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Volume 66, 1937
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An Iodine Survey of New Zealand Live-stock Part III. Sheep of the Canterbury District.

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, April 22, 1936; received by the Editor, April 16, 1936; issued separately, September, 1936.]

This work is a continuation of that already published by Mason (1933) and Sykes (1934). Following the aims and methods of these authors, the results in this paper represent a fairly detailed survey of the iodine-content of thyroid glands from sheep and lambs in the Canterbury district. As far as possible the figures have been treated statistically, and an attempt has been made to correlate analytical figures with geological and climatic data. Although at present it is not possible to say why some areas are iodine-deficient and others not, or under what conditions an iodine deficiency is likely to be enhanced, the work is of definite value for the breeder of live-stock in that it maps out with reasonable accuracy areas where a deficiency of iodine, severe or otherwise, is liable to occur.

Method.

The analytical method is that of Leitch and Henderson (1926) with slight modifications. Analytical results throughout the whole survey were obtained by workers trained in this laboratory, and are strictly comparable.

Since the samples took varying times to reach the laboratory, all results have been calculated on the dry weight of the glands. Excepting greatly enlarged goitrous glands, most lamb thyroids have a moisture-content of about 75%. From Canterbury no enlarged glands were received.

The following details in regard to each sample were collected through field officers of the Department of Agriculture:—Locality of farm; type of country; type of soil; licks supplied; manurial treatment; supplementary feeding. When all the information was collected serial numbers were given the samples and the same officers marked the positions of the farms as accurately as possible on a map, scale 10m/in. It is hoped that by this means no significant error has been made in locating the origin of the samples.

The district surveyed comprises the Canterbury Province together with that portion of Nelson Province adjoining it on the east coast. The area consists mainly of an alluvial plain stretching over 100 miles from north-east to south-west with a maximum width of 40 miles from the coast to the foothills to the westward. In the north-east the farming areas are distributed between the hills on wide river-valleys and uplands. The rainfall over the whole district is low. A few farms near the hills receive about 50 inches a year, but this rapidly decreases, and the majority receive from

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30 to 35 inches annually. Abundant material was available for this survey, since the area is largely given over to sheep farming. The area is said to be one where there is a widespread incidence of goitre in humans (Hercus and others, 1925).

During the 1932–33 and 1933–34 seasons 405 samples were received and analysed. Each sample of six complete glands represented a draft of from 20 to 200 or more lambs. Of these samples 344 were from country described as river-flats and flat or rolling plains; the remaining 61 came from farms consisting mainly of steep hillsides, which may be divided into three geological types, (a) Miocene, (b) Trias-Jura, (c) basic igneous. The results have been collected under these headings in Tables I to III.

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Figure I.

In Figure I these results have been arranged in a cumulative distribution-diagram as used by Sykes and described by him as follows:—” This is a modification of the ogive (Fisher, 1927), in which the scale is so adapted that a normal distribution results in a straight line. A complete explanation of this type of graph is given by Dufton (1930). The points are obtained by taking the percentage of the samples as ordinates, which lie on or below the different values shown as abscissae. The more nearly normal the distribution is, the more nearly straight will be the curve drawn through these points, the more upright the curve, the closer the limits of variation, and if on one diagram two or more curves are drawn, the nearer they lie, the more nearly identical are the results

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they represent. If they lie distinct from one another there is a significant difference in the results.

“The value on the curve, corresponding to the 50 per cent. mark, is the median, half the samples having more and half less than this value. If the distribution is normal, then this value will also be the mean or average. The chief advantage of this type of presentation over the more familiar histogram lies in the greater facility with which several sets of figures can be represented in one diagram.”

Examination of the curves in Figure I shows that the samples from the basic igneous hills are normally distributed and have a much higher iodine percentage than either of the others. The other two curves lie close together for the lower values, but the Miocene curve, with an absence of samples over .29 per cent. iodine, diverges from the more normal curve for the Trias-Jura. The samples from the hills, although too few for definite results, indicate that the basic igneous rocks provide adequate iodine for stock. Trias-Jura is slightly better than Miocene in this respect, and on both types lambs' thyroids may at times have a low iodine-content, though no enlarged or goitrous glands were received during the two years of sampling. The bulk of the samples were taken from lambs from alluvium and loess mainly derived from the greywacke of the mountains to the west. In the north-east and south-west the addition of weathered material from the Miocene formation is possible. Examinaton of the figures for the alluvium samples showed that those on the flats of the Waipara, Hurunui and Waiau-ua Rivers were lower than those from the plains. The division of the alluvium into plains and river flats is perhaps an arbitrary measure, yet a large number of samples from the latter fall below 10 per cent. iodine, calculated on the dry weight, which value is considered by Marine and Lenhart to be the minimum for the normal functioning of the gland.

Seasonal variation in the iodine-content of the thyroid glands of ruminants was first noted by Martin in 1912 and was confirmed by Seidell and Fenger. Dawbarn (1932) showed that Australian sheep thyroids exhibited such a variation. This effect has been ascribed to a corresponding variation in the iodine-content of pasture, and Hercus and Roberts (1927) have shown that New Zealand pasture is low in iodine in the spring and increases gradually through summer to winter. The figures obtained for Canterbury were accordingly examined to see if this variation is shown by the lamb thyroids. Glands received during January, 1933, were high in iodine compared with the mean, giving an average value of .24 per cent. iodine calculated on the dry weight. This value decreased through February to March and April with values of .18 per cent., and then showed a tendency to increase again, and −23 per cent, was recorded for May. The high value for January is not in accordance with the variation shown by Australian sheep thyroids. The gain in iodine-content from April onwards is not so marked as the earlier decrease, and it is more than probable that the seasonal variation shown by sheep thyroids is, in the lamb, completely overshadowed by variation due to the rapid growth of the young animal and changes in its iodine requirements.

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Greater variation is shown between the two years in which the samples were collected. The 1934 samples from the northern part of the district under survey contained about one-half the iodine of the 1933 samples. The figures are incomplete, since, unfortunately, the collection of samples was discontinued after March. 1934, as it was then considered that sufficient representative samples had been collected. This yearly variation is the main reason for the low figures obtained from the north, as the majority of the samples here were collected in 1934. The weather records for the district show that during the 6 months prior to April, 1934, much more rain fell than was the average and about twice as much as in the period prior to April, 1933, which was a dry season. Since the few samples received from Canterbury during 1934 gave much the same results as those of the previous year, it is doubtful whether the difference in rainfall between the two seasons is the cause of the lower values for iodine in the north during 1934. The river-flats which are common in that area, may, however, be more affected than the open plains by the increased rainfall. No correlation could be obtained between iodine values and average yearly values obtained from a rainfall map of the area. The areas of highest rainfall are the foothills, whence came but few of the samples. The variation in rainfall over the plains from 25 inches near the coast to 35 inches at the foothills is but slight. No other reason is submitted to account for the variation in iodine-content between the glands collected in the two seasons.

As the purpose of this work is a survey of the iodine in the glands collected in the district, the results have been tabulated according to river basins or other naturally bounded areas, as they occurred.

Waiau-Ua River (Table IV).

The 1933 samples were all taken from plains and river-flats. The neighbouring hills are mainly Trias-Jura, though C1410 and D247 approach a belt of Miocene. None of the samples is below the critical value of -10 per cent, iodine. D1087 is the only case where licks other than rock-salt have been used, and no information was received as to its iodine-content, if any. Rape is commonly used as supplementary feeding, and sometimes turnips and kale. ManuriaJ treatment is usually confined to the dressing sown with the foddercrops, and is generally superphosphate. Sometimes lime is added. and a few farmers prefer proprietary lines of fertilizers mixed to suit the crop grown. This supplementary feeding-practice and manurial treatment applies in general to the whole of the area surveyed. Farms in the remote western valleys near Hanmer receive up to 50 inches of rain per annum. This rapidly decreases to 30 inches at Waiau and then rises again to 35 inches towards the coast.

The 30 samples from the area taken in 1934 illustrate clearly the difference between the two years. The mean for the year is only .11 per cent, iodine, which is about half that of the 1933 samples. The values range from 04 per cent, to a maximum of 19 per cent, compared with a variation of from 11 per cent, to 32 per cent, for 1933. Half the samples are below the critical value. The

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samples D1153, D1317 and D1436 are from the same farms as C1374, C1410 and C1449 respectively, and show similarly lower iodine values throughout. Five of the samples were from stock fed iodised licks. None of these glands contained notable quantities of iodine, but it is interesting to note that none were below the critical value when so many of the other samples were deficient. The farming practice as regards crops and manuring was the same as in the previous year. The actual rainfall for the six months prior to April, 1934, was approximately double that of the corresponding period of 1933.

Hurunui River (Table V).

