Go to National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa
Volume 67, 1938
This text is also available in PDF
(2 MB) Opens in new window
– 166 –

Review of the Tertiary and Recent Neozelanic Pyramidellid Molluscs. No. 3—Further Turbonillid Genera.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, March 20, 1937; received by Editor, April 5, 1937; issued separately, September, 1937.]

The present paper will conclude discussion of genera belonging to the Turbonillid group. The genera discussed below are as follows:— Pyrgolampros, Pyrgiscus, Strioturbonilla, Pyrgiscilla n.gen., Striarcana n.gen., Gispyrella n.gen., Planpyrgiscus n.gen., and Mormula.

Time-Ranges of Turbonillid Species.
Bortonian. Tahuian. Waiarekan. Ototaran. Waitakian. Hutchinsonian. Awamoan. Taranakian. Waitotaran. Nukumaruan. Castlecliffian. Recent.
Gispyrella
finlayi
spatha
hemiorycta
Striarcana
cryptolira
tauranga
Pyrgolampros
evelynae
albolapis
semilaevigata
Strioturbonilla
taiaroa
Mormula
locuples
tutamoensis
awakinoensis
laevigata
Pyrgiscus
abjunctus
macphersoni
intextus
Planpyrgiscus
extenuata
Pyrgiscilla
hampdenensis
chattonensis
otoconsors
adeps
otakauica
– 167 –

Genus Pyrgolampros Sacco.

1892. Sacco, I. Moll. del Piemonte 6 Liguria, p. 85. Type (fide Dall and Bartsch): Pyrgolampros mioperplicatulus Sacco.

The New Zealand shells placed here possess an embryo that is heterostrophe and of low helicoid coiling. Axial ribs and intercostal spaces are not stopped abruptly, but become evanescent at about the periphery, sometimes rather above it. Spiral sculpture is that of Strioturbonilla, viz., very fine wavy grooves and scratches, and not the strong, raised spirals of Pyrgiscus.

No Recent Neozelanic species are known to occur.* Comparisons with Strioturbonilla are given below in discussing the generic features of the latter genus.

Key to Species of Pyrgolampros.

Shell large, 9.0 mm. or over; whorls not shouldered, later ones flat; aperture ovato-quadrate. evelynae

Shell small, less than 6 mm. high. Whorls not shouldered, faintly sulcate at upper third; axials close, weak, sub-obsolete on last whorl. semilaevigata

Whorls shouldered, sulcate at upper three-quarters; axials prominent, closer, but still present on last whorl. albclapis

Pyrgolampros evelynae n.sp. (Fig. 16).

Shell moderately large, of fairly heavy build, elongate-conic, of 9 ½ post-nuclear whorls; outlines of spire convex over upper half, thereafter straight. First few post-nuclear whorls convex in outline, later ones practically flat; suture at periphery, not strongly marked. Protoconch heterostrophic, coiled in a low helicoid spiral of 1 ½ turns; nucleus small, its lower edge just free of suture of first adult whorl. Axial ribs vertical, straight, not standing in high relief, stouter and more distant on whorls of first two-thirds of spire, fine and close on later ones; 24 ribs on ante-penultimate whorl, 36 on penultimate; axial grooves shallow; ribs and grooves evanescent above periphery of last whorl of adults. Spiral sculpture of fine, dense grooves on base, but on whorls of spire developed only in two narrow zones around upper and lower sutures, both on ribs and in grooves. Body-whorl high (about one-third length of shell), its outline straight below suture, convex over periphery and base. Aperture ovatoquadrate, rather widely rounded in front; columella faintly arcuate, about vertical, but sometimes a little oblique; parieto-columellar junction rounded; columella with a low fold near its insertion; outer lip straight, vertical; basal lip moderately broadly rounded.

Height, 9.2mm.; width, 2.15 mm (holotype).

Locality: Clifden, Southland, bed “C” on left side of Waiau River (type); beds 6A and 6C on right side.*

Type in Auckland Museum (ex writer's collection).

Separable from related species by absence of sulcus. From P. albolapis n.sp. it further differs in not having tabulated whorls and in being a much larger and more heavily constructed shell. It is

[Footnote] * Pyrgolampros blanda Finlay is not a Pyrgolampros, and is discussed later in the present paper.

[Footnote] * Pyrgolampros blanda Finlay is not a Pyrgolampros, and is discussed later in the present paper.

– 168 –

distinguished from P. semilaevigata n.sp. by larger size, heavier build, much stouter axials on upper whorl, and more broadly rounded basal lip. Further, in semilaevigata the body-whorl is longer in relation to length of shell than is that of evelynae and albolapis.

