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Volume 64, 1935
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On some Phyllocarids from the Ordovician of Preservation Inlet and Cape Providence, New Zealand.

[Read before the Otago Institute, 12th September, 1933; received by the Editor, 30th September, 1933; issued separately, September, 1934.]


During the investigation of the rich graptolitic Ordovician fauna of Preservation Inlet, New Zealand, by Prof. W. N. Benson and Mr R. A. Keble, numerous examples of fossils referable to the Phyllocarida came to light. These were kindly placed in my hands by Professor Benson, for determination and description, and the following are the results of a study of the forms present in the collection.

All types have been placed in the collections of the Geology Department, Otago University.

List of Specimen Numbers, Grouped in Localities, By Prof. Benson.

(These will appear in Benson and Keble's map of Preservation Inlet.)

Nos. 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 12, and 15 are all near Cape Providence. Nos. 17 and S.P.2.= N. end of Gulches Head. No. 19 from a big boulder, and 32 North side of Coal Island.

Specimen Nos. Locality. Horizon.
108, 112, 137, 147 3 L 3
509, 517 2 L 3
523 to 530 17 Unknown. Possibly L 3, but quite uncertain. Traces of Graptolites indeterminate.
531 to 541 S.P.2. Southport, West Shore, N.Z. Do. Do.
543, 551, 677 32 C 5
790 19 L 2 (probably)
797, 800, 803 12 C 4
813, 825, 830 8 B 1 (low)
972, 1015 4 L 3 (high)
1131, 1138 10 C 5
1140 to 1144 12 C 4
1169, 1193 9 B 1
1268, 1285, 1288, 1320. 1322, 1327, 1330, 1332, 1333, 1344 15 L 2 (low), associated with the big Dictyonema macgillivrayi

Other specimens, not localised:—

Nos. 1352, 1395, and 1427 (pebbles from Cape Providence Beach).

Also No. 1231.* “From the Cobb beds, N.W. Nelson, highest Darriwil (D 1), if not basal Upper Ordovician, to show extension of the pod-shrimps to that horizon.” (W. N. B.)

[Footnote] * This really refers to Locality 1231 in the N.Z. Geological Survey Register, i.e., at the head of the Cobb River, a tributary of the Takaka River. (See Keble and Benson. Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. 59, p. 841.)

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Additional specimens, received later (1.5.33). Park. Coll. Cape Providence, New Zealand. Nos. 18, 21, 42, 49, 73, 81, 85, and two others without reference-numbers. Horizon C 5 (high).

Detailed Determinations (Serial Nos.).

No. 108a. A small form of Rhinopterocaris, referred to R. bulmani sp. nov. (See Descriptions.)

No. 108b. Caryocaris marrii Hicks. (See Descriptions.)

No. 112. Caryocaris wrightii Salter. A complete carapace, with convexly rolled ventral border. (See Descriptions.)

No. 137. Hymenocaris bensoni sp. nov. (See Descriptions.)

No. 147. Caryocaris cf. marrii Hicks. Several carapaces, more or less imperfect.

No. 509. No crustacea. Protospongia spicules (large cruciform type).

No. 517. Rhinopterocaris. A large form, probably referable to R. bulmani sp. nov. (See Descriptions.)

No. 523. Numerous Phyllocarid remains, including abdominal segments and tail-spines.? Rhinopterocaris and Caryocaris cf. minima sp. nov.

No. 524. Phyllocarid remains, including a carapace of Caryocaris minima sp. nov. (See descriptions.)

No. 525. Rhinopterocaris and Caryocaris, spp. indet.

No. 526. Rhinopterocaris bulmani sp. nov. (See Descriptions.) Also numerous carapaces of Caryocaris minima, sp. nov.; C. wrightii, with trifid caudal appendages, and C. marrii. (See Descriptions.) On same slab occur long, curved, and cruciform sponge spicules.

No. 527. Counterpart of preceding. Caryocaris minima (trifid appendages), also C. marrii, and sponge spicules.

No. 528. Rhinopterocaris maccoyi (Eth. fil.) and other phyllocarid remains.

No. 529. Phyllocarid remains, indet.

