Annual Meeting, New Zealand Institute
Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors, 19th May, 1932.
The Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute was held in the Biology Lecture Hall, Victoria University College, Wellington, on Thursday, 19th May, 1932, at 10 a.m.
Professor H. W. Segar, President, occupied the chair.
Present: Government nominees—Mr B. C. Aston and Mr W. R. B. Oliver; representing Auckland Institute—Professors H. W. Segar and F. P. Worley; representing Wellington Philosophical Society—Professor H. B. Kirk and Dr E. Kidson; representing Philosophical Institute of Canterbury—Dr C. Coleridge Farr and Professor R. Speight; representing Otago Institute—Mr G. M. Thomson; representing Nelson Institute—Professor T. H. Easterfield; representing Manawatu Philosophical Society—Mr M. A. Eliott; representing Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute—Mr G. V. Hudson. Dr L. Cockayne, Government nominee, attended in the afternoon.
Apologies for absence were received from his Excellency the Governor-General, the Right Hon. G. W. Forbes, Minister of Scientific and Industrial Research, Professor J. Park, and Dr E. Marsden.
Presidential Address: Professor Segar delivered his presidential address, and asked members to rise in respect to the memory of the following members of the Institute who had died during the year:—Dr J. P. Lotsy, of Holland, an honorary member of the Institute, Mr Elsdon Best, Mr John Kenderdine, Dr H. T. Ferrar, and Dr F. G. Maskell.
At the conclusion of his address Professor Segar was thanked, and was asked to allow his address to be printed in the Transactions.
Motions of Sympathy: On the motion of Dr Farr the following resolutions were carried unanimously:—
“That the Institute learns with regret of the ill-health of Dr L. Cockayne, F.R.S., and assures him of its great sympathy.”
“That the Institute learns with great regret of the illness of Dr E. Marsden, and trusts that his health may be speedily and permanently restored.”
Notices of Motion were then received.
Fellowship Election: The election to fill two vacancies in the fellowship was then proceeded with, and the Hon. Returning Officers reported that Mr G. Archey and Mr T. Rigg had been duly elected.
Hector Award: The President then read the report of the Hector Award Committee as follows: “It is our sad duty to refer in the first place to the death of one of the committee, Mr Elsdon Best, which took place on September 9 last. No sounder advice could be obtained on matters pertaining to ethnology in New Zealand than that which Mr Best, from his long association with the Maori and with those that studied the race, and his eminently sound judgment, was able to give. Mr Best was consulted by one of the members of the committee before he died, so that the recommendation which we have now to make is the unanimous opinion of the three members of the committee appointed last year by the Board of Governors.
“We recommend that the Hector Medal and Prize for 1932 be awarded to Dr Te Rangi Hiroa (P. Buck) for his thorough and highly technical work on Maori arts and crafts, and more especially for his accurate and detailed descriptions of the technique of Maori textile work.”
(Signed) W. R. B. Oliver (Convener).
H. D. Skinner.
The recommendation that Dr Te Rangi Hiroa be awarded the Hector Medal was heartily approved by the Board.
Amount of Hector Award: On the motion of the Hon. Treasurer, Mr Eliott, it was resolved that the amount of the Prize for 1932 be £60.
Hutton Award: The Vice-president announced that the Convener of the Hutton Award Committee was absent in the country, and he had not been able to forward the recommendation of the Hutton Award Committee. It was resolved to ask the Standing Committee to make the award when the Award Committee's report is available.
Honorary Members: Dr Kidson asked leave to make a statement regarding the qualifications of one of the nominees, and this was granted. The election of one honorary member was then proceeded with, and resulted in Mr Frederick Chapman, of Melbourne Museum, being elected.
Declaration of Vacancies in Honorary Members' List: The death of Dr J. P. Lotsy, of Velp, Holland, was announced.
Incorporated Societies' Reports and Balance Sheets: The reports and balance sheets of the following societies were then laid on the table:—Auckland Institute for the year ending 31st March, 1932; Wellington Philosophical Society for the year ending 31st October, 1931; Philosophical Institute of Canterbury for the year ending 30th September, 1931; Otago Institute for the year ending
30th November, 1931; Nelson Philosophical Society for the year ending 30th September, 1931; Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute for two years ending 31st December, 1931. No report was received from the Manawatu Philosophical Society, which has not yet been resuscitated.
Report of the Standing Committee for the Year Ending 31St March, 1932.
Meetings: Eight meetings of the Standing Committee have been held during the year, the attendance being as follows:—Mr Aston, Wellington, 8; Dr Cockayne, Ngaio, 4; Mr M. A. Eliott, Palmerston North, 1; Professor C. Coleridge Farr, Christchurch, 2; Mr G. V. Hudson, Wellington, 8; Professor H. B. Kirk, Wellington, 7; Dr E. Kidson, Wellington, 1; Dr Marsden, Wellington, 5; Mr W. R. B. Oliver, Wellington, 8; Professor H. W. Segar, Auckland, 1; Hon. G. M. Thomson, Dunedin, 6.
The Finance Committee has also met several times.
Board of Governors: The only changes which have taken place on the Board are as follows:—Dr E. Kidson was appointed to represent the Wellington Philosophical Society with Professor Kirk, and Mr G. V. Hudson was appointed to represent the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute in place of Mr C. F. H. Pollock, who had resigned that office.
Finances: The financial position of the Institute has been the dominant matter for attention during the year. In view of the fact that the Government had reduced the annual grant from £1500 to £750, and that the Treasury had deducted from the first quarterly instalment of the reduced grant an amount of £149, the balance then owing to the Government Printer, efforts were made to find some means of augmenting the Institute's resources. The incorporated societies were asked to consider various proposals, such as increasing the levy, paying the travelling expenses of representatives attending the Annual Meetings, holding of an art union, etc., but none of them met with general approval. Other proposals which have been considered were the charging of a yearly fee to all Fellows of the Institute, creating an associateship of the New Zealand Institute with direct subscription to the Institute, charging members the full price for the Transactions. None of these was approved, but a subcommittee was set up to consider the constitution of a new Society.
The Finance Committee made the following recommendations, which have been adopted:—That the Endowment Fund be increased so that it would yield in future a greater amount of revenue for the purposes of the Institute, and that all proceeds received from sales of Institute's publications from 1st April, 1931, be credited to the Endowment Fund; that the actual reasonable administration expenses be charged against the various Trust Accounts; that the societies be asked to assist by paying the levy before the whole of the volume is published; that the publication of the Transactions be continued under the strictest supervision of the Standing Committee.
An appeal to members of the Institute was also decided upon, but owing to certain objections this was not carried out, although one of the incorporated societies, the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, made an appeal on behalf of the Institute, with the result that a donation of £5 was received.
Authors who had presented papers for publication were asked if they could contribute towards the cost of the publication of these, and £17 7s 9d was thus contributed.
In the Research Grant Fund an amount of £440 had accrued from grants which had been relinquished or refunded since 1921. The Vice-president made representations to the Treasury to have this amount transferred to the General Fund of the Institute for publication expenses, and this was done by a special vote of Parliament in the Supplementary Estimates last year. This considerably relieved the financial position, and enabled the printing of Volume 62 to be proceeded with.
Subsequently the recommendation in the National Expenditure Commission's Report to reduce the Institute's grant still further to £400 was received with great concern. A letter signed by the President stating the position of
the Institute, the reductions which had already been inflicted, and protesting against further reduction was sent to every member of Parliament and of the Legislative Council. Several sympathetic replies have been received.
It is understood that the amount of the Institute's grant for expenses will be £500, instead of the £400 recommended by the National Expenditure Commission.
Travelling Expenses: The Auckland Institute's suggestion that a pooling scheme for paying the travelling expenses of members of the Board attending Annual Meetings was agreed to by the other incorporated societies, and at the last meeting of the Standing Committee it was decided to adopt this course for last year's expenses and for future meetings until the finances of the Institute improve.
Publication Matters: As the Institute's finances were so uncertain, it was considered impracticable to sign a contract with the Otago Daily Times Company for any period. The Company was approached, however, to see if it would publish the remaining parts of Volume 62 at the price quoted for a three years' period, and it agreed to do this. A reduced volume has therefore now been completed, and the new printers have proved quite satisfactory.
It has been decided to proceed with the publication of Part 1 of Volume 63 of approximately 100 pages.
Hon. Editor: On the 30th June the Hon. Editor, Professor Sommerville, asked to be relieved of his office for the time being, as he was about to leave for England. A hearty vote of thanks was accorded to Professor Sommerville for his excellent services during the term of his office as Hon. Editor, and the best wishes of the Standing Committee for a pleasant holiday extended to him.
It was resolved that during the absence of Professor Sommerville the Chairman of the Standing Committee, which is the Publications Committee, act as Hon. Editor. It was further resolved that the duty of the Publications Committee shall be to determine what papers shall be accepted for publication, and that every paper shall be submitted to a referee before acceptance. The Editorial Committee shall in each case come to a conclusion as to the probable cost of printing. Papers shall then be passed on to the Hon. Associate Editor, the Hon. G. M. Thomson, who, with the assistance of a Committee co-opted by him, shall be responsible for seeing it through the printing house and for all editorial work.
Professor Sommerville was absent for eight months, and the Institute is greatly indebted to the Hon. G. M. Thomson for the work which he undertook in bringing out Volume 62, the initial volume of the new printers.
Transactions: Volume 61 was laid on the tables of the House of Representatives and of the Legislative Council in June of last year, and Volume 62 will be presented in the ordinary session of Parliament this year.
Sales: The net proceeds from sales of publications during the year amounted to £113 19s, which, under resolution of the Standing Committee of the 30th June, has been credited to the Endowment Fund.
Endowment Fund: At a meeting of the Finance Committee held on 15th September it was recommended that the Standing Committee arrange for the preparation of an Endowment Fund Declaration of Trust. This matter was deferred.
Exchange List: No additions have been made to the Exchange List during the year.
Library: The Library continues to be used extensively by the Staff and Honours students of Victoria University College, as well as by members of the Institute, and many volumes have been posted to members residing out of Wellington. The congestion in the Library is proving a very serious problem for the Librarian.
Carnegie Corporation of New York: Towards the end of last year Professor Coffman, of Michigan University, came to New Zealand representing
the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Very generous treatment by the Carnegie Corporation has been accorded to the University Libraries in New Zealand and to certain educational activities. The President and Vice-president interviewed Professor Coffman on behalf of the needs of the Institute Library; he was quite sympathetic, and asked for a comprehensive statement regarding the Institute to place before the Carnegie Corporation. This was sent to him, together with specimen volumes of the Transactions.
Professor Coffman has not yet reported the result of his representations regarding the Institute.
Incorporated Societies: The following reports and balance sheets have been received from the incorporated societies:—
Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, for the year ending 31st October, 1931;
Otago Institute, for the year ending 30th November, 1931;
Nelson Institute, for the year ending 30th September, 1931;
Auckland Institute, for the year ending 31st March, 1932;
Wellington Philosophical Society, for the year ending 31st October, 1931;
Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, for the period ending 31st December, 1931.
