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Volume 61, 1930
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Revision of the New Zealand. Shells Referred to Fusinus.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 3rd December, 1929; issued separately, 23rd August, 1930.]

Plates 47-49.

Genus Colus Humphrey.

In my “Further Commentary” (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 407; Dec. 23, 1926) I noted that “The name Colus Humphrey, 1797 (Mus. Calon, p. 34) takes precedence over Fusinus Rafinesque, but the name is applicable in New Zealand only to some of the Lower Tertiary species.” I then provided Coluzea n. gen. for one well-marked New Zealand Fusid lineage, and deferred treatment of the remaining species.

This statement may now be amplified and qualified. I describe below a number of new species of the Colus group, but give reasons for the dismissal of this name altogether from New Zealand lists, except in one doubtful case.

There is, however, so much confusion in the nomination of the described species that a review of the names already proposed is first necessary.

Suter lists the following New Zealand species (Alph. List N.Z. Tert. Moll., p. 15; 1918) under Fusinus:—bicarinatus Suter, climacotus Suter, congestus Suter, kaiparaensis Suter, morgani Suter, solidus Suter, spiralis (A. Ad.), spiralis dentatus (Hutt.), and tegens (Hutt.). Since then the following have been described:

Fusinus corrugatus Marshall, 1918 (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 50, p. 264; Pl. 22, Figs. 9, 10). Pakaurangi Point, Kaipara.

Fusinus altus Marshall, 1919 (l.c., vol. 51, p. 229; Pl. 16, F. 5). Hampden.

Fusinus maorium Marshall and Murdoch, 1919 (l.c., vol. 51, p. 254; Pl. 21, Figs. 1, 2). Wharekuri.

Fusinus macrotegens Finlay and McDowall, 1923 (l.c., vol. 54, p. 113; Pl. 2, F. 1; Text-Figs. 2). Dowling Bay, Dunedin.

Fusinus bensoni Allan, 1926 (l.c., vol. 56, p. 339; Pl. 76, Figs. 4a, b). Waihao Downs. (Non Fusus benzoni Moerch, 1872).

Marshall and Murdoch record a “Fusinus modestus M. & M.” from McCulloughs Bridge (l.c., vol. 54, p. 118; 1923), but as Dr. Allan has noted (l.c., vol. 56, p. 339; 1926) this is a nomen nudum. The same may be said of “Fusinus pulcher” and “Fusinus carinatus” recorded by Marshall (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 51, p. 243; 1919) from Wharekuri and “beds low in the system” in Canterbury respectively.

Of this series of species, spiralis A. Ad., maorium M. & M., and climacotus Suter have already been removed by me (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 407; 1926) to the genus Coluzea; several of the remaining

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names are synonyms, and some of the species must be referred to other genera and even families. These are as follows:

Fusus tegens Hutton, 1877 (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 9, p. 594), from White Rock River, belongs to the Muricidae, and I have already placed it in my genus Vesanula, created for the Ardgowan V. chaskanon Finlay (l.c., vol. 56, p. 245; 1926), and located near Xymenella Finlay (l.c., vol. 57, p. 427; 1926).

Fusinus congestus Suter, 1917 (N.Z.G.S. Pal. Bull. No. 5, p. 21; Pl. 12, F. 3) is a synonym of V. tegens (Hutt.). Examination of numerous topotypes leaves me in no doubt that congestus is described from a worn senile specimen, while tegens is from a not quite adult fresh shell. The apparent—but erroneous—dissimilarity between the two forms is heightened by the rather fanciful and sketchy figure of tegens given by Suter (N.Z.G.S. Pal. Bull. No. 3, P. 8, F. 6; 1915).

Fusinus bicarinatus Suter, 1917 (N.Z.G.S. Pal. Bull. No. 5, p. 20; Pl. 12, F. 1) is evidently an Austrofusus s. str. The holotype (which has been kindly loaned to me by the Geological Survey) is badly preserved, lacks the canal, and should never have been described. The fine equal spirals, absence of sutural cord, and outwardly directed nodules render it closer to spinifer (F. & McD.) and glans (Bolten) than to precursor Fin. and affiliata Fin., and the obsolescence of axial ribs between the nodules renders it closer to glans. On account of the narrow space between the two angles, and the presence of two strong ridges instead of three or a number on the lower angle, it may be retained as a distinct species, at all events till more material is examined. The most satisfactory solution would be to find—as is quite likely—the combination Fusinus bicarinatus preoccupied, when the name could be dropped.