This river flows from Trias-Jura mountains across alluvial flats, then through Trias-Jura again and finally between Trias-Jura and Miocene formations to the sea. Most of the samples come from the wide river-flats about Culverden and Medbury. One deficient sample was received from the area among the 16 samples taken in 1933, and was from Miocene hills at Greta. Two neighbouring samples, C1041 and C1271, have a-much higher iodine-content, and are taken from similar hills nearer the sea. The mean value for all samples, 19 per cent., is about normal. The 1934 samples average only 12 per cent, iodine. All are taken from plains and river-flats, and most are from round Culverden and Medbury. Again in this case all the lambs where licks were fed had glands with more than the critical iodine-content. One sample, D1525, from Hawarden had only 01 per cent, of iodine on the dry weight, and is the lowest from the Canterbury district. The average dry weight of these glands, 1.08 grams, is by no means abnormal, as. would have been expected. The rainfall is 40–50 inches at the edge of the foothills. It decreases rapidly to 30 inches over the alluvial plain, and then increases to 35 inches again near the coast.

Waipara River (Table VI).

This river rises in mountains of Trias-Jura rock and flows through foothills which gradually decrease in size to the sea and are based on belts of Miocene and Cretaceous formation. Most of the farms samplied lie to the north of the river and adjoin those of the Hurunui River. The nine samples received in 1933 were all taken in April, and have a fairly high, iodine-content of 24 per cent. The 1934 samples were all taken in February and March, and have about half the iodine-content of the 1933 samples. Only two were below the critical value, but the rest of the glands were uniformly low. The one lick-sample does not show any result from the extra iodine. The average rainfall for the area decreases regularly from 50 inches in the hills to 30 inches at the coast.

Kowhai River (Table VII).

This is a much smaller river which rises in the foothills and flows across the northern end of the Canterbury Plain. There is a resemblance between these results and those from the larger river areas to the south. One sample in the ten is low and the rest vary from 10 per cent, to 30 per cent, of iodine for no apparent reason. The rainfall is low, being from 35 to 30 inches per annum.

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Ashley River (Table VIII).

This river rises in the higher foothills of Trias-Jura rocks and then flows across the alluvial plain. A few miles to the north a wide belt of Miocene rock runs parallel to the river. With the exception of D1452 and C1162, D1328 and D305, which represent two farms on Trias-Jura well up near the source of the river, the hill samples are from the Miocene belt. The rainfall decreases steadily from 50 to 60 inches received by the two farms mentioned to 30 inches at the coast. None of the samples collected in the two years was below the critical value, and the average for each year is the same. Of the lick-samples D1187 is the only one above the average in iodine-content. The district compares well with the rest of the area surveyed.

Waimakariri River (Table IX).

This is a large river flowing across the alluvial plain, on which all the farms sampled are situated. Six samples of the 49 received in two years were below the critical value. D128 Kirwee, D263 Courteney and D431 Aylesbury are situated close to the south bank on the lower reaches of the river, which, is well known in the country, for its severe floods. D227, at Springfield, is also close to the river. D431, with an average dry weight of 1.78 grams, approaches double the normal size, though in no way goitrous. The wet weight averaged 6.75 grams. Two samples only were from lick-fed stock, one of which, D128, has already been mentioned as deficient. The lick fed in this case was a proprietary one which the owners vary in composition to suit the area supplied. It is possible that in this case the lick contained but little iodine. D377 is from a property where three other samples were taken (D138, D330, D458), and there is nothing to explain why this one sample should have the high iodine-content of 45 per cent. The rest of the samples appear to be normal and show little difference over the two years. The rainfall varies from 50 to 30 inches on the coast.

Banks Peninsula (Table X).

This is composed of steep hillsides of basic igneous rock overlain to some extent by loess from the plains to the westward. Soil derived from such rock-formation is described as being relatively abundant in iodine, and this is borne out by the samples from this area, which have the high average of 26 per cent, iodine. Only two samples have less than 20 per cent., one from Kaituna (C967), where possibly the lambs may have been grazed on the adjoining alluvial flat, and one from Paua Bay (D303), east of Akaroa. The lack of iodine in the latter is quite inexplicable, since the farm differs in no known way from others in the district. The rainfall varies from 40 inches inland to 35 inches on the coast. In this district few supplementary crops are grown, only one farm providing turnips. No licks were used. Although glands from this district have the highest average iodine-content for the area surveyed, they do not approach the values recorded by Sykes for limestone country

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in Wairarapa, which gave an average value of 35 per cent, for 21 samples, while 13 samples from greywacke gave 31 per cent., and 21 samples from papa gave 27 per cent, iodine.

Selwyn River (Table XI).

This is a small rain-fed river which, after crossing the plain, empties into Lake Ellesmere. All the samples are from the plain except D218, which is from the Trias-Jura hills close to D194 and D432 in the Waimakariri area. This sample was from lambs fed iodised licks and is slightly higher in iodine than the two samples mentioned. Another treated sample is D379, from Lincoln, and this also has a high iodine-content. Only two samples in 33 have under the critical value for iodine, C1154, from Irwell, close to Lake Ellesmere, and D434, Aylesbury, from the middle of the plain. The average for the area, 22 per cent., is fair. The rainfall varies from 40 inches near the hills to 30 inches on the coast.

Rakaia River (Table XII).

This is a large glacier-fed river from the Southern Alps. Samples were received only from the plains along its lower course. The area appears to be average for alluvial country, averaging 20 per cent, iodine. Only one sample, D185 (26/4/33), from Dromore, was below 10 per cent, iodine, and gave a figure, 05 per cent., which is much lower than an earlier sample, C964 (19/1/33), 24 per cent., from the same farm. The rainfall varies from 40 to 30 inches.

Ashburton River (Table XIII).

This is similar to the Rakaia River, though not so large. All samples are from the plain and gave a good average figure, 23 per cent, for iodine. Five of the 39 samples had low iodine-values, four being just below the critical value and one from Tinwald (C1334) very low. One of these low samples was from lambs having access to an iodised lick. The rainfall varies from 50 to 30 inches.

Hinds River (Table XIV).

This is a smaller rain-fed river from the foothills. The average iodine-content of the glands is lower than that of those from the rivers immediately to the north, and four samples in 25 had low iodine. Two samples were from lambs fed with a proprietary lick which may not have had a significant iodine-content, since one sample was below the critical value and another was just above it. A third iodised lick-fed sample gave a value of 37 per cent, iodine. The rainfall ranges from 40 to 30 inches.

Rangitata River (Table XV).

This is another large glacier-fed river similar to the Rakaia River. All the samples are from the plains, and their average approaches that for the Hinds River samples. Four of the samples were from lick-fed lambs, and one of them, Montalto, gave the high

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figure of 45 per cent, iodine. Another of these (D265, 04 per cent.) was from Rangitata Island, where the soil is described as a sandy loam over gravel. A second farm 0n the Island was sampled, and though apparently not lick-fed, gave a value of 12 per cent, iodine. The rainfall varies from 40 to 30 inches.

It may be mentioned here that the soils of the area bounded by the Rakaia and Rangitata Rivers, and including the Hinds and Ashburton River areas, were very carefully surveyed by Dr L. I. Grange, of the Geological Survey Division. Sixty-five of the thyroid samples from this area could be identified as from specific soil-types. The numbers given in the last column but one of Tables XII–XV are those of the types enumerated by Dr Grange.

Nine samples (excluding two lick-samples) were from type 5, the Ruapuna stony silt loam. The highest value was 20 per cent, iodine; the lowest 04 per cent; with an average of 14 per cent, and weight 94 grams per gland. Ten samples from type 7, Buccleugh stony silt-loam and stony loam, averaged 22 per cent, iodine, weight 69 grams. No deficient sample was received, the lowest being 14 per cent, and the highest 34 per cent, iodine. Of type 12b, Seafield silt-loam, stony phase 2, six samples were analysed and found to vary from 09 per cent, to 34 per cent. Average 22 per cent, iodine, weight 86 grams. Type 13, Lismore stony silt-loam, was represented by 9 samples, two being 09 per cent, and the highest 29 per cent. Average 15 per cent, iodine, weight 88 grams per gland. The rest of the types had only two or less samples each. Summarising the types more broadly, 43 samples from weakly podsolised soils gave an average of 18 per cent, iodine, weight 83 grams, and included 7 deficient samples. Twenty-one samples from skeletal soils had an average of 20 per cent. iodine, weight 83 grams, and included two deficient samples. It will be seen that the difference between the types 5, 7, 12b and 13, representing the podsolised soils, exceeds the difference between the average for this class and that of the skeletal soils. It was concluded that many more samples would be necessary before any connection could be demonstrated between soil-types and iodine-content of glands. For this reason only the very broad classification of river-flats and plains has been used to subdivide the alluvial soils.

Opihi River (Table XVI)).

This is a small rain-fed river rising in Trias-Jura country, flowing through an alluvial flat about Fairlie, then through a belt of Trias-Jura and Miocene and finally across the narrowing southern end of the Canterbury Plain. Twenty-two samples were received from the district. Two from alluvium were below the critical value. The average value was 21 per cent. iodine, but this included D481, whose figure, 70 per cent. iodine, must be regarded with suspicion. One of the two lick-samples included has a reasonably high figure. The rainfall varies from 40 inches at Fairlie to 25 inches on the coast.