The spiral sculpture is less faint than that usually found in Pyrgolampros, but the build of shell and general form is obviously that of this genus.

There is in the Balcombian beds at Altona Bay, Victoria, Australia, a new species matching this species very closely indeed.

Named in honour of my wife.

Pyrogolampros semilaevigata n.sp. (Fig. 17).

Shell rather small, elongate-conic, of nearly 6 post-nuclear whorls; outlines of spire lightly convex. Whorls flattish, broadly concave over upper half to two-thirds, swollen below that and then constricted rapidly to suture; suture not very distinct, situated just below periphery. Protoconch very small, heterostrophic, coiled in a very low helicoid spiral of 1½ turns; nucleus small, immersed to level of its lower edge. Axial ribs (about 28 on penultimate whorl) weak, low, rounded, dying out on periphery of whorls of spire and almost obsolete on body-whorl, where they become evanescent above periphery; axial grooves shallow and of less width than ribs, also dying out above periphery of last whorl. Spiral ornamentation of very fine weakly-marked grooves on base and over entire surface between sutures. Body-whorl high, over one-third height of shell, and with broadly rounded periphery; base convex. Aperture elongately oval, sharply angled behind; columella set vertically, arcuate, and with a low fold almost at its insertion; parieto-columellar junction rounded and very obtuse; inner lip spread with thin callus; basal lip rounded; outer lip straight, vertical.

Height, 5.3 mm.; width, 1.5 mm. (holotype).

Localities: White Rock River (type); Sutherlands, Tengawai River. Both localities are Awamoan horizons in South Canterbury. The species is common at each.

Type in Auckland Museum (ex writer's collection).

Separable at once from P. albolapis n.sp. in having wider sulcus, more numerous and weaker axials with axial obsolescence on last whorl, no shoulder on whorls, and in being a stouter shell. In features of aperture, high body-whorl, and weakening of axial sculpture on later whorls, it is shown to be a typical Pyrgolampros.

Pyrgolampros albolapis n.sp. (Fig. 30).

Shell fairly small, elongate-conic, of 7¾ post-nuclear volutions; outlines of spire a little convex. Whorls shouldered close in to suture (in type rather more strongly than usual), flattish, constricted to suture below; sulcate around upper third; suture impressed and well marked. Protoconch heterostrophic, rather small, of nearly 2 volutions coiled in a low helicoid spiral; nucleus small, its lower edge*

[Footnote] * Professor Park (N.Z. Geol, Surv. Bull., no. 23 (n.s.), pp. 50–52; 1921) has given a brief account of the fossiliferous rocks at Clifden, and has employed numbers to denote the successive bands of rock on the right side of the river, lying above and including the limestone, and this designation is herein used with reference to all Clifden localities.

– 169 –

high above suture of first post-nuclear whorl. Axial ribs (21 on penultimate whorl) fairly stout, well raised, rounded, rather narrow in crossing sulcus; straight, vertical, a little muricated or nodular at summits; intercostal spaces of about same width as ribs, sometimes a little wider; axials more numerous and less heavy on last whorl; axials and grooves begin to die out just above line of suture of body-whorl, hardly reaching on to the base. Spiral ornamentation of faint wavy grooves over base and over entire surface of whorls between sutures. Body-whorl high, concave above, broadly rounded over periphery; base convex. Aperture sub-oval; columella vertical, arcuate, with a light fold above; parieto-columellar junction roundly and obtusely angulate; basal lip fairly broadly rounded; outer lip straight from shoulder, descending almost vertically and turned in sharply to suture at 90 degrees.

Height, 5.0 mm.; width, 1.2 mm. (holotype).

Locality: White Rock River, South Canterbury (Awamoan).

Type in Auckland Museum (ex writer's collection).

For comparison see remarks under other species.

Genus Strioturbonilla Sacco.

1892. Sacco, I. Moll. del Piemonte e della Liguria, p. 94. Type: Strioturbonilla sigmoidea Jeffreys. *

According to Dall and Bartsch (Monograph, p. 11) Strioturbonilla is to be distinguished from Pyrgolampros merely by the shape of aperture, for both are characterised by very fine spiral striations. They state that the aperture of Strioturbonilla is subquadrate, that of Pyrgolampros sub-oval; but, as shown earlier in No. 1 of this series of papers, such fine discrimination based entirely on apertural shape seems far from satisfactory as a means of separation of groups of subgeneric or generic rank.

