus. Shell more slender, and body whorl with a blunt sub-angle instead of quadrate.

Height, 12.5 mm.; of spire, 6 mm.; width, 5.5 mm.

Locality—Hauraki Gulf, depth uncertain.

Type in Finlay collection.

This is very like Quoy and Gaimard's figure of Fusus caudatus, but is only one third the size. It therefore looks as though caudatus does not belong to this group (as I suggested in Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 413, 1926), unless it is a specially large member of it. So this species still remains a puzzle.

Zeatrophon tmetus n. sp. (Figs. 5, 10).

1924. Xymene robustus Finlay, partim; Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 55, p. 520, pl. 52, Fig. 4b only.

Apex as described for pulcherrima, but not quite so tall, of about 2½ whorls. Adult whorls about 7, with a prominent, narrowly convex, not angled, submedian keel. Axials 11-13 per whorl, straight, extending from suture to suture, and on to neck of canal, strongly bluntly tubercular on periphery. Spirals 6 per whorl, the topmost one stout and margining suture below, the next two on shoulder, a little weaker, nearly own width apart, the next two stronger again, on periphery, very close together, only a linear groove between, then a wide excavated space equal to these two ribs, finally one more spiral margining lower suture. On body whorl this sculpture is continued, the sutural rib emerging as a strong cord equal to the two peripheral spirals put together, then another strong cord separated by another deep groove, half as wide as the upper one, then close spirals and furrows of diminishing strength and width down to fasciole. Dense lamellation as in caudatinus, but spirals not so rasp-like. Canal shorter than in pulcherrimus and caudatinus, and fasciole stronger, giving a more Axymene-like appearance. Aperture otherwise as in those species, thickened when fully adult, and with a few strong short denticles within; the fasciole is then rather prominent, and encloses a distinct umbilical chink.

Height, 16.5 mm; of spire, 9 mm.; width, 7 mm.

Locality—Stewart Island in a few fathoms (type and one juvenile); also two fully adult but worn shells on the beach at Otago Heads; one of these is the specimen figured by me as the paratype of my Xymene robustus. By taking the figure 4a as type of that species instead of 4b, I unwittingly made my species a synonym of Axymene pumila (Suter), as I have already explained (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 422, 1926).

Type in Finlay collection.

This species is very close to and evidently the Recent representative of the Castlecliffian Trophon huttoni Murdoch (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 221, 1900), but is more robust, with stronger knobs on periphery, which press the peripheral groove further down till

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it almost margins suture. The character of the apex on these Recent shells justifies my tentative reference of huttoni to Zeatrophon instead of to Axymene (l.c., vol. 57, pp. 424 and 425, 1926).

Bonellitia superstes n. sp (Fig. 16).

Shell close to, and evidently descended from, B. lacunosa (Hutton) (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 17, p. 320, 1885), described from the Nukumaruan Petane beds. Apex exactly the same, of 1¼ smooth shining whorls, the tip not globular, distinctly inrolled. Succeeding whorls regularly convex, with four strong but narrow spiral cords, 3-4 times their width apart, and a very fine thread on shoulder (distinct only on last whorl), 11 plus this thread on body whorl; no other spiral sculpture except for extremely faint and dense spiral scratches in the interstices, visible only under high magnification. Twelve axials per whorl, strongly backwardly oblique and reaching from suture almost to beak, narrow and strong, rather sharp, 3-4 times their width apart, raised into small tubercles at intersections with spirals. B. lacunosa has the whorls with a marked shoulder and sutural platform; 9 main spiral cords (thicker and blunter), no separate shoulder thread, but 3-4 fine irregularly spaced threads in the interstices between the ribs, and still finer threadlets on the ribs themselves, the shoulder bearing numerous threadlets; 16 thicker and blunter axials per whorl, 2-3 times their width apart, the intersections between spirals and axials considerably more gemmate. Details of aperture exactly as in lacunosa, except that topmost pillar plait is less projecting and further separated from lower two, the groove between being quite deep.

Height, 7 mm.; width, 4.5 mm.

Locality—25 fathoms, off Hen and Chickens, Hauraki Gulf.

Type in Finlay collection.

The range of this line is now extended in New Zealand from the Eocene (B. hampdenensis M and M., from Hampden) to Recent—a parallel case to that of Inglisella.

Inglisella (Anapepta) septentrionalis n. subgen. et sp. (Fig. 14).

