Tertiary Brachiopoda from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand.
[Read before the Otago Institute, 11th November, 1930.]
The material upon which this report is based was collected during the Otago Institute Expedition to the Chatham Islands in 1924–25. Fossils from Tioriori, Momoe-a-Toa, and Red Bluff were collected by Dr. J. Marwick and the writer; those from other localities by the writer alone. It is a pleasure to express appreciation of Dr. Marwick's valuable help in the field.
The Tertiary species proved very interesting, and their study adds considerably to our knowledge of the brachiopoda in the New Zealand region. Generically the agreement with New Zealand proper is strong, but the majority of the species are new. The commonest genera are Liothyrella, Terebratella, Pachymagas, and Terebratulina. Neothyris, Magella, and Neobouchardia are each represented by a single species. Of special interest is the relative abundance of the Dallininae represented by two new species of Campages, and a new genus. Campages had been recorded from New Zealand by J. A. Thomson, but the Chatham Islands species are the first to be described. A fossil Crania, to be described later, the first from New Zealand, is also noteworthy.
In view of the close generic agreement between the New Zealand and Chatham Island forms, it is rather surprising to note the absence from the Chatham Islands of such common mainland genera as Tegulorhynchia, Rhizothyris, Waiparia, Stethothyris, Aetheia, and Magadina. It may be noted, however, that Tegulorhynchia nigricans (Sowerby) is common as a Recent shell at the Chatham Islands.
The affinities between the two faunas make it certain that during the period represented by the fossiliferous strata of the Chatham Islands, that locality was never separated from New Zealand by a deep sea.
No Tertiary Brachiopoda have hitherto been described from the Chatham Islands, but Dieseldorff (1901, pp. 55–6) recorded Waldheimia lenticularis Desh., and Terebratula sp. from Flowerpot Harbour, Pitt Island.
The Chatham Islands Brachiopoda were sent by the writer to the late J. A. Thomson for study, but failing health, and more pressing work, prevented him from preparing a report. I must acknowledge his kindness in naming generically the species from Momoe-a-Toa and Tioriori. I have also to thank Mr W. R. B. Oliver and Dr J. Marwick
for the care with which they returned the material to me. My thanks are due to Professor W. N. Benson for allowing me working facilities in his department. For permission to publish, I thank the Hon. the Minister for the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research.
Description of Species.
Terebratulina A. d'Orbigny 1847.
1847. Terebratulina d'Orbigny, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 3, vol. 8, Zool., p. 249.
1927. Terebratulina Thomson, N.Z. Board Sci. and Art, Man. No. 7, pp. 186–188.
Type (by original designation) Anomia caput-serpentis Linnaeus, 1767, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1153 (not of Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 703) = Anomia retusa Linnaeus, 1758, p. 701. Recent.
Terebratulina suessi (F. W. Hutton 1873). (Pl. 4, Fig. 1).
1864. Terebratulina sp. ind., E. Suess, in K. A. Zittel, Novara Exped., Geol. Theil., Bd. I, Abth. II, Paläont. von Neu-Seeland, p. 57, Taf. IX, figs. 6 a-c.
1873. Terebratella suessi F. W. Hutton, Cat. Tert. Moll. Ech. N.Z. p. 37, not figured.
1904. Terebratulina oamarutica G. Boehm, Zeitsch. d. Deutsch. geol. Gesell. Mitteil, Bd. 56, pp. 148–9, Taf. XV, figs. 1–5.
1905. Terebratulina suessi Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 37, p. 474, not figured.
1920. Terebratulina suessi Hutt., J. A. Thomson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 52, p. 369, not figured.
Chatham Island localities: (1) Tioriori, in tufaceous greensands. (Rar). (2) Tufaceous limestone, Flowerpot Harbour, Pitt Island. (Very common). (3) Tufaceous greensands, Whenuataru Peninsula, Pitt Island (two specimens).
Remarks: T. suessi (Hutton) is very common and widespread in the middle Tertiary strata of New Zealand, and according to Thomson (N.Z. Journ. Sci. and Techn., VIII (3), 1926, p. 153), ranges from the Waiarekan to the Hutchinsonian.
I am at present unable to decide whether the New Zealand Terebratulinas belong to a single variable species of long range, or to several species which are at present confused under the name suessi (Hutton).