There was no report available from the Manawatu Philosophical Society.
Vice-president: At last Annual Meeting a Committee was set up to define the duties of the recently established office of Vice-president. The Committee's recommendations were adopted at a meeting of the Standing Committee on the 30th June as follows:—
The Vice-president shall represent the President on all occasions when he is unable to be present unless otherwise determined by the Board, and shall exercise all the President's executive functions when he is unable to be present in Wellington.
The Vice-president shall be ex officio a member of all Committees.
The President and Vice-president represent the New Zealand Institute on the Dominion Museum and National Art Gallery Board of Trustees (see Dominion Museum and National Art Gallery Act, 1930). Should either the President or Vice-president be unable to attend, either has power to appoint a deputy, in default of which the Vice-president shall appoint deputies.
The Vice-president should be made cognisant of all correspondence and business generally by the Secretary, and is to be regarded in every way as the President's deputy in Wellington. All business should be submitted to the Vice-president before meetings of the Board or the Standing Committee, and he shall have power to call for all documents, books, and statements in connection with the Institute's business.
The Vice-president shall have general oversight of the office, and sign important letters or letters to important people in the absence of the President.
The Committee considered the appointment of an Hon. Secretary unnecessary.
Fellowship: On the 8th June notification of the election of Dr D. Miller and Dr E. Kidson to the Fellowship of the New Zealand Institute was sent forward to be gazetted.
On the 21st September the incorporated societies were asked for nominations for the 1932 Fellowship election, and 12 nominations were received and submitted to the Fellows for selection.
The result of the selection was forwarded to members of the Board on the 9th March, and the election will take place at the Annual Meeting in May.
Hector Award: On the 27th May a letter was received from Dr W. P. Evans thanking the Institute for awarding him the Hector Medal, and stating that he appreciated the honour conferred on him.
At a meeting of the Wellington Philosophical Society held on the 25th June the medal and prize were presented to Dr Evans by Mr B. C. Aston, Vice-president of the New Zealand Institute, who made reference to the amount of research work, particularly into the chemistry of New Zealand brown coals, carried out by Dr Evans; he referred also to the influence exerted by Dr Evans on his students, many of whom were now occupying important positions in industry and education.
Hutton Grants: Two applications for Hutton Grants referred by last Annual Meeting to the Standing Committee were considered and were not approved.
Research Grants: Six applications for research grants were received during the year, but owing to the Government making no provision on the Estimates for research grants five of these applicants were informed that there was no money available. The sixth applicant, who was eligible under the Hutton Grant regulations, was informed that his application (if he desired it) would be considered at the Annual Meeting with other applications for Hutton Grants.
T. K. Sidey Summer Time Fund: The regulations approved by the Board of Governors were handed over to the Crown Law Office for drafting and for the necessary Declaration of Trust to be drawn up. Two additional regulations were included: one allowing a Fellow of the Institute to nominate a person to receive the award, subject to that person's consent to nomination, and one allowing the Institute to deduct reasonable administration expenses. The draft was approved, but subsequently a point was raised by Sir Thomas Sidey as to whether the terms of the Trust were wide enough.
A notice intimating that an award was to be made appeared in the press on the 17th July, 1931. The Award Committee, after considering the applications, referred the matter to the Standing Committee. At a meeting of the Standing Committee held on the 15th April, 1932, a sub-committee, consisting of Mr Aston, Hon. G. M. Thomson, and Mr Currie, law draughtsman, was set up to report to the Annual Meeting after conferring with Sir Thomas Sidey.
Hector Observatory: At the last Annual Meeting it was resolved that the Prime Minister be requested to have the name of the Dominion Observatory altered to Hector Observatory. In reply to this request the Prime Minister wrote stating that he would give the matter careful consideration.
Title “Royal”: Acting on instructions from last Annual Meeting, application was made to the Hon. Minister of Internal Affairs for permission to use the prefix “Royal” in the title of the New Zealand Institute. A letter dated 5th April, 1932, has been received from the Hon. Minister stating that the application has been transmitted to his Excellency the Governor-General.
New Zealand Institute Act: A Committee was set up at last Annual Meeting to report on alterations required in the New Zealand Institute Act consequent upon the change of date of the Institute's year and Annual Meeting. The Committee reported as follows:—
That it is not necessary to make any alteration in Section 3 of the Act. (Date of appointment of members of the Board of Governors.)
That the following dates in the Regulations be advanced three months, that is to say:—
That the following dates in the Hamilton Fund Regulations be advanced six months, that is to say:—
London Agency: Arrangements had been made with the High Commissioner for his office to have the Institute's publications on sale without commission charges, but as he anticipated that very few sales would be effected from his office it was decided to allow Messrs Wheldon & Weley, Ltd., who had expressed the desire to resume the agency, to do so on the usual terms, on the understanding that their outstanding account would be paid in full. Three instalments of this account have been received during the year, and a promise of a settlement of the balance at an early date.
Fifth Pacific Science Congress: A large amount of correspondence has been received in connection with the Fifth Pacific Science Congress, which was to have been held in June of this year in Canada. On the 2nd November a cable was received intimating that the Congress was postponed for a year, and a letter received on the 30th November confirmed the cable message as follows:—
“… The Government of Canada, in consideration of the disturbed economic conditions prevailing throughout the world to-day, have decided that it would be inadvisable to proceed with the proposed meeting of the Fifth Pacific Science Congress in Canada in May and June, 1932, and observing that the Fourth Congress suggested that a longer inter-Congress period might be found advantageous in the future, have instructed the President and members of the Executive Council to arrange for the postponement of the Fifth Pacific Science Congress for one year, in the hope that happier times may then permit the holding of a successful and profitable meeting at which even the most distant countries will find it possible to be represented.”
Members of the New Zealand Institute who were preparing papers for presentation at the Congress were accordingly advised of its postponement.
A preliminary programme of authors and papers has been received, and is available for reference by those interested.
Official delegates have not yet been appointed.
At last Annual Meeting the possibility of sending an invitation for the Sixth Pacific Science Congress to meet in New Zealand was left in the hands of a sub-committee. It has since been learned that the Sixth Congress is to be held in Siam, rendering action by the sub-committee unnecessary.
British Association for the Advancement of Science: 1931 being the centenary of the British Association, and instructions having been received from the last Annual Meeting to prepare a scroll containing the congratulations of the New Zealand Institute, an address was drawn up, and Professor Shelley very kindly undertook the engrossing of it. It was signed by the President, Professor Segar, and by his Excellency the Governor-General as a member of the Board of Governors.
Professor Sommerville, who represented the Institute at the celebrations in London, and who presented the address, wrote as follows: “The New Zealand Institute has done very handsomely in the matter of the address. It is a very beautiful piece of work, unique in form, I think, as the others are all scrolls in cylinders. It has provoked great admiration. I saw some of the Faraday addresses, but I don't think there were any so beautiful, though many of them were fine. There are very few British Association ones.”
The New Zealand Institute is indebted to Professor Shelley for his work.
Concurrently with the opening of the British Association, meetings of the Wellington Philosophical Society and of the Standing Committee were held, and his Excellency the Governor-General having expressed the view that it would be appropriate if a cable could be despatched to the British Association, the following cable was sent through the Prime Minister's office:—“Meeting of New Zealand Institute held to-day, on motion of Governor-General, Lord Bledisloe, send hearty greetings to British Association Centenary meeting, and gratefully recognise the influence of the Association in the furthering of science in the Empire, and its advantage to the primary producers of New Zealand.”
An extract from Professor Sommerville's report as the New Zealand Institute's representative at this meeting, as well as the Faraday and Clerk Maxwell celebrations, is attached. (See page XXVI.)
Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science: An invitation from this Association to the New Zealand Institute to nominate delegates to the Council for the next meeting, to be held in Sydney from 17th to 24th August, has been received, and incorporated societies have been asked to supply the names of any members proposing to attend.
International Congress of Mathematicians: An invitation having been received for the Institute to be represented at this Congress to be held in Zurich in September, 1932, it has been decided to ask Dr L. J. Comrie, Superintendent of the Nautical Almanac, and Mr J. W. Harding, late Lecturer in Physics at Victoria University College, and now in Cambridge, to represent the Institute if they find it possible to attend this Congress.
International Catalogue of Scientific Literature: Under date of 15th January, 1932, the Smithsonian Institution wrote asking the New Zealand Institute if, in the event of its being found possible to resuscitate the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature, it would again co-operate in the work by supplying classified references to the current scientific literature in its region. It was decided to approach the incorporated societies to see if they could procure volunteers to undertake this work.
Ward Island: An intimation was received from the Commissioner of Crown Lands that the Ward Island Domain Board was being reconstituted, and it had been suggested that the New Zealand Institute might care to be represented on that Board. It was resolved that Mr W. R. B. Oliver be appointed on the Ward Island Domain Board.
Weka Pass: In connection with the restoration of Maori rock paintings which has been carried out at Weka Pass by a member of the Dominion Museum staff, letters from the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury and the Otago Institute were received asking that in future if such work is contemplated the societies be consulted. The societies were informed that no further work on these paintings is contemplated.
Natural Science in Schools: Two resolutions passed at last Annual Meeting were forwarded to the Prime Minister and the Hon. Minister of Education, also to the Director of Education. A reply was received from the Prime Minister stating that he would be glad to arrange for the resolutions to be given careful consideration. The Committee set up to report on this matter is submitting a report to the Annual Meeting.
Walter Burfitt Prize: The Royal Society of New South Wales wrote on the 8th December intimating that the second award of the Walter Burfitt Prize would be made in May, 1932, and nominations should be in the Society's hands not later than 28th February. Several nominations were forwarded from the New Zealand Institute on the 23rd December, 1931.
Second International Polar Year: Dr Kidson, Secretary of the New Zealand Polar Year Committee, reports as follows:—
“The Committee held a number of meetings at which various schemes for the co-operation of New Zealand in the Polar Year Scheme were discussed. Amongst these were:
Co-operation with Great Britain in an expedition to Cape Adare.
The organisation of a New Zealand expedition to Macquarie Island or Macquarie and Auckland Islands.
Co-operation with Australia in the above.
“With regard to the first, the contribution asked from New Zealand was too large and out of proportion to our resources.
“The Australian authorities did not find it possible to make any proposal for co-operation with us.
“Owing to the continually increasing severity of the financial depression, all efforts to raise funds in New Zealand for an expedition to Macquarie Island proved unavailing.
“At its last meeting the Committee decided to discontinue active existence. The organisation will, however, be retained in case any opportunity should arise of furthering the objects of the Polar Year Scheme.
“It is hoped that special magnetic observations in accordance with a general scheme will be possible at the Magnetic Observatory at Amberley. Professors of Physics and workers in wireless telegraphy are asked to consider the possibilities of assisting by organising researches in Atmospheric Electricity, Cosmic Rays, the Aurora, Wireless Phenomena, or other lines.
