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Volume 66, 1937
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On the Collembolan Fauna of New Zealand

[Read before the Auckland Institute, October 2, 1935; received by the Editor, February 21, 1936; issued separately, December, 1936.]

Introduction.

Even at the present day the Collembola of New Zealand are very little known, only 23 species having been recorded. The first recorded species were Lipura incerta Mz. and Drepanura brachycephala Mz. described by Moniez (Rev. Biol. Nord. France, VI, 1894) as associated with ants of the genus Monomorium. The first of these species has been shown by Denis (Ann. Soc. Entom, France, XCII, 210, 1923) to be synonymous with Onchiurus armatus (Tulbg.) and in the same paper (p. 223) he showed D. brachycephala to be a species of Lepidophorella. In 1895 W. W. Smith (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 28, p. 475) recorded Acherutes armatus Nic. and Entomobrya multi-fasciata Tulbg. as having been sent to Moneiz. The first of these is now placed at Hypogastrura armata (Nic.). In 1899 Lubbock (Jour. Lin. Soc. London, XXVII, 334) among a number of species from Tasmania described the remarkable Anoura spinosa which was shown later by Dendy (Trans. N.Z. Inst, vol. 33, p. 7) to be really from New Zealand. Later the species was placed by Börner (Jahrb. Hamburg wissen. Anst., XXIII) in a new genus Holacanthella. In his paper entitled “Some collembola from Southern New Zealand” (Mem. Manchester Lit. & Phil. Soc., LXIX, 1925, 1) Dr G. H. Carpenter described and recorded eleven species, nine of which were additions to the list. These were:—

  • Hypogastrura (Achorutes) longispinas Tlbg.

  • Pseudachorutes brunneus n.sp.

  • Pseudachorutes algidensis n.sp.

  • Platanurida lata n.gen., n.sp.

  • Holacantha spinosa (Lubbock)

  • Cryptopygus niger n.sp.

  • Isotomurus (Isotoma) chiltoni n.sp.

  • Lepidophorella brachyccphala (Mz.)

  • Lepidophorella australia n.sp.

  • Pseudoparonella (Paronella) bidenticulata n.sp.

  • Bourletiella hortensis (Fitch)

N.B.—The generic name in brackets is that used by the author in question.

In 1929 the present writer (E.M.M., LXV) recorded Tomocerus minor Lubk. and Lepidosira coeruleus Schött, the latter under the generic name of Lepidocyrtoides from Kumara, South Island, New

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Zealand. In the same journal for the following year he added the following:—

  • Hypogastrura armata (Nic.)

  • Hypogastrura campbelli n.sp.

  • Triacanthella rosea Wahlgren.

  • Achorutes cirratus Schött

  • Tomocerus minor Lubk.

  • Entomobrya lamingtonensis Schött

  • Lepidosira (Lepidocyrtoides) fuscata n.sp.

  • Lepidosira (Lepidocyrtoides) sagmarius Schött

all the material being from Kumara and collected by Dr J. W. Campbell. The latest paper to appear was that by E. D. Pritchard (Rec. Auck. Inst. Mus., I, 135–7, 1932) in which he described Entomobrya cuniculicola from Niger Bay, Onehunga, Auckland; but this species is now shown to be identical with Sinella termitum Schött, a widely distributed Australian form.

In this paper the writer deals with a large amount of material from both North and South Islands, mainly collected by Mr Pritchard in the neighbourhood of Auckland; but also including some from the region of Canterbury, South Island, collected by Mr G. H. Helson and Mr L. Morrison. To these enthusiastic collectors the writer's thanks are extended.

Systematic Treatment.

  • Order Collembola Lubbock 1863.

  • Suborder Arthropleona Börner 1901.

  • Superfam. Poduroidea Tillyard. Womersley 1933.

  • Fam. Hypogastruridae Börner 1913.

  • Subfam. Hypogastrurinae Börner 1906.

Genus Hypograstrura Bourl. 1839. Börner 1906.

Hypogastrura armata (Nie. 1841).