Fusinus macrotegens Finlay and McDowell was reluctantly described, and has given me much perplexity; the unique holotype is very badly preserved, and again should not have been described. Though at the time it could not be well matched by either Dr. Marwick or myself, I have often felt that it ought to be a Target Gully form. I now suggest with some confidence that it is another synonym of Tritonidea compacta Suter, 1917 (N.Z.G.S. Pal. Bull. No. 5, p. 35; Pl. 4, F. 6), an extremely variable and common shell, which has already two synonymic names in T. elatior Suter, 1917 and Euthria subcallimorpha M. & M., 1921; the species therefore belongs to Chathamina Finlay and may be excised from the Colus group. The name macrotegens is a misnomer, the shell being nothing like V. tegens, which I had not seen at the time. In removing the last endemic species from the Dowling Bay list, this synonymy still further strengthens the correlation of that bed with the Awamoan. (See Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 54, p. 110, footnote; 1923).

Fusinus morgani Suter, 1917 (N.Z.G.S. Pal. Bull. No. 5, p. 22; Pl. 3, F. 13) is an absolute synonym of F. kaiparaensis Suter, 1917, described on the previous page, from the same locality (Pakaurangi Point), morgani being founded on a slightly older specimen. My series of specimens shows every gradation between the two.

Fusinus altus Marshall is a very unsatisfactory species; described from a single battered specimen, uncleaned before being figured, it is impossible to recognise from the figure and meagre description

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whether it is related to solidus Suter or bensoni Allan. Examination of the holotype, however, clearly shows that it is inseparable specifically from the Bortonian bensoni, which therefore becomes a synonym. This is a pity, since Dr. Allan's specimens are much better preserved. Here again, the best thing to hope for is that the name is preoccupied.

Fusinus corrugatus Marshall is also somewhat unsatisfactory, and in the absence of specimens no definite location can be made. It evidently does not belong to the kaiparaensis-solidus group, and the canal is too straight for alliance with Siphonalia excelsa Suter, which it suggests in sculpture. It is very like some Australian Balcombian Pleuroplocas, but Marshall makes no mention of any pillar plaits. On the whole, the closest resemblance to it seems to be shown by another characteristic Balcombian species, Fusus dictyotis Tate, 1888 (Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., vol. 10, p. 135; Pl. 7, Figs. 2, 6). This has a true Colus apex; paucispiral, globose, with axial acceleration at its close, so that corrugatus may remain at present as a Colus s.l. I have elsewhere noted (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 504; 1927) that Fusus corrugatus Reeve is not congeneric with Marshall's shell, and does not invalidate his name.

Besides these, there are two species originally placed in quite a different group that should be referred here:—

Verconella delicatula Marshall and Murdoch, 1923 (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 54, p. 123; Pl. 14, Figs. 3, 4), compared by its authors to Siphonalia excelsa Suter, is not related to that species, having a widely different apex and pillar. Again, the examination of topotypes unfortunately compels me to reduce this species to a synonym of Fusinus solidus Suter, 1917 (N.Z.G.S. Pal. Bull. No. 5, p. 23; Pl. 3, F. 14). That shell was described from “Teaneraki (Enfield), near Oamaru, North Otago: T. Esdaile.” Dr. Marwick has shown that the Esdaile collection is unreliably localised (N.Z. Journ. Sci. & Tech., vol. 6, Nos. 5 and 6, p. 280; 1924), the bulk of the specimens being from the greensand, McCulloughs Bridge, Waihao River. This is also the type locality of delicatula, and the only feature in the shell which might seem to separate it from solidus is the twisted canal. But this is known to occur quite frequently in members of this Family; the Tasmanian Colus novaehollandiae regularly shows an incipient curving, and it may occur sporadically in a species normally uncurved. A topotype of Fusinus bensoni Allan from Waihao Downs (Fig. 7) shows this very well; four normal specimens and this one were found together, and apart from the freakishly twisted canal the shells are identical, and can hardly be regarded as two species, much less as two genera. In all other details delicatula shows a corresponding identity with solidus, and I do not hesitate to unite them.

Euthriofusus tangituensis Marwick, 1926 (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 56, p. 320; Pl. 73, F. 9), described from G.S. locality 1142, Taranaki District, is not closely related to Fasciolaria burdigalensis Bast., the genotype of Euthriofusus Cossmann, but is very close to the species described below as waiauensis nov., and is certainly a member of this series—one of the last surviving in New Zealand, since it comes from Taranakian beds, which lie between the Miocene Awamoan and the Pliocene Waitotaran, in which no Fusids other than Coluzea have

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been found. Euthriofusus spinosus Suter, 1917 (N.Z.G.S. Pal. Bull. No. 5, p. 24; Pl. 4, Figs. 1, 2) is not a Fusid shell; I have already made it the genotype of Speightia, a Turrid genus (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 56, p. 252; 1926).

