Additions to the Alien Flora of New Zealand
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, April 26, 1934; received by the Editor, April 27, 1934; issued separately, September, 1935.]
The latest published list of plants naturalized in New Zealand is that given by Cheeseman in the second, 1925, edition of his Manual of the New Zealand Flora. Since then much attention has been paid to the alien flora by the botanical section of the Plant Research Station. In this paper I give a list of species as to the naturalization of which I have definite information, but which are not recorded by Cheeseman. Certain corrections of identifications given by him are also made. I do not here make the changes necessary to bring the nomenclature of the naturalized species in general up to date, nor do I add a number of important extensions of range of previously reported species, while certain new records are held over till I have definitely ascertained the correct determination of the species concerned. Certain species recorded by others, but of which I have only hearsay evidence, are also omitted. All these matters are being gone into in a handbook of the alien flora that I have in preparation. In that work also questions of varietal determination, a subject of considerable importance, are also taken up.
It is often difficult to decide on the evidence available whether certain garden escapes have reached the stage of definite naturalization. I have restricted this supplementary list to cases where there is no doubt, except that I have mentioned a few the economic importance of which is such that attention should be focussed on their occurrence.
In addition to the very valuable assistance rendered me by officers of the Department of Agriculture, I have to acknowledge the help of a number of private persons who have kindly sent me material and information. In dealing with the identification of critical species, I have had the cordial assistance of the Director and staff of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; the Keeper and staff of the Herbarium, British Museum of Natural History; Professors M. L. Fernald and B. L. Robinson, of Harvard University; Professor L. R. Parodi, University of Buenos Aires y de La Plata; Messrs C. T. White, Government Botanist, Brisbane, and F. J. Rae, Government Botanist, Melbourne.
Callitris rhomboidea R. Br. Illawarra mountain pine (Australia). Waitakere Ranges, Auckland, in damaged forest and shrubland, M. Hodgkins; Titirangi, L. M. Cranwell.
Agrostis verticillata Vill. (Europe). Roadsides and waste places about Auckland city and suburbs.
Anthoxanthum aristatum Boiss. (Europe). There is a specimen of this in the Plant Research Station herbarium, collected near Wellington by T. Kirk and labelled “A. odoratum, stunted form.” As it has again been met with recently on the Hutt road and near Lake Taupo, it would appear to have become sparingly established.
Bromus Gussonii Parl. Greater barren brome (Europe). Fairly common in waste places and roadsides in North and South Islands. Has hitherto been confused with the smaller-flowered B. sterilis, which species appears to be rather less frequent than B. Gussonii.
Entolasia marginata (R. Br.) Hughes. (Australia). Oratia, near Auckland City. Established on roadside and spreading into pasture, M. Hodgkins!
Eleusine tristachya (Lam.) Kunth. (South America). Near Napier, E. A. Madden!
Glyceria nervata (Willd.) Trin. Fowl meadow grass (Europe). Near Whangarei, W. A. Given!
Hordeum jubatum L. Squirrel-tail (Eurasia). Ranfurly, Central Otago, R. B. Tennent! (See N.Z. Journ. Agric. 47: 1933: 182.)
Lolium rigidum Gaud. Rigid rye grass (Eurasia). Sparingly naturalized along the coast of Wellington Harbour, in rocky places.
Nardus stricta L. Mat-grass (Europe). On Town Belt, Dunedin, J. M. McCaskill!
Nassella trichotoma (Nees) Hack. (South America). Omihi Valley and bed of Waipara River, Canterbury, A. Wall!
Panicum capillare L. Old witch grass (North America). Naturalized in a number of localities in Auckland and Hawke's Bay.
Paspalum Urvillei Stead. (North and South America). Occasionally met with in pastures and on roadsides throughout the paspalum areas of Auckland.
Phalaris minor Retz. Lesser canary grass (Europe). Roadsides and waste places in North and South Islands. Hitherto confused with P. canariensis L. (see N.Z. Journ. Agric. 40: 1930: 256).