Pyrgolampros is to be differentiated by the gradual evanescence of grooves, usually above the periphery. By regarding the cessation of sculpture as the distinctive generic character, rather than the shape of aperture, one is employing a feature used already in the separation of other Turbonillid groups, and the classification is thereby placed on a more systematic footing.

The shape of aperture is but a reflection of the shape and height of whorl. Strioturbonilla has typically a lower and more shouldered whorl, with the infra-peripheral portion more rapidly retreating towards the axis of the shell, and it is this combination of characters that gives the more quadrate aperture. In Pyrgolampros the whorl is higher (particularly the body-whorl), flatter and much more slowly drawn in towards the axis of the shell, and so arises the more ovate type of aperture. Thus the build of shell in these two groups looks different at a glance, and one can scarcely mistake the typical “Pyrgolampros look” of most of the species falling into this genus. The columella in Pyrgolampros is frequently somewhat flexuose.

[Footnote] * Dall and Bartsch give S. alpina Sacco as genotype, probably following Crossmann's statement (Essais. vol. 2, and in Conch. Neogen. Aquit., tome 3, livr. 1, p. 346) that alpina is the genotype. Cox (Pal. Zanzibar, p. 20, 1927) says sigmoidea Jeffreys is the genotype by original designation, and Cox's statement is here accepted.

– 170 –

Strioturbonilla taiaroa n.sp. (Figs. 10, 12).

Shell small, semi-transparent, elongate-conic, of 7 post-nuclear whorls; outlines of spire straight. Whorls flatly convex, shouldered at posterior suture, a little constricted to lower suture. Protoconch heterostrophic, of 2 helicoid volutions; nucleus not immersed, its lower edge tangent to succeeding suture. Axial ribs (about 19 on penultimate whorl) broad, flattish, usually vertical but slightly oblique to right in type, straight; interstices much narrower than ribs (about one-third width in type; in some specimens almost linear); ribs and grooves terminated abruptly at periphery of last whorl; base sometimes with faint indications of obsolete axials. Spiral sculpture of very fine scratches or weak, wavy ridges in intercostal spaces and on axials, but obscure on base. Body-whorl shouldered at suture, lightly convex above periphery, which is well and evenly rounded; base convex. Aperture broadly ovate to sub-quadrate; columella reflexed, oblique to left, straight above, arcuate towards basal lip, which is broadly rounded; outer lip turned in strongly to suture, straight, descending vertically; columellar fold not seen.

Height, 4.1 mm.; width, 1.0 mm. (holotype).

Locality: Off Otago Heads, in 72 fathoms. Recent.

Type in Auckland Museum (ex writer's collection).

Genus Pyrgiscus Philippi.

1841. Philippi, Wieg. Arch., vol. 1, p. 50. Type (fide Dall and Bartsch): Melania rufa Philippi.

Shells falling into Pyrgiscus possess a heterostrophic protoconch of helicoid coiling, and have the axial grooves not abruptly stopped at the periphery, but becoming evanescent (usually early) on the base. The summits of the whorls are not strongly and widely shouldered as in Dunkeria. The spiral sculpture consists of moderately strong, often somewhat irregular, grooves and ridges.

Picture icon

Apex of Melania rufa Philippi, showing depressed helicoid nucleus. Drawing kindly made by Mr. L. R. Cox from a specimen in the British Museum.

Iredale (P.M.S., pt. 6, 338, Aug., 1915) states that Pyrgiscus was introduced by Philippi in the Archiv. fur Nat. (Wiegm.), 1841, p. 50, apparently as a substitute for Turbonilla Risso, but that Dall and Bartsch have used as type of this the species rufa, and consequently, if their action be correct, Pyrgostelis Monterosato is an obsolete synonym of Pyrgiscus.

– 171 –

Forbes and Hanley (Hist. Brit. Mol., 3, p. 245; 1853) describe and figure the animal and shell of rufa from British specimens, which are not quite the same as true Mediterannean rufa Philippi. The figure shows spiral grooves not numerous, quite distinct; the axial hollows suddenly stopped at the periphery.

There are no Recent Neozelanic members of this group, which is represented in New Zealand by three forms from beds of Miocene age in Gisborne District, North Island, one of them occuring also at Pukeuri, near Oamaru, in Awamoan (Miocene) beds, and again in beds of Hutchinsonian age at Clifden, Southland.

Key to Species of Pyrgiscus.

Shell large, over 8 mm. high; whorls staged.

Outline of whorls flat, later ones faintly sulcate; axials heavy. macphersoni

Shell smaller, less than 7 mm.; whorls not staged.