No. 530. Caryocaris marrii Hicks.

No. 531. No crustacean remains.

No. 532. cf. Rhinopterocaris.

No. 533. No crustacean remains.

No. 534. (?)

No. 535. Crustacean remains indet. and graptolite.

No. 536. (?)

No. 537. (?) Phyllocarid, indet.

No. 538. (?)

No. 539. Numerous obscure crustacean remains, including Caryocaris.

No. 540. cf. Rhinopterocaris.

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No. 541. Phyllocarid, indet.

No. 543. Rhinopterocaris maccoyi (Eth. fil.). (See Descriptions.) Also other phyllocarid remains together with Phyllograptus and other graptolites.

No. 551. No crustacea.? Phyllograptus and Didymograptus.

No. 677. cf. Hymenocaris.

No. 790. Rhinopterocaris maccoyi (Eth. fil.) var. tumida, var. nov. (See Descriptions.)

No. 797. Rhinopterocaris maccoyi and Caryocaris cf. wrightii.

No. 800. Caryocaris marrii, 2 examples. Climacograptus on reverse side.

No. 803. Caryocaris marrii, with conjoined valves. (See Descriptions.) Also Rhinopterocaris sp. (fragment).

No. 813. Rhinopterocaris maccoyi.

No. 825. Hymenocaris lepadoides, sp. nov. (See Descriptions.)

No. 830. Rhinopterocaris maccoyi; carapace well-preserved.

No. 972. Caryocaris wrightii.

No. 1015. No crustacea determinable.

No. 1131. Caryocaris cf. marrii; also impression of? brachiopod, cf. Orbiculoidea.

No. 1138. Phyllocarid remains, indet.

No. 1140. Rhinopterocaris maccoyi; with deep ventral flange; also Caryocaris marrii.

No. 1141. Counterpart of 1140; same fossils as above. On reverse side similar species, also graptolites—Phyllograptus and Isograptus.

No. 1142. Lingulocaris cf. acuta Bulman (pars.). (See Descriptions.) Also graptolites, Phyllograptus sp.

No. 1143.? Hymenocaris sp. (Badly preserved.)

No. 1144. Rhinopterocaris maccoyi and Caryocaris sp. Specimens badly preserved.

No. 1169. Rhinopterocaris maccoyi; several carapaces, one extremely good. Also Caryocaris sp.

No. 1193. Counterpart of 1142, with Lingulocaris cf. acuta (Bulman). (See Descriptions.) On reverse side a fine example of Rhinopterocaris maccoyi (broad form) and Caryocaris sp. (Counterpart of 1169.)

No. 1231. Indet.

No. 1268. Indet.

No. 1275. Caryocaris sp.

No. 1288.? Rhinopterocaris maccoyi (Eth. fil.), with cercopods.

No. 1320. Ditto. Counterpart of 1288. (See Descriptions.)

No. 1322. Caryocaris spp., including C. wrightii.

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No. 1327. Caryocaris sp.

No. 1330. Caryocaris wrightii.

No. 1332. Caryocaris wrightii.

No. 1333. Rhinopterocaris maccoyi (small carapace).

No. 1344. Caryocaris wrightii, also sponge spicules.

No. 1352. Caryocaris marrii. Also? Phyllograptus.

No. 1395.? Crustacea represented by carbonaceous patches.

No. 1427. Rhinopterocaris and Caryocaris sp.

Additional Specimens (received May, 1933)

Park. Coll. Cape Providence, N.Z.

No. 18. A slab of black shale with several very finely preserved carapaces of Rhinopterocaris maccoyi (Eth. fil.), one having a length of 38 mm. Associated with these are Phyllograptus sp. and Isograptus caduceus and vars.

No. 21. Rhinopterocaris bulmani sp. nov. Associated with other indeterminate phyllocarid remains, and Didymograptus bifidus.

No. 42. cf. Rhinopterocaris.

No. 49. cf. Rhinopterocaris.

No. 73. Caryocaris and other doubtful phyllocarid remains.

No. 81. cf. Rhinopterocaris.

No. 85. Rhinopterocaris and other undet. phyllocarids.

Unnumbered Specimens.