“The Committee is greatly indebted to his Excellency the Governor-General, Lord Bledisloe, who presided at its meetings and gave much valuable advice and assistance.
“Messrs H. E. Vaile, R. E. Ford, and the late Dr H. T. Ferrar were co-opted members of the Committee. It was not due to lack of effort of these and other members that the aims of the Committee were not accomplished.
“Efforts were made to induce the European authorities to postpone the Polar Year, but several countries were too far committed, and in any case the success of the scheme so far as the Northern Hemisphere was concerned was definitely assured.
“The Secretary was made a member of the International Commission for the Polar Year, and will remain in touch with developments. When desirable, small Committees of workers in the sciences concerned will be formed to carry out such work as it may be possible to organise.”
Systems of Electrical Units: The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics wrote asking the New Zealand Institute for information in regard to systems of electrical units. The matter was referred to the various Professors of Physics in the Dominion for report.
Royal Research Ship “Discovery II”: As the Royal Research Ship “Discovery” will be in New Zealand waters from June of this year, it was decided to ask the various incorporated societies to extend any possible facilities or courtesies to the ship's scientific officers and crew while they are visiting the various centres in New Zealand.
The report of the Standing Committee was considered clause by clause, slightly amended and adopted.
Arising Out of the Report.
Carnegie Corporation of New York: The Vice-president read a letter from the Secretary of the Carnegie Corporation of New York as follows:—
We are glad to inform you that at a meeting of the Executive Committee of the Corporation, held April 13, the following resolution was adopted:—
Resolved that from the balance available for appropriation in the Special Fund (applicable elsewhere than in U.S.A.) the sum of 1000 dollars be, and it hereby is, appropriated to the New Zealand Institute toward support of publication of scientific papers.
We are authorising our Treasurer to send you a draft for this amount, which should reach you a few days after the receipt of this letter.
(Signed) F. P. Keppel.
On the motion of Dr Farr it was resolved that the most cordial thanks and appreciation of the New Zealand Institute be conveyed to the Carnegie Corporation for its generous gift to the Institute.
Reform of the Institute: Mr B. C. Aston read a report of a subcommittee set up by the Standing Committee to report on a scheme for augmenting the funds of the Institute.
Report of the Committee Appointed to Advise on a Selected Plan for Ensuring an Immediate and Supplementary Income Payable Direct to the New Zealand Institute.
The reduction of the statutory grant for management expenses, payable annually by Parliament to the New Zealand Institute, from £1500 to £750 was a blow to the Institute's finances, which called for immediate remedy as well as for future provision in order to provide for a workable credit balance for management expenses and publication costs. By transferring, with the consent of Parliament, cash in hand accruing from lapsed research grants amounting to £440 to the General Fund for publication expenses, the income from Government sources was increased from £750 to £1190, so that the position for the year ending 31st March, 1932, was fairly met. The outlook for the year ending 31st March, 1933, and subsequent years is, however, not so satisfactory. It is understood that the amount to be voted by Parliament for the current year will only be £500 instead of £750; also that by recent legislation, instead of the Institute's annual grant being payable by authority of the New Zealand Institute Act or Finance Act, this vote among others shall be subject to annual review.
At a meeting of the Standing Committee on 25th August, 1931, the idea of having a body of research workers and others interested contributing an annual subscription direct to the Treasurer of the New Zealand Institute was adopted as a skeleton scheme which was left to a sub-committee to elaborate.
It is proposed to form a new Society, one qualification of the members being that they shall be already members of the New Zealand Institute, that is, must belong to one of the incorporated Societies, the object of the Society to be the publication of scientific knowledge. Such a Society could claim to be admitted to incorporation with the New Zealand Institute it desired. One pound of each member's subscription should be paid to the Hon. Treasurer of the New Zealand Institute every year.
The Fellows of the New Zealand Institute would be eligible to join such a Society, and would no doubt provide a welcome nucleus for starting the Society. It has been suggested that one way of raising income would be to tax the Fellows to the extent of £2 2s subscription per annum, but this could not be done without their consent, since they were elected without imposing any extra fees.
It may be asked what subscribers are to get in return for their annual fee to this new Society, seeing that they are already members of the New Zealand Institute through belonging to one of the societies, and are thus entitled to all the benefits conferred by membership of the New Zealand Institute. A better question to ask is, however, what they will lose if the Transactions cease publication. In such an event the opportunity of publishing papers in a recognised New Zealand Journal which is filed for reference in every scientific library of importance in the world, and has been appearing regularly since 1868, would be lost, and New Zealand zoologists, geologists, and botanists would then lack a channel for publishing their results.
(Signed) H. B. Kirk.
B. C. Aston.
May 17, 1932.
Some discussion took place regarding the proposals outlined in the report, and finally on the motion of Professor Speight, seconded by Mr Aston, it was resolved that the report be circulated to the incorporated societies and to every member of the Institute for consideration and report.
On the motion of Dr Farr, seconded by Professor Speight, it was resolved that the replies be collated and a further report prepared for next Annual Meeting.
Draft Deed T. K. Sidey Summer Time Fund.
To All to Whom These Presents Shall Come the New Zealand Institute (hereinafter called “the Institute”), a body politic and corporate under and by virtue of the New Zealand Institute Act, 1908, Sends Greeting:
Whereas the sum of £500 has been collected in shilling subscriptions for the purpose of commemorating the passing by Parliament of the Summer Time Act, 1927, through the instrumentality of Sir Thomas Kay Sidey, Knight, Barrister, some time his Majesty's Attorney-General for New Zealand:
And Whereas the said sum has been paid to the Institute for the purpose aforesaid and further sums may hereafter be received by the Institute for the same purpose:
And Whereas it was intended that such commemoration should take the form of a public charitable purpose to be more particularly defined by the Institute, and it is expedient that the precise terms on which the said moneys are held should be declared in manner hereinafter appearing:
Now Know Ye that the Institute doth hereby declare as follows:—
The Institute does and will stand possessed of the said moneys and all other moneys hereafter received by it to be held under the trusts of these presents and the augmentation of such respective moneys upon the trusts following, that is to say:—
Pending the disbursement thereof any current income shall be invested whether by blending with investments of capital or otherwise but unless appropriated as part of the capital of the Fund by resolution of the Board of Governors such current income so invested and the earnings thereof shall remain available for disbursement in manner provided by these presents.
The Institute records a wish expressed by the said Sir Thomas Kay Sidey that after the expiration of the period during which accumulation is directed under the trusts hereinbefore declared the Institute should continue to set aside and invest one-tenth part of the annual income of the Fund and so far as lawfully may be or until otherwise lawfully directed should defer the application thereof for the purposes herein set out until by virtue of such setting aside and of the accumulation hereinbefore directed and other accretions to the Fund the annual income of the Fund represents interest derived from a capital sum of not less than Ten Thousand Pounds (£10,000) and the Institute declares its accord with and adherence to the said wish:
Provided always that nothing contained in this clause shall take effect otherwise than as a precatory declaration.
Such part of the income as the Institute may think proper but so that no prize be of a less value than One Hundred Pounds shall from time to time be paid and awarded as a prize to some person who has in the opinion of the Board of Governors made a valuable contribution or contributions to human knowledge by original scientific research in the study aforesaid:
Provided Always that primarily and until the income of the Fund increases to an amount suitable for frequent awards of an international character an award shall be made to some person who was born in New Zealand or who has received the greater part of his or her education in New Zealand or to some person for research work which has been carried out in New Zealand, but it shall be in the discretion of the Board of Governors at any time to offer to make an award under circumstances not complying with any of the stipulations of this proviso.
The Institute shall out of the Fund provide and present to every person to whom a prize is awarded a bronze medal bearing the name of the Fund and otherwise suitably inscribed:
Provided Always that no such provision shall be made upon any occasion on which a similar medal shall be provided by the said Sir Thomas Kay Sidey or any member of his family:
Provided Also that whenever possible the presentation of the medal accompanying the award shall take place upon some public occasion.
Not more than one award shall be made to the same person.
The Institute may in respect of any particular proposed award specify a particular branch of the subject-matter of the said research as that in respect of which such award is to be made.
In making any award from the Fund the Board of Governors shall obtain the assistance as assessors of one or more persons skilled in the subject-matter of the research or may for that purpose nominate as assessor one or more of its own members so qualified and may from time to time make from the income of the Fund a reasonable payment to any person not being a member of the Board for his services as assessor and no award shall be made except on the recommendation of at least one person so appointed by the Board of Governors as assessor.
The Board of Governors may refrain from making an award on any occasion on which it considers that no contribution to knowledge has been brought to its notice of sufficient merit to justify the honour.
(a.) The Board of Governors may from time to time make Regulations not repugnant to these presents providing for the administration of the Fund, the way in which a proposed award is to be notified, the procedure to be followed in making an award, or any other matters connected with these presents.
(b.) Any such Regulations may be amended revoked or replaced in the way in which for the time being the Rules and general Regulations of the Institute may be amended revoked or replaced.
(c.) Until amended revoked or replaced as aforesaid the Regulations hereinafter set out shall take effect as Regulations made under the powers hereby conferred.
(a.) The Institute shall cause to be published once or oftener as may be deemed convenient either with the Proceedings of the Institute or otherwise:
(i.) The terms of these presents excluding any part of the Regulations hereinafter set out theretofore revoked;
(ii.) The terms of any other Regulations made under the powers hereby conferred and for the time being in force;
(b.) The Institute shall cause to be published annually either with the Proceedings of the Institute or otherwise:
(iii.) A list of persons to whom awards from the Fund have been made;
(iv.) A statement of accounts duly audited showing the income and expenditure of the Fund for the annual period then last completed, a summary of cash receipts and disbursements during that period, and a balance sheet of the assets and liabilities of the Fund at the close of that period.
In Witness whereof these presents have been executed this day of 1932.
The Board of Governors shall give not less than six months' previous public notice in not less than four of the principal newspapers circulating in New Zealand of its intention to consider the making of any award from the Fund and the date by which applications for the award are to be received.
Such notice shall specify the qualification of applicants as determined pursuant to Clause 4 of the foregoing Declaration of Trust, and also the subject-matter of the research either as set out in paragraph (vi.) of Clause 1 of the said Declaration of Trust, or as extended under the proviso to the said paragraph (vi.), or as limited under Clause 7 of the said Declaration of Trust according to any determination thereon of the Board of Governors.
Applicants for the award may submit either theses specially prepared for the award or copies of published works not specially so prepared, or both as the applicant may think fit.
The Board of Governors and its assessors will not be limited to consideration of theses so submitted, but may take into account any knowledge that they may have of the research of any applicant or person nominated.
A nomination of a person to receive the award may be made by any member of the Board or Fellow of the Institute, but no award shall be finally declared in favour of any person except on the personal application of such person, or if application has not been so made then until such person's concurrence in the proposed award has been received by the Institute.