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Timaru (Table XVII).

This is a small district on the coast with a very light rainfall of 25 inches per annum. Here the plain is broken by low hills of basic igneous and Miocene rock. The five samples received indicate that the district resembles Banks Peninsula in the amount of iodine available.

Pareora River, Coast, and Waihao River (Table XVIII).

From Timaru southwards towards the Otago boundary the rivers become smaller, and for convenience all the samples have been grouped together. The hills in the area are either Trias-Jura or Miocene. Two samples from the narrow alluvial plain are below the critical value. Only one of three lick-fed samples appears to be high in iodine-content. The rainfall varies slightly from 30 to 25 inches per annum.

Summary of Districts (Table XIX).

In reviewing the results set forth above it may be said that no grossly enlarged or goitrous glands were received from the district. While most of the glands had an iodine-content above the critical value of 10 per cent. on the dry weight, scattered samples were found to fall below this figure without the size of the gland being unduly affected. No type of soil or country may be definitely associated with low iodine-content except the river-flats of the Waiau-ua, Hurunui and Waipara districts, which gave a low iodine-value only in the 1934 samples. A few scattered samples taken from river-banks, e.g., the three from the Waimakariri River, show a tendency to be low in iodine. Only in a few cases did stock provided with iodised licks show definite evidence that the licks had been taken and the iodine-content of the glands increased. Frequently the lick fed was a proprietary compound which is said to be altered by the makers to suit the mineral requirements of a district. No doubt in many cases where this lick was used the iodine-content of the lick did not justify the description as an iodised lick. Another factor which interferes with the results from feeding licks is the extreme solubility of potassium iodide and the leaching effect of rain upon the blocks in the field. No conclusions may safely be drawn from these results in regard to the feeding of iodised licks. Special experiments such as are being conducted in Southland are essential if useful data are to be obtained.

The dry weight of the glands have been given throughout the tables and the percentages of iodine calculated on these weights. In general the weights of the glands vary inversely with the percentage of iodine in the gland as has been reported by other workers.

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In Figure II the results obtained for alluvium in Canterbury are compared with those for alluvium in Wairarapa (Sykes). The North Canterbury samples have been divided into those from plains and those from river-flats, and the samples for each year kept separate. There is a strong resemblance between the Wairarapa curve and those of the North Canterbury Plains and flats, 1933, and a general similarity between these three and the Canterbury Plains curve. The last represents 170 samples, and is not truly comparable. For the year 1933, then, the glands from the alluvial plains and flats of the whole of the Canterbury district showed a similarity in their iodine-content which was materially the same as that of glands from alluvium in the Wairarapa district. It would seem that these samples are truly representative of alluvial country having a light rainfall. About 10 per cent, of the glands have an iodine-content below the critical value, while the average percentages is about 18. Compared with samples from other types of country, e.g., basic igneous, the samples from alluvium are low in iodine. Any factor which increases the demand for iodine or decreases the amount available in the pasture may cause a drop in the iodine-content, and, if severe, no doubt epidemics of goitre would appear on this type of country. During the 1934 season the iodine-content of glands from North Canterbury was adversely affected, though not

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Figure II.

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sufficiently to cause an outbreak of goitre. Neither 1933 nor 1934 was a normal season in this district, the first being drier and the second rather wetter than usual. If this difference in rainfall is the sole cause of variation in iodine-content then a normal season should produce glands giving a curve between those shown for the years mentioned in Figure II.

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Figure III.

In Figure III results from all the districts surveyed have been shown. Glands from limestone areas in Wairarapa are shown to have the highest average iodine-content followed by Banks Peninsula. The curve for Otago is flatter. This indicates a wider range of variation in percentage iodine in the glands. The curve for Canterbury Plains may be taken to represent alluvium under dry conditions, e.g., Wairarapa alluvium and North Canterbury alluvium, 1933. Southland has 30 per cent, of samples below the critical value, and has been described by Mason as a district where goitre is liable to occur. The curve for North Canterbury flats shows how this district, which was previously on the border-line, reveals a definite shortage of iodine in the year 1934. Figure IV is a geological sketch map of the district showing the origin of the samples which are classified as deficient, normal, or high in iodine-content.

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Figure IV.

Summary.

A large number of thyroid glands from lambs of the Canterbury Province, New Zealand, have been analysed for iodine-content by the method of Leitch and Henderson (1926). The results have been grouped according to the geological character of the country. The average values for the iodine-content of glands from the main types are:—

Basic igneous 0.28 percent, (on the dry weight)
Miocene 0.22 "
Trias-Jura 0.20 "
Recent (alluvium) 0.18 "

The results have also been grouped in the districts from which the samples came.

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No correlation can be shown between iodine-content of glands and soil types.

Any seasonal variations that may occur in the iodine-content of lambs' thyroids tend to be obscured by other factors.

No greatly enlarged glands were received.

Comparison has been made with results from Otago, Southland, and Wairarapa.

With the exception of Banks Peninsula the district is low in iodine, and occasional outbreaks of goitre are possible, especially on river-flats subject to flooding.

The authors wish to thank Mr B. C. Aston, Chief Chemist, Department of Agriculture, for helpful advice and criticism; the officers of the Live-Stock Division of the Department, who arranged the collection of samples and data; and Dr L. I. Grange, who kindly supplied a copy of his soil-map of Ashburton County.

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[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Table I. Hills—Miocene (Papa, Sandstone, Limestone).
Lab. No. Date. Location. %iodine dry weight. Dry weight per gland (grams). Soll. Rainfall (inches).
C1041 30.1.33 Blythe Downs, Seargill 0.35 0.37 loam papa & clay 35
C1361 14.3.33 Greta, Scargill 0.08 1.03 loam clay, papa, gravel 30
D148 19.4.33 Waihao Downs, Waimate 0.10 1.16 loam clay 25
D181 26.4.33 Loburn, Rangiora 0.14 1.05 loam clay, sand 40
D199 26.4.33 Gleniti, Timaru 0.19 1.21 loam lime 25
D200 26.4.33 Cave, Timaru 0.11 0.95 loam clay 30
D202 26.4.33 Fairlie 0.27 0.67 clay, gravel 35
D267 5.5.33 Fernside, Rangiora 0.23 1.10 loam clay & rock 30
D299 9.5.33 Medbury 0.19 0.80 loam gravel 35
D301 9.5.33 Waipara 0.29 0.53 loam lime 35
D315 9.5.33 Waihao Downs 0.27 0.78 loam clay 25
D321 10.5.33 Maungaiti, Timaru 0.37 0.39 sandy loam lime 30
D325 10.5.33 Maungaiti 0.23 1.05 loam clay & lime 30
D364 16.5.33 Gordons Valley, Timaru 0.13 0.93 loam clay & lime 30
D374 17.5.33 Pleasant Point 0.22 0.82 loam & clay 30
D414 23.5.33 Geraldine 0.18 1.09 loam clay & lime 40
D415 23.5.33 Geraldine 0.16 1.34 loam & lime 40
D423 24.5.33 Waihao Downs 0.19 0.81 lime & gravel 25
D481 16.6.33 Cave 0.70 0.34 lime clay 30
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D1187* 14.2.34 Cust 0.24 0.69 clay & loam 30
D1358 7.3.34 Waipara 0.10 1.13 loam lime & clay 30
D1367 7.3.34 Cust 0.21 0.93 clay & loam 35
D1368 7.3.34 Fernside 0.25 0.64 clay & loam 30
D1416 13.3.34 Waikari 0.04 0.95 loam lime & clay 50
D1423 13.4.34 Fernside 0.15 0.56 loam 35
Average (25 samples) 0.22 0.85

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Table II. Hills—Trlas-Jura (Greywacke in This District).
Lab No. Date. Location Percentage iodine dry weight. Dry weight per gland (grams). Soil. Duplicate samples. Rainfall (inches).
C943 17.1.33 Otaio, Timaru 0.29 0.44 loam clay 30
C1162 24.2.33 Oxford 0.18 0.32 light rocky D1338 D305 60
D201 26.4.33 Hook, Studholme 0.27 0.81 clay & loam clay D324 30
D218* 28.4.33 Russell's Flat, Springfield 0.29 0.58 clay loam 40
D305 8.5.33 Oxford 0.14 0.69 light rocky C1162 D1338 60
D297 9.5.33 Fairlie 0.24 0.61 clay 35
D298 9.5.33 Albury 0.12 0.75 clay 30
D316 9.5.33 Fairlie 0.24 0.98 clay 30
D322 10.5.33 Hook 0.14 0.84 loam clay 30
D324 10.5.33 Hook 0.22 1.20 clay & loam clay D201 30
D1338 13.3.34 Oxford 0.13 0.69 light rocky C1162 D305 60
D1452 16.3.34 Oxford 0.13 0.29 light loam 60
Average (12 samples) 0.20 0.68

[Footnote] *Iodised licks fed: similarly for all numbers marked with an asterisk in subsequent tables.

[Footnote] *Iodised licks fed: similarly for all numbers marked with an asterisk in subsequent tables.