(a) Rhinopterocaris maccoyi.

(b) Several carapaces of Caryocaris marrii Hicks and C. wrightii Salter. Also Didymograptus bifidus.

Description of New Species and Figured Specimens.

Sub-Class Encrustacea
Division Phyllocarida
Fam. Hymenocaridae
Genus Hymenocaris Salter.

Hymenocaris Bensoni, sp. nov.

Plate 9. Fig. 1.

Description.—Carapace elongately ovate; gently curved dorsally, more strongly curved ventrally; anterior margin deeply serrate. Abdominal segments attenuated and inwardly curved towards the posterior part of the carapace; distal extremity uncinate. Abdominal segments approximately six, but actual sutures obscure. The proportionate length of the carapace slightly longer than that of the abdominal region. Height of highest part of carapace equals one-third its length. Extremity of abdominal series probably in the form of blunt stylets. Surface of carapace longitudinally and obliquely wrinkled.

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Dimensions.—Entire length of carapace and abdominal region, 24 mm.; length of carapace, 14.25 mm.; height of carapace, 4.3 mm.

Observations.—This form differs from known species of Hymenocaris in its greatly elongate carapace, but the relation of the abdominal segments to the carapace warrants its inclusion in that genus. In general appearance it compares with some elongately extended varieties of H. vermicauda Salter (see Jones and Woodward, 1892, pl. xiii, fig. 4). In the ragged denticulated anterior margin, the specimen shows an affinity with Rhinopterocaris, but otherwise it is quite distinct from that genus. H. bensoni is named in acknowledgment of Dr W. N. Benson's courtesy in placing these specimens in my hands for description.

Locality.—No. 139. Loc. 3. Preservation Inlet, New Zealand.

Horizon.—L. 3.

Hymenocaris Lepadoides, sp. nov.

Plate 9. Fig. 2.

Description.—Carapace with dorsal edge incomplete, but evidently elongately triangular; anterior angle produced and acute; ventral margin convexly rounded behind and concave in front. Abdominal portion flexed, vermiform, separate segments not visible. Surface marking consisting of a few undulating growth-lines parallel with antero-ventral margin. Terminal segment of abdomen with two short, acute stylets.

Dimensions.—Length of specimen, 19 mm.; length of carapace, 11.5 mm.; length of abdomen, 2.5 mm.

Observations.—The trivial name is given for its resemblance to a scutum of Lepas. It is quite distinct from H. vermicauda Salter, because of its flexuous trigonal outline.

Locality.—No. 825, Loc. 8. Preservation Inlet, New Zealand.

Horizon.—B 1 (low).

Fam. Ceratiocaridae
Genus Caryocaris Salter

Caryocaris Wrightii Salter.

Plate 9. Figs. 3, 4.

Caryocaris wrightii Salte, 1863, pp. 135, fig. 15, pp. 137 and 139. Jones and Woodward, 1892, p. 89, pl. xiv, figs. 11–15, figs. 5, 6 (woodcuts). Chapman, 1908, p. 281, pl.-figs. 2, 3, 5. Idem, 1912, p. 212, pl. xxvii. Id., 1923, p. 42, pl. vii, figs. 11–15.

Observations.—This common Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician species is well represented in the present collection. It was originally described from the Skiddaw Slates in England, and the writer has since recorded it from various localities in Victoria, as Loyola (Up. Cambrian); Marong (L. Ordovician-Bendigonian); as well as in erratics of Lower Ordovician black shale in the Permocarboniferous glacial beds of Wynyard, Tasmania.

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The wide distribution of this species may be judged by its occurrence elsewhere. Besides the Skiddavian of England and Wales, it has also been found in the equivalent Arenig of the Firth of Clyde in Scotland, as well as in the Arenig of Belgium (Malaise) and the calciferous group (Tremadoe) of Nevada, North America (Gurley).

Referring to the foregoing list of determinations, it will be seen that Caryocaris wrightii is fairly well represented in the New Zealand Lower Ordovician.