The Common Seal of the New Zealand Institute was hereto affixed in the presence of
T. K. Sidey Summer Time Fund: The draft Declaration of Trust and the Regulations governing the T. K. Sidey Summer Time Fund were then considered, and a good deal of discussion took place regarding No. 5 of the Regulations. This clause was finally amended in accordance with a wish expressed by Sir Thomas Sidey as follows:
(5) “A nomination of a person to receive the award will be received from any member of the Board of Governors or Fellow of the Institute, but no award shall be finally declared in favour of any person until after his concurrence in the proposed award has been received by the Institute.”
Sir Thomas Sidey at this stage attended the meeting, and was cordially welcomed by the Board. Sir Thomas, in thanking the Institute for the invitation extended to him to be present on the occasion of the final settlement of the terms of the Declaration of Trust, said he appreciated the free consultation regarding it which had been afforded to him by the Institute and by individual members of the Board. He stated that he wished the Institute to have as wide discretionary powers as possible in order that in future, if conditions changed and different points of view arose, they might be able to make such modifications as were found to be necessary. At the present time the general purpose of the award was for research in light radiation in regard to human welfare, but the Board had been given power to make it wider by applying it to radiations of every kind.
He referred to a possible further donation of £1000 to the Fund, and stated that he hoped that in time the Fund would reach the sum of £10,000. He was exceedingly grateful to the Institute for undertaking the administration of the Fund—he could think of no body which would administer the Fund so well.
He wished the Institute, in addition to deducting all actual expenses, to deduct 5 per cent. of the income for administration purposes. He considered this only reasonable. He reiterated his wish to make up any necessary balance so that the first award would be not less than £100, and when required he would remit a cheque for the amount.
Sir Thomas expressed his appreciation of the services of Mr Currie, Crown Solicitor, in drafting the Declaration of Trust and in giving his advice on several points.
He also made reference to Mr Hudson's paper in the Transactions proposing a scheme of daylight saving, and which anticipated that of Willett, of England. He paid a tribute to Mr Hudson's foresight, and stated that he had frequently made use of his arguments in the House.
Finally Sir Thomas stated that he considered himself fortunate to have seen such a memorial in existence, and he was anxious to see the first award made.
He was not without hope that the original whole hour would be reverted to. The chief opposition to it came from the dairy farmer, but the dairy industry, according to statistics, did not suffer during the year when the hour was in force.
Dr C. Coleridge Farr stated that the Board of Governors was very grateful to Sir Thomas Sidey for addressing them as he had done. He had expressed his views regarding the Fund very clearly, and his remarks would greatly assist the Institute in administering the Fund. He trusted that Sir Thomas's address would be placed on record in the Minutes and published in the press.
Mr M. A. Eliott, seconded by Professor Easterfield, moved the following resolution:—“That the Board of Governors request the Government to introduce legislation to bring the half-hour Daylight Saving Act to include the whole twelve months.”
In speaking to the resolution Sir Thomas stated that there was more involved in the resolution than appeared on the surface. He drew attention to the fact that New Zealand was so situated that there was a tremendous difference in the time by the sun between the North Island and the southern portion of the South Island, and that to enforce daylight saving in winter would result in considerable inconvenience and dislocation of services in the latter.
In view of the remarks of Sir Thomas Sidey, the mover of the resolution was given leave to withdraw his motion.
The following resolutions were then carried:—
That the Institute accept the Trust of the T. K. Sidey Summer Time Fund.
That in respect of the first award from the Fund the notifications heretofore directed to be given and the appointment of assessors be accepted as sufficient and confirmed, and that an award be made accordingly.
That to provide for the future administration of the Fund the Institute adopt a Declaration of Trust in terms of the draft deed now submitted to the meeting, and that the Common Seal of the Institute be affixed accordingly to an engrossment to be prepared in the words of the draft.
That subject to any steps already taken in respect of the first award and confirmed by this resolution, and any steps still to be taken and dependent on steps already taken, the terms of the said Declaration of Trust shall also govern the first award from the Fund.
On the motion of Professor Easterfield it was resolved that the President sign the Declaration of Trust as it had been amended that morning.
Professor Segar then cordially thanked Sir Thomas Sidey for his attendance, and Sir Thomas withdrew.
Consideration of matters arising out of the Standing Committee's Report was then resumed.
Endowment Fund: The Vice-president pointed out the desirability of having a Declaration of Trust drawn up which gave the Institute power to use only the annual interest of the Fund in any year. He mentioned that the Crown Solicitor, Mr Currie, would draw up the Deed. It was resolved to authorise this to be done.
International Research Council: It was reported that the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research would not again pay the Institute's subscription to the International Research Council, and on the motion of Dr Kidson it was resolved that the Institute pay the subscription of 100 gold francs.
Honorary Treasurer's Report.
The Balance Sheet for the 12 months ending 31st March shows a balance of Assets over Liabilities of £799 15s 3d, against which there are commitments for printing Transactions, Volume 62, Part ¾, amounting to £141 7s 5d.
The improved position as compared with the last Balance Sheet has been occasioned by the transfer (by special vote of Parliament) of the Research Grant Fund of £440 to the General Fund for publishing.
The old balance due to the Government Printer has at last been finally liquidated by a payment of £148 15s 11d.
Since my last report the statutory grant has been further reduced from £750 to £400 (although possibly this may be increased to £500). This drastic reduction in our income, i.e., from £1500 to £400, has caused the greatest concern to the Finance Committee, and has necessitated material cuts in salaries and costs of printing. The size of Volume 62 has been reduced considerably, and Volume 63 will also have to be issued in a very much abbreviated form.
The Trust Accounts are in a satisfactory condition, although the reduction in rates of interest which has now become law will reduce the income from investments in future. The Carter Bequest Capital Account is growing at the rate of about £400 per annum.
I have once again to state that the books and accounts have been kept in an excellent manner by the Secretary.
M. A. Eliott, Hon. treasurer.
New Zealand Institute.
|Balance at 31st March, 1931||1,157||9||10|
|Levy Volume 61 (balance)||165||18||0|
|Levy Volume 62||203||10||0|
|Transfer Research Grant Fund to General Fund||440||0||0|
|Contributions towards Publications Expenses||22||7||9|
|Research Grants from Treasury||105||2||0|
|Research Grants Refunded||34||2||10|
|Interest Post Office Savings Bank||23||5||6|
|Sales of Publications||113||19||0|
|Carter Bequest Interest||483||18||11|
|Hector Memorial Fund "||72||0||3|
|Hutton Memorial Fund "||79||16||11|
|Carter Library Legacy "||9||17||0|
|Hamilton Memorial Fund "||2||8||10|
|Sidey Summer Time Fund "||30||13||6|
|Endowment Fund "||37||16||11|
|Trust Funds transferred to Bank of New Zealand||435||9||0|
|Favourable Exchange London Drafts||3||5||10|
|Ferguson & Osborn, Vol. 61 (¾), 62 (1)||314||12||11|
|Otago Daily Times, Vol. 62 (2)||107||3||10|
|Government Printer—Balance of Account||148||15||11|
|Transfer Research Grant Fund to General Fund||440||0||0|
|Research Grants Instalments||249||15||8|
|Charges (Insurance, Bank, Audit, etc.)||6||4||11|
|A. G. Wyon (Summer Time Medal)||127||7||7|
|Trust Funds Invested||348||3||11|
|Trust Funds Audit Charges||5||4||0|
|Interest credited direct to Trust Accounts||678||15||5|
|Balance as under||1,389||10||3|
|Bank of New Zealand||221||9||5|
|Post Office Savings Bank||1,166||16||6|
|Petty Cash in Hand||1||4||4|
M. A. Eliott, Hon. Treasurer.
The Audit Office having examined the Balance Sheet and accompanying Accounts required by law to be audited, hereby certifies them to be correct subject to the exception of expenditure of £1 1s and 5s 3d on a wreath and scroll respectively, which is without authority of law.
(Signed) G. F. C. Campbell, Controller and Auditor-general.
|Carter Bequest Capital Account||8,504||17||7|
|Hector Memorial Fund " "||1,184||18||1|
|Hutton Memorial Fund " "||1,314||8||6|
|Hamilton Memorial Fund " "||58||19||6|
|Carter Library Legacy " "||100||0||0|
|Summer Time Fund||500 " "||2||6|
|Endowment Fund " "||748||2||0|
|Carter Bequest Revenue Account||266||11||7|
|Hector Memorial Fund " "||118||18||6|
|Hutton Memorial Fund " "||249||3||5|
|Hamilton Memorial Fund " "||5||0||3|
|Carter Library Legacy " "||58||12||6|
|Summer Time Fund " "||49||8||11|
|Endowment Fund " "||176||3||11|
|Research Grants Fund||256||11||1|
|Travelling Expenses—Institute's share of pooling||15||13||3|
|C. M. Banks, Ltd.—Stationery||1||2||6|
|Balance of Assets over Liabilities||799||15||3|
|Post Office Inscribed Stock||2,135||6||10|
|Bank of New Zealand||221||9||5|
|Post Office Savings Bank||1,166||16||6|
|Petty Cash in Hand||1||4||4|
|Carter Bequest Account P.O.S.B.||269||6||7|
|Hector Memorial Fund " "||121||0||6|
|Hutton Memorial Fund " "||251||5||5|
|Hamilton Memorial Fund " "||64||7||3|
|Carter Library Legacy " "||59||2||6|
|Summer Time Fund " "||51||3||11|
|To Interest Invested||248||1||6|
|" Administration Expenses||2||15||0|
|" Books Sold||0||17||6|
|To Administration Expenses||2||2||0|
|" Engraving Medal||0||12||6|
|" Hector Award||60||0||0|
|To Administration Expenses||2||2||0|
|To Administration Expenses||0||7||6|
|" Half Interest to Capital Account||1||4||5|
|To A. G. Wyon for Medal||123||16||5|
|" Customs for Medal||3||11||2|
|" Administration Expenses||1||15||0|
|To Interest Invested||100||2||6|
|" Administration Expenses||1||15||0|
|" Sales of Publications||113||19||0|
|To Administration Expenses||0||10||0|
|Residuary Capital Account||50||0||0|
|Residuary Income Account—Interest 31st December, 1930, to 31st December, 1931, at 5 ¼ per cent||2||12||6|
The Hon. Treasurer read his report and moved the adoption of the Balance £Sheets and Trust Accounts Statements, which had been duly audited by the Auditor-general. Carried.
Report of the Honorary Editor.
The new printers of the Transactions, the Otago Daily Times, have now completed satisfactorily Volume 62. This volume, consisting of 271 pages and 41 plates, is necessarily very much smaller than recent volumes, but it is a matter of congratulation to be able to publish at all, with a Government grant so sadly reduced. Matter is in hand for Volume 63, and it is hoped that funds may be sufficient to make this volume equal to its predecessor.
During the absence of the Hon. Editor in England the duties were undertaken and carried out with great care by the Hon. G. M. Thomson. The Institute is under a deep debt of gratitude to him for giving up so much of his valuable time to this somewhat arduous work.