Hutton (1905), and, according to J. Park (N.Z. Geol. Surv. Bull. No. 20, 1918, p. 37, footnote) J. A. Thomson, both consider that T. oamarutica Boehm is a synonym of T. suessi (Hutton). It is well known, however, that Thomson has, since 1918, considerably modified his earlier conception of both genera and species. If these species are identical it becomes necessary to explain why at Everett's Quarry, near Kakanui (the type locality of Boehm's species), where T. oamarutica Boehm occurs in great abundance, the individual length of specimens rarely exceeds 10 mms., while elsewhere T. suessi (Hutton) reaches a length of 20–27 mms.
I incline to the view that more than one species exists on the mainland, but further material is required before this can be demonstrated. In the meantime, I refer the Chatham Islands material from the localities noted to T. suessi (Hutton). The type locality of Hutton's species is the Curiosity Shop, Rakaia River, Canterbury. A single individual from Momoe-a-Toa is proposed as the type of a new species, described below.
Terebratulina ellisoni n. sp. (Pl. 4, Fig. 3).
Shell of moderate size for the genus, broadly ovate, with a wide, prominent beak, and large foramen. Dorsal valve with evenly rounded sides and front, and a pointed umbo, on either side of which is a depressed triangular area. Ventral valve rounded in front, then with straight, tapering sides. Beak ridges rounded, separating off wide, concave palintropes. Hinge-line broad and straight. Foramen very large, submesothyrid. Deltidial plates small, disjunct. Beak broadly truncate.
The ventral valve is strongly convex, the dorsal less so. Anterior commissure rectimarginate. Ornamentation of numerous fine costae, increasing mainly by bifurcation.
Dimensions of holotype: Length, 13mm.; breadth, 10mm.; thickness, 55mm.
Type locality: Calcareous tuff, Momoe-a-Toa, Chatham Islands.
Remarks: This species is named in compliment to Dr. E. Ellison, Resident Magistrate and Health Officer at the Chatham Islands during our Expedition.
Affinities: Dr. J. A. Thomson, to whom this specimen was sent for examination, remarked, “A very distinct new species.” It is quite unlike anything I know from the mainland.
Liothyrella J. A. Thomson 1916.
1932. Liothyrella R. S. Allan, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 63.
Remarks: The species of Liothyrella from the Chatham Islands are described by the writer in this volume, pp. 1–10. The species are:—
Liothyrella oamarutica (Boehm). Momoe-a-Toa. Pl. 6, fig. 4.
Liothyrella gravida (Suess). Momoe-a-Toa. Pl. 6, fig. 1.
Liothyrella skinneri Allan. Momoe-a-Toa. Pl. 6, fig. 5.
Liothyrella pittensis Allan. Flowerpot Harbour. Pl. 6, fig. 2.
Liothyrella neozelanica Thomson. ?? Juveniles. Whenuataru Peninsula.
Campages C. Hedley 1905.
1905. Campages Hedley, Rec. Austral. Mus., VI (2) (Sept. 15), p. 43.
1927. Campages Thomson, N.Z. Board Sci. and Art, Man. No. 7, pp. 249–51.
Type (by monotypy) Campages furcifera Hedley 1905, pp. 43–4, figs. 5–6. Recent.
Campages chathamensis n. sp. (Pl. 5, Fig. 5).
Shell trigonal, widest in front, beak bluntly rounded, hinge-line narrow, strongly curved, sides first diverging, very slightly curved, then nearly straight, front margin abruptly truncated.
Dorsal valve convex, flattened in the middle of the front, ventral valve strongly convex, bicarinate. Anterior commissure strongly intraplicate. Beak suberect, short, not produced dorsally of the hinge-line. Beak ridges indistinct. Foramen large, permesothyrid (this point is difficult to decide), narrowly marginate. Length of holotype, 17mm.; breadth, 13mm.; thickness, 11mm. Hinge-teeth rather small, without dental plates or swollen supports.
Cardinalia weak, with a narrow excavated hinge-plate, dental sockets rather prominent. Crura diverging little from the septal plane. Septum very long, high posteriorly, but descending to the floor of the shell at about half the length, thickened, and excavated above at its junction with the hinge-plate. Cardinal process small, projecting from the umbo, transverse, excavated in the middle. Loop not preserved.
Type locality: Greensands, Tioriori, Chatham Islands, where the species is very abundant.