Phalaris tuberosa L. Toowoomba grass (Europe). Has escaped from cultivation and established itself near Palmerston North. (See reference above.)
Poa subcaerulea Sm. (Europe). Has been collected in several localities in North Island, and is probably widely distributed. It is very closely related to Poa pratensis.
Polypogon lutosus (Poir.) Hitchc. (Europe). Said by some to be a hybrid between P. monspeliensis Desf, and Agrostis stoloni-fera. Occurs on roadsides and waste places, and to a less extent in pastures in various localities in North Island. The New Zealand occurrences that I have observed do not support the view that it is of hybrid origin. This species is, in part at least, the P. fugax of Cheeseman's list.
Puccinellia festuciformis (Host.) Parl. (Europe). Salt meadows near Dunedin, R. B. Tennent! Probably occurs in other localities and mistaken for P. distans (L.) Parl.
Setaria imberbis R. et S. (Tropical America). Neighbourhood of Auckland City, in pasture land, M. Hodgkins!
Sporobolus capensis Kunth. Ratstail (South Africa). This is the species recorded by Cheeseman as S. indicus R. Br. Brown had mistakenly considered it to be conspecific with Agrostis indica L. (See N.Z. Journ. Sci. and Tech. 15: 1934: 255.)
Zizania latifolia Turcz. Manchurian wild rice (Asia). This is the species mistakenly referred in Cheeseman's list to Z. aquatica (Canadian wild rice), a very different annual species.
Carex remota L. (Eurasia, North Africa). Neighbourhood of Auckland City and suburbs, roadsides, waste places, and pastures, M. Hodgkins!
Mariscus congestus C. B. Clarke. (South Africa). Neighbourhood of Nelson City, damp waste places and roadsides, apparently not common.
Scirpus setaceus L. (Eurasia, Africa, Australia). Bed of Ashburton River near the town.
Lemna oligorrhiza Kurz. (Asia, Australia). Pond near Palmerston North (see T. L. Lancaster in Trans. N.Z. Inst. 60: 1929: 563). Lancaster remarks, “May be regarded as probably a native plant.” So far no further localities have been discovered, and its nativity appears doubtful.
Juncus acutus L. (Eurasia, Africa, North and South America). Established on salt-meadows at the mouth of the Manawatu River. (See N.Z. Journ. Agric. 29: 1924: 311.)
Juncus macer S. F. Gray. (North America). This is the species recorded by Cheeseman, following the general practice, as J. tenuis Willd. But it has recently been shown that Willdenow's plant is a quite different species. (See Fernald in Journ. Bot., 1930, p. 364.)
Allium triquetrum L. (Europe). A very frequent garden escape, quite naturalized in several localities in North Island, and tending to encroach on pastures. (See N.Z. Journ. Agric. 48: 1934: 45.)
Crocosmia aurea Planch. (Africa). An occasional garden escape, established in waste places near Auckland City.
Watsonia bulbillifera Matthews. (South Africa). Abundantly naturalized along stream sides near Kaeo, North Auckland, and, to a lesser extent, in other localities in the Auckland Province.
Hakea suaveolens R. Br. (Australia). Established and spreading near Warkworth, North Auckland, M. Hamilton!
Polygonum cuspidalum Sieb. et Zucc. (Asia). Firmly established and spreading on roadsides and in waste places at Greymouth, W. Mackay! (See N.Z. Journ. Agric. 50: 1935: 96.)
Rumex scutatus L. (Europe). Waste places near Auckland City, M. Hodgkins!
Cerastium arvense L. Field mouse-eared chickweed (Europe). In pastures in several parts of Ashburton County. (See N.Z. Journ. Agric. 29: 1924: 311.)
Ranunculus fluitans Lam. Water crowfoot (Europe). Widely distributed in streams and pools in North and South Islands. This is the R. aquatilis of Cheeseman's list. I have not observed the true R. aquatilis L. in New Zealand.