On Plate 9, fig. 3, is shown a typical, fairly large carapace with an exceptionally strong dorsal fold. Fig. 4 on the same plate shows the trifid caudal appendages, also seen in a Belgian specimen as figured in Jones and Woodward (1892, p. 91, woodcut, fig. 6), and also another from the Upper Cambrian of Loyola, Victoria, by Chapman (1923, pl. xii, fig. 14).

Locality.—No. 112, Loc. 3. No. 797, Loc. 12. No. 972, Loc. 4. Nos. 1330, 1332, 1344, Loc. 15. Preservation Inlet, New Zealand. Also from Cape Providence (Park. Coll.).

Horizon.—L 3, L 2, and C 4.

Caryocaris Marrii Hicks.

Plate 9. Figs. 5, 6.

Caryocaris marrii Hicks, 1876, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., Vol. xxxii, p. 138. Jones and Woodward, 1892, p. 92, pl. xiv, figs. 16–18. Chapman, 1903, ? Rhinopterocaris maccoyi (Eth. fil), p. 117, pl. xviii, fig. 16. Chapman, 1908. Caryocaris marrii Hicks, p. 282, pl. —, figs. 4, 6. Chapman, 1912, p. 212, pl. xvii.

Observations.—This little phyllocarid is probably the most abundant form in the New Zealand collection. It is of especial interest to note the occurrence here of an example with conjoined valves spread out dorsally, a phase of its compression in the slates comparable with one figured many years ago from a Castlemaine specimen in the National Museum (Chapman, 1903, pl. xviii, fig. 16) under? Rhinopterocaris. In the specimen now figured (Plate 9, fig. 6), sufficient proof is seen that some of the wrinkling of the carapace in these phyllocarids is natural to the organism, and not necessarily a secondary result caused by a lateral crumpling of the rock. In other cases, however, there may exist such an artificial puckering, due to the condition of the surrounding matrix, when of the nature of a phyllite.

The other specimen figured is an elongated, typically crumpled or corrugated form, with a generally concave dorsal margin. The aspect of this fossil (Fig. 5) is probably from the left side, the blunt truncation indicating the abdominal junction, as in Hymenocaris.

Distribution.—Caryocaris marrii was first recorded from the Arenig Schists of Nanntle, S. Wales. In Australia, localities for this species are the Lower Ordovician rocks of Marong, near Daylesford, and erraties derived from a similar formation from Wynyard, Tasmania.

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Locality.—Nos. 108b, 147, Loc. 3. Nos. 526, 527, 530, Loc. 17. Nos. 800, 803, Loc. 12. No. 1131, Loc. 10. No. 1140, Loc. 12. No. 1352, No Loc. Preservation Inlet, New Zealand.

Horizon.—L 3, C 4, and C 5.

Caryocaris Minima, sp. nov.

Plate 9. Fig. 7.

Description of Holotype.—Carapace elongate-lanceolate, sharply acuminate anteriorly, bluntly so at posterior; length three times the height. Dorsal margin gently curved, ventral margin more strongly curving from the anterior region to one-third from the posterior extremity, where it reaches the greatest height; it then curves obliquely upward to meet the posterior at an angle of 20°. Surface relieved by fine, wavy, more or less parallel wrinkles.

Dimensions.—Length, 9 mm.; height at posterior third, 2.3 mm.

Observations.—Several examples of this comparatively minute form of Caryocaris may be distinguished on the slabs examined, having the particular characters described for the holotype. Other allied species of Caryocaris, such as C. angusta Chapman (1903, p. 113, pl. xviii, fig. 10), and C. oblonga Gurley (see Chapman, 1908, pls. — fig. 8) differ from the above in having both extremities blunt or gently rounded.

Locality.—No. 524, Loc. 17.

Horizon.—Probably L 3.

Genus Lingulocaris Salter.

Lingulocaris cf. Acuta (Bulman).

Plate 9. Fig. 8.

c.f. Caryocaris acuta Bulman (pars). 1931, p. 85, text-fig. 41 (upper figure).

Observations.—There appears to be a general resemblance of Dr Bulman's figure, quoted above, to the present specimen. From its elongate-ovate form it may be referred to the genus Lingulocaris Salter.