D. M. Y. Sommerville, Hon. Editor.
The report of the Hon. Editor was read by Professor Sommerville and adopted.
Report of the Honorary Librarian.
The condition of congestedness in the Library continues to grow more acute, and it will be necessary in order to make space to stow away some of the sets of periodicals which are less often consulted. When funds become again available there is a great deal of binding which is urgently required. This is apt to be postponed until it is too late and the sets of periodicals have become defective.
The death of Dr H. T. Ferrar is a great loss, for besides taking a keen general interest in the Library he presented the Library for many years with his copy of the report of the British Association, of which he was a Life Member.
D. M. Y. Sommerville, Hon. Librarian.
The adoption of the Hon. Librarian's report also was moved by Professor Sommerville and carried.
On the motion of Mr G. M. Thomson, seconded by Professor Speight, Professor Sommerville was cordially thanked for his arduous work as Hon. Editor.
Research Grants Report.
Mr G. Archey in 1926 was granted £40 for a research on New Zealand Chilopoda. On the 6th April, 1932, he reported that it was expected that the report would have been completed during the year, but it has been delayed through the loss in the return post of specimens sent to England for comparison with types. Further specimens have had to be sent; meanwhile collecting has been carried out in the North Cape, Kaipara, Waitakeri, Waikato, Bay of Plenty, and Urewera districts, and a considerable amount of new material secured. Expenses incurred amounted to £4 9s, leaving in hand a balance of 17s 4d.
Mr B. C. Aston in 1928 took over from Dr Malcolm £9 16s 7d for a research on pukatea bark. He reported on the 19th April that the paper on the constitution of Pukateine has been published by one of Professor Barger's students, and the syntheses of the two alkaloids of the bark have been published. A request has been received for more material, and this was procured through the kindness of the Forestry Department. This is the first occasion that a crystalline product of the New Zealand flora has been synthesised, and Mr Aston considers it extremely fortunate that such an eminent plant research chemist as Professor Barger has become interested in the chemistry of our unique flora. Dr Fogg, Demonstrator in the Otago Medical School, has reported on his experiment with pukateine hydrochloride on animals to determine its action on the heart. His work included observation of the effect on intravenous injection, electro cardiographic and perfusion experiments. There is an unexpended balance of £6 8s 1d.
Professor W. N. Benson in 1925 was granted £50 for preparing rock sections of the Dunedin regions. He reported on the 10th March that the whole of the grant had been expended. The work in the fields is nearing completion, but laboratory work is still incomplete.
Professor W. N. Benson in 1930 was granted £150 for an expedition to Preservation Inlet. He reported on the 10th March that the writing up of the work of this expedition has gone rapidly ahead during the last vacation, and three-fifths of the work is almost ready for publication. He hopes to present three portions of the work during this session, and to complete the remainder during next vacation. The laboratory study of the material collected has proved even more interesting than had been gathered from the field observations, so that his collaborator and he hope that the results will be a useful contribution to New Zealand science.
Mr A. E. Brookes in 1927 was granted £40 for the study of Coleoptera of the islands off the coast of Auckland. He reported on the 4th April that during the summer an investigation was carried out on Little Barrier Island,
and a good deal of material secured, but owing to the extremely dry conditions and the presence of a large number of insectivorous birds the number of specimens collected was perhaps not so large as it might have been under normal conditions. Hen Island, an uninhabited island off Whangarei Heads, was also visited, and seven days were spent in collecting there, and some interesting material secured. Several hundred specimens from these localities have now been mounted, and the remaining work will probably occupy another twelve months. Expenditure for the year amounted to £14 7s 10d, and there is an unexpended balance of £1 16s.
Mr J. W. Calder in 1930 was granted £30 for research in the vegetation of Arthur's Pass. He reported on the 29th March that the investigation of regeneration of sub-alpine scrub after burning had been continued during the year, and a detailed examination made of the area described by Dr Cockayne in a paper in the Transactions of 1899 and numerous photographs taken, many of them of areas photographed by Dr Cockayne 34 years ago, and thus furnishing an invaluable record of the changes which have taken place in the vegetation during that period. A paper describing the main changes has been accepted for publication in the Journal of Ecology. The work is being continued and permanent quadrants located. Expenditure amounting to £24 17s 2d has been incurred.
Miss L. Cranwell in 1930 was granted £20 for research on marine algae of the West Coast near Auckland, and she reported on the 6th April that the survey is still incomplete, and it is unlikely that there will be anything ready for publication before the end of the two years' period which was suggested as the minimum for the work. Collecting and observation work have been undertaken along the coast. Special attention has been given to periodicity, and sufficient time has now elapsed to indicate striking seasonable changes. Miss Cranwell acknowledges generous assistance from Mr R. M. Laing, as well as of other overseas workers, in the identification of species. Expenditure amounted to £2 2s.
Dr G. H. Cunningham in 1928 was granted £25 for a mycological survey of Tongariro National Park. He reported on the 23rd March that the Park had been visited on four occasions. An investigation was made of a disease of Pinus spp. which had become widely spread through certain afforested areas in Karioi, on the southern slopes of Mount Ruapehu. Collecting was also done in this locality, and other collecting tours were undertaken. In all 16 additional species of fungi were added to previous collections. He has had great difficulty in identifying several of these collections, since many belong to groups with which he is not familiar, and little accurate aid can be secured by sending material abroad owing to the penchant of overseas workers to consider (too often without justification) most species from a foreign region as being undescribed. No expenditure was incurred in connection with these collecting tours.
Professor Florance in 1928 was granted £38 and in 1929 an additional £20 for research on oscillation crystals and supersonic waves. He reported on 4th April that during the last year work was carried out in an investigation of the fundamental modes of vibration of crystals, particularly with a view to correlating results obtained by various experimental methods (powder method, interference method, polarised light method). This investigation has not yet been completed. An investigation also was made of the sound field round oscillating crystals. The work was the subject of an honours thesis. The whole of the grant has been expended.
Mr F. W. Foster, who in 1921 was granted £25 to correlate the late Sir David Hutchins's notes, has now completed the work, and a substantial MS. is in the hands of the Institute. Part II, comprising three sections—Forest Policy, Introduced Conifers, Cold Country Eucalypts—has just been received. No decision has been arrived at regarding its publication. The whole of the grant has now been paid to Mr Foster.
Dr O. H. Frankel was in 1929 granted £32 12s and in 1930 an additional £20 for research on the cytology of New Zealand plants. He reported on the 3rd April that the research has progressed satisfactorily. A large number of
fixations were carried out, and sections made on most of last year's material. Collections of live material were made for future cytological examination. Expenditure during the year amounted to £5 19s 11d.
Miss Heine was in 1930 granted £15 for research in the pollination of New Zealand plants. She reported on the 16th March that she had undertaken two expeditions to Mount Holdsworth and one to the Waihao Gorge to enable her to study the pollination of the plants in their natural surroundings. Besides these two expeditions she has visited Kapiti, Mount Hector, and Mount Monganui at her own expense with the idea of comparing the results with those obtained at Wilton's Bush and other local bush areas. During the year 119 species of plants included in 35 genera have been examined, and the frequency and efficiency of the different species of insects visiting have been noted, and several hundreds of insects collected and examined to determine the quantity and kinds of pollen found on them. The whole of the grant has been expended.
Dr Inglis from 1923–1930 was granted £125 for research on the essential oils of native plants. He reported on 31st March that work on totara and white pine was continued throughout the year. Further work on the oils of black pine and cedar was undertaken and completed. A small quantity of Phyllocladus Alpinus was also investigated. It was found that a crystalline diterpene was present in the leaves of several of the New Zealand trees, the most convenient source being Dacrydium biforme. Work on this is being continued, and reports of the completed researches are being prepared. There is an unexpended balance of £4 10s 5d.
Mr R. M. Laing in 1924 and 1929 was granted £125 for research on New Zealand Algae. He reported on the 18th March that the second part of the investigation on New Zealand species of Gigartina appeared in Volume 62 (2) Transactions New Zealand Institute, and the third part is in course of preparation. The whole of the grant has been expended.
Mr A. W. B. Powell in 1925 was granted £50 for an investigation of the molluscan fauna of Manukau Harbour. He reported on 15th March that further field work has been carried out. The microscope purchased by means of the grant has proved useful in the preparation of several papers. Expenditure amounted to £45 4s 1d.
Research Committee of Auckland Institute in 1925 was granted £65 for an ecological survey of the Waitemata Harbour. Through Mr Powell it reported on the 15th March that during the year a number of additional dredging stations had been established, and extensive notes of the ecology and percentage of organisms have been made. A paper is ready for publication, and special reports are being obtained on the seaweeds and bryozoa. The expenditure has amounted to £53 19s 11d.
Dr W. F. Short from 1925–1929 was granted £189 for investigation in the constitution of several constituents of New Zealand essential oils. He reported on the 28th March that a synthesis of the hitherto unknown 4-Methylphenanthrene has been effected, and the synthetic hydrocarbon compared with that obtained by selenium dehydrogenation of podocarpic acid. This synthesis was published in the Journal of the Chemical Society. Considerable progress has been made in the investigation of podocarpic acid, which has now reached such a stage that a provisional structural formula may be advanced. A lengthy paper is in course of preparation. The whole of the grant has been expended.
Professor R. Speight in 1928 was granted £50 for a geological examination of Mount Somers district. He reported on the 1st April that the field work has been practically completed and the report written. Special reports on the Brachiopods and the Foraminifera being prepared by Dr R. S. Allan and Mr Chapman and on the Bryozoa by Dr Uttley should be available soon. Professor Speight has prepared a geological map, but before it can be reproduced it will have to be redrawn, and he does not wish to go to any expense unless there is a chance of it and his report of about 75,000 words with photographs, maps, sections, etc., being published. It aims at giving a comprehensive account of the geology of the district, and more especially of the volcanic and tertiary beds. There is an unexpended balance of £10 14s 8d.
Dr G. H. Uttley in 1928 was granted £35 for micrographic apparatus for research on Bryozoa. He reported on the 1st April that he is continuing the work, and he hopes to get some papers published this year.
Professor F. P. Worley in 1923–25 was granted £50 for research on the chemistry of essential oils. He reported on the 24th March that during the year there had been no expenditure of the grant.
The Research Grants Report was adopted.
Tongariro National Park.
Report of New Zealand Institute's Representative on Park Board.
Control of Chateau: By the Reserves and Other Lands Disposal Act, 1931, Section 19, the management of the Chateau was vested in the Department of Industries and Commerce, Tourist and Publicity, which assumed control of the Chateau and outlying huts, together with the areas formerly leased to the Tongariro Park Tourist Company, Ltd., on 11th November, 1931.