Shell small, rudely sculptured, rather inflated, with disproportionate aperture. Embryo paucispiral, loosely wound, smooth and shining, tip globose. Three adult whorls, irregularly convex, with a steeply sloping concave shoulder. Two submedian narrow spiral cords marking low angulations, two more exactly similar on body whorl, with a further two extremely faintly indicated on base; spirals equidistant, many times their width apart, the wide shoulder and the interstices perfectly smooth and of a chalky appearance. Eight rude, knob-like axials per whorl, twice their width apart, strong only on periphery (the two upmost spirals), dying away rapidly on shoulder and base. Aperture large, the outer lip widely curved outwards (smooth within except for indications of the outer spirals) and downwards, the basal lip projecting to the left past the pillar, which twists sharply round to meet it in a prominent open spout.

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Two prominent, median, tooth-like plaits on the pillar, well inside the aperture, not reaching the border of the inner lip.

Height, 5 mm.; width, 2.8 mm.

Locality—75 fathoms, North Cape.

Type in Finlay collection.

This is the only Recent species of Inglisella Finlay (founded on the Miocene Ptychatractus pukeuriensis Suter) yet described. It is very close to the Eocene Admete anomala M. and M. (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 52, p. 132, Pl. 6, Fig. 6, June 10, 1920) described from Hampden, showing how long this line has persisted in New Zealand. I. anomala has a higher spire, more and irregular spirals, and thicker axials, but its ancestral relationship to septentrionalis can hardly be doubted.

For the anomala—septentrionalis group I propose the subgeneric name Anapepta nov., naming the Eocene species as type. From typical Inglisella these shells differ chiefly in the formation of the aperture, which is not subtriangular and pointed anteriorly, but open and well rounded, curving basally into a channel well flexed to the left; the pillar is not straight and the plaits are stronger; the shells themselves are wider and shorter and have fewer whorls. An absolutely congeneric Australian Tertiary species is Cancellaria etheridgei Johnston vide Tate, Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., vol. 11, 157; Pl. 9, Fig. 6, 1889), and, judging from Tate's figures (l.c. Pl. 10, Fig. 8; Pl. 9, Fig. 7) his micra and caperata also belong here. On the other hand, from the Janjukian of Spring Creek I have a true Inglisella, apparently aff. capillata Tate, and turriculata Tate (l.c. Pl. 10, Fig. 14) also seems to be typical.

Iredale (Rec. Austr. Mus. vol. 14, No. 4, p. 265, 1925) has dealt with some of the small Australian Cancellarids, proposing two new genera, Microsveltia and Pepta, but seems to have fallen into a number of errors. His genus Pepta, proposed for the Recent Admete stricta Hedley, is a good one, and I have new Tertiary members from the Janjukian of Table Cape and Spring Creek; it is very similar in general shape and triangular aperture to Inglisella, but the pillar bears only one plait which merges into a callus over the umbilical region; Iredale and Hedley compared the Recent species with turriculata Tate, but this seems to be a true Inglisella. Iredale's genus Microsveltia, however, seems to me an absolute synonym of my prior Inglisella; it has the same shaped whorls triangular and pointed aperture, straight pillar, and two plaits. The Recent genotype, M. recessa Iredale, was compared with the Recent Cancellaria exigua Smith, with one plait (and thus probably a Pepta) and the Tertiary micra Tate, which from the figure has all the characters of Anapepta, so that Iredale seems to have confused three groups. I agree with him that scobina Hedley is unrelated to these small mono- and biplicate Cancellarids.

Oamaruia deleta n. sp. (Fig. 20).

Shell almost certainly descended from the Miocene Admete suteri Marshall and Murdoch (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 52, p. 132, Pl. 6, Figs. 5, 5a, June 10, 1920) but with the sculpture becoming effaced. Apex

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exactly the same, of about 1¼ whorls, loosely wound, the tip blunt and globose, not well marked off from succeeding whorls. These have two fairly strong median spiral keels, as in suteri (but much weaker and blunter), crossed by 12 (instead of 15-16) axial ridges (much sharper and narrower in suteri, and forming sharp tubercles at intersections with spirals), feeble and antecurrent on shoulder, strong and vertical below it. Nine distant narrow spirals on body whorl, as in suteri, but much weaker; axials vanishing on concavity of base. Aperture as in suteri, but the two upper pillar plaits more oblique, and the lowest a little stronger.

Height, 5 mm.; width, 3 mm. (juvenile).

Locality—60 fathoms, off Poor Knights, two juveniles.

Type in Finlay collection.

Although only two not fully grown shells are known to me, I give the species a name on account of the interest of its lineage; better specimens are sure to be found when more dredging is done in Hauraki Gulf.