The question now arises as to what generic name is to be used for this compact group. Grabau (Phylogeny of Fusus, 1904) has fully discussed Colus (as Fusus) and its divisions, and rightly placed considerable importance on the embryonic features. I emphatically agree with his dictum (p. 8) that “no species which does not show a protoconch similar to that of Fusus colus, the type of the genus, can be relegated to Fusus.” The typical apex is described and figured by him as of “one and a half volutions, but may be somewhat shorter or longer. No case has been observed in which the protoconch consists of as few as one volution, and only one (F. longirostris) in which it consists of as many as two.” In his description of Murex colus L. (p. 25) he continued by saying that the apex is “perfectly smooth for the first volution. The remaining half volution of the protoconch is ornamented by fine smooth vertical riblets …. ends abruptly with a strong varix.” This is the type of apex seen in all the Australian Recent and Tertiary Fusid shells I have examined, but is not the type found in the New Zealand series. This is polygyrate and conical, and agrees much better with the apex described by Grabau (p. 80) for his new genus Falsifusus, as follows: “Protoconch merging into the whorls of the conch, no sharp line of demarkation being apparent. The first two whorls are generally smooth, the apical one minute, gradually increasing in size. The 3-4 whorls which constitute the apical series form a rather narrow cone. Third whorl with fine closely crowded more or less oblique riblets, which in part are gently concave forward. These …. quickly merge into the normal whorls of the conch. A basal carina usually marks the ribbed whorls of the apical series, this carina appearing just above the suture.” This accurately portrays the apices of the New Zealand series, except that the basal carina is less in evidence, and there are only a few axial riblets. But although the apex agrees, the shell characters of the New Zealand forms are considerably different from the North American Eocene Falsifusus, so that it becomes necessary to place them in a new division. Euthriofusus Cossmann more resembles the New Zealand forms in shape and has an apex of the same general type; but its excavated inner lip with the characteristic strong parietal ridge much more sinuous and produced outer lip, wider and shorter spire, and different development of axial nodules, all prevent reference of our shells to that European Tertiary genus.

Falsicolus gen. nov.

A genus of the Colidae, related to Falsifusus Grabau, and with the same polygyrate pointed protoconch, ending in a few curved axial riblets, but with a much more solid and less elongate shell, with less marked keel on whorls, much denser and less regular spiral sculpture, and a not perfectly straight canal, a low and blunt but rather heavy angular oblique ridge marking a twist at the base of the aperture, the canal thenceforth bent lightly to the left, but with a tendency to curve slightly round again; inner lip totally unraised, usually even

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a little sunken, grading into canal and basal sculpture. In the type and some other species there is a progressive development of heavy axial knobs on periphery; in another series there is progressive obsolescence of axial sculpture, the later whorls having only spirals.

Type: Fusinus kaiparaensis Suter, 1917 (=morgani Suter, 1917) (Suter's good figures of this species—N.Z.G.S. Pal. Bull. No. 5; Pl. 3, F. 13, and Pl. 12, F. 2—well show the characteristic shell formation of the type).

Apart from Coluzea, Falsicolus will cover every New Zealand Tertiary species except corrugatus Marshall. It is surprising that true Colus is unrepresented in New Zealand (corrugatus and dictyotis Tate are not at all normal; several Australian groups will later be separated from true Colus, represented there by the Recent australis Q. & G. and novae-hollandiae Reeve), and just as surprising that Falsicolus seems to be unrepresented in Australia. Our earliest species, altus Marshall, is somewhat like the American Falsifusus forms, but already shows all the separative characters mentioned in the diagnosis, so that the derivation of the lineage in New Zealand is obscure.

Falsicolus obrutus n. sp. (Figs. 5, 6).

First few whorls, aperture, and canal missing, portions of other whorls worn off, but enough remains to charactertise the species. Whorls sharply medially keeled, the shoulder sloping at about 45 degrees, steeper below keel. Spirals dense and inconspicuous on shoulder (2-3 fine threads between coarser ones), a strong narrow cord on keel, three almost as strong between it and suture, and numerous similar ones on base; generally three fine spirals intercalated between all these; suture margined by a rather prominent swelling. Axials strong and distant, 7 per whorl, first their own width apart, then twice, and finally on body whorl thrice; prominent from suture to suture, jutting out at keel into sharp horizontally compressed points, regularly and rapidly dying away on base. A blunt subangulation emerges from suture line on base, but there is no second carina, and the axials are not more prominent there.