Park Improvements: A mountain hut at the 5800 feet level has been erected on Scoria Flat, Ruapehu, the £100 left by the late Mr William Salt, a member of the Board, being used in this work. The route from the Chateau to the Ohakune mountain-hut is being made conspicuous by poles in those parts liable to become obliterated by snow. The mountain disaster to a large party of Auckland University students in August, 1931, drew public attention to the dangers to be guarded against when adverse weather conditions are encountered by parties on the high levels, and a number of suggestions are now under consideration to guard against similar happenings.
Camping Facilities: An area containing five acres has been set apart at Whakapapa for the purposes of a camping ground, and is being brought under the Tourist and Health Resorts Act Control, 1908.
Meetings: During the year five meetings of the full Board of the Wellington Executive Committee were held, one at the Chateau. All of these meetings were attended by your representative.
Personnel of Board: Mr J. B. Thomson, C.B.E., late Chairman, retired on ceasing to hold the office of Under-secretary for Lands, but was re-appointed to the vacancy caused by the resignation of Mr F. F. Hockly. Mr E. Phillips Turner retired from the Board on ceasing to hold the position of Director of Forestry, being succeeded by Mr A. D. McGavock. Mr W. Robertson, Undersecretary for Lands, who has had long experience in every branch of the Lands Department, has been appointed Chairman of the Board in succession to Mr J. B. Thomson.
B. C. Aston, Representative New Zealand Institute.
The report of the representative on the Tongariro National Park Board was presented by Mr Aston. He mentioned that the Board has received an application from a man for permission to cut dead firewood in an area in the Park. On the motion of Dr Cockayne, seconded by Mr Hudson, it was resolved that Mr Aston be instructed to oppose the granting of applications to cut dead or live timber in the area mentioned. Mr Oliver asked whether in the formation of the golf links at the Chateau the Board was permitting the destruction of the plant life round the Chateau. Mr Aston explained that the links were being formed in the area which had been leased by the Board to the company which erected the Chateau as part of the grounds on which the building stands. These grounds are now part of the area administered by the Tourist Department, which has now taken over the Chateau.
Board of Trustees National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum.
Report by Vice-President.
Since my last report four meetings of the Board have been held, all of which were attended by two representatives, the Vice-president and Professor Kirk, or by Dr Marshall, of the New Zealand Institute, and Mr Oliver, Director of the Dominion Museum.
The Carillon Tower contract was completed and the bells hung. The dedication service and opening were held on Anzac Day, 25th April, 1932. The building stone used was the vitric tuff from Putaruru, advocated by Dr Marshall. This stone appears to give general satisfaction, and may set an example for other designers of public buildings to follow.
On the resolution of the writer of this report a Planting Committee has been set up, and it is hoped that the trees planted in the Museum grounds will be wholly those of New Zealand, as this appears to be a unique opportunity for demonstrating the effectiveness of purely New Zealand materials, whether of building stone or decorative trees.
B. C. Aston, Vice-president.
The Vice-president, who is a member of the Board of Trustees, moved the adoption of the report, which was carried. Mr Oliver made a further statement regarding the possibility of the building of the Dominion Museum and National Art Gallery being commenced at an early date.
Report of the New Zealand Institute's Representative on the New Zealand Institute of Horticulture.
The Institute continues to do a large amount of useful work. Monthly meetings of the Executive Council have been held in Wellington throughout the year ending 31st March, 1931. Your representative attended most of these meetings, at which many subjects received attention, among these being daffodil nomenclature, representation of the Institute at international and other conferences and organisation of conferences in New Zealand, citrus research, conduct of National Flower Shows, wireless lectures on horticultural subjects, bringing visiting horticulturists into contact with their fellows in New Zealand, education of gardeners, and the granting of diplomas, etc., to these and to florists and seedsmen, plant recording, bud selection, control of grass grub, judging rules, plant registration and patenting, election of Fellows and members of the Institute, the holding of popular lectures, the protection of native flora, etc.
This young Institute is at present passing through a trying time owing to the falling off of income and subscriptions due to the general depression. Pains are being taken by the Executive to cut down expenses, and the expenditure of the Journal of the Institute has been greatly reduced, as well as other expenditure. The annual subscription to this most praiseworthy Institute is only 12s 6d, and this includes subscription to the Journal. It should be supported by all gardeners, amateur and professional.
B. C. Aston.
Mr Aston, representative on the Institute of Horticulture, moved the adoption of this report. Carried.
Report of New Zealand Institute's Representative on Great Barrier Reef Committee.
Three meetings of the Committee were held during the year 1931.
Volume 3 of the “Reports of the Great Barrier Reef Committee” was published during the year. The scientific results of the British Expedition to the Great Barrier Reef are being published by the British Museum. The economic reports are to be published in Australia. An account of the Expedition by the leader, Dr Yonge, entitled “A Year on the Great Barrier Reef,” has been published. Various articles on the Great Barrier Reef have been contributed to scientific journals by Dr Yonge, and a map of Low Island by Mr M. A. Spender has appeared in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society.
The Government Analyst arranged for Messrs V. Cundith and F. Connah to complete the analyses of the bore on Michaelmas Cay. The results showed practically no increases in magnesium content from top to bottom.
W. R. B. Oliver,
New Zealand Institute Representative on the Committee.
Mr Oliver, representative on the Committee, moved the adoption of the report, which was carried.
Report of Professor D. M. Y. Sommerville, Delegate of the New Zealand Institute to the Faraday Centenary Celebrations (London, September 21–25), the British Association Centenary Meeting (London, September 23–30), and the Clerk Maxwell Centenary Celebration (Cambridge, October 1–2, 1931).
The occurrence together of these three centenary celebrations was a unique event in the scientific world, and, although of special significance to Great Britain, was given a highly international character by the attendance of distinguished representatives of physical science from all countries of the world. Never before, perhaps, have there been gathered together in one place and for one object so many stars of the first magnitude. Popular interest also amounted almost to enthusiasm, and was stimulated and fed by popular lectures, in hall and broadcast, by the very remarkable Faraday Exhibition in the Albert Hall, by the Shipping, Engineering, and Machinery Exhibition at Olympia, by numerous and varied excursions and visits to places of interest, and—although arranged for another purpose in connection with the International Illuminating Congress—by spectacular displays of flood lighting of the principal buildings in London, in itself a magnificent demonstration of results which have followed from Michael Faraday's celebrated discovery on August 29, 1831, of the generation of an electric current from magnets.
The Faraday Celebrations, organised by the Royal Institution of Great Britain in conjunction with the Institution of Electrical Engineers, opened on the afternoon of Monday, September 21, in the Lecture Theatre of the Royal Institution, where Faraday himself had lectured. The President, Lord Eustace Percy, welcomed the delegates—about 300 in number. Each delegate, as his name was read out, stood in his place and bowed to the President. At the same time his name was flashed on the screen, together with a picture of the town or institution which he represented. At the close of the meeting the delegates signed the roll, and an opportunity was given to inspect the illuminated addresses which many of the institutions had presented. There was no public presentation of addresses at any of the celebrations, and the majority of the delegates did not present any. There were, however, several fine works of art; but of those presented to the British Association there was none finer than the one presented by the New Zealand Institute.
The Faraday Commemorative Meeting was held on Monday evening in the Queen's Hall, when addresses were given by the Prime Minister, Lord Rutherford, Marchese Marconi, le due de Broglie, Professors Elihu Thomson, P. Zeeman, and P. Debye. A letter was read from Einstein, whose absence from the meetings was greatly regretted. The Commemorative Address was delivered by Sir William Bragg, Faraday's successor at the Royal Institution, and a concluding address by the President, Lord Eustace Percy. The great gathering was entertained also by the Symphony Orchestra of the British Broadcasting Corporation, conducted by Sir Henry Wood. The proceedings of the Faraday Celebration were continued on Tuesday morning in the Kingsway Hall, where a conference was held on “The Place of Electricity in the Production and Utilisation of Power, and in Transport, Communications, and the Household.” The speakers included the President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (Mr Clifford C. Paterson), Mr J. S. Highfield, Sir Josiah Stamp, Miss C. Haslett (Electrical Association for Women), Mr L. B. Atkinson, and Sir Oliver Lodge. In the evening there was a conversazione at the Royal Institution, at which Sir William Bragg repeated some of Faraday's experiments.
On Wednesday afternoon, September 23, in the Royal Albert Hall, the British Association opened its meetings with the installation of the President, General Smuts. The hall was the scene of the Faraday Exhibition,
and only the official delegates could be accommodated on the floor space. These delegates, who numbered about 400, were representatives of Universities, scientific societies, and the cities which had entertained the Association during its history. Each delegate, as his name was called, filed past the President, and received from him a cordial welcome. In the address which followed, General Smuts was historical, and in recalling the black prospects of 100 years ago showed himself a confirmed optimist, for, said he, “The situation was not really so black as it was painted; it never is.” After a short interval the Albert Hall was occupied for a second ceremony, the official opening of the Faraday Exhibition. Mr C. C. Paterson presided, and the opening ceremony was performed by General Smuts. A vote of thanks was proposed by Colonel R. E. Crompton, one of the oldest members of the electrical industry, and a message of greeting from Dr F. B. Jewett, President of the Bell Telephone Laboratories, was emitted by wireless telephone from New York.
It would be impossible to describe briefly even the main features of the wonderful exhibition collected together in memory of Michael Faraday—the catalogue is a book of about 250 pages—but an idea may be given of the general impression presented by the great oval hall. In the centre stood a replica of the statue of Faraday which is in the possession of the Royal Institution, and radiating from it were eight sectors divided by alleyways. These terminated in illuminated arches, and were separated from the wall-stands by an alleyway extending all round the hall. The ceiling was covered with a velarium of white and yellow sectors, which was flood-lighted from below. A great yellow central lantern in the shape of three telescoping cylinders, 40 feet in depth, was suspended from the centre, while smaller half-lanterns of similar form surmounted the gallery pillars. All the lighting was indirect, and gave the impression of bright sunlight. The power used was about 250 kilowatts.
On Wednesday evening the Presidential Address on “The Scientific World-Picture of the Day” was delivered by General Smuts in the Central Hall, Westminster, to an audience of about 3000. As the number of members for the London meeting exceeded 5000 the address was relayed to other halls as well. At all the great meetings amplifiers were freely used, and the effect was occasionally disconcerting, as the sound could be heard proceeding from different directions and not simultaneously. But without the amplifiers the voice would have been inaudible in many parts of the hall.