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Table III. Hills—Basic Igneous.
Lab. No. Date. Location. Percentage iodine dry weight. Dry weight per gland (grams). Soil. Rainfall (inches).
C870 28.12.32 Banks Peninsula Little River 0.35 0.30 clay, sand, gravel, rock 40
C967 24.1.33 Kaituna 0.16 0.57 clay, rock 35
D15 31.3.33 Little River 0.29 0.45 clay, rock 40
D174 20.4.33 Flea Bay 0.22 0.88 clay, loam, rock 35
D228 20.4.33 Little River 0.22 0.78 clay, loam, rock 40
D206 27.4.33 Little River 0.25 0.50 loam, rock 40
D239 2.5.33 Waikirikiri Bay 0.23 0.75 clay, loam, gravel 35
D240 2.5.33 Hickory Bay 0.21 0.62 clay, loam, rock 40
D242 2.5.33 Hickory Bay 0.29 0.66 clay, loam, rock 40
D244 3.5.33 Waimu 0.37 0.53 clay, loam, rock 35
D268 5.5.33 Stony Bay 0.24 0.59 clay, loam, rock 35
D302 8.5.33 Paua Bay 0.37 0.39 clay, loam, rock 40
D303 8.5.33 Paua Bay 0.06 1.11 clay, loam, rock 40
D304 8.5.33 Fisherman Bay 0.34 0.58 clay, loam, rock 35
D337 12.5.33 Gough Bay 0.29 0.59 clay, loam, rock 40
D376 17.5.33 Onuku 0.31 0.50 loam, rock 40
D417 23.5.33 Timaru/Kingsdown 0.23 0.84 loam/clay 25
D455 30.5.33 Tycho 0.30 0.60 loam/clay 25
D1174 13.2.34 Otipu 0.50 0.77 loam/clay 25
Average (19 samples) 0.28 0.63
– 159 –

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Table IV. Waiau-ua River, 1933.
Lab. No. Date. Location. Percentage iodine dry weight. Dry weight per gland (grams). Country. Soil. Geology Duplicate samples. Rainfall (inches).
C1087 14.2.33 Phoebe 0.27 0.56 Plains clay alluvium 35
C1374 14.3.33 Phoebe 0.22 0.87 " " " D1153 D1255 35
C1408 17.3.33 Waiau 0.20 0.72 " " " 35
C1401 17.3.33 Parnassus 0.25 0.48 " " Trias-Jura Miocene D1317 35
C1449 27.3.33 Mina 0.20 0.67 " " Trias-Jura D1436 30
D111 11.4.33 Spotswood 0.18 0.67 Flats silt alluvium Trias-Jura 40
D123 12.4.33 Rotherham 0.17 0.65 Plains clay/gravel alluvium 30
D153 20.4.33 Hanmer Springs 0.13 0.70 Flats gravel Trias-Jura 50
D183 26.4.33 Culverden 0.11 0.58 " clay " 50
D247 3.5.33 Parnassus 0.32 0.67 " silt Miocene 35
D256 3.5.33 Mina 0.15 0.98 Plains clay Trias-Jura 30
D262 5.5.33 Waiau 0.24 0.83 " alluvium 35
D435 26.5.33 Rotherham 0.12 0.61 Flats silt " D1351 30
1933 average (13 samples) 0.20 0.69
– 160 –

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Table IV. Waiau-ua River, 1934.
Lab. No. Date. Location. Percentage iodine dry weight. Dry weight per gland (grams). Country. Soil. Geology Duplicate samples. Rainfall (inches).
D1129* 9.2.34 Mina 0.10 1.07 Plains clay Trias-Jura 30
D1153 9.2.34 Phoebe 0.16 0.76 " " alluvium C1374 D1255 35
D1171 13.2.34 Phoebe 0.09 0.74 " clay, loam Cretaceous 40
D1181 14.2.34 Spotswood 0.18 0.81 " clay Trias-Jura 40
D1224 20.2.34 Spotswood 0.10 1.04 Flats silt Trias-Jura alluvium 40
D1226 20.2.34 Rotherham 0.17 0.65 " clay/gravel alluvium 30
D1227 20.2.34 Waiau 0.18 0.87 Plains clay " 30
D1233 21.2.34 Phoebe 0.15 1.04 " " " 30
D1242 22.2.34 Waiau 0.09 1.00 " " Cretaceous 50
D1244* 22.2.34 Phoebe 0.13 1.01 " " alluvium D1435 35
D1255 23.2.34 Phoebe 0.16 0.71 " " " C1374 D1153 35
D1277 27.2.34 Waiau 0.15 0.86 " " " 40
D1293 27.2.34 Rotherham 0.05 0.91 Flats clay, silt Trias-Jura D1523 D1450 30
D1297 28.2.34 Spotswood 0.09 0.92 Plains clay alluvium 40
D1317 1.3.34 Parnassus 0.13 1.05 " " Miocene Trias-Jura C1410 35
D1322 2.3.34 Waiau 0.05 1.13 " " Trias-Jura 40
D1323 2.3.34 Waiau 0.19 0.86 " alluvium 40
D1326 3.3.34 Culverden 0.11 1.10 " clay/gravel " 40
D1340 3.3.34 Spotswood 0.04 1.16 Flats gravel Trias-Jura 40
D1351 6.3.34 Rotherham 0.06 0.91 " silt alluvium D435 30
D1399* 9.3.34 Culverden 0.12 1.01 Plains gravel " 35
D1400 9.3.34 Spotswood 0.05 1.11 Flats clay, silt/gravel & loam " 35
D1419 13.3.34 Parnassus 0.04 1.04 Plains clay Miocene 35
D1427 13.3.34 Waiau 0.09 0.93 Flats silt Trias-Jura 35
D1435* 14.3.34 Phoebe 0.17 0.94 Plains clay alluvium D1244 35
D1436 14.3.34 Mina 0.07 1.29 " " Trias-Jura C1449 30
D1450 16.3.34 Rotherham 0.08 1.21 Flats clay, silt " D1523 D1293 30
D1495 20.3.34 Waiau 0.09 0.63 Plains clay alluvium 30
D1523 21.3.34 Rotherham 0.06 1.31 Flats clay, silt Trias-Jura D1293 D1450 30
D1524 21.3.34 Rotherham 0.12 1.30 " gravel, loam " 30
1934 average (30 samples) 0.11 0.98
– 161 –

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Table V. Hurunui River.
Lab No. Date. 1933 Location Percentage iodine dry weight. Dry weight per gland (grams). Country. Soil. Geology. Duplicate Samples. Rainfall (Inches).
C1041 30.1.33 Blythe Downs 0.35 0.37 Hills loam papa, clay Miocene 35
C1061 6.2.33 Cheviot 0.17 0.57 Plains silt sand Trias-Jura 40
C1271 3.3.33 Happy Valley, Seargill 0.33 0.41 " loam papa, clay Miocene 35
C1301 6.3.33 Culverden 0.13 0.42 " clay Alluvium 30
C1321 9.3.33 Seargill 0.25 0.62 " loam papa, lime Trias-Jura Miocene 30
C1361 14.3.3 Greta 0.08 1.03 Hills loam clay, papa & gravel " 30
C1417 21.3.33 Hawarden 0.12 0.82 Plains clay lime Alluvium 35
D141 19.4.33 Balmoral 0.21 0.61 " clay gravel Miocene Trias-Jura D1352 50
D151 20.4.33 Domett 0.11 0.80 " clay Miocene D237 35
D152 20.4.33 Domett 0.18 0.78 " clay Trias-Jura 35
D180 26.4.33 Medbury 0.18 0.71 Flats loam loam, clay Alluvium 35
D216 28.4.33 Medbury 0.25 0.50 " loam gravel " 35
D237 1.5.33 Domett 0.18 0.78 Plains clay Miocene D151 35
D245 3.5.33 Domett 0.22 0.55 " clay " 35
D299 9.5.33 Medbury 0.19 0.80 Hills loam gravel " 35
D400 19.5.33 Culverden 0.11 1.31 Plains gravel Alluvium Miocene 50
1933 average (16 samples) 0.19 0.69
D1222 1934. 20.2.34 Pahau 0.12 0.67 Flats gravel Alluvium 35
D1223 20.2.34 Pahau 0.23 0.86 " " " 35
D1240 22.2.34 Hawarden 0.10 1.08 Plains loam lime, clay Alluvium Trias-Jura 30
D1241 22.2.34 Medbury 0.06 0.99 Flats loam gravel Alluvium 35
D1243 22.2.34 Hawarden 0.28 0.88 Plains loam clay Miocene 35
D1245* 22.2.34 Domett 0.12 0.80 " clay Alluvium 35
D1276* 27.2.34 Balmoral 0.24 1.02 Flats gravel " D1386 35
D1290 27.2.34 Culverden 0.13 1.09 " gravel " 35
D1292 27.2.34 Seargill 0.09 1.25 Plains loam/clay Trias-Jura 30
– 162 –