Height, 24 mm.; width, 14 mm. (incomplete shell).

Locality—Kakanui Tuffs, on the beach, below the limestone (Waiarekan), one specimen.

Holotype in Finlay collection.

This is probably the “Fusinus sp.” mentioned by Marwick (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 56, p. 308; 1926) as occurring in the Waiarekan tuffs at Lorne.

Falsicolus allani n. sp. (Fig. 3).

Generally similar to obrutus in type of sculpture, but relatively wider and with a less slender spire. Spiral sculpture same, main spirals below keel perhaps a little more crowded. Axials 7 per whorl, except on body whorl where there are 6, relatively much wider and heavier than in obrutus, 1½ times their width apart on upper whorls, twice at most on last whorl, considerably more expanded and horizontally projecting on keel, which is not median but distinctly nearer lower suture. Instead of a blunt subangulation a second (but much lower) carina emerges from suture on to base, on it the axials are

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again raised into sharp tubercles, though much weaker than those on keel. Spire rather low for the genus, not nearly as long as canal.

Height, 50 mm.; of spire, 15 mm.; of canal, 24 mm.; width, 23 mm.

Locality—Wharekuri greensands (Ototaran?), one specimen, collected by Dr. R. S. Allan.

Holotype in Finlay collection.

This simulates kaiparaensis in strength and arrangement of keel nodules, but has a lower spire, longer canal, no prominent secondary cord below keel, a higher keel with a second carina on base, and finer spiral sculpture on base.

Falsicolus eoaffinis n. sp. (Fig. 11).

Very similar to solidus Suter, but a less massive shell with weaker sculpture. Shape of whorls and sub-keel and relative dimensions same as in solidus. 12-13 axials per whorl, as in solidus, but weaker and shorter (hardly half height of whorl instead of well over half), with U-shaper shallow interstices almost as wide as ribs (instead of V-shaped and much narrower than ribs). Spiral sculpture considerably weaker, though of same general arrangement; the three main cords on lower half of spire whorls and the numerous strong basal and canal cords of solidus being of little prominence; especially on the canal the spirals are thin threads, 4-6 times their width apart instead of heavy cords with narrower interstices. Pillar much less stout than in solidus; outer lip broken, but details of aperture probably as in excellens (described below).

Height, 47 mm.; of spire, 19 mm.; of canal, 15 mm.; width, 16 mm.

Locality—Clifden (band 6B) (Hutchinsonian).

Type in Finlay collection.

Falsicolus excellens n. sp. (Fig. 4).

Shell close to and evidently derived from eoaffinis. The early whorls are practically the same, but the angle of the spire is a little greater. The spirals on shoulder remain as in that species on all whorls; on canal they are somewhat heavier and closer, but on body whorl and below shoulder on spire whorls they are much stronger and more prominent, at first 3 and then 4 (the fourth at the suture) being very prominent on all whorls. On body whorl there are some 10 strong raised spiral cords, 3-4 times their width apart, with 4-7 interstitial threads, the median one more prominent, the others hair-like; the three spirals on periphery of body whorl are closer together, and the upmost and lowest undulate in opposite directions. On the early whorls the axials are narrower, sharper, and more distant (3 times their width apart), on antepenultimate whorl they are becoming slightly stouter and more rounded (twice width apart), while on penultimate whorl they are considerably wider (own width apart) and raised on periphery into stout squarish tubercles, about 13 on the whorl; about 10 on body whorl, where they are still stouter and more projecting; they are semi-cylindrical in shape and are really extremely short and stout axial ribs; below and above them the axials are practically absent, not reaching either suture. Growth lines dense and prominent but irregular, markedly antecurrent on shoulder, showing a Verconellid sinus on keel. Whorls tightly clasping, bluntly

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Fig. 1.—Falsicolus coerulescens n. sp., holotype × 2 6.
Fig. 2.—Falsicolus waiauensis n sp.: holotype × 1 5.
Fig. 3—Falsicolus allani n. sp: holotype × 1.7
Fig. 4.—Falsicolus excellens n. sp.: holotype × 1 2.
Figs. 5, 6—Falsicolus obrutus n. sp. holotype × 1½ and 2.
Fig. 7.—Falsicolus bensoni (Allan): topotype, with twisted canal × 1.