This is almost a cosmopolitan species, having been widely distributed by man. In addition to the records previously mentioned the writer has seen specimens from Mataitai School, Clevedon, Auckland, 15/10/31 (E. D. P.), and from Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, 31/7/33 (E. D. P.).

Hypogastrura longispina (Turb.) 1876.

Royal Oak, Auckland, 14/5/34 (E. D. P.).

Hypogastrura pseudopurpurascens Wom. 1928.

A single specimen of this widely distributed species from humus from Pukekaroro Creek, Hillsborough, Auckland, 21/10/34 (E. D. P.).

Genus Polyacanthella Schäffer 1900.

Polyacanthella parva n.sp. (Text-fig. 1, a-c.)

Description: Small species, length 0.6 mm. Colour deep blue-black. Antennae two-thirds as long as head; III with sensory organ as figured with a long thick doubly-bent seta on each side; IV probably with a few olfactory hairs, but these indefinitely seen.

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Legs short; claws simple without inner teeth, empoidal appendage wanting. Furca wanting. Anal spines 6, short and straight, arising from the cuticle and not from papillae. Cuticle granular. Anal segment elongated slightly. Ocelli 8 on each side, equal. Clothing sparse, fine and short.

Locality: In humus from Pukekaroro Creek, Hillsborough, Auckland, 21/10/34 (E. D. P.).

Remarks: This species is closely related to P. acuminata Denis, a species originally placed in the subgenus Conotelsa on account of the elongate anal segment. Like this species it has 6 anal spines, but lacks the furca.

Subfam. Acharutinae Bönier 1906.

Genus Pseudachorutes Tullbg. 1892.

Pseudachorutes pacificus n.sp. (Text-fig. 1, d-h.)

Description: Length 2.6 mm. Colour dark brownish. Antennae as long as head, segments I : II : III : IV = 7 : 7 : 8 : 8; III and IV indistinctly separated; antennal organ III as in Fig. 1, e; IV with only small and indistinct terminal knob and with olfactory hairs not differentiated; antennal setae rather long. Ocelli 8 on each side on pigmented patches, equal. Postantennal organ about as large as a single omma, with central boss and four irregular peripheral lobes (see Fig.). Mandible present, styliform; head of maxillae as in Fig. 1, f. Claws with inner tooth in the basal third; no clavate tibiotarsal hairs. Furca well developed; dentes rather thick and a litle more than twice as long as mucro; mucro as in Fig. 1, h, dens plus mucro twice as long as claw; dens granular with a number of fine setae (see Fig.).

Locality: A single specimen from Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, 27/8/32 (E. D. P.).

Remarks: This species is very closely related to Pseudachorutes javanicus Handschin from Java, with which form I was at first inclined to associate it. It differs, however, in the form of the sensory organ on antennae III, in the shape of the peripheral lobes of the postantennal organ and in the dens plus mucro being twice the length of the claw. In P. javanicus the claw is almost as long as the dens plus mucro. Moreover, the colour of Handschin's species is given as “carmine,” whereas our species is brown.

Pseudachorutes novae-zealandiae n.sp. (Tex-fig. 1, i-k.)

Description: Length 5.0 mm. Colour deep blue-black. Facies somewhat as in the genus Ceratrimeria with distinct pleural areas. Ocellar patch small, deeply pigmented; ocelli 8 on each side, equal; postantennal organ as large as a single omma, with 8–10 lobes and central boss. Antennae shorter than the head, segments I : II : III plus IV =8 : 10 : 20; III and IV indistinctly separated; sensory organ on III not seen; IV with short setae and 4–6 curved olfactory setae; apical lobe not seen. Mandibles styliform. Claw with inner tooth at about one-third; tibiotarsus with clavate hairs. Furca well developed; mucro one-third the length of claw, stout, with only

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indistinct apical knob-like lobe with lines of fine granulations (Fig. 1, k); dentes granular with numerous granulations and six ventral fine setae and three times as long as mucro. Cuticle finely granular with few short fine setae.

Locality: in humus from Davies' Bush, Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, 24/8/34 (E. D. P.).