Remarks: The shells are very fragile, and it is difficult to get an absolutely complete specimen. The holotype has part of the dorsal valve broken. I have not been able to develop a loop, although many specimens were available. The cardinalia and septum tend to be very powdery.
Affinities: This is the first species of Campages, and the first member of the Dallininae, to be described from the New Zealand area. Thomson (1927, p. 250) has, however, recorded the genus. In a private letter he informed me that he had more than one undescribed species from the Oamaruian of New Zealand; he also stated that the Chatham Island shell was specifically distinct from the mainland forms.
Only three species of Campages have hitherto been described, and all are recent species. They are (a) C. furcifera Hedley, the genotype, from 11 fathoms, off the coast of New South Wales; (b) C. asthenia Dall (1920, p. 365, not figured), from off the Philippines and Borneo, 318–347 fathoms; and (c) C. basilanica Dall (1920, pp. 365–6, not figured) from Japan and Korea, 50–361 fathoms, China Sea, Philippines, and Celebes, 68–700 fathoms. Fossil representatives are unknown outside the New Zealand-Chatham Islands area. C. chathamensis n. sp. appears to be distinct from all the Recent species known.
Campages toaensis n. sp. (Pl. 5, Fig. 4).
Shell similar in general appearance to Campages chathamensis n. sp., but larger, more elongate, and broadly instead of acutely intraplicate. Dimensions of holotype (a slightly distorted shell). Length, 26mm.; breadth, 16mm.; thickness 15mm.
Type locality: Calcareous tuffs, Momoe-a-Toa, Chatham Islands (3 specimens).
Chathamithyris traversi gen. et sp. nov. (Pl. 4, Figs. 4 and 6).
Shell small, pear-shaped, laterally compressed, smooth, and strongly biconvex. Beak prominent, suberect. Beak-ridges not prominent. Foramen large, mesothyrid, attrite. Symphytium rather low, raised in the middle. Ornamentation of indistinct growth-lines. Punctae small and dense. Anterior commissure incipiently sulcate. Hinge-line strongly curved.
Cardinalia weak, lamellar, hinge-plates excavate, and supported by the septum. The latter is low and extends about two-thirds the length of the valve. Loop terebrataliform or early dalliniform. The descending branches are close together and subparallel to the septum, to which they appear to be attached. Anteriorly the descending branches are strongly reflected and attached to a large, broadly lamellar ring which is free from the septum. The whole loop extends rather more than half the length of the valve. Interval of ventral valve unknown.
Length of holotype, 10mm.; breadth, 5 5mm.; thickness, 6·5mm.
Type locality: Waikaripi, south of the wireless station, Chatham Islands, near the base of the tufaceous limestone.
Material: Three specimens, including the perfect holotype, and two dorsal valves (one prepared to show the loop). One dorsal valve shows the median septum, and half the hinge; the other shows a complete loop which is coated in secondary calcite to such an extent that it is difficult to be certain whether or not the descending branches are attached to the septum.
Remarks: This interesting species agrees closely in general appearance with Pirothyris vercoi (Blochmann) (see Thomson, 1927, p. 280, fig. 94), but is incipiently sulcate, not uniplicate, while the loop characters place the Chatham Island shell in the Dallininae.
Of this sub-family, Diestothyris, Terebratalia, Dallinella, and Japanithyris have a terebrataliform loop, while Macandrevia, Coptothyris, and Dallina have attained the dalliniform stage.
Dallinella differs from Chathamithyris by the possession of a permesothyrid foramen and of narrowly intraplicate folding. Coptothyris differs in being multiplicate, permesothyrid, and of transverse shape. Terebratalia differs in having an incomplete foramen, a transverse shape, is usually multiplicate, and has strong cardinalia. Diestothyris differs in having an incomplete, submesothyrid, foramen, and large, widely-spaced punctae. Japanithyris and Dallina differ in being broadly sulcate to intraplicate, and in having coarse punctation. Macandrevia has an open delthyrium, and no septum in adult shells.
Complete details of these genera will be found in Thomson (N.Z. Board Sci. and Art, Man. No. 7, 1927, pp. 231–255).
Neobouchardia J. A. Thomson 1927.
N.Z. Board Sci. and Art, Man. No. 7, pp. 2 and 270–1.
Type (by monotypy): Bouchardia minima Thomson, 1918.