Sutures not deep; axials rather low; interstices own width; spirals very fine and obscure. abjunctus

Sutures deep; axials prominent; interstices twice width of axials; spirals raised and prominent. intextus

Pyrgiscus abjunctus n.sp. (Fig. 13).

Shell of moderate size, elongate-conic, of 6 whorls remaining (apex missing); outlines of spire straight. Early whorls of spire convex, later ones flattish with a light concavity above and a little swollen below; suture impressed, not strongly marked, and placed a little below periphery. Protoconch missing. Axial ribs (21 on penultimate whorl) low, rounded, vertical, straight; intercostal spaces shallow, sub-equal in width to ribs, passing over periphery, but rapidly evanescent on base. Spiral ornamentation present on base and in intercostal spaces between sutures, not markedly conspicuous. Body-whorl with a light narrow sub-sutural swelling, then concave to flat over upper part of whorl, sharply convex at periphery; base convex; a narrow umbilical chink present. Aperture angled behind, very widely rounded in front; columella thin, straight, decidedly oblique to left; parieto-columellar angulation obtuse; outer lip straight, turned in close to suture; basal lip very broadly rounded.

Height (estimated), 6.3 mm.; width, 1.85 mm. (holotype).

Localities: Pukeuri, Oamaru (Awamoan), type; Tutamoe beds, Island Creek, Gisborne District, N.Z.G.S. loc. 1262 (Awamoan); Clifden, Southland, band 6C (Hutchinsonian).

Type in Auckland Museum (ex writer's collection).

P. macphersoni Marwick has staged whorls, much stronger axials, and is a less slender and more heavily built shell. P. intextus Marwick is a smaller species with strong, well elevated, distant axials, lightly convex whorls with no concavity, well developed spiral sculpture; it lacks the angulated periphery of abjunctus and macphersoni.

Marwick (N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull., no. 13, p. 108; 1931) has remarked that one of the shells, a fragment consisting of the last four whorls only, identified by him as macphersoni, has finer sculpture, and that it may belong to a distinct group. It is undoubtedly a separate species, and provides, so far as one can judge from the fragmentary specimen, a very perfect match for P. abjunctus.

– 172 –

Pyrgiscus macphersoni Marwick (Fig. 15).

1931. Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) macphersoni Marwick, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull., no. 13, p. 108, f. 209.

The heterostrophic portion of the embryo is coiled in a very low helicoid spiral, projecting but slightly when viewed at right angles to the axis of embryonic coiling. It consists of two volutions. The intercostal spaces are rapidly evanescent below periphery, not stopped abruptly. The species is represented by one shell complete except for the protoconch, and one apical fragment.

Height, 8.0 mm.; width, 2.4 mm.

Locality: Tutamoe beds, Island Creek, Gisborne District, N.Z.G.S., loc. 1262 (Awamoan).

Type material in collection of N.Z. Geological Survey, Wellington.

Pyrgiscus intextus Marwick (Fig. 6).

1931. Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) intexta Marwick (in part), N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull., no. 13, p. 107, f. 204.

The material on which this species was founded consists of three broken shells, two with the apical whorls decollated, the third being a fragment of the upper whorls with embryo complete. From this latter Dr. Marwick has taken his description of the protoconch of P. intextus. This fragment, however, is undoubtedly a Mormula, and is dealt with elsewhere in this paper. In the meantime, until apical characters can be observed, intextus is left in Pyrgiscus. Axial ribs 17 on penultimate whorl.

Height (estimated), 5.0 mm.; width, 1.4 mm.

Locality: Ihungia mudstone, Muddy Creek, Gisborne District, N.Z.G.S. loc. 1236 (Hutchinsonian).

Type material in collection of N.Z. Geological Survey, Wellington.

Genus Pyrgiscilla n.gen.

Type (o.d.): Turbonilla (Strioturbonilla) chattonensis Marwick.

Shell with axial grooves stopped as in Chemnitzia; protoconch heterostrophic, nucleus helicoid. Spiral striations on base and between sutures, always in intercostal spaces, and sometimes surmounting axials. The spiral sculpture, which is seldom well developed on early whorls of spire, is usually moderately fine, never very coarse and deeply incised.

Key to Species of Pyrgiscilla.

Whorls not or moderately convex; suture not very deep.

Shell considerably attenuated, large.

Whorls flat, rather staged; interstices deep. hampdenensis

Whorls lightly convex, a little sulcate, not staged, shorter; interstices deep. chattonensis

Shell moderately large, not unduly attenuated.