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D1299 28.2.34 Culverden 0.10 0.81 Flats gravel Alluvium 50
D1316 1.3.34 Scargill 0.19 0.61 Plains loam lime Trias-Jura 39
D1319 1.3.34 Balmoral 0.11 1.00 Flats gravel Alluvium 35
D1321 2.3.34 Culverden 0.10 0.86 " " " 50
D1352 16.3.34 Balmoral 0.09 1.19 Plains clay gravel Trias-Jura Miocene D141 50
D1353 6.3.34 Medbury 0.12 0.62 Flats loam, clay gravel Alluvium 35
D1357* 7.3.34 Domett 0.12 0.80 Plains clay " 35
D1369 7.3.34 Hawarden 0.05 1.41 " loam lime Miocene 30
D1386* 8.3.34 Balmoral 0.24 0.81 Flats gravel Alluvium D1276 35
D1387 8.3.34 Culverden 0.11 1.04 " clay gravel " 50
D1395 9.3.34 Medbury 0.07 1.07 " loam clay " 40
D1401 9.3.34 Pahau 0.13 0.82 Plains clay gravel " 30
D1417 13.3.34 Hawarden 0.13 0.66 " loam clay " 50
D1425 13.3.34 Mina 0.11 0.92 " clay Miocene 40
D1426 13.3.34 Domett 0.12 0.79 " clay Cretaceous 40
D1451 16.3.34 Pahau 0.12 0.82 Flats gravel Alluvium 35
D1476* 20.3.34 Scargill 0.19 0.63 Plains loam clay Trias-Jura 30
D1488 20.3.34 Medbury 0.09 0.91 Flats loam gravel Alluvium 30
D1490 20.3.34 Culverden 0.03 1.62 Plains gravel " 35
D1491 20.3.34 Balmoral 0.13 1.23 Swamps loam gravel Trias-Jura Miocene 50
D1492 20.3.34 Hawarden 0.12 0.87 Flats loam clay gravel Alluvium 30
D1493 20.3.34 Scargill 0.11 0.75 Plains loam clay Trias-Jura 30
D1496 20.3.34 Hawarden 0.07 1.14 " loam clay, lime Miocene Alluvium 35
D1497 20.3.34 Culverden 0.05 0.93 Flats gravel Alluvium 30
D1522 21.3.34 Balmoral 0.09 0.87 " gravel Miocene Trias-Jura 40
D1523 21.3.34 Culverden 0.06 1.31 " gravel Alluvium 35
D1525 21.3.34 Hawarden 0.01 1.08 " loam lime, clay & sand Miocene Alluvium 50
1934 average (36 samples) 0.12 0.95
– 163 –

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Table VI. Waipara River, 1933.
Lab No. Date. Location Percentage iodine dry weight. Dry weight per gland (grams). Country. Soil. Geology. Duplicate Samples. Rainfall (Inches).
D26 4.4.33 Glasniven 0.28 0.55 Plains loam lime, clay Miocene D184 D1346 30
D109 10.4.33 Waipara 0.34 0.44 " loam lime, clay Cretaceous 35
D173 20.4.33 Spye 0.11 0.99 " loam clay Miocene 30
D184 26.4.33 Glasniven 0.26 0.48 " loam lime, clay " D26 D1346 30
D196 27.4.33 Waikari 0.17 0.65 Hills loam clay Trias-Jura Miocene Cretaceous D372 50
D301 9.5.33 Waipara 0.29 0.53 " loam lime Miocene 35
D371 17.5.33 Waikari 0.22 0.73 Plains loam lime " 30
D372 17.5.33 Waikari 0.18 1.02 Hills loam clay Miocene Trias-Jura Cretaceous D196 50
D373 17.5.33 Hawarden 0.35 0.60 Flats loam gravel Alluvium D1347 50
1933 average (9 samples) 0.24 0.67

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Waipara River, 1934.
Lab No. Date. Location Percentage iodine dry weight. Dry weight per gland (grams). Country. Soil. Geology. Duplicate Samples. Rainfall (Inches).
D1175 13.2.34 Waipara 0.14 0.70 Flats loam gravel, lime Miocene 30
D1180 14.2.34 Omihi 0.05 0.90 " loam clay " 30
D1278 27.2.34 Scargill 0.12 0.70 Plains loam clay Miocene Trias-Jura 30
D1318 1.3.34 Waikari 0.10 1.13 Flats loam clay Trias-Jura 30
D1346 7.3.34 Glasniven 0.15 0.74 Plains loam lime, clay Miocene D26 D184 30
D1347 7.3.34 Hawarden 0.16 0.41 Flats loam gravel Alluvium D373 50
D1356* 7.3.34 Waipara 0.13 0.72 " loam sandstone & clay Miocene 30
D1358 7.3.34 Waipara 0.10 1.13 Hills loam lime, clay " 30
– 164 –

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D1373 7.3.34 Waikari 0.12 0.56 Flats loam clay Alluvium 35
D1416 13.3.34 Waikari 0.04 0.95 Hills loam lime, clay Miocene 50
D1418 13.3.34 Waikari 0.20 0.51 Plains loam lime, clay Miocene Alluvium 40
D1437 14.3.34 Scargill 0.15 1.11 " loam clay Miocene 30
D1478 20.3.34 Waikari 0.17 0.55 " loam lime " 35
D1479 20.3.34 Waikari 0.16 0.49 " loam lime " 35
D1518 22.2.34 Spye 0.16 0.88 " loam clay " 30
1934 average (15 samples) 0.13 0.77

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Table VII. Kowhai River, 1933 and 1934.
Lab No. Date. Location Percentage iodine dry weight. Dry weight per gland (grams). Country. Soil. Geology. Rainfall (Inches).
D47 4.4.33 Balcairn 0.16 0.84 Flats loam sand Alluvium 30
D461 31.5.33 Balcairn 0.30 0.16 Plains loam clay " 35
D1109 6.2.34 Amberley 0.18 0.69 Flats loam clay " 35
D1110 6.2.34 Amberley 0.16 0.72 Plains loam sand & clay " 35
D1225* 20.2.34 Amberley 0.14 0.81 Flats loam clay " 35
D1291 27.2.34 Balcairn 0.25 0.47 Plains loam clay " 35
D1477 20.3.34 Amberley 0.14 0.66 " loam clay " 30
D1489 20.3.34 Amberley 0.10 0.87 " loam sandstone " 35
D1494 20.3.34 Amberley 0.08 1.00 " loam sand " 30
D1519 22.3.34 Balcairn 0.13 1.10 Flats loam clay " 35
Average (10 samples) 0.16 0.73
– 165 –

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Table VIII. Ashley River.
Lab No. Date. Location Percentage iodine dry weight. Dry weight per gland (grams). Country. Soil. Geology. Duplicate Samples. Rainfall (Inches).
C1162 24.2.33 Oxford 0.18 0.32 Hills light rocky Trias-Jura D1338 D305 60
C1330 10.3.33 East Oxford 0.22 0.77 Plains loam clay Alluvium 40
C1437 24.3.33 Bennetts 0.14 1.05 " light loam " 35
D171 21.4.33 Bennetts 0.19 0.68 " sandy loam Miocene 35
D181 26.4.33 Loburn 0.14 1.05 Hills loam clay, sand " 40
D191 28.4.33 Bydal Downs, Loburn 0.12 1.09 Flats loam gravel " 50
D223 28.4.33 Loburn 0.24 0.74 " loam gravel " 50
D267 5.5.33 Fernside 0.23 1.10 Hills loam clay, rock " 30
D305 8.5.33 Oxford 0.14 0.69 " light rocky Trias-Jura D1338 C1162 60
D329 10.5.33 Bennetts 0.22 0.80 Plains loam Alluvium 35
D433 26.5.33 Loburn 0.25 0.44 " loam clay Miocene 40
D460 31.5.33 Loburn 0.17 0.63 Flats loam gravel " 35
1933 average (12 samples) 0.19 0.78
D834 24.11.33 1934 Waikuku, Rangiora 0.15 0.55 Plains loam Alluvium D1397 30
D1111* 6.2.34 Loburn 0.16 1.21 " loam clay " 35
D1151 8.2.34 Woodend, Rangiora 0.36 0.28 " loam " 30
D1182 14.2.34 Ashley 0.17 0.73 " loam clay, silt " 35
D1187* 14.2.34 Cust 0.24 0.69 Hills loam clay Miocene 30
D1220 20.2.34 Ashley 0.16 0.87 Flats loam clay Alluvium 30
D1275 27.2.34 Loburn 0.11 1.06 " loam gravel " 40
D1327 3.3.34 Sefton 0.24 0.69 " loam clay, gravel " 30
D1355 7.3.34 Loburn 0.15 0.73 " loam clay " 35
D1367 7.3.34 Cust 0.21 0.93 Hills loam clay Miocene 35
– 166 –