Neobouchardia minima (J. A. Thomson 1918).
1918. Bouchardia minima Thomson, Geol. Mag., Dec. 6, vol. 5 (June), pp. 260–1, fig. 1 a-c on p. 260.
1927. Neobouchardia minima Thomson, N.Z. Board Sci. and Art, Man. No. 7, pp. 270–1, text-fig. 89 on p. 270.
Remarks: A single, well-preserved, complete specimen of a Neobouchardia closely allied to, and probably identical with, the genotype, was found in the soft bryozoan limestone (Te Whanga Series) at Whenuataru Peninsula, Pitt Island.
The Chatham Islands specimen differs from N. minima (Th.) in some respects. It is considerably larger, slightly more produced anteriorly, and the beak is more prominent. The Chatham Islands fossil is at a slightly higher stage of evolution as regards elongation, and, therefore, should, perhaps, be the type of a new species.
I prefer to leave it under minima until further material is available.
B. minima (Thomson) was originally described from the base of the Main Mount Brown Limestone, in the cuesta between Mount Brown and the Waipara River, North Canterbury. It is locally abundant in the Main Mount Brown Limestone in the Weka Pass-Waipara district, and is associated with a purely Hutchinsonian brachiopod fauna. Thomson also recorded this species from the Ototaran limestone of Flat Top Hill, near Oamaru. More recently, Thomson (N.Z. Journ. Sci. and Techn., VIII (3), 1926, p. 151) noted the occurrence of this species from the Kakanui greensands of Hutchinsonian age.
This distribution on the mainland suggests an Ototaran-Hutchinsonian age from the Te Whanga limestones of the Chatham Islands.
Pachymagas von. Ihering 1903.
1903. Pachymagas von Ihering, An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, ser. 3A, vol. 2, p. 332.
1920. Pachymagas Thomson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 52, p. 374.
1927. Pachymagas Thomson, N.Z. Board Sci. and Art, Man. No. 7, pp. 286–8.
Type: Terebratella (Pachymagas) tehuelcha von Ihering, 1903, p. 332, figs. 7a-b, Pliocene, Patagonia.
Four species are herein referred to the genus Pachymagas because of their general resemblance to species definitely placed in that genus in New Zealand proper. It is not certain, however, that they do not belong to the related genus Neothyris, which differs from Pachymagas only in that the loop has attained the magellaniform stage of development. I was unable to prepare a loop in any of the
Chatham Island fossils placed in Pachymagas. They agree in having a rectimarginate anterior commissure, whereas all the New Zealand species, with the single exception of P. marshalli (Andrew), are definitely sulcate. The Chatham Islands species, therefore, if they are correctly placed generically, represent a regional group which has lagged behind in the development of folding, i.e., if they are of Hutchinsonian age; on the other hand, if the tuffs of Momoe-a-Toa are pre-Hutchinsonian as the Terebratulids suggest, the lack of folding is a primitive character.
Pachymagas bauckei n. sp. (Pl. 6, Fig. 3).
Shell shield-shaped, beak short, obtuse, hinge-line very broad and straight, sides first nearly straight, then gradually tapering, front produced, gently rounded. Valves only moderately convex, anterior commissure rectimarginate. Beak erect, slightly produced dorsally of the hinge-line. Beak ridges carinate. Foramen small, mesothyrid, attrite.
Length of holotype, 48mm.; breadth, 43mm.; thickness, 20mm.
Type locality: Calcareous tuffs, Momoe-a-Toa, Chatham Islands. (Rare).
Affinities: This species is similar in shape to Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutton), but the mesothyrid foramen places it in Pachymagas (or Neothyris). Of the mainland species of Pachymagas, P. bauckei n. sp. approaches most closely in shape to P. speighti Thomson (Trans. N.Z. Inst., LII, 1920, p. 376, pl. XXV, figs. 12–14), but differs in having an even broader hinge-line, and no anterior sulcation.
Remarks: The specific name is in compliment to William Baucke, Esq., who was born at the Chatham Islands in 1848, and was keenly interested in the natural history of his island home.
Pachymagas seymouri n. sp. (Pl. 4, Fig. 5).
Shell broadly ovate, beak rather long, hing-line narrow, strongly curved, sides broadly rounded, merging into the beak, front gently rounded, greatest breadth in front of the middle. Valves equally convex. Anterior commissure rectimarginate. Beak erect, produced dorsally of the hinge-line, beak-ridges rounded. Foramen large, mesothyrid, attrite.