Fumaria capreolata L. Fumitory (Eurasia, North Africa). Waste places about Auckland City. Probably more widely distributed, but passed over as F. muralis Sond.
Barbarea stricta Fries. (Eurasia). Roadside near Ashhurst, G. Gibbs!
Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. Yellow-rocket (Europe). Occasional on roadsides and in waste places in North and South Islands. According to Kirk (Students' Flora, 1899, p. 26) the B. vulgaris of Hooker's Handbook (1864) is B. Praecox R. Br (which is given in Cheeseman's list under the valid name B. verna (Mill.) Aschers. Kirk had not observed the true B. vulgaris in New Zealand, and it is still much less common than B. verna.
Cakile edentula (Bigel.) Hook. American sea rocket (North America). Sandy shores about Wellington Harbour; coastal sands of mid-Canterbury; near Riverton, R. B. Tennent! Cheeseman records C. maritima Scop.; I have not seen New Zealand specimens of this closely allied species.
Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L) DC. (Europe). Abundant about the harbour at Oamaru, where it appears to hybridize freely with D. muralis (L) DC.
Diplotaxis viminea (L) DC. (Europe). Recorded by Kirk (Students' Flora, 1899, p. 32) for New Plymouth and Porirua Harbour, where it still persists.
Lepidium bonariense L. (South America). Waste places on the Hutt Road, Wellington. Several other unrecorded Lepidia are naturalized, but I am as yet not satisfied as to their identity.
Raphanus Raphanistrum L. subsp. segetum (Baumg.) Clavaud. Wild Radish (Europe, North Africa). Waste places about Palmerston North, V. D. Zotov!
Sisymbrium altissimum L. Tumbling mustard (Eurasia). In gardens and waste places about Auckland City and, to a less extent, at Wanganui and Wellington. Has been observed at Alexandra, in
Central Otago. (For this and the following species of the genus see N.Z. Journ. Agric. 47: 1933: 38.)
Sisymbrium orientale L. Oriental mustard (Eurasia, North Africa). Waste places in neighbourhood of Auckland City, Thames and Palmerston North.
Sisymbrium polyceratium L. (Europe). Roadside at Alexandra, Central Otago.
Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focke. Indian strawberry (Eurasia). Common in waste places and grasslands about Auckland City, and occurs in scattered localities to the north and south. Has been collected at the base of Mount Tongariro, at Bunnythorpe, near Palmerston North, and in the neighbourhood of Christchurch.
Potentilla argentea L. Hoary cinquefoil (Eurasia, North America). Roadsides and waste places at Queenstown.
Potentilla erecta (L) Hampe. Tormentilla (Eurasia). Damp places near Felding; near Dunedin, J. S. Thomson!
Rubus illecebrosus Focke. Strawberry-raspberry. (Japan). Recorded by Atkinson (see N.Z. Journ. Agric. 34: 1927: 5) for Dargaville. Has also been collected near Thames, Te Kuiti, and Whangarei.
Rubus phoenicolasius Maxim. Wineberry. (Asia). Recorded by Atkinson (see reference above) for Poverty Bay.
Rubus rugosus Sm. var Thwaitesii Focke. (Asia). Has been collected near Whangarei.
Sorbaria Lindleyana (L) Maxim. Recorded by Thomson (The Naturalization of Animals and Plants in New Zealand, 1922, p. 562) as Spiraea Lindleyana. “Found near Arrowtown, where it was first observed by the Pastoral Runs Commission in May, 1920.” In the report of the commission (1920, p. 6) it is stated, “While at Arrowtown the Lake Hayes country was visited and the grassland near the gorge of the River Arrow examined. Here a new pasture weed, hitherto unrecorded for New Zealand—one of the American meadowsweets—was noted. The plant should be at once eradicated so as to prevent its further spread.” S. Lindleyana is a Himalayan shrub. I have seen it as a garden escape in one place near Cromwell.