With regard to the surface ornament the New Zealand specimen agrees very closely with Lingulocaris siliquiformis Jones (cf. Jones and Woodward, 1892, pl. xiv, fig. 2) in having a delicate squamiform character.

Bulman's Caryocaris acuta came from the Caradocian of Peru, whilst L. siliquiformis and other allied species are from the Upper Tremadoc and Lower Lingula Flags of Wales. The present form therefore occupies an intermediate stratigraphic position between these.

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Dimensions of Plesiotype of Lingulocaris cf. acuta.—Length, 30 mm.; greatest height, 7.5 mm.

Locality.—No. 1142, Loc. 12.

Horizon.—C 4.

Genus Rhinopterocaris Chapman.

Rhinopterocaris Maccoyi (Eth. fil.).

Plate 11. Figs. 9, 10, 11.

Lingulocaris maccoyi Etheridge Jur., 1892, pp. 5–8, pl. iv.

Caryocaris curvilatus Gurley, 1896, p. 87, pl. iv, fig. 3; pl. v, fig. 3.

Rhinopterocaris maccoyi (Eth. fil.); Chapman, 1903, pp. 114–117, pl. xviii, figs. 9, 17 (non 16).

Observations.—This genus and species is one of the best known of the phyllocarids of the Southern Hemisphere. It is often of comparatively large size and wonderfully well preserved. The carapace is tenuous and reminds one of a neuropterous or other insect wing in its membranous character.

The nomenclature of this species is somewhat involved, and may be summed up as follows:—

McCoy named the phyllocarid in 1861, when writing up the Natural History of Victoria for the International Exhibition, as Hymenocaris salteri. This MS. name remained as such for over 30 years, and was twice catalogued in Bigsby's Thesaurus Siluricus, as Hymenocaris and Caryocaris. J. W. Salter, who had evidently examined a specimen in 1862, did not think it belonged to the genus Hymenocaris. R. Etheridge Jur., in 1892, examined specimens of this phyllocarid, which W. W. Froggatt had collected from the Lower Ordovician (Bendigonian) of Bendigo (Sandhurst), Victoria. Other examples were also supplied him by R. A. F. Murray from the Lower Ordovician (Castlemainian) of Baynton's, Campaspe River, Victoria. From the characters being intermediate between Hymenocaris and Caryocaris, as these specimens showed, Etheridge was induced to place them in the genus Lingulocaris. In 1903 the present writer (loc. supra cit.), after examining a very large collection of these fossils from Victoria, in the National Museum, recognised details not hitherto known, and instituted for them a new genus, Rhinopterocaris. These fossils, for example, showed amongst other characters cephalic appendages, masticatory apparatus, and a short telson with sharp oblique stylet.

The New Zealand occurrence of this phyllocarid is of particular importance, since it is quite as typical there as in Victoria, and is indeed associated with a similar facies including an abundance of Caryocaris. Its range in New Zealand is also co-extensive with that in Victoria, namely, from Lancefieldian to Castlemainian.

Of the specimens of Rhinopterocaris maccoyi here figured, fig. 9, with its double valves slightly displaced, shows unmistakeably

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that the carapace is not merely folded, but the valves are loosely conjoined, and in this the genus fundamentally differs from Hymenocaris, which typically bears the former character.

In fig. 10 the overlapping valves of two individuals show, by the wrinkling occurring in the same direction on valves that are at right angles to one another, that, in this case at least, a mud shrinkage probably took place before the hard setting of the slate.

Locality.—No. 528, Loc. 17. No. 543, Loc. 32. No. 790, Loc. 19. No. 797, Loc. 12. Nos. 813, 830, Loc. 8. Nos. 1140, 1144, Loc. 12. Nos. 1169, 1193, Loc. 9. Nos. 1288, 1333, Loc. 15. Preservation Inlet, New Zealand. No. 18, Cape Providence (Park. Coll.).

Horizon.—L 3 to C 5.

Rhinopterocaris Maccoyi (Eth. fil.) var. Tumida var. nov.

Plate 10. Fig. 12.

Description.—This variety differs from the large, tenuous, carapaced type-form in having a shorter and higher build. The dorsal margin is gently arched and strongly ridged; the ventral margin broadly curving towards the acute anterior; with the posterior extremity blunt. The texture of the carapace appears to be unusually solid.