Length of holotype, 48mm.; breadth, 46mm.; thickness, 22mm.
Type locality: Calcareous tuffs, Momoe-a-Toa, Chatham Islands. (Rare).
Remarks: Named in honour of Charles Seymour, Esq., of Whare-kauri, to whom the expedition owes thanks for open-hearted hospitality.
Affinities: P. seymouri n. sp. recalls P. andrewi Thomson (Trans. N.Z. Inst., 52, 1920, p. 380, pl. XXVI, figs. 1–2), but differs in having a larger foramen, a rather more strongly curved hinge-line, and an anterior commissure which is rectimarginate, not sulcate.
Pachymagas cf. marshalli (Andrew, 1906). (Pl. 4, Fig. 7).
1906. Magollania marshalli A. R. Andrew, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 38 (June), p. 456, pl. IV, figs. 3, a, b.
1920. Pachymagas marshalli (Andrew) J. A. Thomson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 52, p. 375, text-fig. 7 on p. 375 (holotype).
Description: Shell circular, beak fairly short, obtuse, hinge-line broad, little curved, sides convex, front rounded, not produced. Valves moderately convex, anterior commissure nearly straight (it is lightly crushed in the figured specimen). Beak nearly erect, slightly produced dorsally of the hinge-line, foramen moderate, mesothyrid, attrite. Beak ridges sharp. Interior not investigated.
Length of Chatham Island specimen, 47mm.; breadth, 45mm.; thickness, 19mm.
Locality: Calcareous tuffs, Momoe-a-Toa, Chatham Islands.
Affinities: This specimen agrees most closely with P. marshalli (Andrew), and may be referred provisionally to that species. It agrees in size, convexity, shape, and simple anterior margin. The beak shows slight differences. It is erect in marshalli, but only nearly erect in the Chatham Islands form; also in the latter the beak is more produced dorsally of the hinge-line, and the beak ridges are more strongly carinate.
P. marshalli is an unsatisfactory species. The holotype is “poorly preserved, crushed, and somewhat distorted” (Thomson). The only topotypes I was able to collect during a recent visit to Clarendon were also unsatisfactory, being crushed, and embedded in an exceedingly tough limestone matrix.
Marshalli was described from the Clarendon limestone, Milburn Quarry, Otago. Smaller shells, agreeing in shape, have been recorded by Thomson (1920) from the Mount Somers limestone, and the greensands of Curiosity Shop, Kakanui, All Day Bay, and Three Roads. Allan (Trans. N.Z. Inst., 57, 1927, p. 302) has recorded a comparable form from the Hutchinsonian sandy-clays in the Lower Waihao Valley.
Pachymagas marwicki n. sp. (Pl. 5, Fig. 3).
Shell broadly elliptical, beak short, acute, hinge-line narrow, strongly curved, sides gently convex, front rounded, greatest breadth rather in front of the middle. Valve equally convex, anterior commissure nearly straight. Beak erect, produced dorsally of the hingeline. Foramen of moderate size, mesothyrid, attrite. Beak ridges fairly prominent.
Length of holotype, 47mm.; breadth, 41mm.; thickness, 22mm.
Type locality: Calcareous tuffs, Momoe-a-Toa, Chatham Islands.
Remarks: This is the commonest Pachymagas at Momoe-a-Toa. An incomplete specimen apparently referable to this species was found in a calcareous tuff at the base of Onoua Bluff, Flowerpot Harbour, Pitt Island. The species is named in compliment to my companion at the Chatham Islands, Dr. J. Marwick.
Affinities: P. marwicki n. sp. is a distinct form readily separable from mainland species. It approaches most closely to P. hectori Thomson (Trans. N.Z. Inst., 52, 1920, p. 377, pl. XXIV, figs. 10–13), but differs in shape, has a smaller foramen, a more curved hinge-line, and lacks the flat-bottomed anterior sinuation.
Neothyris H. Douville 1880.
1880. Neothyris Douville, Bull. Soc. géol. France, sér. 3, t.vii, pp. 274–5.
1927. Neothyris Thomson, N.Z. Board Sci. and Art, Man. No. 7, pp. 288–90.
Type (by original designation): Terebratula lenticularis Deshayes, 1839, Revue Zool. Soc. Cuvierienne, 1839, p. 359.