Acacia longifolia Willd. (Australia). Cheeseman records it in his list of naturalized plants of the North Cape District (Trans. N.Z. Inst. 29: 1897: 383), but does not include it in his Manual list. From recent sendings it appears to be definitely established.
Calycotome spinosa (L) Lam. (Europe). Roadsides in the neighbourhood of Palmerston North (see N.Z. Journ. Agri. 46: 1933: 233).
Falcatula (Trigonella) ornithopodioides (L) Brot. Foenugreek (Europe). Grassland at Tutira, H. Guthrie-Smith!
Hippocrepis comosa L. Horse-shoe vetch (Europe). Sparingly naturalized in the North Auckland Peninsula.
Ornithopus ebracteatus DC. Jointed birdsfoot (Europe, North Africa). Sparingly naturalized in the North Auckland Peninsula.
Oxylobium Callistachys Benth. (Australia). Established in manuka scrub at Birkdale, near Auckland, Mr Hodgkins!; near Oakleigh, North Auckland, W. A. Given.
Pultenaea daphnoides Wendl. (Australia). Various localities in North Auckland.
Trifolium agrarium L. em. Schreber. Larger hop trefoil (Europe). Recorded in 1899 by Kirk for Broken River, Canterbury. Has also been collected in Marlborough and at Pukeatua, near Te Awamutu.
Vicia angustifolia L. (Europe). Abundant along roadsides and in waste places in North and South Islands, often in company with V. Sativa L., to which it is closely related, and with which it appears to hybridize.
Euphorbia platyphyllos L. Warted spurge. (Europe, North Africa). Waste places about Auckland City.
Euphorbia stricta L. Stiff purple. (Eurasia). Waste places about Whangarei.
Mercurialis annua L. Annual mercury (Eurasia, Africa, North America). Recorded by W. W. Smith for Ashburton in 1904. Established at Karori, Wellington, D. Beadle!
Cryptandra amara Sm. (Australia). In manuka scrub about Horihora and Waihopo, North Auckland, E. J. Keatley!
Malva moschata L. Musk mallow (Europe). Recorded in 1904 by W. W. Smith for Ashburton. Has been observed near Piopio, Auckland Province.
Opuntia vulgaris Mill. Prickly pear (South America). Persists in old plantations about Auckland, and tends to spread. Not definitely naturalized, but possibly in danger of becoming so.
Jussiaea diffusa Forsk. Primrose willow. (North America). Swampy ground near Rangiriri; near Ruakura, Auckland, E. B. Levy!; near Tuakau, L. M. Cranwell. (For this and the next species see N.Z. Journ. Agric. 47: 1933: 311.)
Ludwigia palustris (L) Ell. Water purslane (Eurasia, Africa, North America). Swampy ground near Rangiriri, P. W. Smallfield!; near Ruakura, E. B. Levy!; near Te Atiamuri, K. W. Allison!
Caucalis daucoides L. Bur parsley (Europe). Roadsides and waste places about Ashburton.
Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link. Hedge parsley (Eurasia). Not infrequent on roadsides in North Island.
Erica arborea L. Tree heath (Europe, North Africa). Abundantly naturalized in the Otorohanga and Kawhia counties and, to a less extent, elsewhere in the Auckland province. There is an element of doubt about the identification; my specimens have larger flowers than is usual in the species.
Erica lusitanica Rudolphi. (Southern France). Has escaped from cultivation in several localities in North Island, and is spreading.
Lysimachia Nummularia L. Moneywort (Europe). Recorded by Townson in 1907 for swampy ground near Westport. Is still persistent in places in the lower Buller Valley.
Myosotis versicolor Sm. Variegated forgetmenot (Europe). Damp ground near mouth of Rangitikei River, North Island. J. P. Lotsy! Damp ground by Thomas River, Canterbury. Probably more widely distributed.