Whorls flattish, medially slightly sulcate; axials oblique; spirals prominent on base and in interstices. otoconsors

Whorls flatly convex, not sulcate; axials vertical; spirals very indistinct even on base. adeps

Whorls very convex, shouldered; suture very deep, almost channelled.

Axials 16 on penultimate whorl, rather rude; interstices narrow. otakauica

– 173 –

Pyrgiscilla hampdenensis (Allan) (Figs. 5, 11).

1919. Turbonilla antiqua Marshall, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 51, p. 288, pl. 15; fig, 10.

1926. Turbonilla hampdenensis Allas, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 291, footnote.

Since this species was founded on a single, apparently very badly preserved fragment, a figure and description, based on a more complete specimen (topotype), are now given.

Shell probably long; slender, tapering; outlines of spire straight. Whorls very flatly convex, shouldered (almost staged) close in at suture, which is not deeply cut in. Protoconch and early adult whorls absent. Axial ribs (19 on penultimate whorl) rounded, straight, vertical; interaxial furrows about equal in width to ribs, excavated; grooves and ribs not reaching lower suture of last three or four whorls, and not extending beyond periphery of body-whorl. In one specimen, however, some of the ribs extend down over the base. Spiral sculpture scarcely seen under hand-lens, but microscope shows regular spirals on base and obscure ones between sutures crossing both intercostal depressions and axial ribs. Body-whorl very flatly convex above; periphery sub-angled and base lightly convex; base sometimes marked by very weak continuation of axials and by strong lines of growth. Aperture broken in all specimens, but appears to have been sub-quadrate; columella stout, vertical, almost straight, a very distinct fold not far below its insertion; parieto-columellar angulation very obtuse; basal lip rather broadly rounded; outer lip straight, descending almost vertically.

Height (estimated), 9.5 mm.; width, 2.2 mm.

Localities: Hampden (Bortonian), type; greensands, McCullough's Bridge, Waihao, South Canterbury (Tahuian).

Type in Wanganui Museum.

The specimens from McCullough's Bridge have the spiral ornamentation more feebly developed between sutures, but in all other respects they almost perfectly match the shells from the type-locality. One of the Hampden shells is almost complete, but met with a severe accident when at about half its adult stage of growth, for a heavy fracture crosses one of the middle whorls of the spire. Later growth resulted in an abnormal degree of convexity, for the subsequent whorls are more rounded than those above the fracture.

Pyrgiscilla chattonensis (Marwick) (Fig. 3).

1929. Turbonilla (Strioturbonilla) chattonensis Marwick, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 59, p. 920, figs. 52, 53, 57, 61.

The reference to Strioturbonilla cannot be upheld, for examination of a large number of topotypes shows the spiral sculpture to consist of moderately strong spirals and grooves, much as in Melania rufa Phil., the type of Pyrgiscus. The present species differs from all other fossil Turbonillids of New Zealand in having the uppermost part of the spire very narrow and tapering, but the embryo swollen, large, and considerably overhanging the constricted early whorls of spire. Marwick described the axial ribs as oblique, but abundant material now to hand shows that they should more strictly be regarded

– 174 –

as vertical. The fold of the columella is prominent, and it is separated from the insertion of the columella by a deep, narrow channel which enters the aperture spirally. The embryo is distinctive; it consists of about 2 helicoid turns, and the nucleus is small and situated high up above the suture of the first adult volution; in fact, the lower edge of the second embryonic coil is tangent to the suture of the first adult whorl, or only very little immersed in it. It is the exception rather than the rule to find spirals well developed between sutures, except on the last one or two whorls. There is also a faint sulcation just above the centre of whorls.

Height, 6.75 mm.; width, 1.8 mm. (holotype).

Localities: the type is from Chatton, near Gore, Southland (Ototaran); also collected by Dr. Finlay at Waikaia (Ototaran) and at Wharekuri (Ototaran).

Type in Dominion Museum, Wellington.

Topotypes of T. liraecostata Tension-Woods (Janjukian beds at Table Cape, Tasmania) have the spirals a good deal more in evidence, but the axial ribs are narrower, the suture less cut in and the spire less attenuate.

Pyrgiscilla otoconsors n.sp. (Fig. 1).