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Fig 9—Falsicolus levatus n sp: holotype × 4 5
Fig. 8—Falsicolus n sp aff levatus Finlay. Blue Cliffs × 4
Fig. 10.—Falsicolus levatus n sp: paratype, Awamoa × 4
Fig 11—Falsicolus coaffinis n. sp. holotype × 2
Fig 12.—Falsicolus n. sp aff waiauensis (?) Finlay: Clifden × 3.

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Fig 13.—Coluzea macrior n. sp.: holotype × 2 7.
Fig. 14—Coluzea hiosh n sp.: holotype × 1.7.
Fig. 15.—Coluzea dentata (Hutton): holotype × 2 2.
Fig. 16.—Coluzea paucispinosa n. sp.: holotype × 3 8.
Fig. 17.—Coluzea dentata (Hutton): Rifle Butts specimens × 3.4.

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but strongly keeled a trifle below middle, shoulder lightly concave, sutures inconspicuous, margined above. Aperture as in solidus, with same (but somewhat weaker) short internal crenulations. Spire higher than canal.

Height, 59 mm.; of spire, 23 mm.; of canal (minus tip), 19 mm.; width, 23 mm.

Locality—Clifden (band 6C) (Hutchinsonian), one almost perfect shell and a fragment.

Type in Finlay collection.

Falsicolus n. (?). (Fig. 12).

A fragment (lacking aperture and canal) was collected by Prof. Park at Clifden, and as far as I can make out from his notes, comes from band 6C. It does not agree exactly with either eoaffinis or excellens, though nearer to the former. It differs in its narrower shoulder, more quadrate whorl, much more regular main spirals (a numerous, equidistant, and perfectly even series of these covering body whorl except on shoulder, 1½ times own width apart, and with 3-4 regular hair threads in interstices) and extremely dense and regular reticulation caused by axial threads, finer even than the interstitial spirals. The main axials are narrower, longer, and less prominent than in either eoaffinis or excellens.

Height of spire, 15 mm.; width, 13 mm.

Locality—Clifden (band 6C?—possibly from slightly higher beds) (Hutchinsonian).

Although fragmentary, this form seems distinct from its congeners in these beds. On account of its condition and rather indeterminate horizon it is not given a name, but is figured and described here on account of its connecting relationship between excellens and waiauensis (see below); possibly it is the young of waiauensis and comes from the basal beds of band 7.

Falsicolus waiauensis n. sp. (Fig. 2).

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Shell large and massive for the group, spire lost in both specimens. Shoulder concave, the periphery submedian, bluntly angled, thence slightly oblique. Spirals narrow and fine on shoulder, four strong cords on lower 2/3 of whorl, topmost on lower part of shoulder, second on peripheral angulation, third midway between this and the lowest, which is at suture. About 8 similar strong distant spirals on body whorl, 4-5 times their width apart, and some 15 slightly weaker but still prominent oblique cords on canal; interstices with 8 or more fine hair threads, the median one stronger. Axials rude and numerous, not very prominent, about 17-18 on body whorl (about 15 on penultimate), very similar to those of solidus in shape and spacing, less than own width apart, low and irregular on shoulder (which they undulate), strong down to suture and on body whorl down to lower subangulation, thence rapidly fading on to canal. Body whorl forms a considerable squarish bulge instead of a rather narrowly convex swelling as in eoaffinis and excellens. Canal seems rather short; pillar massive, exactly as in solidus; outer lip also same.

Height (of body whorl and canal), 49 mm.; width, 28 mm.

Locality—Clifden (band 7C) (Hutchinsonian).

Type in Finlay collection.

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This seems very close to the Taranakian Euthriofusus tangituensis Marwick, but that species has a sharper periphery, fewer axials, interrupted sculpture, probably a lower spire, and seems to be a smaller shell.

Falsicolus coerulescens n. sp. (Fig. 1).

Closely related to waiauensis, but with finer and denser sculpture. Spirals much the same in number and arrangement, but higher, sharper, and closer (2-4 times their width apart), with only 3-4 interstitial riblets. Axials very numerous, 19 on penultimate whorl, increasing to about 29 on body whorl, narrow and high and distant on the former, still narrower but lower on the latter (about 3 times their width apart everywhere), only a little diminished on shoulder, extending from suture on to inception of canal. Outer lip, canal, and spire missing, but otherwise as in waiauensis.

Width, 21 mm.