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D1368 7.3.34 Fernside 0.25 0.64 " loam clay " 30
D1397 9.3.34 Waikuku 0.13 0.69 Plains loam Alluvium D834 30
D1338 13.3.34 Oxford 0.18 0.47 Hills light rocky Trias-Jura C1162 D305 60
D1341* 13.3.34 Loburn 0.15 1.23 Flats loam gravel Alluvium 35
D1452 16.3.34 Oxford 0.13 0.29 Hills light loam Trias-Jura 60
D1517 22.3.34 Woodend 0.22 0.76 Plains loam Alluvium 30
D1422 13.4.34 East Oxford 0.18 0.55 " loam clay " 40
D1423 13.4.34 Cust 0.15 0.56 Hills loam Miocene 35
1934 average (18 samples) 0.19 0.72

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Table IX. Waimakariri River.
Lab No. Date. Location Percentage iodine dry weight. Dry weight per gland (grams). Country. Soil. Geology. Duplicate Samples. Rainfall (Inches).
C904 9.1.33 Templeton 0.22 0.50 Plains sandy loam Alluvium 30
C929 16.1.33 Yaldhurst 0.24 0.52 " light loam " 25
C1130 21.2.33 West Eyreton 0.13 0.92 " loam " D1398 30
C1419 21.3.33 Racecourse Hill 0.20 0.73 " loam " 35
C1455 28.3.33 Kirwee 0.14 0.73 " sandy loam " 30
D44 5.4.33 East Oxford 0.26 0.68 " sandy loam " 40
D135 12.4.33 East Oxford 0.17 0.72 " clay loam " 50
D128* 11.4.33 Kirwee 0.09 0.70 " loam " 30
D126 11.4.33 Hornby 0.23 0.83 " loam gravel " D254 35
D127 11.4.33 West Oxford 0.13 0.65 " clay loam " 35
D138 19.4.33 West Oxford 0.19 0.55 " clay loam " D330 D377 D458 40
D139 19.4.33 West Eyreton 0.16 1.28 " loam " 35
0D140 19.4.33 West Oxford 0.07 1.04 " loam " D430 D1253 50
D142* 19.4.33 Springbank 0.21 0.63 " clay loam " 30
D143 19.4.33 West Oxford 0.15 0.66 " loam " 50
– 167 –

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D227 20.4.33 Springfield 0.09 1.34 Plains loam Alluvium 40
D169 21.4.33 East Oxford 0.21 0.79 " loam " 35
D170 21.4.33 West Oxford 0.21 0.68 " clay loam " 30
D192 27.4.33 Swannanoa 0.14 0.60 " loam " 30
D194 27.4.33 Annat 0.22 0.61 " loam Trias-Jura 40
D195 27.4.33 Sheffield 0.14 0.52 " loam Alluvium 35
D246 3.5.33 Bennetts 0.29 0.72 " loam " 30
D253 3.5.33 Hornby 0.18 1.14 " loam clay " 35
D254 3.5.33 Hornby 0.23 0.72 " loam gravel " D123 35
D255 3.5.33 Hornby 0.21 0.89 " loam gravel " 35
D263 5.5.33 Courtenay 0.09 0.62 " loam " 35
D261 6.5.33 Fernside 0.19 1.34 " loam " 30
D330 10.5.33 West Oxford 0.20 0.91 " clay loam " D138 D377 D458 40
D377 17.5.33 West Oxford 0.45 0.41 " clay loam " D138 D330 D458 40
D430 24.5.33 West Oxford 0.12 0.40 " loam " D140 D1253 50
D431 24.5.33 Aylesbury 0.06 1.78 " loam " 30
D432 24.5.33 Annat 0.23 0.61 " clay loam Trias-Jura 40
D458 31.5.33 West Oxford 0.30 0.60 " clay loam Alluvium D138 D330 D377 40
1933 average (33 samples) 0.19 0.78
D833 24.11.33 West Eyreton 0.32 0.59 " loam " 30
D1188 14.2.34 Cust 0.10 0.83 " loam " 30
D1189 14.2.34 Cust 0.27 0.58 " loam " 35
D1253 23.2.34 West Oxford 0.15 0.42 " loam " D140 D430 50
D1254 23.2.34 West Eyreton 0.17 0.58 " loam " 35
D1300 28.2.34 East Eyreton 0.03 1.18 " sandy loam " 30
D1324 3.3.34 Horrelville 0.12 0.92 " loam " 35
D1325 3.3.34 Horrelville 0.16 0.77 " loam " 30
D1366 7.3.34 Springbank 0.23 1.07 " sandy loam " 30
– 168 –

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D1389 8.3.34 Swannanoa 0.24 0.88 Plains sandy loam Alluvium 30
D1396 9.3.34 West Eyreton 0.16 0.64 " sandy loam " 35
D1398 9.3.34 West Eyreton 0.17 0.68 " loam " C1130 30
D1339 13.3.34 Eyreton 0.17 0.98 " sandy loam " 35
D1424 13.3.34 Springbank 0.07 1.05 " loam " 30
D1454 16.3.34 West Oxford 0.20 0.62 " loam " 40
D1521 21.3.34 Swannanoa 0.10 0.72 " sandy loam " 30
1934 average (16 samples) 0.18 0.78

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Table X. Banks Peninsula.
Lab No. Date. Location Percentage iodine dry weight. Dry weight per gland (grams). Country. Soil. Geology. Rainfall (Inches).
C870 28.12.32 Little River 0.35 0.30 Hills clay, sand, gravel, rock Basic igneous 40
C967 24.1.33 Kaituna 0.16 0.57 " clay, rock " 35
D15 31.3.33 Little River 0.29 0.45 " clay, rock " 40
D174 20.4.33 Flea Bay 0.22 0.88 " clay, loam, rock " 35
D288 20.4.33 Little River 0.22 0.78 " loam, loam, rock " 40
D206 27.4.33 Little River 0.25 0.50 " loam, rock " 40
D239 2.5.33 Waikirikiri Bay 0.23 0.75 " clay, loam, gravel " 35
D240 2.5.33 Hickory Bay 0.21 0.62 " clay, loam, rock " 40
D242 2.5.33 Hickory Bay 0.29 0.66 " clay, loam, rock " 40
D244 3.5.33 Waimu 0.37 0.53 " clay, loam, rock " 35
D268 5.5.33 Stony Bay 0.24 0.59 " clay, loam, rock " 35
D302 8.5.33 Paua Bay 0.37 0.39 " clay, loam, rock " 40
D303 8.5.33 Paua Bay 0.06 1.11 " clay, loam, rock " 40
D304 8.5.33 Fisherman Bay 0.34 0.58 " clay, loam, rock " 35
D337 12.5.33 Gough Bay 0.29 0.59 " clay, loam, rock " 40
D376 17.5.33 Onuku 0.31 0.50 " loam, rock " 40
Average (16 samples) 0.26 0.61
– 169 –

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Table XI. Selwyn River.
Lab No. Date. Location Percentage iodine dry weight. Dry weight per gland (grams). Country. Soil. Geology. Duplicate Samples. Rainfall (Inches).
C893 5.1.33 Greendale 0.31 0.46 Plains loam Alluvium 30
C913 11.1.33 Coalgate 0.28 0.35 " loam Cretaceous 35
C945 16.1.33 Dunsandel 0.34 0.54 " loam Alluvium 30
C961 23.1.33 Hawkins 0.24 0.56 " sandy loam " 35
C1122 20.2.33 Norwood 0.21 0.52 " sandy loam " 30
C1154 23.2.33 Irwell 0.08 1.44 " loam " 30
C1173 27.2.33 Greendale 0.13 0.42 " loam " 35
C1184 28.2.33 Coalgate 0.15 0.81 " light loam " D225 35
D2 30.3.33 Windwhistle 0.22 0.45 " sandy loam " 35
D3 30.3.33 Waddington 0.18 1.19 " loam " 35
D108 10.4.33 Greendale 0.13 0.58 " loam " 35
D129 12.4.33 Hororata 0.13 0.48 " clay loam " 30
D130 12.4.33 Hororata 0.15 0.62 " clay loam " 35
D182 26.4.33 Darfield 0.14 0.65 " loam " 35
D225 20.4.33 Coalgate 0.24 0.67 " light loam " C1184 35
D213 28.4.33 Hororata 0.16 0.42 " loam " 35
D214 28.4.33 Hawkins 0.26 0.39 " loam " 35
D215 28.4.33 Greendale 0.13 0.48 " loam " 30
D217 28.4.33 Hawkins 0.24 0.37 " loam " 30
D218* 28.4.33 Russell's Flat 0.29 0.58 Hills clay loam Trias-Jura 40
D236 1.5.33 Leeston 0.25 0.82 Plains loam, peat Alluvium 30
D238 1.5.33 Norwood 0.22 0.76 " loam " 30
D241 2.5.33 Greendale 0.24 0.80 " sandy loam " 30
D264 5.5.33 Darfield 0.38 0.65 " loam " 35
D300 9.5.33 Homebush 0.26 0.60 " clay loam Cretaceous 35
D328 10.5.33 Aylesbury 0.23 0.88 " light loam Alluvium 30
D333 12.5.33 Glenroy 0.21 0.70 " clay loam Cretaceous 35
D338 12.5.33 Dunsandel 0.22 1.09 " clay loam Alluvium 30
D378 17.5.33 Southbridge 0.29 0.71 " loam, peat " 30
D379* 17.5.33 Lincoln 0.42 0.62 " loam " 30
D434 26.5.33 Aylesbury 0.09 1.11 " loam " 30
D438 26.5.33 Hororata 0.26 0.48 " loam " 35
D1296 28.2.34 Norwood 0.20 0.80 " light loam " 30
Average (33 samples) 0.22 0.66
– 170 –