Shell moderately large, elongate-conic, of 10 post-nuclear whorls; outlines of spire straight. Whorls very closely shouldered above, flattish over centre (slightly sulcate medially), constricted close to suture below; suture only a little impressed, situated slightly below periphery. Protoconch decollated. Axial ribs (20 on penultimate whorl) coarse, rounded, straight, oblique (antecurrent below), thickened at lower extremities and ending close above suture; intercostal spaces not deeply excavated, their width sub-equal to that of the ribs; grooves and ribs ending a little above periphery. Spiral sculpture coarse and regular on base; between sutures it is present in intercostal spaces only, being more coarsely developed in the anterior half of each groove. Body-whorl faintly concave below suture; periphery well rounded; base convex. Aperture sub-quadrate; columella thick, vertical, straight, a low, weak fold near its insertion; parietocolumellar angulation well marked; basal lip broken away a little, but apparently broadly rounded; outer lip broken back.

Height, 7.5 mm.; width, 2.0 mm.

Locality: Chatton, near Gore, Southland (Ototaran).

Type in collection of Dr. H. J. Finlay.

The general build of shell suggests that this species is closely allied to P. chattonensis, and for this reason, though the protoconch is decollated, it is referred to Pyrgiscilla. It differs from chattonensis in being a smaller and stouter shell, and in having wider, lower, and oblique ribs, and whorls more obviously sulcate.

Pyrgiscilla adeps n.sp. (Fig. 8).

This is a shorter and stumpier species than P. hampdenensis. Post-nuclear whorls about 8 (protoconch and perhaps first adult whorl corroded away). Outlines of spire faintly convex. Whorls flatly convex, a little shouldered close below suture. Axials numerous,

– 175 –

fine and close (24 on penultimate whorl), extending from suture to suture on topmost whorls, but stopped just above suture on lower whorls; axials straight and almost vertical; width of interspaces about equal to that of ribs; grooves and ribs abruptly stopped above periphery of body-whorl. Spiral sculpture practically obsolete, a few faint low lirae on base, but none between sutures. Body-whorl lightly convex above periphery, which is sub-angled; base convex, axially unsculptured. Aperture narrowly sub-quadrate to sub-oval, but broken; outer lip broken back; inner lip spread with thin callus on parietal wall; columella straight, thick, vertical, a little swollen above, but fold not as definite as that of hampdenensis.

Height (estimated) 6.5 mm.; width, 2.0 mm.

Locality: Hampden, North Otago (Bortonian).

Type in collection of Dr. H. J. Finlay.

Quite distinct from hampdenensis by reason of its much less height relative to width, so that the shell is less tapering; it has fewer whorls, more numerous and closer axials.

Pyrgiscilla otakauica n.sp. (Figs. 2, 4).

Shell small, semi-transparent when fresh, elongate-conic, of 8 post-nuclear whorls; outlines of spire straight. Whorls convex, well shouldered above and strongly constricted to suture below; suture strongly impressed. Protoconch (decollated in type) very small, heterostrophic, of 2 helicoid volutions; nucleus small, entirely free of immersion in succeeding whorl. Axial ribs (16 on penultimate whorl) heavy, wide, rounded, vertical, straight; interaxial furrows deep, about half width of ribs; grooves and ribs of body-whol terminated abruptly at line of suture. Spiral ornamentation easily visible under hand-lens; spirals fine on base, coarser between sutures where they are present over whole surface of whorl. Body-whorl high, convex from suture over periphery and down over base. Aperture sub-oval; columella set vertically, strongly arcuate, thin; parietocolumellar junction not differentiated, there being a single broad sweep from base of columella across inner lip to posterior angle of aperture; outer lip straight, vertical; basal lip somewhat drawn down.

Height (estimated), 5.0 mm.; width, 1.5 mm. (holotype).

Locality: Dunedin Harbour, in 2–4 fathoms, also on reclaimed land; off Otago Heads, in 40 fathoms (1 shell), probably washed down. Recent.

Type in Auckland Museum (ex writer's collection).

This is a rather variable species, the strength of convexity of whorls and shape of aperture being especially subject to variation. The nature and distribution of spiral sculpture, however, has been found constant in all specimens examined.

Genus Mormula A. Adams.

1864. A. Adams, Jour. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 7, p. 1.

Type (fide Dall and Bartsch): Mormula rissoina A. Adams.

Marwick's record of Mormula sp. from the Tutamoe beds of Gisborne District marks the advent of this genus into New Zealand

– 176 –

faunal lists.* Three additional forms are described below, and all of these are Awamoan species. So far as the writer knows, the only Recent austral representative of Mormula is T. varicifera Tate, from south-east Australia.

In their diagnosis of Mormula Dall and Bartsch (Monograph, p. 110) state that the group is characterised by “deeply incised spiral lines,” but the New Zealand shells are not usually prominently spirally lirate; the spirals appear often, and then not strongly, only on the last few whorls. In other characters the local species compare well with the diagnosis given by Dall and Bartsch.