Remarks: This species differs from all known New Zealand forms in the general facies, postantennal organ, claws and particularly the mucro.

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Text-fig. I.—a: Polyacanthella parva n.sp. Antenna. b: Polyacanthella parva n.sp. Tibiotarsus and claw. c: Polyacanthella parva n.sp. Anal segment and spines from above. d: Pseudachorutes pacificus n.sp. Ocelli and p.a.o. e: Pseudachorutes pacificus n.sp. Antennal organ III. f: Pseudochorutes paoificus n.sp. Head of maxilla. g: Pseudachorutes pacificus n.sp. Claw and tip of tibiotarsus. h: Pseudachorutes pacificus n.sp. Mucro and dens. i: Pseudachorutes novae-zealandiae n.sp. Ocelli and p.a.o. j: Pseudachorutes novae-zealandiae n.sp. Tibiotarsus and claw, k: Pseudachorutes novae-zealandiae n.sp. Furca.

Genus Brachstomella Agren 1903.

Brachystomella parvula (Schäffer 1896).

Specimens of this almost cosmopolitan species were taken at Davies' Bush, Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, 7/5/34 (E. D. P.).

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Genus Achorutes Templeton 1835, Börner 1906.

Achorutes muscorum Templeton 1835.

Several specimens from Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, 31/7/33 (E. D. P.). Almost certainly an introduction from Europe.

Achorutes cirratus Schött 1917.

A well-known Australasian species. From Davies Bush, Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, 14/7/34 (E. D. P.).

Fam. Onychiuridae (Lubbk. 1867) Börner 1913.

Genus Onychiurus Gervais 1841, Börner 1901.

Onychiurus fimetarius (L.) 1766.

Almost a cosmopolitan species spread by man. From Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, 15/9/33, 5/5/34 (E. D. P.); Pukekaroro Creek, Hillsborough, Auckland, 21/10/34 (E. D. P.).

Genus Tullbergia Lubbock 1876.

Tullbergia krausbaueri (Börner) 1901.

A number of specimens referrable to this European species and probably introduced. In humus from Pukekaroro Creek, Hillsborough, Auckland, 21/10/34 (E. D. P.).

Superfam. Entomobryoidea Tillyard. Womersley 1933.
Fam. Isotomidae (Schffr. 1898, Börner 1913).

Genus Cryptopygus Willem 1902.

Cryptopygus loftyensis Womersley 1934.

Two specimens of this recently described Australian species from humus Pukekaroro Creek, Hillsborough, Auckland, 21/10/34 (E. D. P.).

Genus Folsomia Willem 1902.

Folsomia fimetarioides Axelson 1903.

A European species which is probably introduced, as is the case with the following two species, represented by a number of specimens from humus from Pukekaroro Creek. Hillsborough, Auckland, 21/10/34 (E. D. P.).

Folsomia diplophthalma Axelson 1902.

A few specimens of this form were found in the humus from Pukekaroro Creek, Hillsborough, Auckland, 21/10/34 (E. D. P.).

Folsomia quadrioculata Tullberg 1871.

A very large number of this European species was obtained by means of the Berlese funnel from humus from Pukekaroro Creek, Hillsborough, Auckland, 21/10/34 (E. D. P.).

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Genus Archisotoma Linnanieni 1912.

Archisotoma brucei Carpenter 1906.

This is a very interesting littoral species which was described from the South Orkney Islands. From the closely allied form from the Northern Hemisphere it differs mainly in possessing only 6 ocelli on each side. The discovery by Mr Pritchard of this subantarctic insect so far north as Little Oneroa, Waiheke Island, Auckland (19–20/1/34), is therefore of great interest from the point of view of geographical distribution. The specimens were found amongst shore debris.

Genus Isotomurus Börner 1903.

Isotomurus chiltoni (Carpenter) 1925.

This species was originally described from South Island as Isotoma chiltoni. The present writer has shown that it is really a species of Isotomurus and that it is widely distributed in Australia. Mr Pritchard found specimens at Mataitai School. Clevedon, Auckland, 15/10/31.