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Table XII. Rakala River.
Lab No. Date. Location Percentage iodine dry weight. Dry weight per gland (grams). Country. Soil. Geology. Duplicate Samples. Soil Type. Rainfall (Inches).
C964 19.1.33 Dromore 0.24 0.43 Plains gravel Alluvium D185 12b 30
C1084 16.2.33 Bankside 0.18 0.52 " clay, loam " 30
C1138 22.2.33 Mitcham 0.12 0.64 " loam " 25 30
C1155 24.2.33 Mitcham 0.17 0.72 " loam clay, silt, gravel " 26 30
C1186 27.2.33 Dorie 0.18 0.72 " loam, sand gravel " 37 30
C1268 1.3.33 Chertsey 0.17 0.80 " loam clay " 12b 30
C1270 2.3.33 Te Perita 0.11 0.63 " loam " 30
C1358 14.3.33 Bankside 0.28 0.51 " sand " 30
D112 10.4.33 Chertsey 0.18 1.10 " loam clay, gravel " 30
D165 19.4.33 Methven 0.29 0.61 " loam clay " 18 40
D175 20.4.33 Methven 0.20 0.80 " loam clay, gravel " 17 40
D185 26.4.33 Dromore 0.05 1.01 " gravel " C964 12b 30
D230 27.4.33 Pendarves 0.24 0.39 " loam clay, gravel " 16 30
D319 11.5.33 Somerton 0.16 1.02 " loam clay, gravel " 16 30
D339 13.5.33 Te Perita 0.29 0.59 " loam " 30
D340 15.5.33 Chertsey 0.28 0.65 " loam clay, gravel " 30
D380 16.5.33 Rakaia 0.26 0.48 " loam clay, gravel " 12b 12 30
D1125 8.2.34 Methven 0.17 0.46 " silt, loam " 17 19 40
D1453 16.3.34 Lauriston 0.19 0.53 " silt, loam " D124 9 10 35
Average (19 samples) 0.20 0.68
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Table XIII. Ashburton River.
Lab No. Date. Location Percentage iodine dry weight. Dry weight per gland (grams). Country. Soil. Geology. Duplicate Samples. Soil Type. Rainfall (Inches).
C825 14.12.32 Eiffleton 0.20 0.74 Plains heavy loam Alluvium 39 30
C846* 16.12.32 Seafield 0.54 0.52 " silt, gravel " 12 30
C851 19.12.32 Methven 0.21 0.54 " silt, gravel " D459 7 40
C1047 1.2.33 Elgin 0.23 0.61 " silt, gravel " 35
C1098 15.2.33 Methven 0.31 0.49 " loam clay " 7 50
C1185 27.2.33 Winchmore 0.37 0.49 " loam clay, gravel " 20, 11 35
C1267 1.3.33 Lyndhurst 0.23 0.72 " loam clay " 10, 11 35
C1304 7.3.33 Valetta 0.18 0.77 " loam clay " 35
C1334 9.3.33 Tinwald 0.04 0.98 " loam clay " 37, 32, 29 30
C1335 9.3.33 Ashburton Forks 0.34 0.43 " loam gravel " 7 40
C1431 21.3.33 Winchmore 0.09 0.57 " loam gravel " 12b, 12 30
D52 6.4.33 Methven 0.30 0.45 " loam clay, gravel " 50
D116 10.4.33 Ashton 0.16 0.75 " loam clay, gravel " 41 30
D117 10.4.33 Winchmore 0.09 1.03 " loam clay, gravel " 12b 30
D124 12.4.33 Methven 0.25 1.00 " loam clay, gravel " D1453 9, 10 40
D132 12.4.33 Laghmor 0.19 0.89 " loam clay, gravel " 29, 32 35
D157 19.4.33 Valetta 0.17 0.59 " loam clay, gravel " 7 35
D158* 19.4.33 Lismore 0.09 0.85 " loam clay, gravel " 33 30
D164 19.4.33 Scafield 0.08 1.12 " loam clay, gravel " 12 30
D226 20.4.33 Methven 0.21 0.94 " loam clay, gravel " 7 50
D186 26.4.33 Winchmore 0.21 1.43 " loam clay, gravel " 12b 30
D187 26.4.33 Ashburton Forks 0.28 0.95 " loam gravel " 7 35
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D188 26.4.33 Greenstreet 0.11 0.96 Plains loam clay, gravel Alluvium 36, 34 30
D189 26.4.33 Ashburton Forks 0.20 0.93 " loam gravel " 7 35
D232 27.4.33 Seafield 0.16 0.62 " loam clay, gravel " 12 30
D222 28.4.33 Winchmore 0.25 0.75 " loam clay, gravel " 12b 35
D270 5.5.33 Winchmore 0.34 0.71 " loam clay, gravel " 12b 35
D269 5.5.33 Methven 0.28 1.21 " loam clay " 20 40
D260 6.5.33 Valetta 0.12 1.25 " loam clay, gravel " 7, 21 35
D295 9.5.33 Ashburton 0.29 0.94 " loam gravel " 12 30
D296 9.5.33 Seafield 0.22 0.63 " loam clay, gravel " 29 30
D310 9.5.33 Mt. Somers 0.22 0.51 Hills loam clay Mixed 35
D320 11.5.33 Huntington 0.42 0.59 Plains loam clay, gravel Alluvium 30
D331 16.5.33 Flemington 0.35 0.73 " loam clay, gravel " 41, 34 30
D382 16.5.33 Wakanui 0.48 0.45 " loam clay " 29 30
D397 18.5.33 Tinwald 0.13 1.26 " loam clay, gravel " 42 30
D398 18.5.33 Tinwald 0.17 0.45 " loam clay, gravel " 29 30
D399 18.5.33 Tinwald 0.19 0.89 " loam clay, gravel " 15 30
D459 31.5.33 Methven 0.28 0.81 " silt, gravel " C851 7 40
Average (39 samples) 0.23 0.78
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Table XIV. Hinds River.
Lab No. Date. Location Percentage iodine dry weight. Dry weight per gland (grams). Country. Soil. Geology. Soil Type. Rainfall (Inches).
C968 24.1.33 Carew 0.09 0.69 Plains loam, sand Alluvium 13 35
C1045* 30.1.33 Longbeach 0.37 0.50 " silt, gravel " 12a 30
C1156 24.2.33 Mayfield 0.14 0.67 " loam, silt clay, gravel " 7 35
C1203 1.3.33 Mt. Somers 0.12 0.73 " loam clay " 35
C1308 7.3.33 Longbeach 0.09 0.87 " loam gravel " 33, 34 30
C1360 13.3.33 Hinds 0.08 1.10 Flats silt gravel " 34, 36 30
C1411 16.3.33 Mayfield 0.13 0.79 Plains loam clay, gravel " 13 35
C1412 24.3.33 Mayfield 0.21 0.92 " " " 13 35
C1442 10.4.33 Lismore 0.10 0.93 " " " 13 35
D113 10.4.33 Lismore 0.24 0.88 " " " 13 35
D114* 10.4.33 Eiffleton 0.11 1.08 " " " 39 30
D115 10.4.33 Flemington 0.13 0.95 " " " 41 30
D118 11.4.33 Mayfield 0.16 0.66 " " " 7 35
D119 11.4.33 Mayfield 0.17 1.13 " " " 21, 29 35
D133 12.4.33 Lismore 0.18 0.74 " " " 29, 15 35
D156 19.4.33 Anama 0.18 0.66 " " " 7 35
D159 19.4.33 Lismore 0.29 0.80 " " " 13 35
D163 19.4.33 Mayfield 0.19 0.67 " " " 5 35
D166 21.4.33 Mayfield 0.14 1.09 " " " 13 35
D167 21.4.33 Ruapuna 0.15 1.08 " " " 5 40
D235 27.4.33 Mayfield 0.13 1.05 " loam/clay " 13 35
D219* 28.4.33 Mayfield 0.07 0.83 " loam clay, gravel " 5, 13 35
D259 6.5.33 Mayfield 0.33 0.76 " " " 21 35
D294 9.5.33 Willowby 0.35 0.96 " loam clay " 34, 39 30
D335 12.5.33 Hind 0.41 0.60 " loam clay, gravel " 29 30
Average (25 samples) 0.18 0.85
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Table XV. Rangitata River.
Lab No. Date. Location Percentage iodine dry weight. Dry weight per gland (grams). Country. Soil. Geology. Soil Type. Rainfall (Inches).
D54* 6.4.33 Ealing 0.19 0.53 Plains loam clay, gravel Alluvium 13 30
D131 12.4.33 Ruapuna 0.18 0.83 " " " 5 40
D146 19.4.33 Orton 0.15 1.12 " loam gravel " 25
D155 19.4.33 Ealing 0.09 0.79 " loam clay, gravel " 13 35
D190 26.4.33 Montalto 0.04 1.23 " " " 5 40
D231 27.4.33 Ruapuna 0.20 0.84 " " " 5 40
D233 27.4.33 Ruapuna 0.10 1.16 " " " 5 40
D234 27.4.33 Ruapuna 0.13 0.73 " " " 5 40
D220 28.4.33 Montalto 0.20 0.59 " " " 21,5 40
D221* 28.4.33 Montalto 0.45 0.50 " " " 5 40
D265* 4.5.33 Rangitata Island 0.04 1.68 Flats loam gravel " 30
D271* 5.5.33 Montalto 0.17 0.97 Plains loam clay, gravel " 5 40
D272 5.5.33 Ealing 0.37 0.59 " " " 28 30
D257 6.5.33 Ruapuna 0.13 0.06 " loam " 5 40
D258 6.5.33 Ruapuna 0.18 1.28 " loam clay, gravel " 5 40
D452 30.5.33 Rangitata Island 0.12 0.62 Flats loam gravel " 30
Average (16 samples) 0.17 0.88
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Table XVI. Opihi River.
Lab No. Date. Location Percentage iodine dry weight. Dry weight per gland (grams). Country. Soil. Geology. Rainfall (Inches).
C1127 21.2.33 Albury 0.22 0.65 Flats clay gravel Miocene Alluvium 30
D150* 19.4.33 Fairlie 0.13 0.81 Plains clay gravel Trias-Jura Miocene 40
D198 26.4.33 Fairlie 0.06 1.70 " clay silt Alluvium 40
D202 26.4.33 Fairlie 0.27 0.67 Hills clay gravel Miocene 35
D224 28.4.33 Orari 0.13 0.70 Flats loam silt, clay Alluvium 30
D250 2.5.33 Tycho 0.17 0.76 Plains loam clay Trias-Jura 30
D251 2.5.33 Fairlie 0.14 1.20 " clay gravel Alluvium 40
D252 2.5.33 Fairlie 0.15 0.63 " gravel " 40
D297 9.5.33 Fairlie 0.24 0.61 Hills clay Trias-Jura 35
D298 9.5.33 Albury 0.12 0.75 " clay " 30
D314 9.5.33 Temuka 0.12 1.42 Flats loam clay Alluvium 25
D316 9.5.33 Fairlie 0.22 0.98 Hills clay Trias-Jura 30
D374 17.5.33 Pleasant Point 0.22 0.82 " loam clay Miocene 30
D414 23.5.33 Geraldine 0.18 1.09 " loam clay, lime " 30
D415 23.5.33 Geraldine 0.16 1.34 " loam lime " 40
D428 24.5.33 Fairlie 0.27 0.67 Plains loam gravel Alluvium 40
D437 26.5.33 Fairlie 0.33 0.62 " clay Trias-Jura 35
D464 31.5.33 Orari 0.07 0.58 Flats loam clay Miocene Alluvium 30
D465* 31.5.33 Fairlie 0.30 0.82 Plains loam Trias-Jura Miocene 40
D486 10.6.33 Albury 0.11 1.58 " clay gravel " 30
D481 16.6.33 Cave 0.70 0.34 Hills loam clay Miocene 30
D482 16.6.33 Fairlie 0.36 0.56 " clay time Trias-Jura Miocene 40
Average (22 samples) 0.21 0.88
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Table XVII. Timaru.
Lab No. Date. Location Percentage iodine dry weight. Dry weight per gland (grams). Country. Soil. Geology. Rainfall (Inches).
D199 26.4.33 Gleniti 0.19 1.21 Hills loam lime Miocene 25
D248 2.5.33 Washdyke 0.19 1.16 Plains loam clay Basic igneous 25
D417 23.5.33 Kingsdown 0.23 0.84 Hills " " 25
D455 30.5.33 Tycho 0.30 0.60 " " " 25
D1174 13.2.34 Otipu 0.50 0.77 " " " 25
Average (5 samples) 0.28 0.92