Locality—Blue Cliffs, Tewaewae Bay, Southland (Hutchinsonian?).

Type in Finlay collection.

Falsicolus levatus n. sp. (Figs. 9, 10).

Shell differing at sight from the other members of the group in its smoothness, axial sculpture being practically absent. Spirals regular and fine over whole surface, though they may be alternately a little weaker and stronger. Axials reduced to first four whorls, where they number 11 per whorl, extending as elongated knobs from halfway up shoulder to suture below, about own width apart, entirely absent on last three whorls, which are regularly convex except for a slightly concave shoulder. Apex quite typical, sharply conical (its angle more obtuse than that of the spire), of over three smooth convex whorls, the tip small but globose, two curved axials at its close, then merging directly into adult sculpture. Pillar also shows the characteristic twist and oblique ridge.

Height, 18 mm.; width 8 mm. (type, lacking most of canal, and somewhat crushed).

Locality—Otiake, sandy beds above limestone (Hutchinsonian), type and two others. Also Wharekuri greensands (Ototaran?) and Awamoa, blue clays on banks of stream (Awamoan).

Type in Finlay collection.

Although superficially of different appearance from the other species, this seems easily derived from such a form as eoaffinis by suppression of the axials and weakening of the main spirals (already weaker in that species than in the others).

What seems to be another species of this line occurs at Blue Cliffs, Otaio River (Fig. 8). It is not described, since only a single imperfect specimen is known to me, but it seems relatively wider than levatus, the axials appear faintly only on the first whorl, then are entirely lost till the body whorl, when they show signs of reappearing and producing an angled periphery. It is possible that adult specimens might show its alliance to tangituensis Marwick, which also loses its axials on the third whorl, but which otherwise seems much more like waiauensis.

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Genus Coluzea Allan, 1926.

I have explained in another paper in this volume that the name Coluzea, proposed by me (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 407; Dec. 23, 1926) with the Recent Fusus spiralis A. Ad. as type, must be attributed to Allan, who had previously introduced it (l.c., p. 304; Dec. 7, 1926) in connection with the Miocene species Fusus dentatus Hutton, which therefore becomes the type by monotypy.

Powell (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 58, p. 298; 1927) has remarked that “The exact generic place must remain in doubt until the radula of spiralis is known, as the shells of Columbarium and Coluzea are remarkably similar,” and notes that Peile has placed Columbarium near the Muricidae. The shell habit and bulbous apex, however, are so different from the Muricoid genera that the best course seems to be to follow Tomlin (Ann. S. African Museum, vol. 25, pt. 2, p. 330; 1929) and place these elegant forms in a separate family Columbariidae, which Tomlin defines as having “near relationship on one side to the Muricidae; a more remote one possibly on the other side to the Buccinidae.” He also points out that the operculum of Columbarium has an apical nucleus, not subapical as in typical Murices, and is not unguiform in shape, but “pear-shaped, narrowing very regularly and rapidly on either side to an acute point.”

Coluzea, as Powell states, is so like Columbarium in general style that, although the operculum and dentition of spiralis are unknown, I suggest its reference to Family Columbariidac in preference to Colidae. It is practically a Columbarium with a higher spire, keeled embryo flattened on top, and regular distant spirals. The name is worth retaining, as the New Zealand lineage is amply distinct from typical Columbarium. The genotype of the latter is Pleurotoma (Columbarium) spinicinctum von Martens, 1881, a Recent species from 76 fathoms east of Noosa Heads, Queensland; it has also been recorded (under the synonymic name pagodoides Watson) from 80-410 fathoms off Sydney, N.S.W., by Hedley (Rec. Austr. Mus., vol. 13, No. 6, p. 225; 1922). Fusus acanthostephes and foliacea Tate (Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., vol. 10, p. 132 and 133; 1888) are undoubtedly on the ancestral line of this species, and these and other Balcombian and Janjukian Australian forms have a uniformly lower spire, more elaborate and frilled ornament, and less deeply cut-in sutures than Coluzea, which I have not seen from Australia. Chapman (Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. 35, N.S., pt. 1, p. 14; Pl. 3, F. 20; Dec., 1922) has described Fusinus youngi, which he compares to the New Zealand climacota Suter. The Australian shell seems not unlike a Coluzea, but the figure is out of focus; it may be a true Colus. The nearest approach to Coluzea from outside New Zealand seems to be Columbarium formosissimum Tomlin (l.c., p. 331; Pl. 25, F. 1) from 90 fathoms, 65 miles off Cape St. Blaize, South Africa.