Genus Isotoma (Bourlet 1839) Börner 1906.

Isotoma maritima Tullbg 1871.

This is a littoral species widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. That it should occur in New Zealand is remarkable, and knowledge of its probable mode of introduction should be very interesting. The localities are “among mussels on rocks,” Muriwai, Auckland, 29/1/31 (E. D. P.), and “in shore debris,” Little Oneroa, Waiheke Island, Auckland, 20/1/33 (E. D. P.).

Isotoma notabilis (Schffr.) 1896.

Almost certainly an introduced species. Taken at Davies' Bush, Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, 14/7/34, 9/34 (E. D. P.).

Isotoma minor Schäffer 1896.

This is another well-known European species characterised by the absence of both eyes and postantennal organ, a number of clavate sensory setae on antennae IV, the longer body-hairs being ciliated and the tridentate mucro. It is also a probable introduction. A number of specimens were obtained from humus from Pukekaroro Creek, Hillsborough, Auckland, 21/10/34 (E. D. P.).

Isotoma linnaniemi Womersley 1934.

Taken by Mr Pritchard at Davies' Bush, Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, 14/7/34.

Fam. Tomoceridae (Schäffer 1896).

Genus Lepidophorella Schäffer 1897.

Lepidophorella australis Carpenter 1925.

Davies' Bush, Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, 14/7/34 (E. D. P.). A number of specimens.

Lepidophorella brachycephalla (Moneiz) 1894.

Waiheke Island, Auckland, 19/7/33 (E. D. P.); Davies' Bush, Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, 7/5/34 (E. D. P.).

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Fam. Entomobryidae Schäffer 1896.

Genus Sinella Brook 1882.

Sinella termitum Schött 1917.

Syn. Entomobrya cuniculicola Pritchard 1932.

Taken in burrows of Melampsalta, Niger Bay, Manukau, Auckland, 7/10/31; Manurewa, Auckland, 31/7/33 (E. D. P.). The types and other specimens of E. cuniculicola have been compared with typical Australian specimens of Schött's species.

Sinella coeca Schött 1896.

This is probably an introduction from Europe. It was found at Manurewa, Auckland, 6/8/34.

Genus Entomobrya Rondani 1861.

Entomobrya varia Schött 1917.

This species was described by Schött from Australia, where it is widely distributed, It has been found in New Zealand at Niger Bay, Hillsborough, Auckland, 14/1/33, 10/3/34 (E. D. P.).

Entomobrya clittelaria v. newmani Womersley 1934.

This species is an American introduction occurring widely in the cultivated parts of Australia. The variety, which lacks the black thoracic bands, was found at Brookby, Manurewa. Auckland, 5/5/34 (E. D. P.).

Entomobrya nivalis f. principalis 1758.

Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, 30/7/34 (E. D. P.). This and the following form are probably introductions from Europe.

Entomobrya nivalis f. immaculata Schäffer 1896.

Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, 30/7/34 (E. D. P.).

Genus Lepidocyrtus Bourlet 1839.

Lepidocyrtus nigrofasciatus Womersley 1934.

An Australian species taken in some numbers at Davies' Bush, Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, 24/8/34 (E. D. P.).

Genus Lepidosira Schött 1925.

Lepidosira fuscata Womersley 1930.

Originally described by the writer from Kumara, South Island, under the name of Lepidocyrtoides fuscata. This species has been found in some numbers in the following localities:—Waiheke Island, Auckland, 19/1/33 (E. D. P.); Davies' Bush, Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, 14/7/34, 24/8/34 (E. D. P.).

Lepidosira coerulea Schött 1917.

Davies' Bush, Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, 14/7/34 (E. D. P.).

Genus Pseudosinella Schäffer 1897.

Pseudosinella fasciata Womersley 1934.

A widely distributed species in Australia. This has been found in New Zealand at Mataitai School, Clevedon, Auckland, 15/10/31 (E. D. P.).

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Pseudosinella alba (Packard) 1873.