Turbonilla (Mormula) varicifera Tate is a very large shell with very numerous, close axials and convex whorls, and with varices more frequently developed on later whorls. No Neozelanic species approach closely to this species, for, with the exception of M. tutamoensis n.sp., they are a good deal smaller and have axials more distant, heavier and well pinched up.

In addition to the presence of varices Mormula, in the New Zealand species at all events, is characterised by helicoid heterostrophic embryo, slow evanescence of intercostal spaces below periphery, and only moderately strong spirals.

Key to Species of Mormula.

Shell moderately large, about 9.0 mm. long.

Axials thin; whorls regularly convex; spirals weak. locuples

Axials blunter; whorls regularly convex; spirals stronger.tutamoensis

Shell small, less than 9.0 mm. long.

Whorls not shouldered, regularly lightly convex; varices heavy and found on all whorls. awakinoensis

Whorls shouldered; axials very weak, absent from earliest whorl or two, thereafter accelerating gradually; whorls straight below shoulder. laevigata

Mormula locuples n.sp. (Fig. 19).

A tall, moderately slender shell with evenly convex whorls; outlines of spire straight. Protoconch heterostrophic, of 2 helicoid turns; nucleus small, its lower edge tangent to suture of first adult volution. Whorls evenly convex from suture to suture, which is well cut in. Axial ribs (17 or so per whorl on lower whorls) thin, sharply rounded, vertical, straight, about twice their own width apart, and extending across entire whorl; axials dying out well up on base and grooves not ending abruptly, but dying out as in Turbonilla s.str. Spiral sculpture of thin, distant grooves, seen in interstices and sometimes over axials of lower whorls (of adult shells only) and on base. Varices distinct, sporadic, wide; last whorl usually with 3 varices, not present on upper whorls. There are 3 to 4 low, faint lirations within outer lip (at a varix), not evenly spaced. Aperture sub-quadrate, widely rounded below, angled behind; base somewhat flattened below periphery, which is sharply rounded and bulging; columella straight, generally vertical, but in some specimens a little oblique; inner lip fairly widely spread with callus sinking

[Footnote] * Suter (N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull., no. 5, p. 16, 1917) referred Turbonilla prisca to Mormula, but, as shown elsewhere in this paper, it must be removed from the Pyramidellidae, and has been located in Notacirsa (Epitoniidae).

– 177 –

into umbilical depression below; outer lip straight; columellar fold indicated by a low swelling only; parieto-columellar angulation well marked.

Height (estimated), 9.0 mm.; width, 2.2 mm. (holotype).

Localities: Target Gully shell-bed (type), and greensand below shell-bed, Oamaru; Pukeuri, near Oamaru; White Rock River; Sutherlands; Holme Station; Opihi River. These are all Awamoan horizons; the last four are in South Canterbury.

Type in Auckland Museum (ex writer's collection).

This species is very common at the shell-bed, Target Gully, and occurs fairly abundantly at Pukeuri also. The shells from White Rock River that have been assigned to this species are all smaller than those from Oamaru localities, but otherwise they are indistinguishable from the type-locality specimens.

The Recent Australian M. varicifera Tate is a much larger shell with whorls less strongly convex, spiral sculpture well developed over whole surface, and axial ribs very much more numerous, more closely spaced and a good deal less elevated.

Mormula tutamoensis n.sp. (Figs. 21, 28).

1931. Turbonilla (Mormula) n.sp. Marwick, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull., no. 13, p. 108.

This specimen consists of the last three whorls only, but in the build of whorl, nature of the axials, and features of aperture it bears much more resemblance to Turbonilla (s.l.) than to Notacirsa, and the writer has no hesitation in accepting Marwick's location.

It is most nearly related to M. locuples, from which it differs in having more axials per whorl (20 as against 16 on corresponding whorl of locuples), slightly blunter and less pinched up ribs, and the ratio, width of intercostal space: width of axial, less than that for locuples. The spiral sculpture is also much stronger.

Height (estimated), 9.0 mm.; width, 2.2 mm.

Locality: Tutamoe beds, Gisborne District, N.Z.G.S. loc. 1262 (Awamoan).

Type in collection of N.Z. Geological Survey, Wellington.

Of New Zealand species this one comes closest to M. varicifera Tate, from Australia, which it resembles in possessing numerous close, not particularly prominent, axial ribs.

Mormula awakinoensis n.sp. (Fig. 29).