Neothyris thomsoni n. sp. (Pl. 5, Figs. 1–2).
Shell large, broadly elliptical, beak short, obtuse, hinge-line broad, little curved, sides first straight, then sloping gently, front rounded, greatest breadth about the anterior third. Valves strongly convex, of equal convexity. Anterior commissure rectimarginate. Beak erect, considerably produced dorsally of the hinge-line. Beak-ridges carinate, meeting the sides in an obtuse angle. Foramen small, mesothyrid, attrite. Pseudo-deltidium narrow, concave.
Length of holotype, 55mm.; breadth, 46mm.; thickness, 30mm.
Interior: (a) ventral valve: hinge-teeth strong, with a solid base, and a well marked groove on the inner side of each tooth; (b) dorsal valve: cardinalia strong, crural bases fused laterally with the socket ridges, which are strong and wide. Hinge-sockets large, wide, and deep. Septum rather short, strong, wide posteriorly, bifurcating at its junction with the inner socket ridges, tapering rapidly, of equal height for the greatest part of its length and then descending steeply to the floor of the valve. Hinge trough wide and deep. Cardinal process large, high, swollen in front, with a median ridge on its upper part, and posteriorly two wings enclosing a tunnel-like cavity of some depth. Crura plate-like, expanded above and below, giving a structure like a fish-tail. Muscle impressions strong. Loop magellaniform.
Type locality: Tufaceous greensands, Whenuataru Peninsula, Pitt Island, where the species is very abundant.
Remarks: This fine species is named in honour of the late J. A. Thomson, whose masterly studies of Tertiary and Recent Brachiopoda are an inspiration to those who follow in his footsteps.
Affinities: N. thomsoni n. sp. is undoubtedly to be compared with the Recent N. lenticularis (Deshayes). The former has a broader hinge-line, the beak is erect, not curved, and less produced,
and the foramen is smaller. The anterior commissure is practically rectimarginate, while in N. lenticularis there is a definite, if shallow, sulcation. In thin-shelled specimens of N. thomsoni the cardinal process is identical with that of lenticularis, but in thick-shelled specimens it is very much larger in the fossil, having a more prominent median ridge, a deeper median cavity behind, and longer lateral wings. The punctation in both species is identical, the punctae being rather large but close. N. lenticularis is in a more advanced evolutional stage as regards curvature of the hinge-line, incurvature of the beak, and folding. In the stage of development of the cardinal process, and in size of the foramen, however, N. thomsoni is more advanced than N. lenticularis. These facts suggest that N. thomsoni is a geographical variant of the lenticularis series, and not a direct ancestor of lenticularis itself.
Among the numerous, well preserved specimens from the type locality is a single individual which differs from the holotype in possessing an incurved beak, and a subcircular outline (thus approaching N. lenticularis), but it has an even broader hinge-line than the holotype of N. thomsoni. N. lenticularis, as a fossil, is confined to the Wanganuian, and N. thomsoni is so closely related that it, too, must indicate a Wanganuian age for the horizon from which it is derived.
Magella J. A. Thomson 1915.
1915. Magella Thomson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 47 (July 12), pp. 396–7.
1927. Magella Thomson, N.Z. Board Sci. and Art, Man. No. 7, pp. 290–1.
Type (by original designation) Magella carinata Thomson 1915 = Terebratella kakanuiensis Thomson 1908, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 40, p. 102, pl. XIV, figs. 4 a-c (not of Hutton).
Magella pittensis n. sp. (Pl. 5, Fig. 7).
Shell externally identical with a medium sized specimen of Terebratella inconspicua (Sowerby), but without incipient multicostation. Loop magelliform.
Length of holotype, 11·5 mm.; breadth, 11mm.; thickness, 6·5mm.
Type locality: Calcareous tuffs, Onoua Bluff, Pitt Island. Also: calcareous tuffs, Flowerpot Harbour, Pitt Island. A single, worn, dorsal valve of either this species or a true Terebratella inconspicua (Sow.) was found in the greensands at Whenuataru Peninsula, Pitt Island.