During the following week, till Wednesday, September 30, the British Association, following the usual procedure held sectional meetings in the mornings, organised innumerable excursions in the afternoons, and arranged public lectures and receptions in the evenings. To cater for 5000 members was a gigantic task, but the arrangements were in every respect admirable, and the huge reception rooms in the University of London were amply adequate. For a single individual it was possible only to sample the rich entertainment offered. Duty was performed in attending one Committee meeting and four meetings of Section A and its sub-sections, Pure Mathematics and Astronomy. The Presidential Address of Sir J. J. Thomson, whom Sir Oliver Lodge described as “the Master of Trinity, the Master of Physics,” was listened to with interest. A small contribution by your delegate, referred to in the luncheon edition of the Evening Standard under the heading “More Secrets of Science Buried in a Welter of Strange Words,” was communicated to Section A. An attempt was made to hear Niels Bohr on “Atomic Stability,” but there was not even standing room. One of the great events was a discussion on “The Evolution of the Universe,” which was listened to for three hours with breathless interest by several thousand people in the Central Hall, Westminster. Sir Frank Dyson presided, and the platform of speakers included almost the whole galaxy of original thinkers on this immense subject:—Jeans, E. A. Milne, de Sitter, Eddington, Millikan, Smuts, Dr Barnes (Bishop of Birmingham), Abbé Lemaître, and Sir Oliver Lodge. They all contradicted one another, and afforded an intense intellectual entertainment. Among the social functions which your delegate attended may be mentioned:—A Royal Society conversazione at Burlington House, a lunch at Olympia under the chairmanship of Professor Hele-Shaw, reception and graduation ceremony at the University, and an afternoon reception at the Forum Club. The Faraday delegates were entertained
specially to a brilliant banquet by His Majesty's Government at the Dorchester Hotel, Park Lane, at which there were present about 300 guests. The financial crisis prevented the Prime Minister from being present, and his place was taken by the Marquis of Reading. On the same evening the wives of the delegates were entertained to dinner at the Forum Club. The hospitality offered to the delegates was indeed regal, and included, for example, temporary membership of the Athenæum and the Royal Automobile Club.
Among the purely business transactions of the British Association may be mentioned the announcement by the General Treasurer that, because of the present stringent conditions, an invitation from Lord Bledisloe for a representative party of the Association to visit New Zealand during his term of office had to be indefinitely postponed.
The first ceremony in connection with the Clerk Maxwell Celebration was performed in Westminster Abbey on Wednesday, September 30, when Memorial Tablets to Faraday and Maxwell were unveiled by the Master of Trinity; they lie adjacent to the tomb of Sir Isaac Newton. Thereafter the proceedings were held in Cambridge. On Thursday, after an official luncheon in the Hall of Corpus Christi College, presided over by the Vice-Chancellor, who is also Master of Corpus, an academic procession was formed and proceeded to the Senate House, where the delegates were officially received and a Memorial Lecture on Clerk Maxwell was delivered by the Master of Trinity. Thereafter a reception was held at Peterhouse, and an evening reception took place at St. John's. On Friday, morning and afternoon sessions were devoted to addresses on the life and scientific work of Clerk Maxwell: in the morning by Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Sir Joseph Larmor, and Lord Rutherford, and in the afternoon by Sir James Jeans and Maxwell's contemporaries, Dr William Garnett, Sir Ambrose Fleming, Sir Oliver Lodge, and Sir Richard Glazebrook. The Vice-Chancellor was then “at home” in Corpus Christi College, and concurrently a display of Maxwell apparatus and manuscripts was shown in the Cavendish Laboratory. Here also an interesting demonstration of a new process in colour kinematography was given, one of the subjects being the academic procession of the preceding day. The proceedings terminated with a magnificent banquet in the great hall of Trinity College. The whole atmosphere of this gathering, the candle light, the boys' voices in the choir singing the grace-anthem, and the beautiful words expressed by the Master of Trinity, General Smuts, and Sir Oliver Lodge in proposing and responding to the toast of “The Guests” will not easily be forgotten, and formed a wonderful climax to this most impressive series of commemorations.
National Research Council and Fellowship New Zealand Institute.
The incorporated societies were asked to consider the proposals approved by last Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors, and reports were received as follows:—
Philosophical Institute of Canterbury.
A. National Research Council:
That the constitution of the National Research Council should be such as not to interfere in any way with the New Zealand Institute as a body to which scientific questions might be referred. The National Research Council should be approached through, and should report through, the President of the New Zealand Institute.
That the Fellows of the New Zealand Institute are not necessarily all suited for membership of the National Research Council, and there are persons outside the Fellowship who are eminently qualified for membership of a National Research Council, and that therefore members of the National Research Council should be appointed independent of the Fellowship.
(a.) That the New Zealand Institute should appoint five men, who must be of recognised scientific attainments, and thoroughly representative of the basic sciences, to form the nucleus of the National Research Council.
(b.) These five should then select 15 others, to be members of the National Research Council, with due regard to their scientific qualifications and to adequate representation of the various branches of science.
That the members of the National Research Council selected under Clause 3, or a Committee thereof, be empowered to frame regulations as to period
of office and other matters having to do with the constitution of the Council, and should then proceed at once, or from time to time, to co-opt other members to the Council, always provided that the total number should not at any time exceed 50.
B. Fellowship New Zealand Institute:
That the present method of election to the Fellowship is not satisfactory.
That the Fellows should indicate by a system of preferential voting their choice of new Fellows from among those nominated by the constituent Institutes.
That the final selection of Fellows be made by a Committee selected and working as follows:—
That the constitution of a National Research Council around Fellowship of the New Zealand Institute as a nucleus be approved, with the further recommendation that the National Research Council be established on the lines of the proposal of the Auckland Institute, agreed to by the Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors in 1930.
That Nos. 2 and 3 be replaced by the following:—“That the election of Fellows as at present be abolished, and that nominations be made annually by incorporated societies; but that nominees should not be informed of their nomination. That the nominations be submitted to a special Committee, which shall recommend to the Board of Governors those who should be invited to accept the Fellowship. That the Committee should be directed to have reasonable regard for the distribution of the honour among the different sciences; but that it should be in no way tied to this principle.
That the deletion of 4 be approved.
That the various clauses amended by the Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors be approved of.
None of the other societies has reported on these proposals.
The report of the incorporated societies on these subjects was before the meeting. Professor Worley stated that the scheme proposed by the Auckland Institute had previously been approved by the Board of Governors. Professor Worley was informed that the Auckland Institute's scheme had been superseded by a scheme approved by the last annual meeting of the Board for consideration and report by the incorporated societies. This scheme had been submitted to the societies.
Professor Speight moved that the amended proposals of the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury be considered clause by clause.
National Research Council:
No. 1.—That the constitution of the National Research Council be such as not to interfere in any way with the New Zealand Institute
as a body to which scientific questions might be referred. The National Research Council should be approached through, and should report through, the President of the New Zealand Institute.
This clause was approved.
No. 2.—That the Fellows of the New Zealand Institute are not necessarily all suited for membership of the National Research Council, and there are persons outside the fellowship who are eminently qualified for membership of a National Research Council, and that therefore members of the National Research Council should be appointed independent of the Fellowship.
This clause was approved.
No. 3.—(a) That the New Zealand Institute should appoint five men, who must be of recognised scientific attainments and thoroughly representative of the basic sciences, to form the nucleus of the National Research Council.
(b) That these five should then select 15 others to be members of the National Research Council, with due regard to their scientific qualifications and to adequate representation of the various branches of science.
It was resolved to insert after “others” in (b) the words “subject to approval of the Board of Governors or of the Standing Committee.” Approved.
No. 4.—That the members of the National Research Council selected under Clause 3, or a Committee thereof, be empowered to frame regulations as to period of office and other matters having to do with the constitution of the Council, and should then proceed at once, or from time to time, to co-opt other members to the Council, always provided that the total number should not at any time exceed 50.
This clause was approved.
On the motion of Dr Kidson it was resolved that it be a recommendation to the persons selected under Clause 3 that in framing the necessary regulations they give special consideration to the recommendations of the Auckland Institute.
On the motion of Professor Speight, seconded by Dr Farr, it was resolved that the first five be elected by the Standing Committee after due consideration.
Some discussion took place as to how the National Research Council could be financed, but it was considered that all the preliminary business could be done by correspondence, and the question of finance need not at present arise.
No. 1.—That the present method of election to the Fellowship is not satisfactory.
Some discussion took place in regard to this clause, and finally on a show of hands it was approved.
No. 2.—That the Fellows should indicate by a system of preferential voting their choice of new Fellows from among those nominated by the incorporated societies.
It was decided to delete the words “a system of preferential.” Approved as amended.
No. 3.—That the final selection of Fellows be made to the Board of Governors by a Committee selected and working as follows:
It was decided to substitute “recommendations for the Fellowship” for the words “selection of Fellows.”
(a) Five in number.
(b) Selected by the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute from the Fellows.
(c) To consist of men of recognised scientific attainments and thoroughly representative of the various branches of science.
(d) To meet and discuss the qualifications of the candidates with due regard to their scientific attainments, to the preferences of the Fellows, and to the due representation of the various branches of science.
(e) That one member retire every year, and the Standing Committee formulate the necessary arrangements.
Approved as amended.
The Auckland Institute submitted the following recommendation:—“That the election of Fellows as at present be abolished, and that nominations be made annually by incorporated societies, but that nominees should not be informed of their nominations. That the nominations be submitted to a special Committee, which shall recommend to the Board of Governors those who should be invited to accept the Fellowship. That the Committee should be directed to have reasonable regard for the distribution of the honour among the different sciences, but that it should in no way be tied to this principle.”
It was resolved to delete the words “but that nominees should not be informed of their nomination.” Approved.
It was resolved that in future members of the Board of Governors who are not Fellows be also supplied with the information regarding the qualifications of those selected for the Fellowship.
Later it was resolved on the motion of Dr Kidson, seconded by Dr Farr, that Dr L. Cockayne, Dr P. Marshall, Dr W. P. Evans, Dr E. Marsden, and Professor Kirk be members of the Committee to advise the Board of Governors re candidates for election.
Dr Cockayne's Resignation: The President stated that he regretted to announce the retirement of Dr Cockayne from the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute. On rising, Dr Cockayne was given an ovation by the members of the Board. He stated that he had come that day to say “good-bye” and wish the best of good luck to the New Zealand Institute, which had been the making of him. His eyesight now was such that he could not attend meetings, and he felt that he should retire.
Mr G. M. Thomson said he wished to express the great regret of the Board at Dr Cockayne's retirement. He had done great work on the Board. He referred to Dr Cockayne's great vigour, physically and mentally, and his wonderful store of scientific knowledge. He trusted that Dr Cockayne would be spared many years to complete the work he had in hand. In retiring he carried with him the best wishes of the Board and the societies which it represented.
Professor Easterfield endorsed Mr Thomson's remarks. He said that Dr Cockayne, Mr Thomson, and he had come on to the Board at the same time, and during the years of their association Dr Cockayne had shown a wide tolerance in all matters that came before the Board. They would greatly miss his opinions. He trusted that Dr Cockayne would still be able to continue his interest in the Board and stimulate younger men to take an interest.
Dr Cockayne, in thanking Mr Thomson and Professor Easterfield, remarked that he had just published six articles which he had dictated.
The President, Professor Segar, said that Mr Thomson and Professor Easterfield had expressed the views of the Board, and he could only again express their utmost regret at Dr Cockayne's retirement. Dr Cockayne then said “good-bye” to each of the members of the Board and retired.
Natural Science in Schools.