Probably introduced. It has been taken at Davies' Bush, Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, 14/7/34 (E. D. P.), and at Mataitai School, Clevedon, Auckland, 15/10/31 (E. D. P.).

Genus Pseudoparonella Handschin 1923.

Pseudoparonella bidenticulata (Carpenter 1925).

Syn. Paronella bidenticulata. Carpenter 1925.

This species was originally described from Mount Algidus, Canterbury. The old genus Paronella was, however, in 1923, subdivided by Handschin, and this species falls into his genus Pseudoparonella.

It can now be recorded from Waiheke Island, Auckland, 19/1/33 (E. D. P.)

Genus Chaetoceras Handschin 1926.

This genus was erected for a species, Chaetoceras sarasini Handschin, from New Caledonia (Philippine Jour. Sci., XXX, p. 238, 1926). The following generic characters were given by the author:—“Body long and slender. Antennae more than twice as long as the body, underneath with long stiff bristles, sometimes as long as a joint. Furea broad, nearly twice as long as the body. Mucro smooth, not disarticulated from the dentes, with coarse teeth. Body covered with broad, dense serrated bristles.” He further remarks that the genus seems to connect the Paronellini with the Cremastocephalini.

In his work on the material collected by the. Mjöberg Expedition to Australia Schött (Arkiv. f. Zool., II, p. 22, 1917) resurrected the generic name Pericrypta Ritter, 1912, giving P. fasciata Ritter as the genotype, Ritter's other species P. sulcata having been shown to be really a species of Cremastocephalus (now Salina). Schött described Pericrypta mjöbergi from Australia. In my recent paper (Proc. Roy. Soc. S.A. 1934) I added two other species of Pericrypta from Australia, P. dandenongensis and P. lineata. From a study of these three species of Pericrypta and comparison with Handschin's generic characters of Chaetoceras there seems very little to separate the two genera, beyond the very long setae on the antennae and legs and the tendency for ciliated or plumose dorsal setae to broaden and become scale-like. Indeed in P. dandenongensis the longer antennal setae rather approach those of Chaetoceras in length. It would seem, therefore, that Handschin's genus may be better considered at not more than a subgenus of Pericrypta (Ritter) Schött, but until more material of the Australasian species is available it should stand. The new species described in this paper also differs from all the above species in possessing spined dentes, a character which may necessitate further separation.

Chaetoceras pritchardi n.sp. (Text-fig. II, a-e).

Description: Length to 3.0 mm. Colour yellowish with brownislt medial longitudinal stripe due to brownish setae and with light bluish or purplish pigmentation on head and body as indicated in Fig. 2a; legs and antennae purplish. Eyes 8 on each side on dark patches, equal. Antennae about twice as long as body, ratio or segments

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Text.fig II.—Chaetorea pritchardi n.sp. a: Entire animal from side. b: Food. c: Muero, d: Part of dens showing spines, e: Various thoracic and dorsal setae.

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I : II : III : IV = 60 : 80 : 45 : 100; the relative lengths somewhat variable but III always much shorter than IV, and IV much longer than III; III and IV distinctly annulated. Body-segments th. II : III : abd. I : II : III : IV : V : VI = 25 : 18 : 10 : 12 : 13 : 55 : 6 : 2; abd. V about 4 times as long as III. Legs long, elaws with a large outer tooth and two inner teeth; empodial appendage simple, without teeth, reaching distal inner tooth of claw; spur hair of tibiotarsus thick, spathulate and almost as long as claw. Furca as long as body; ratio of manubrium to mucrodens = 65 : 100; dens with numerous ciliated setae and a single row of spines which are simple, without apical scale-like lobes at apex; mucro not distinctly separated from dens, bidentate. Clothing of numerous ciliated or plumose setae which are very variable in length and shape, from the long clavate thoracic setae to the long pointed ones on the bodysegments; the shorter setae dorsally on the thorax and abdomen tend to broaden and become somewhat scale-like (ef. Fig. 2, e). The antennae on the lower surface and the legs carry a number of very long simple setae which often are almost as long as the segments themselves.