I would also suggest the reference of Fulgurofusus Grabau to the Family Columbariidae. This is an American Eocene genus which has an apex and style of shell strikingly similar to Coluzea. Grabau describes the protoconch as “Fulguroid, consisting of one whorl, which is smooth, obliquely erect, and with a prominent apex. The conch is not distinctly separated from the protoconch, and is very early marked by an angulation and a basal carina.” The genus is

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less advanced than Coluzea, the angulation not having been impressed on the embryo proper, which is also of fewer turns; also the shoulder is practically smooth, and the axials less developed on the upper part of the whorl. Nevertheless, the affinity must be close, for the essential features are much the same, and Grabau's figure of Fusus quercollis Harris, the genotype, could almost stand for the upper whorls of an early Coluzea, such as kiosk Finlay (see below). It seems likely that Coluzea, which is an ancient New Zealand genus, came to us from America, and has long been separated from the Australian Columbarium. Cossmann (Ess. Pal. Comp., livr. 7, p. 227; July, 1906) rejected Fulgurofusus as imperceptibly different from Fusus (i.e., Colus), but as he also thought Falsifusus a synonym of Fusus, one need not pay too much heed to his dictum.

Coluzea spiralis (A. Ad.)

1856. Fusus spiralis A. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.) for 1855, p. 221.

1873. Fusus pensum Hutton, Cat. Mar. Moll., p. 8.

1880. Fusus spiralis A. Ad.: Hutton, Man. N.Z. Moll., p. 50.

1881. Fusus spiralis A. Ad.: Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. 1, vol. 3, pp. 68 and 227; Pl. 85, F. 593.

1884. Fusus spiralis A. Ad.: Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 16, p. 227.

1893. Fusus spiralis A. Ad.: Hutton, Macleay Mem. Vol., Plioc. Moll., p. 40; Pl. 6, F. 9.

1913. Fusinus spiralis (A. Ad.): Suter, Man. N.Z. Moll., p. 357; Pl. 41, F. 4 (poor figure, possibly from a Petane Pliocene specimen, which is a distinct species).

1915. Columbarium suteri Smith, Brit. Antarct. “Terra Nova” Exped., 1910, vol. 2, No. 4, p. 87; Pl. 1, F. 30.

1916. Columbarium suteri Smith: Mestayer, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 48, p. 126; Pl. 12, F. 8.

1924. Fusinus spiralis (A. Ad.): Bucknill, Sea Shells of New Zealand, p. 60; Pl. 7, No. 17 (good figure).

1926. Coluzea spiralis (A. Ad.): Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 407.

1927. Coluzea spiralis (A. Ad.): Powell, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 58, p. 298; Pl. 34, F. 3 (puts suteri as a synonym).

This species is restricted to the Recent fauna and the upmost Pliocene Castlecliffian stage. I quite agree with Powell's action in synonymising Columbarium suteri E. A. Smith.

Coluzea espinosa n. sp.

Very close to spiralis A. Ad., but with a considerably lower spire (less than canal; equal to canal in the Recent species); a more narrowly channelled suture, due to the closer approximation of the topmost shoulder cord and the ridge below keel; considerably stronger spiral sculpture on the shoulder (4 rather heavy cords instead of thin ridges), which itself is more steeply sloping; and a much smoother appearance owing to the obsolescence of the keel spines on the last two whorls and their much weaker development on the upper whorls.

Height, 69 mm.; width, 19 mm.

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Locality—Petane, blue clays (Nukumaruan).

Type in Finlay collection.

This is still a long way from dentata (Hutton), but it is nearer to it than is spiralis. Of the latter I have seen no Recent specimens, and have made comparisons only with Castlecliff shells (Upper Pliocene), but from the figures of Columbarium suteri published by Miss Mestayer and Powell, and its author's original figure, there seems to be no difference between Recent and Castlecliffian examples.

Possibly Suter's figure of spiralis in the “Atlas” was taken from a Petane fossil, and represents this species; it seems to have the high spire of spiralis, but the sculpture is so badly drawn that identification is uncertain.

Coluzea dentata (Hutton). (Figs. 15, 16).

1877. Fusus dentatus Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 9, p. 594.

1887. Fusus dentatus Hutton, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., ser. 2, vol. 1, p. 207.

1915. Fusinus spiralis A. Ad., sub sp. dentatus (Hutt.): Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull. No. 3, p. 18.