Dimensions of type of var.—Length, 17.5 mm.; height, 7.5 mm.

Locality.—No. 790, Loc. 19. Preservation Inlet, New Zealand.

Horizon.—L 2.

Rhinopterocaris Bulmani, sp. nov.

Plate 10. Figs. 13, 14

Caryocaris acuta Bulman (pars.). 1931, p. 85, text-fig. 41 (lower figure).

Observations.—Dr Bulman has figured two specimens under the name of Caryocaris acuta. Judging from the evidence derived from a study of a very extensive series of phyllocarids from Australian and New Zealand Ordovician rocks, I have ventured to suggest that the two figures given by Dr Bulman may not be congeneric. His upper figure I have here referred to Lingulocaris, with its elongated boat-shaped carapace, and have tentatively connected a New Zealand form as con-specific. The lower figure given by Bulman, although somewhat fore-shortened from its original length by slate rippling, is too deep in the body for Caryocaris, and would seem to be more closely allied to Rhinopterocaris as met with in Australia and New Zealand. It is appropriate therefore to name this form after Dr Bulman. His figured specimen has a length of 8.6 mm., whilst the New Zealand specimen (fig. 13) measures 12.6 mm.

Another example from New Zealand (fig. 14), somewhat distorted, has a length of 4.7 mm.

Locality.—No. 526 (fig. 13), Loc. 17. No. 108a (fig. 14), Loc. 3. Preservation Inlet, New Zealand.

Horizon.—L 3.

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Explanation of Plates.

Plate 9.

  • Fig. 1. Hymenocaris bensoni, sp. nov. Carapace and abdominal segments. No. 139. Loc. 3. Hor. L 3. Holotype. X 3½.

  • Fig. 2. Hymenocaris lepadoides, sp. nov. Carapace and abdomen. No. 825. Loc. 8. Hor. B 1, low. Holotype. X 2.

  • Fig. 3. Caryocaris wrightii, Salter. Carapace of large example. No. 112. Loc. 3. Hor. L 3. Plesiotype. X 4½.

  • Fig. 4. Caryocaris wrightii, Salter. Trifid caudal appendages. No. 526. Loc. 17. Hor.? L 3. Plesiotype. X 3.

  • Fig. 5. Caryocaris marrii, Hicks. Typical carapace. No. 108b. Loc. 3. Hor. L 3. Plesiotype. X 7.

  • Fig. 6. Caryocaris marrii, Hicks. Dorsal view of conjoined valves. No. 803. Loc. 12. Hor. C 4. Plesiotype. X 2.

  • Fig. 7. Caryocaris minima, sp. nov. Carapace. No. 524. Loc. 17. Hor. L 3. Holotype. X 3.

  • Fig. 8. Lingulocaris cf. acuta (Bulman) (pars.). Carapace. No. 1142. Loc 12. Hor. C 4. Plesiotype. X 2.

Plate 10.

  • Fig. 9. Rhinopterocaris maccoyi (Eth. fil.). Two valves opposed and reversed. No. 543. Loc. 32. Hor. C 5. Plesiotype. X 2.

  • Fig. 10. Rhinopterocaris maccoyi (Eth. fil.). Separate valves of two individuals. No. 1193. Loc. 9. Hor. B 1, low. Plesiotype. X 2.

  • Fig. 11. ? Rhinopterocaris macooyi (Eth. fil.). Carapace with cercopods. No. 1320. Loc. 15. Hor. L 2. Plesiotype. X 2.

  • Fig. 12. Rhinopterocaris maccoyi (Eth. fil.), var. tumida, var. nov. No. 790. Loc. 19. Hor.? L 7. Holotype of var. X 2.

  • Fig. 13. Rhinopterocaris bulmani, sp. nov. No. 526. Loc. 17. Hor.? L 3. Plesiotype. X 3.

  • Fig. 14. Rhinopterocaris bulmani, sp. nov. No. 108a. Loc. 3. Hor. L 3. Plesiotype. X 7.