Localities: Among fallen leaves in native bush at Niger Bay. Hillsborough, Auckland, 22/12/32 (E. D. P.); Davies' Bush, Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, 26/8/32 (E. D. P.).

Remarks: This very interesting form is closely related to the genotype from New Caledonia, but differs from it distinctly in the presence of the dental spines and in the absence of an inner angle to the empodial appendage. I have considerable pleasure in dedicating it to its finder.

Suborder Symphypleona Börner 1901.
Family Neelidae Folsom 1896.

Genus Neelus Folsom 1896.

Neelus swani Womersley 1932.

This, the first species of this family to be recorded from New Zealand, occurred in leaf-mould at Davies' Bush, Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, 14/7/34 (E. D. P.). Several specimens were obtained by putting the material through the Berlese funnel.

Family Sminthuridae Lubbock 1870.
Subfam. Sminthuridinae Börner 1906.

Genus Sminthuridinae Börner 1903.

Sminthurinus terrestris Womersley 1932.

This species was originally described from South Africa, but has been found widely distributed in Australia, and has recently been sent to me from Christchurch, New Zealand, Dec./34 (L. M.)

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Genus Katianna Börner 1906

Katianna australis Womersley 1932.

A common species in Australia, and it sometimes does almost as much damage to clovers as the introduced Sminthurus viridis (L.). Specimens have been received from the following New Zealand localities:—Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, 31/7/33 (E. D. P.); Mataitai School, Clevedon, Auckland, 15/10/31 (E. D. P.).

Genus Deuterosminthurus Börner 1903 s.str.

Deuterosminthurus repandus Agren 1903.

Probably introduced from Europe. This species has been sent from Christchurch, South Island, July/34 (G. H. H.). It has also been recorded from Tasmania.

Genus Bourletiella Banks 1899.

Bourletiella arvalis (Fitch) 1863.

Probably a species of European origin, a well-known pest of truck crops in Europe and America. Specimens have been taken at Mataitai School, Clevedon, Auckland, 15/10/31 (E. D. P.).

Bourletiella hortensis (Fitch) 1863.

On similar distribution to the above. This species has recently been sent as attacking strawberries at Christchurch, South Island, Sept./34 (G. H. H.). It has previously been recorded for the South Island by Dr G. H. Carpenter.

Genus Sminthurus (Latreille 1804) Börner 1903.

Sminthurus denisi Womersley 1934.

This species was originally described by the writer from Australia under the name of S. longicornis (1932) but the name was changed later to S. denisi on the grounds of priority. Specimens have been taken at Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, 26/8/32, 14/3/34 (E. D. P.).

Genus Dicyrtomina Börner 1906.

Dicyrtomina minnta Fab. 1873.

Specimens of a species of Dicyrtomina which do not differ in morphological characters from this European species have been received from Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, 26/8/32 (E. D. P.), 14/3/34 (E. D. P.).

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Distribution of the New Zealand Species of Collembola.

With the publication of this paper the number of species of Collembola known to occur in New Zealand becomes fifty-four, to gether with one colour-form. Of these the following twelve species are as yet known only from New Zealand:—

Hypogostrura campbelli Womersley 1930.

Polyacanthella parva n.sp.

Pseudachorutes pacificus n.sp.

Pseudachorutes novae-zealandiae n.sp.

Pseudachorutes brunneus Carpenter, 1925.

Pseudachorutes aldgidenssi Carpenter 1925.

Platanurida lata Carpenter 1925.

Holacantha spinosa (Lubbock) 1899.

Cryptopygus niger Carpenter 1925.

Lepidosira fuscata Womersley 1930.

Pseudoparonella bidenticulata (Carpenter) 1925.

Chaetoceras pritchardi n.sp.

In the followng list of the remainder the known distribution is given together with an indication of their economic importance:—

Hypogastruru armata (Nic.) 1841. Cosmopolitan. Economic.

Hypogastruru longispina (Tullbg.) 1876. Cosmopolitan.

Hypogastrura peseudopurpurascens Womersley 1928. Europe, S. Africa.