Lamium amplexicaule L. Henbit deadnettle (Eurasia, North Africa). Recorded in 1880 by Armstrong for Canterbury. Now a common garden weed in several localities in that province.
Mentha rotundifolia (L) Huds. Roundleaved mint (Europe). Damp waste places in a number of localities in North Island.
Prunella laciniata L. (Eurasia). Pastures along Fox River, Westland.
Satureja Acinos (L). Scheele. Basil thyme (Eurasia, North America). Near Dannevirke, North Island, Edwards!; near Waitara, North Island, A. H. Kendall! Was recorded for Auckland province in 1869.
Stachys sylvatica L. Hedge woundwort (Eurasia). Near Taumarunui, R. P. Hill!; near Stratford, W. Harris!; Wanganui, J. W. Deem!
Thymus vulgaris L. Garden thyme (Europe). Recorded by Cockayne in 1928 for Central Otago, where, in places, it occupies large areas.
Solanum Pseudocapsicum L. (Tropical America). Not infrequent in damaged forest in several localities in North Island.
Solanum rostratum Dunal. Buffalo-bur (North America). Whangamomona, North Island, E. A. Madden! Hardly naturalized, but should not be allowed to become so. (See N.Z. Journ. Agric. 48: 1934: 295.)
Linaria (Kickxia) Sieberi Rchb. (Europe). Near Nelson, E. A. Madden!; D. L. Freeman!
Micrargeria filiformis Hutch. et Dalz. (Tropical Africa). Manuka scrubland near Te Aroha, North Island, C. Christensen!; T. L. Lancaster!
Veronica Anagallis L. (Eurasia, North Africa, North America). Damp ground by Manawatu River, near Ashhurst. Was collected by Colenso in Hawke's Bay, but has not since been observed there.
Veronica hederaefolia L. Ivy-leaved speedwell (Eurasia). Cultivated land at Owaka, Otago, A. Paterson!
Veronica scutellata L. Marsh speedwell (Eurasia, North Africa). Ponds by the Makino River, near Feilding, North Island.
Lonicera japonica Thumb. Honeysuckle (China, Japan). Margins of damaged forest in several localities in North Island.
Carthamus lanatus L. Saffron thistle (Europe). Near Masterton, D. Freeman!; near Wanganui, J. B. Hogg!; near Hamilton. (See N.Z. Journ. Agric. 48: 1934: 42.)
Centaurea melitensis L. Malta thistle (Europe, North Africa). Recorded in 1895 by Kirk for Canterbury, where it persists in several localities. Established in rough grasslands at Castle Point, Wellington, and has been collected near Feilding, North Island, and Nelson, in South Island.
Cirsium palustre (L) Scop. Marsh thistle (Eurasia). Recorded by the Department of Agriculture in 1911 for Westland and Southland. Damp pastures by Tiritea Stream, near Palmerston North, V. D. Zotov! (See N.Z. Journ. Agric. 48: 1934: 42.)
Eupatorium glandulosum HBK (Mexico). Established and aggressive in part of the Auckland province, especially about Whangarei, the Coromandel Peninsula, and on Rangitoto Island. (For this and the next species see N.Z. Journ. Agric. 46: 1933: 162).
Eupatorium riparium Regel. Mist flower (Mexico). Has escaped from gardens and established itself in several localities in the Auckland province.
Helenium puberulum DC. (North America). This is the species recorded by Cheeseman for “Waste places at Tapotopoto Bay, North Cape district,” as H. quadridentatum Labill., from which, however, it is quite distinct. Has now spread in pasture land over a good deal of the North Auckland Peninsula.
Senecio elegans L. (South Africa). On sandy shores about Wellington Harbour. Collected also along Mahurangi River, North Auckland, near its mouth, by C. M. Smith!
Senecio spathulatus A. Rich. (Australia). Waste places about Auckland City, especially near harbour.