Affinities: M. pittensis n. sp. differs from the genotype in being subcircular instead of ovate. S. S. Buckman (Wissensch. Ergebn. Schwed. Südpolar Expd., 1901–3, Bd. III, Lief. 7, 1910, pp. 18–20), described two species of Magasella which Thomson (1927) referred to Magella. M. australis (Buckman) (1910, pp. 19–20, pl. I, figs. 14–16; pl. III, figs. 3a, 3b) from the Pecten Conglomerate, Cockburn Island, off Graham Land, Antarctica, is an ovate species, and hence readily
distinguished from pittensis. Magella antarctica (Buckman) (1910, p. 18, pl. I, fig. 17) from the Glauconitic Bank (Miocene-Oligocene), Cockburn Island, agrees closely in shape, but differs in being incipiently multicostate, a feature in which it agrees with old age specimens of T. inconspicua. Buckman (1910, p. 18) suggested tentatively that M. antarctica might be described as the magaselliform (i.e., magelliform) ancestor of T. rubicunda (i.e., T. inconspicua), but Thomson argued “one would hardly expect even incipient multicostation, such as M. antarctica shows, on a Miocene ancestor of T. rubicunda.” (1915, p. 397, footnote). On both morphological and geographical grounds M. pittensis is a more probable direct ancestor of Terebratella inconspicua (Sow.).
Terebratella A. d'Orbigny 1847.
1847. Terebratella d'Orbigny, C. R. Acad. Sci. 25, p. 229.
1927. Terebratella Thomson, N.Z. Board Sci. and Art, Man. No. 7, pp. 292–4.
Type: Terebratula chilensis Broderip 1833, Trans. Zool. Soc. (London), I, p. 141, Pl. 22, fig. 1 = Anomia dorsata Gmelin 1790, Syst. Nat., ed. 13, I, p. 3348. Oligocene to Recent, South America.
Terebratella finlayi n. sp. (Pl. 5, fig. 6).
Shell small, broadly ovate, smooth, featureless. Beak suberect, acute. Beak ridges not prominent. Foramen submesothyrid but nearly mesothyrid, rather large. Valves of about equal convexity. Sides rounded, front squarely truncated. Anterior commissure rectimarginate, with no sign of incipient multicostation. Deltidial plates long and narrow, disjunct. Ornamentation of rather widely spaced growth lines. Punctae small and dense.
Dimensions of holotype: Length, 7mm.; breadth, 5mm.; thickness, 3mm.
Type locality: Tufaceous greensands, Tioriori, Chatham Islands (2 specimens).
Remarks: This species is named after my friend, Dr. H. J. Finlay, who detected the material in the matrix attached to specimens of Notostrea tarda (Hutton) given him by the writer. The species is not likely to be confused with any other member of the genus described from New Zealand.
Terebratella morioria n. sp. (Pl. 4, Fig. 2).
Shell subcircular, beak prominent, acute, hinge-line little curved, sides arched, front rounded. Ventral valve strongly convex, with a pronounced median fold; dorsal valve less convex, with a moderately deep, rapidly tapering sulcus. Anterior commissure sulcate. Beak nearly straight, beak-ridges not strongly carinate, merging into the sides. Foramen very large, submesothyrid, telate. Deltidial plates, small, disjunct. Ornamentation alternate multicostate. Dorsal valve
with 14–15 stout, wide, rounded costae, two of which occupy the floor of the sulcus. Costae of greater width than the interspaces. Ventral valve with three costae on the fold. Increase of costae by bifurcation and interpolation. Punctae small and close. Interior unknown.
Length of holotype, 13mm.; breadth, 12mm.; thickness, 5·5mm.
Type locality: Calcareous tuffs, Momoe-a-Toa, Chatham Islands (a single specimen).
Remarks: The late Dr. Thomson remarked of this form, “Probably new, but resembles the young of T. radiata Hutton.” T. radiata Hutton was described in 18871, from the tuffs and greensands, Broken River, Trelissick Basin, and was figured by Hutton in 19052.
I have not handled specimens of Hutton's species, which is indifferently illustrated. Hutton (1905) gave the following dimensions: Length, 13mm.; width, 12mm.; thickness, 8–10mm.; and recorded about 18 ribs on the ventral valve. It is clear, therefore, that T. radiata is a much more convex shell, and has more costae in shells of the same size. If one may judge from Hutton's figures, the foramen of T. radiata is considerably smaller than that of T. morioria n. sp. The dorsal sulcus, also, would appear to be more deeply excavated in the mainland species. There is no other Tertiary species with which T. morioria might be confused.