President of the New Zealand Institute.
I enclose the report of the Committee set up at last Annual Meeting to report on the teaching of natural science in all schools in the Dominion, the Committee consisting of Hon. G. M. Thomson, Messrs G. V. Hudson, W. R. B. Oliver, and myself.
H. B. Kirk, Convener.
Report of Committee.
It has not been possible for the Committee to go so fully into the matter of the teaching of natural science in all schools as to justify it in regarding its report as more than a summary of the views gained from the sources of information to which it has had access.
The Committee wishes to acknowledge the ready help of Mr T. B. Strong, Director of Education, and of Mr A. J. H. Benge, Secretary to the Education Department. The Committee expresses its appreciation of the many sympathetic answers sent by headmasters of secondary schools, and of several others to letters written by Mr Thomson, seeking information as to what was being done with regard to the teaching of Natural Science.
Primary Schools.—So far as the aim goes the provision for the teaching of natural science in the primary schools from the kindergarten upwards appears to the Committee to be well planned, and the directions given appear to be adequate. There is evidently a keen sympathy on the part of the directing authorities with the encouragement of first-hand observation on the part of the scholars. That the aim is not more fully achieved we believe to be due to the fact that only a small proportion of the teachers have such scientific training as fits them to deal adequately with nature study. That training is not obtained most effectively by a course of study of a discursive kind covering the ground that the teacher will afterwards have to traverse with his pupils, but by as thorough a study as is possible for some one or more branches of science enabling the teacher to adapt himself to the circumstances in which
he may find himself with his pupils. Such a training will not enable him to answer at once all the questions that may occur, but it will place him in a position to find the answer to most of them. But the conditions in which student teachers find themselves at the Training Colleges when seeking qualifications for the higher certificates are not such as to favour study of the observational and experimental sciences. The trainee has to secure his formal teaching qualification and to pursue his University studies at the same time. Thus there is a strong inducement to him to choose such subjects as will take the least time and to avoid the subjects in which practical work makes great demands upon him. We believe that proper study of the basic sciences can be rendered possible, so far as the greater number of student teachers taking a University course are concerned, by a separation of the period of University education from that of normal school training, though that separation need not be a complete one.
Primary and Secondary Schools.—The encouragement of school gardens should, we think, be extended as far as may be. Experience shows that a perfectly astonishing interest can be aroused by teachers that have inclination for this kind of work, both teacher and pupils becoming enthusiastic, and the prosecution of the work enlivens and stimulates the general work of the school. Similar results to those just referred to follow in the schools in which pupils are encouraged to bring to their teachers any objects, whether animal, vegetable, or mineral, that interest them. In such cases the teacher is a fellow-student with his pupils, and the mere fact that they help in obtaining the information desired is of the very greatest value.
It is felt that the co-operation of the University professors whose subjects specially fit them to co-operate will give sympathetic help to all teachers who have need of help that it may be in their power to give.
In this connection it seems that the Institute might, if funds can be raised for the purpose, be of use in offering prizes for competition. The competitions should be designed to interest the children in nature study in the field, and those only should be eligible as candidates who collect and observe. It seems not impossible that the Institute, at a later time, might find itself in a position to offer such considerable prizes to the schools themselves as would constitute a real incentive to the teaching of the observational sciences, and a welcome addition to the capitation subsidies already granted by the Government for all science subjects.
Secondary Schools.—Answers to letters sent out by Mr Thomson show that there is a fairly general recognition of the value of natural science from the point of view of culture and real education. There is much sympathy on the part of secondary schools' heads, and there is benediction of effort, but they have to bear in mind that there is little incentive to a school to teach the observational science subjects. This is in no little measure due to the syllabuses of examination to which the school must have regard, notably the University Entrance Examination, the Entrance Scholarship Examination, and the Public Service Entrance Examination.
With respect to the first two of the examinations just mentioned, the teachers themselves, in virtue of their representation on the Entrance Board, are in a strong position to advocate change of the prescriptions. Bearing in mind that the prescriptions do not constitute the whole difficulty, and bearing in mind, on the other hand, the great cultural value of the natural science subjects, the Committee recommends that the following changes be sought:—
Entrance Statute.—That sub-clause 5 of clause II of the Entrance Statute (p. 22 of the University Calendar for 1932) should be amended to permit of a candidate taking more than two of the subjects of the science group—Mechanics, Physics, Home Science, Chemistry, Botany, Agriculture; that there should be included in this science group the subjects Zoology and Geology; further, that a candidate taking Chemistry should not be allowed to take Home Science, seeing that the prescription in the latter subject comes almost entirely under the subject Chemistry, together with such knowledge of Physics as is inseparable from elementary Chemistry.
That Zoology and Geology should be included in subjects that may be taken for the Entrance Scholarship Examination, and that, in view of the amount of time that is required for effective study of the observational and
experimental science subjects, the maximum marks obtainable for each such subject should not be less than 400, the maximum allowed for French and for German.
That Zoology and Geology should be included in the subjects that may be taken at the Public Service Entrance Examination.
School Curricula.—The Committee is strongly of opinion that Botany should have a place in the curriculum of all Girls' High Schools. Botany has in recent years been displaced almost entirely by Home Science and History, neither of which, in the opinion of the Committee, has the same educational value. The practical side of the teaching of the subject should be really practical. It is also of opinion that some natural science subject should have a place in the curriculum of every Boys' High School.
As showing the small place that Botany now holds in the secondary schools, reference may be made to the Annual Report of the Chief Inspector of Secondary Schools for 1931, E6, Table 4. It shows that the subject is taken by 120 boys in a total of 8838 (1.4 per cent.) and by 347 girls in a total of 7636 (4.5 per cent.).
Field Clubs.—The Committee is of opinion that in all High Schools and Technical High Schools in which there are teachers capable of co-operating the establishment of Field Clubs should be encouraged.
On the motion of Professor Kirk, Convener of the Committee which drew up the report, the report on Natural Science in Schools was adopted.
Mr G. M. Thomson, a member of the Committee, stated that, recognising the futility of circular letters, he had written personal letters to every headmaster and headmistress of secondary and technical schools, and he had received over 90 per cent. of replies.
It was resolved that the report be forwarded to the Academic Board and the Senate.
Number of Fellows to be Elected in 1933: It was resolved that not more than two Fellows be elected.
Hutton Grants: The Vice-president read the applications which had been received for grants from the Hutton Fund.
Mr F. J. Turner's application (held over from last year) was considered, and it was resolved to grant him £30 for a geological expedition to the south-west portion of Otago.
Mr C. E. Christensen's application (held over from last year) for a grant of £25 for collecting hybrid plants at Hanmer was granted. Applications from Mr L. C. King, Dr O. Frankel, and the Waitemata Harbour Survey Committee were approved, subject to confirmation by the Standing Committee. The total amount of grants for 1932 not to exceed £125.
On the motion of Dr Farr, seconded by Mr Eliott, it was resolved that in future applications for Hutton grants be considered by the Standing Committee, and that they report to the Annual Meeting.
Carter Library Legacy: Mr Oliver mentioned that there was an amount of £208 in the Carter Library Legacy which has accrued from an amount of £50 left to build a room in which to house the Carter Library. Mr Oliver moved and Professor Kirk seconded. “That all moneys standing to the credit of the Carter Library Legacy Account be reserved for providing fittings for the Library
of the New Zealand Institute (in which room the Carter Library is to be housed), provided the approval of the executors of the will of C. R. Carter be obtained. Failing this, the moneys be allocated to the General Building Fund of the Dominion Museum and National Art Gallery, but held by the Institute until building operations have been commenced.”
Some discussion took place on the legality of either procedure, and it was finally resolved on the motion of Professor Easterfield, seconded by Mr Aston, that the matter be left in the hands of the Standing Committee with power to act, after having had legal advice from the Public Trustee, who holds the original legacy of £50, the nucleus of the Fund.
Notices of Motion were then taken. On the motion of Mr Aston, seconded by Mr Eliott, it was resolved that the New Zealand Institute takes this opportunity to offer to the Government its appreciation of the financial difficulties which it and all other Governments are facing, and further assures the Government that this Board always has taken, and is now taking, steps to reduce the cost of administration, so that whatever reduction in the annual Parliamentary grant is made this Board will cordially abide by the decision of Parliament, and will endeavour to carry on the work of publishing original scientific work so that no discovery submitted shall go unrecorded.
A motion proposed by Mr Oliver, seconded by Mr Hudson: “That meetings of the Standing Committee be held either at the Dominion Museum or in the New Zealand Institute Library at Victoria University College,” was lost.
An amendment moved by Mr Aston, seconded by Mr Eliott: “That the matter be referred to the Standing Committee, with power to act,” was carried.
A motion proposed by Mr Hudson, seconded by Professor Speight: “That the present system of referring papers to referees be discontinued, and that if the opinion of a specialist be required the paper be referred to an authority overseas,” was lost.
A motion proposed by Mr Oliver, seconded by Mr Hudson: “That the Secretary be authorised to accept annual subscriptions for the Transactions at the rate of £1 per annum,” was referred to the Standing Committee, with power to act.
Spectrohelioscope: The President stated that he had a letter from Dr Adams stating that an offer of a spectrohelioscope had been made to New Zealand, and he asked that a Committee be set up to see if steps could be taken for a building to be erected to house this instrument. On the motion of Dr Farr it was resolved that Dr Kidson, Dr Marsden, Professor Sommerville, and Dr Adams be a Committee set up to look into the matter and report to the Standing Committee.
Waitangi Estate: A motion of appreciation of their Excellencies' generous gift of Waitangi to the Government was carried by acclamation.
Election of Officers: President, Professor H. W. Segar; Vice-president, Mr B. C. Aston; Hon. Treasurer, Mr M. A. Eliott; Hon. Editor, Professor D. M. Y. Sommerville; Hon. Librarian, Professor D. M. Y. Sommerville; Hon. Returning Officer, Professor H. W. Segar; Managers Trust Accounts, Mr M. A. Eliott and Mr B. C. Aston; Representative on the Institute of Horticulture, Mr B. C. Aston; Representative on the Great Barrier Reef Committee, Mr W. R. B. Oliver.
Hutton Award Committee.—Dr Marshall, Dr Holloway, and 1932 recipient of award.
Hector Award Committee.—Professor Speight, Dr Marshall, and Dr Cotton.
Hamilton Award Committee.—Dr Marshall and Dr Benham.
Finance Committee.—Messrs Eliott, Aston, Dr Marsden, and Dr Kidson.
T. K. Sidey Summer Time Fund Award Committee.—Dr Marsden, Professor Easterfield, and Dr C. E. Hercus.
Library Committee.—Professor Sommerville, Professor Kirk, and Dr Cotton.
Votes of Thanks to the Honorary Officers, to the Secretary, to the Press, and to Victoria University College were passed.
Annual Meeting, 1933: It was decided to hold the Annual Meeting, 1933, in Victoria University College, date to be fixed by the Standing Committee.