The shell, embryonic, and apertural features of Zeadmete Finlay are so similar that it should probably be given only subgeneric rank under Oamaruia. The latter has a better developed anterior beak, a weaker basal fasciole, and stronger pillar plaits, besides much coarser reticulate sculpture in the type species (though the Australian species have fine ornament).

Microvoluta cuvierensis n. sp. (Figs. 19, 21).

Shell differing at sight from M. biconica (Murdoch and Suter) in its smooth appearance. Axials and spirals are almost obsolete, but there is generally a well marked peripheral groove on the body whorl; the strong nodules and spirals of biconica are absent. Shell more slender, with a leaner body whorl. Sutural band quite different, in biconica there is a stout cord margining suture with a wide concave shoulder below it; in cuvierensis there is a broad low band with merely a narrow groove below it.

Height, 6.5 mm.; width, 2.7 mm. (type of biconica is 5 × 2.8).

Locality—38 fathoms of Cuvier Id., type and numerous other specimens; also 50 fathoms, Snares Id., several shells.

Type in Finlay collection.

This is quite distinct from biconica, one specimen of which was also obtained from 38 fathoms, Cuvier Id. For comparison, specimens of biconica from 25 fathoms, Hen and Chicken Id. are here figured (Figs. 13, 15); I also have the latter species from 60 fathoms, off Poor Knights, and 50 fathoms, off Oamaru. Smith has recorded (Brit. Antarct. “Terra Nova” Exped., 1910, vol. 2, No. 4, p. 85, 1915) biconica from 11-20 fathoms near North Cape, while Powell (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 58, p. 296, 1927) has collected it from 23 fathoms, off Ahipara. Both species seem to occur at Castlecliff (Upper Pliocene).

Nucula rossiana n. sp.

The Rossian representative of the Forsterian N. dunedinensis Finlay (Trans. N.Z. Inst, vol. 59, p. 262, Figs. 1, 2, 43, 44, 1928),

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from Dunedin Harbour, differing in shape and details of sculpture. Whole shell more obliquely ovate, anterior end more produced and more narrowly convex, posterior end much shorter, regularly lightly convex, base much less flattened; beaks at posterior fourth. Shell less inflated. Concentric sculpture same, but radials obsolete except just at margins. Umbonal grooves and ridges almost absent, but just visible. Characteristic is the flat, tabular, tiny prodissoconch, somewhat as in Lissarca but less prominent.

Length, 2.5 mm.; height, 2 mm.; diameter, 1.2 mm.

Locality—Auckland Islands, in shell sand at Faith Harbour, 5 examples.

Type in Finlay collection.

Distinguished from a species of Pronucula which occurs at the same locality by the hinge and absence of radials.

Nucula certisinus n. sp.

Shell very similar to N. dunedinensis Finlay, and probably its Cookian representative. It differs only in more triangular shape, much coarser concentric sculpture (about 10 ribs on lower half of shell instead of about 15), and more prominent swollen umbos. All the specimens are a little worn and probably not quite adult; umbonal ridges and furrows cannot be seen.

Length, 1.8 mm.; height, 1.6 mm.

Locality—Doubtless Bay, North Auckland, dredged in 12 fathoms, one perfect specimen and a single valve.

Type in Finlay collection.

Nucula gallinacea n. sp.

Shell small, with the sculpture of N. hartvigiana Pf., but the shape and compression of N. strangei A. Ad. Very little inflated, appearing smooth and shining to the naked eye, but under a lens showing strong concentric sculpture, the ribs rather wider than in hartvigiana, but less raised, somewhat anastomosing; crossed by rather distinct radial striae, the whole effect being much as in Limopsis zelandica Hutton. Anterior end like that of hartvigiana, but more winged, the highest point of the wing being more than half whole length of wing from umbo, instead of one-third of length, as in hartvigiana. Posterior end characteristic, sharply angled and rather produced instead of short and flatly truncate as in hartvigiana; the little sinuation in the truncation which is so marked in the latter species is absent. Base more convex. Hinge and ligament pit much weaker, the teeth quite small. Other details, including crenulated margin, as in hartvigiana.

Length, 4 mm.; height, 3.2 mm.

Locality—25 fathoms, off Hen and Chickens, 4 examples.

Type in Finlay collection.

This is not a bathymetric form of hartvigiana, for a variety of that species occurs with it. Were this species drawn out a little more, it would approximate very closely in shape to N. strangei.

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Hochstetteria meleagrina Bernard. (Figs. 25, 26, 27).

Several species seem to be masquerading under this name in New Zealand. Suter remarked (Man. N.Z. Moll. p. 859, 1913) that “This is one of the most variable species of the genus I know,” but I think the variation would be substantially reduced if some of the valid forms were separated as species. The northern specimens differ at sight from the southern ones, and there is more than one even in the south.