Bulman, O. M. B. 1931. South American Graptolites, with special reference to the Nordenskiöld Collection. Arkiv för zoologi. K. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Bd. 22A. No. 3, pp. 1–111, pls. i-xii.

Chapman, F. 1903. New or Little-known Victorian Fossils in the National Museum, Melbourne. Part I. Some Palaeozoic Species. Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., Vol. xv (N.S.), Pt. II, pp. 104–122, pls. xvi-xviii.

—— 1908. On a Brachiopod and Some Phyllocarids of Lower Ordovician Age from a glacial erratic at Wynyard, Tasmania. Rep. Aust. Assoc. Adv. Sci. Adelaide (1907), pp. 281–283, pl —.

—— 1912. Report on a Collection of Lower Ordovician Fossils. Rec. Geol. Surv. Vict., Vol. III, Pt. 2. Notes on the Phyllocarids, pp. 212–213, pls. xxvii-xxviii.

—— 1923. Report on Fossils from an Upper Cambrian Horizon at Loyola near Mansfield. Bull. No. 46. Geol. Surv. Vict., pp. 34–54, pls. xi-xiv.

Etheridge, R. Jur. 1892. Hymcnocaris salteri McCoy MS. Rec. Geol. Surv. N.S. Wales, Vol. III, Pt. 1, pp. 5–8, pl. iv.

Gurley, R. R. 1896. North American Graptolites. Journ. Geol., Vol. IV, No. 1.

Jones and Woodward. 1892. Mon. Brit. Pal. Phyllopoda, Pt. II. (Pal. Soc.).

Salter, J. W. 1863. Note on the Skiddaw Slate Fossils, in paper “On the Skiddaw Slate Series” by R. Harkness. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., Vol. XIX, pp. 135–140, pl. on p. 137.

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Fig. 1.—Hymenocaris bensoni, sp. nov. Carapace and abdominal segments. No. 139. Loc. 3. Hor L 3 Holotype. X 3½.
Fig. 2.—Hymenocaris lepadoides, sp. nov. Carapace and abdomen. No 825. Loc. 8. Hor. B 1, low. Holotype. X 2.
Fig. 3.—Caryocaris wrightii, Salter. Carapace of large example No. 112. Loc. 3. Hor. L. 3 Plesiotype. X 4½.
Fig. 4.—Caryocaris wrightii, Salter. Trind caudal appendages. No. 526. Loc. 17 Hor.? L 3. Plesiotype. X 3.
Fig. 5.—Caryocaris marrii, Hicks. Typical carapace. No. 108b. Loc. 3. Hor. L 3. Plesiotype. X 7.
Fig. 6.—Caryocaris marrii, Hicks. Dorsal view of conjoined valves. No. 803. Loc. 12. Hor. C 4. Plesiotype. X 2.
Fig. 7.—Caryocans minima, sp. nov. Carapace. No. 524. Loc. 17 Hor. L 3. Holotype X 3
Fig. 8.—Lingulocaris cl. acuta (Bulman) (pars.) Carapace. No. 1142. Loc. 12. Hor. C 4. Plesiotype. X 2.

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Fig. 9.—Rhinopterocaris maccoyi (Eth. fil.). Two valves opposed and reversed. No 543. Loc 32 Hor. C 5. Plesiotype. X 2.
Fig. 10.—Rhinopterocaris maccoyi (Eth. fil.) Separate valves of two individuals No. 1193. Loc. 9. Hor. B 1, low. Plesiotype. X 2.
Fig. 11.—Rhinopterocai is maccoyi (Eth. fil.). Carapace with cercopods. No. 1320 Loc. 15. Hor. L 2. Plesiotype. X 2.
Fig. 12.—Rhinopterocaris maccoyi (Eth. fil), var. tumida, var nov. No. 790. Loc. 19. Hor.? L 7. Holotype ot var. X 2.
Fig. 13.—Rhinopterocaris bulmani, sp. nov. No. 526. Loc. 17. Hor.? L 3. Plesiotype. X 3.
Fig. 14.—Rhinoptei ocaris bulmani, sp. nov. No. 108a Loc. 3. Hor. L 3. Plesiotype. X 7.