Terebratella cf. sanguinea (Leach 1814).
1874. Terebratula sanguinea Leach, Zool. Misc., p. 76, tab. XXXIII.
1887. Terebratella cruenta T. Davidson, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Ser. 2, Zool., vol. IV, pt. 2, pp. 87–9, pl. XIV, figs. 1–8.
1918. Terebratella sanguinea (Leach) J. A. Thomson, Austral. Ant. Exp., 1911–14, Scient. Repts., Ser. C, vol. IV, pt. 3, p. 31, not figured.
A single, well-preserved individual, from the tufaceous greensands, Whenuataru Peninsula, Pitt Island, appears to belong to this Recent and Wanganuian species. The Chatham specimen is probably not adult, being only 14mm. in length. When compared with Recent specimens of the same size it agrees in shape, but shows a more prominent sulcation which, moreover, is of earlier inception. The costae show no sign of bifurcation. It is possible, therefore, that the Chatham form may prove to be a distinct but closely related species. Further material is needed to settle this point.
Terebratella or Magella n. sp. (?).
The brachiopoda from the Te Whanga bryozoan limestones are very rare. For this reason I notice a single slightly imperfect specimen from this horizon at Whenuataru Peninsula, Pitt Island.
[Footnote] 1. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 19 (May), 1887, p. 406, footnote.
[Footnote] 2. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 37, 1905, pp. 477–8, pl. XLVI, fig. 2.
Fig. 1.—Neothyris thomsoni n. sp. Interior of dorsal valve × 1.3.
Fig. 2.—Neothyris thomsoni n. sp. Holotype, × 1.3.
Fig. 3.—Pachymagas marwicki n. sp. Holotype, × 1.45.
Fig. 4.—Campages toaensis n. sp. Holotype, × 2.5.
Fig. 5.—Campages chathamensis n. sp. Holotype, × 2.6.
Fig. 6.—Terebratella finlayi n. sp. Holotype, × 4.5.
Fig. 7.—Magella pittensis n. sp. Holotype, × 3.
This specimen differs from Terebratella inconspicua (Sow.) and Magella pittensis n. sp. in being more elongate, and having a narrower front. The punctae, too, are apreciably more dense, and the foramen smaller, while the anterior sulcation is less pronounced. It may be that this individual is not adult.
Further material is necessary before this form can be adequately discussed and named.
Allan, R. S., 1932. The Genus Liothyrella (Brachiopoda) in New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 63, pp. 1–10.
Boehm, G., 1904. Ueber tertiare Brachiopoden von Oamaru, Südinsel Neu-Seeland. Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. geol. Gesell., Bd. 56, Mitteil., pp. 146–50, taf. XV.
Buckmann, S. S., 1910. Antarctic Fossil Brachiopoda collected by the Swedish South Polar Expedition. Wissens. Ergebn. Schwed. Südpolar Exp., 1901–3, Bd. III, Lief. 7, 40 pp., 3 pls.
Dall, W. H., 1920. Annotated list of the Recent Brachiopoda in the Collection of the United States National Museum, with descriptions of 33 new forms. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 57, No. 2314 (June 24), pp. 261–377.
Dieseldorff, A., 1901. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Gesteine und Fossilien der Chathaminseln sowie einiger Gesteine und neuer Nephritfundorte Neu-Seelands. Inaug. Diss., Marburg, 58 pp., 4 pls.
Hutton, F. W., 1905. Revision of the Tertiary Brachiopoda of New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 37 (June), pp. 474–81, pls. 45–6.
Park, J., 1918. The Geology of the Oamaru District, North Otago. N.Z. Geol. Surv. Bull., No. 20, 124 pp., pls., and maps.
Thomson, J. A., 1920. The Notocene Geology of the Middle Waipara and Weka Pass District, North Canterbury, New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 52 (Aug. 9), pp. 322–415, pls. 16–27.
— 1926. Marine Phosphatic Horizons in the Tertiary Limestones and Greensands of South Canterbury and North Otago, and Brachiopod Evidence as to their Age. N.Z. Journ. Sci. and Techn., 8, pp. 143–60.
— 1927. Brachiopod Morphology and Genera (Recent and Tertiary). N.Z. Board Sci. and Art, Man. No. 7, 338 pp., 103 figs., 2 pits.