Brachystemella parvula (Schäffer) 1896. Cosmopolitan. Economic.

Triacanthella rosea Wahlgren 1906. Subantarctic.

Achorutes muscorum Templeton 1835. Cosmopolitan.

Achorutes cirratus Schött 1917. Australia, Brit. Solomon Is.

Onychiurus armatus Tullberg 1869. Cosmopolitan. Economic.

Onychiurus fimetarius Lin. 1766. Cosmopolitan. Economic.

Tullbergia krausbaueri Börner 1901. Europe, S. Africa.

Cryptopygus loftyensis Womersley 1934. Australia.

Folsomia fimetarioides Axelson 1903. Europe, Australia. Economic.

Folsomia diplophthalma Axelson 1902. Europe, America.

Folsomia quadrioculata Tullberg 1871. Europe, America. Economic.

Archisotoma brucei Carpenter 1906. Subantarctic.

Isotomurus chiltoni (Carpenter) 1925. Australia.

Isotoma maritima Tullberg 1871. Europe.

Isotoma notabilis Schäffer 1896. Europe.

Isotoma minor Schäffer 1896. Europe, America.

Isotoma linnaniemi Womersley 1934. Australia.

Tomocerus minor Lubbock 1862. Europe, Azores. Economic.

Lepidophorella australis Carpenter 1925. Australia.

Lepidophorella brachycephala (Moniez) 1894. Australia.

Sinella termitum Schött 1917. Australia.

Sinella coeca Schött 1896. Europe, America.

Entomobrya varia Schött 1917. Australia.

Entomobrya clitellaria v. newmani Womersley 1934. Australia (f. principalis), America and Australia.

Entomobrya nivalis L. 1758. Europe, S. Africa, Australia. Economic.

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Entomobrya nivalis f. immaqculata Schäffer 1896. Europe, S. Africa, Australia.

Entomobrya multifasciata Tullberg 1871. Cosmopolitan. Economic.

Lepidocyrtus nigrofasciatus Womersley 1934. Australia.

Lepidosira coerulea Schött 1917. Australia.

Lepidosira lamingtonensis Schött 1917. Australia.

Lepidosira sagmarius Schött 1917. Australia.

Pseudosinella fasciata Womersley 1934. Australia.

Pseudosinella alba (Packard) 1873. Europe, America.

Neelus swani Womersley 1934. Australia.

Sminthurinus terrestris Womersley 1932. S. Africa, Australia.

Katianna australis Womersley 1932. Australia.

Deuterosminthurus repandus (Agren) 1903. Europe, America, Tasmania. Economic.

Bourletiella arvalis (Fitch) 1863. Europe, America, Australia-Economic.

Bourletiella hortensis (Fitch) 1863. Europe, America, Australia, Japan. Economic.

Sminthurus denisi Womersley 1934. Australia.

Dicyrtomina minuta Fabricius 1783. Europe.

It is probable that those species which are of economic importance have a cosmopolitan distribution, or are known from the countries of the Old World and have become distributed in America and the Colonies by man's agricultural activities.

The occurrence in New Zealand of the littoral species Isotoma maritima is particularly interesting, and one might speculate as towhether it is indigenous or has been carried from the Northern Hemisphere by natural means or by man. The occurrence of several typical subantarctic forms, such as Triacanthella rosea and Archisotoma brucei, so far north is of much interest from the standpoint of geographical distribution. The first is recorded only [ unclear: ] southern South America, although another species, T. alba, has been described by Carpenter from the Campbell and Auckland Islands. Archisotoma brucei was described from the South Orkney Islands, so that its occurrence in New Zealand considerably extends its range. Its relative from the Northern Hemisphere, A. besselsi, however, has a much wider distribution, ranging from the subarctic to the southern coasts of Europe and from the Palaearctic to the Nearctic Regions.

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Fig. 1.—Raoulia Buchanani growing on lock at 1800 in altitude. Humboldt Mountains.
Fig. 2.—Cultivated specimen of Raoulia Buchanani in flower. Dunedin.