1926. Coluzea dentata (Hutton): Allan, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 304.

1926. Coluzea dentata (Hutton): Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 407.

As no figure of the type (from Mt. Harris, in Otago Museum, Dunedin) of this species has yet appeared, I now present one (Fig. 15). For comparison I also present a figure (Fig. 16) of a specimen from the Rifle Butts, Oamaru (Awamoan sandy beds, uppermost horizon). This shows a style of apex essentially similar to that of the Recent spiralis, but not so bulbous.

This species is restricted to the Awamoan stage, and I have it from Target Gully, Ardgowan, Pukeuri, Awamoa, and Rifle Butts, in addition to the type locality, Mt. Harris.

Coluzea macrior n. sp. (Fig. 13).

Very close to dentata (Hutt.), but constantly more slender. The keel is blunter, lacking the horizontal lamellar carina of dentata, and the spines are much weaker. The number and arrangement of the spirals and axials are the same, but the axials tend to be ruder, and so appear closer together, about 1½ times their width apart, instead of 2-3 times. The lower carina on the body whorl is weaker, and the protoconch slightly larger and better keeled. Otherwise there is no difference between the two species, which occur together at Target Gully and Ardgowan, though at typical Awamoan localities such as Pukeuri, Mt. Harris, Awamoa, and Rifle Butts, only dentata occurs.

Height, 30 mm.; width, 9 mm.

Locality—Ardgowan “shell-bed,” near Devil's Bridge, Oamaru (Awamoan), type and five damaged shells; also Target Gully (Awamoan), four broken shells.

Type in Finlay collection.

Fusinus maorium M. & M. is also very similar to this species, but is a larger and heavier shell, not so slender, with apparently still ruder and closer axials, and four distant spiral cords on shoulder instead of three (which seems to be constant in macrior. But as this character varies in other species of the lineage, it probably varies

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here also). Moreover, a still more distinct species occurs in the intervening Otiake beds.

Coluzea paucispinosa n. sp. (Fig. 16).

This is again very close to dentata (Hutt.) but differs in the accentuation of axial sculpture at the expense of the spirals. There are only 9 axials per whorl (the type is not adult, but at the same stage dentata has 12), well marked on shoulder and below keel, about three times their width apart. The spirals are much weaker on the shoulder, 4 in number; the keel is placed a little higher on the whorls, and tends to point upwards instead of horizontally. The embryo is notably smaller and shows no trace of a keel.

Height, 18 mm.; width, 6 mm.

Locality—Otiake, sandy beds above limestone (Hutchinsonian), type and three fragmentary shells.

Type in Finlay collection.

The spiral sculpture in maorium is strong, and the axials about 12 per whorl as in dentata and macrior.

Coluzea kiosk n. sp. (Fig. 14).

Shell extremely slender and elegantly coiled, periphery of later whorls progressively more and more expanded into a wide horizontally frilled platform. Embryo, like the shell, very tall (somewhat Verconelliform), of three whorls, the last keeled below middle, the tip Caricelloid, but worn. Succeeding shell whorls at least 8 (probably 9-10 is the extreme), strongly and sharply keeled a little below middle, with a straight slope above and below. This keel projects horizontally more and more on each whorl, till on the body whorl there is a lamellar frilled platform jutting out for a distance equal to shoulder; it is made up of foliaceous expansions of the serrations, webbed together like a duck's foot. The axials number about 15-17 per whorl, and are practically confined to the serrations, being weak on shoulder and just below keel on upper whorls, absent on lower whorls. Three thin distant spiral raised threads on shoulder; suture closely margined on either side by a pair of fine threads; and one stronger spiral ridge below keel, nearer suture. Canal with very distant thin spinose raised threads; equal to spire in length.

Height, 47 mm.; width (across frill), 19 mm. Fragments show that this size is greatly exceeded, a canal alone measuring 50 mm., so that the whole shell would reach about 120 mm. in length. This must be a magnificent species when fully grown.

Locality—Clifden (band 6a, type; also 4b, fragments) Hutchinsonian).

Type in Finlay collection.

This cannot be confounded with any other species, being the most bizarre of the group. C. climacota (Suter) has deeper sutures, a much blunter keel, and strong axials and spirals, being indeed on the same line as dentata and macrior; close to the latter, but still more slender, and with blunter keel, and more deeply channelled sutures. Climacota, maoria, macrior, and dentata form a very homogeneous line, from which kiosk and paucispinosa are perhaps offshoots. There is a gap between the Miocene dentata and the Recent spiralis which requires to be bridged by the discovery of Pliocene connecting links, one of which has been here described as C. espinosa.