From off Otago Heads in 50-60 fathoms two species were commonly obtained, one very flat and trapezoidal, the other more inflated and triangularly oval. In the absence of Bernard's original description and figure, it is difficult to know which of these is the true meleagrina, for Suter certainly included them both in his description. I have finally regarded the more inflated form as Bernard's species, being guided in this respect by the following considerations; (1) Except off Otago Heads, it is much the commoner form, the flat form being known to me from only one other locality, while inflated shells occur throughout New Zealand, (2) I have a specimen of it from Foveaux Strait, the type locality, but no flat form from there, (3) It is a smaller shell, and Bernard's dimensions of his type indicate a small rather convex shell, (4) Hedley's comparative references to meleagrina when describing his Phillippiella hamiltoni (Austr. Antarct. Exped., ser. C, vol. 4, pt. 1, p. 21, Pl. 1, Figs. 8, 9, 10, 11, 1926) agree better with this form than with the flat one.

If I have erred in this identification, my pinctada n. sp., described below, will be a synonym of meleagrina, and what I now figure as meleagrina will need a new name. The specific name is no help in identification, some species of Pinctada (= Meleagrina) being more like the convex form, others like the flat one.

If I am correct, typical meleagrina is restricted to the Forsterian and Rossian provinces, and is fairly constant in shape. It is roughly triangularly circular or oval, the basal margin lightly convex, the posterior truncation straight or lightly convex, the dorsal margin straight, and the anterior side strongly concave below the beak, then strongly convex. Shell not elongate, about as wide as high. Beaks anterior, but the convexity of the front margin extending some way beyond them. Shell rather convex. Surface moderately polished with very low but distinct irregular raised radial ridges. Epidermis not seen on any specimens.

Dimensions of largest specimen (Fig. 25): Height, 4.5 mm.; breadth, 4 mm.; width (1 valve), 1 mm.

Localities—35 fathoms, Stewart Id. (type); 60 fathoms, Otago Heads, not uncommon (figured specimens); 50 fathoms, Snares Id. (in company with modiolus Suter, which is there much the commoner).

Type in Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris; figured shells in Finlay collection.

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Hochstetteria pinctada n. sp. (Figs. 22, 23, 24).

Also pretty constant in shape, sub-trapezoidal, with almost straight sides, basal margin flatly convex, posterior truncation being long and straight (extending nearly whole length of shell, instead of restricted to a medial portion), dorsal margin long and straight, and the anterior side also practically straight, only a little excavated below beaks. Shell elongate and strongly oblique, much longer than wide. Beaks the most anterior part of the whole shell, projecting well beyond rest of anterior margin. Shell flattish, internal cavity small. Surface highly polished, usually without raised ridges, but with obscure darker patches indicating radiate riblets. Epidermis rather persistent, thin, horny-cuticular, and polished, well prolonged beyond margins, totally without imbricating lamellae, spines, or sculpture of any kind. Prodissoconch larger and much less tabular, not so much projecting.

Height, 5.6 mm.; breadth, 4.2 mm.; thickness (1 valve), 0.7 mm.

Locality—50 fathoms, 10 miles E.N.E. of Otago Heads, type and numerous other specimens; also 50 fathoms off Oamaru.

Type in Finlay collection.

This has a surprising miniature resemblance to the pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera.

Hochstetteria munita n. sp. (Figs. 28, 29, 30).

Very similar to meleagrina, and probably its northern littoral representative. In shape somewhat intermediate between that species and pinctada, elongate like the latter, but convex like the former; sides not subparallel as in pinctada, and relatively narrower than that species, beaks more anterior than meleagrina, but not totally so. Prodissoconch as in meleagrina, but not quite so prominent. Epidermis persistent, but quite different from pinctada; developed into numerous radial ridges with long spines and concentric lamellae, like the ornament of of Cosa, but existing only in the epidermis, vanishing when this is rubbed off, leaving a moderately polished surface with obscure radial ridges like meleagrina.

Height, 4.2 mm.; breadth, 3.2 mm.; thickness (1 valve), 1 mm.

Locality—Tryphena, Great Barrier Id., under small stones in direct contact with sand, half to low tide, common; collected by A. W. B. Powell. Also Lyall Bay, in shell sand, common (Fig. 28).

Type in Finlay collection.

Plurigens n. gen.

Type: P. phenax n. sp.