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Table XVIII. Pareora River, Coast, and Waihao River.
Lab No. Date. Location Percentage iodine dry weight. Dry weight per gland (grams). Country. Soil. Geology. Duplicate Samples. Rainfall (Inches)
C943 17.1.33 Otaio 0.29 0.44 Hills loam clay Trias-Jura 30
D148 19.4.33 Waihao Downs 0.10 1.16 " " Miocene 25
D200 26.4.33 Cave 0.11 0.95 " " " 30
D201 26.4.33 Hook 0.27 0.81 " " Trias-Jura D324 30
D249 2.5.33 St. Andrews 0.09 1.33 Plains " Alluvium 25
D266 4.5.33 Maungaiti 0.22 1.04 Hills " Trias-Jura Miocene 30
D315 9.5.33 Waihao 0.27 0.78 " " Miocene 25
D317 9.5.33 St. Andrews 0.28 0.77 Plains loam gravel Alluvium 25
D318 9.5.33 St. Andrews 0.20 0.81 " loam clay " 25
D321 10.5.33 Maungaiti 0.37 0.59 Hills sand lime Miocene 30
D322 10.5.33 Hook 0.14 0.84 " loam/clay Trias-Jura 30
D323 10.5.33 Otaio 0.04 1.33 Plains " Alluvium 30
D324 10.5.33 Hook 0.22 1.20 Hills " Trias-Jura D201 30
D325 10.5.33 Maungaiti 0.23 1.05 " loam clay, lime Miocene 30
D364 16.5.33 Gordon's valley 0.13 0.93 " " " 30
D365 16.5.33 Studholme 0.22 1.04 Plains loam clay Alluvium 30
D393* 18.5.33 St. Andrews 0.18 0.97 " loam gravel " 30
D416 23.5.33 Morven 0.25 0.55 " " " 30
D423 24.5.33 Waihao Downs 0.19 0.81 Hills lime, gravel Miocene 25
D424 24.5.33 Makikihi 0.20 1.06 Plains loam clay Alluvium 30
D487* 10.6.33 Morven 0.20 0.48 " " " 25
D483* 16.6.33 Morven 0.28 0.55 Flats " " 30
Average (22 samples) 0.20 0.89
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Table XIX. Summary of Districts.
District. Number of Samples. Percentage of Iodine calculated on dry weight.
Highest Value. Lowest Value. Average.
Waiau-ua River, 1933 13 0.32 0.11 0.20
Waiau-ua River, 1934 30 0.19 0.04 0.11
Hurunui River, 1933 16 0.35 0.08 0.19
Hurunui River, 1934 36 0.28 0.01 0.12
Waipara River, 1933 9 0.35 0.11 0.24
Waipara River, 1934 15 0.20 0.04 0.13
Kowhai River, 1933 and 1934 10 0.30 0.08 0.16
Ashley River, 1933 12 0.25 0.12 0.19
Ashley River, 1934 18 0.36 0.11 0.19
Waimakariri River, 1933 33 0.45 0.06 0.19
Waimakariri River, 1934 16 0.24 0.03 0.18
Banks Peninsula, 1933 16 0.37 0.06 0.26
Selwyn River, 1933 33 0.38 0.08 0.22
Rakaia River, 1933 19 0.29 0.05 0.20
Ashburton River, 1933 39 0.48 0.04 0.23
Hinds River, 1933 25 0.41 0.07 0.18
Rangitata River, 1933 16 0.37 0.04 0.17
Opihi River, 1933 22 0.33 0.06 0.21
Timaru, 1933 5 0.50 0.19 0.28
Pareora, Coast, and Waihao River, 1933 22 0.37 0.04 0.20

References.

Dawbarn, Mary C., and Farr, F. C., 1932. Variations in the Dry Weight and Iodine Content of the Thyroid Glands of Sheep Under Uniform and Varying Conditions, The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, vol. 10, pp. 119–142.

Hercus, C. E., and Benson, W. N., and Carter, C. L., 1925. Endemic Goitre in New Zealand and Its Relation to the Soil Iodine, The Journal of Hygiene, vol. 24, pp. 321–402.

Hercus, C. E., and Roberts, K. C., 1927. The Iodine Content of Foods, Manures, and Animal Products in Relation to the Phophylaxis of Endemic Goitre in New Zealand, The Journal of Hygiene, vol. 26, pp. 49–83.

Leitch, Isabella, and Henderson, J. Mc A., 1926. The Estimation of Iodine in Foodstuffs and Body Fluids, The Biochemical Journal, vol. 20, pp. 1003–1007.

Mason, Ethelwyn M., 1933. An Iodine Survey of New Zealand Live-stock, Part I. Sheep and Lamb Thyroids from Otago and Southland, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 63, pp. 373–388.

Sykes, P. H., 1934. An Iodine Survey of New Zealand Live-stock, Part II. Sheep of the Wairarapa District, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 64, pp. 17–34.