A genus of the Vencridae, combining features of several groups. It has a superficial appearance to both Tawera Marwick and Dosinula Finlay; larger than the former, more Chione-like than the latter. A minute anterior lateral denticle present. Sculpture very curious, initially of thin regular raised lamellae, exactly as in Dosinula, later of heavy broad sulcations, somewhat anastomising at the sides and cut off by the margins of the shell. Other characters given under the specific description.

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I would also include here Tawera (?) carri Marwick Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 617, Figs. 164, 165, 1927) from Neilson's Quarry, Taranaki (Taranakian).

Plurigens phenax n. gen. et sp. (Figs. 3, 4, 11).

Shell moderately large, clongate-oval when half grown, circularly-oval when adult, inflated, beaks prominent, at anterior third when adult, between this and median when younger. All margins regularly curved in the adult (the basal curve a little flatter than the others), the posterior curve slightly interrupted by the end of the escutcheon, the anterior curve flattening at the lunule. In young shells the dorsal margins are much lower and flattened and the beaks much less conspicuous. Lunule broadly lanceolate, shallow, bounded by an incised line, strongly concentrically ridged, escutcheon rather narrow, deep, bounded by a sharp strong ridge, a little wider in left valve, almost smooth. Initial sculpture of raised sharp thin concentric lamellae, about 20 per cm., later sculpture of heavy thick concentric ridges, rising sharply and even concave on the beak side, sloping gently and then more steeply on the margin side; they are at first decidedly not parallel to margin, which cuts across them at the sides, leaving the truncated ends abutting on the following ridge; as senility is reached the ridges more closely follow the margin; the ridges are inclined to anastomose, especially at the sides; interstices about half width of ridges at first, but gradually becoming narrower. Fine radial striation covers the whole surface, developing near margin almost into definite radial ribs with linear interstices. Hinge-plate strong and broad, with sinuate margin; right valve with the cardinals subequal in length, the anterior at 45 degrees, thin and sharp, the median vertical, very stout, grooved posteriorly, the posterior at 35 degrees, moderately stout, medially grooved, a very faint indentation corresponding to an anterior lateral; left valve with the posterior cardinal longer, at about 30 degrees, thin and ridge-like, median at about 60 degrees, stout and deeply grooved, anterior subvertical, sharp, moderately stout, a distinct low bulge where the anterior lateral would be. Margins of valve, including lunule, finely crenulate. Nymphs strong and wide. Muscular impressions large and deep, especially at and under anterior end of hinge. Pallial sinus rather large, tongue-shaped, steeply ascending, pointing at middle of opposite muscle scar, top rounded, meeting pallial sinus at an angle of about 50 degrees.

Length, 50 mm.; height, 49.5 mm.; thickness (1 valve), 15 mm. (type). Length, 29 mm.; height, 24 mm.; thickness (1 valve), 8 mm. (half-grown shell).

Locality—60 fathoms, off Otago Heads, 3 adults, 5 intermediate shells, and some uncertain juvenile specimens.

Type in Finlay collection.

In its initial sculpture this species cannot be separated from Dosinula zelandica, though the adult shape and beak inflation is more like crebra; juveniles under a certain size cannot be separated from zelandica. In its later sculpture the species is just as like

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Tawera marionae Finlay, but it differs from that species in being more oval, due to the straighter dorsal margins in the young shell. The ligament is very short and much incurved, so that a very high and prominent escutcheon is formed, outside of which there is hardly any smooth area as in marionae. The margin is more finely crenulate The bulge in the hinge line caused by the pedal retractor enhances the resemblance to Dosinula, but the hinge seems to be nearer that of Tawera.

The area with lamellate sculpture may be small or quite considerable; the type specimen has only about 6 mm. of it, while the figured paratype (Fig. 4) has about 15 mm. The deceptive resemblance thus given to Dosinula is really remarkable, and if Suter handled specimens of this form when he recorded C. subsulcata Suter as Recent, his reference of the species to Cytherea is pardonable. (In the Canterbury Museum there is one left valve of phenax from East of Jones Head, labelled “Cytherea subsulcata,” probably by Suter). Perhaps this initial sculpture of lamellae is a reversion to a more primitive ancestral type, as the two earliest known species of Tawera from New Zealand (pukeuriensis and waiauensis Marwick) both have lamellate sculpture.

The possibility that phenax is a hybrid between Dosinula zelandica and Tawera marionae, which both occur plentifully with it, has not been overlooked, but the three large adult shells of phenax are quite constant in their peculiar features, a Tertiary ancestor is known, and especially the pallial sinus is quite different from either of the other two species, which have it short and sharply angled, not ascending. The pallial sinus in the figure of the type (Fig. 11) has been disfigured by some parasitic animal, and appears much too wide.