Shell small, thick, solid, elongate-conic but stoutish, of 6 ½ postnuclear whorls; outlines of spire straight. Whorls regularly convex; suture moderately distinct. Protoconch very heavy and large, heterostrophe, not much exsert, of 2 helicoid turns. Axials (17 on penultimate whorl) about their own width apart, extending across whole width of whorls, but on last whorl stopping quickly at periphery, but not abruptly as in Chemnitzia. Spiral sculpture present on base but not distinct. Varices unduly prominent and very coarse, present on early whorls of spire, those of the last three whorls of type almost in a vertical alignment above aperture; the last whorl has two varices, disposed diametrically. Varices in paratype sporadic.

– 178 –

Body-whorl and base convex; periphery a little swollen. Aperture sub-quadrate; outer lip more convex than in the other species; basal lip broadly rounded; columella straight, vertical; no columella-fold seen; parieto-columellar junction high up, distinctly angular.

Height, 4.5 mm.; width, 1.5 mm. (holotype).

Locality: argillaceous sandstone in Awakino Valley, road-cutting about five miles downstream from Mahoenui, Mahoenui Series (Hutchinsonian).

Type in Auckland Museum (ex writer's collection).

This species is distinguishable from its associates in its smaller size, less attenuated habit and in having low, more bluntly rounded ribs. The early development of varices and their extreme heaviness is characteristic, as also is the large, blunt embryo.

Mormula aff. awakinoensis n.sp.

This shell has been separated from the type material of Turbonilla intexta Marwick. From it Marwick gave his description of the embryo of T. intexta, which must now be deleted. At first sight the present shell looks suspiciously like Mormula, and closer inspection substantiates this, for there are two varices on the last whorl. Its protoconch is a replica of that of M. awakinoensis n.sp., and, except that it is a little more slender over the early whorls of the spire, has spirals developed between sutures and less strongly marked varices, it is an exceedingly close match of that species. As the specimen is immature no further separation than that above is attempted.

Height, 3.9 mm.; width, 1.2 mm.

Locality: N.Z.G.S. loc. 1236 (Pal. Bull., no. 13, p. 17, 1931), Gisborne District (Hutchinsonian).

Specimen in collection of N.Z. Geological Survey, Wellington.

Mormula is by no means a common genus in the Tertiary beds of New Zealand, and to find two such closely similar shells turning up suggests that they may have some correlative value. On palaeontological grounds Marwick (N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull., no. 13, p. 10; 1931) has expressed his belief that the Ihungia Series of Gisborne District is probably the equivalent of the Mahoenui Series on the west side of North Island, and these two shells further support the correlation indicated by other molluses, for the present shell was collected from beds of the Ihungia Series, and awakinoensis from Mahoenui beds along Awakino River.

Mormula laevigata n.sp. (Figs. 20, 25).

Shell small, probably not quite adult, rather stout, of 4 ½ post-nuclear turns; outlines of spire straight. Whorls high, roundly shouldered above, descending straight thereafter to lower suture, and appearing to be somewhat staged. Protoconch large, heterostrophic, of about 2 helicoid turns; nucleus not immersed, strongly projecting. Axial sculpture very weak; first post-nuclear whorl smooth, second with very faint traces of rudimentary axial sculpture, third and fourth with axials definitely developed, but weak, low, wide (15 on penultimate whorl). Intercostal spaces shallow, much

Picture icon

Fig. 1. Pyrgiscilla otoconsors n.gen. n.sp.; holotype. Figs. 2, 4. Pyrgiscilla otakauica n.gen. n.sp.; holotype. Fig. 3. Pyrgiscilla chattonensis (Marwick); topotype. Figs. 5, 11. Pyrgiscilla hampdcnensis (Allan): plesiotype. Fig. 6. Pyrgiscus intextus Marwick: holotype. Fig. 7. Gispyrelia hemiorycta n.gen. n.sp.; holotype. Fig. 8. Pyrgiscilla adeps n.gen. n.sp.; holotype. Fig. 9. Gispyrella finlayi n.gen. n.sp.; holotype. Fig. 10, 12. Strioturbonilla taiaroa n.sp.; holotype. Fig. 13. Pyrgiscus abjunctus n.sp.; holotype. Fig. 14. Gispyrella spatha n.sp.; holotype. Fig. 15. Pyrgiscus macphersoni Marwick; holotype. (Magnifications 10 diameters in all cases.)

Picture icon

Fig. 16. Pyrgolampros [ unclear: ] n.sp.; holotype. Fig. 17. Pyrgolampros semilaevigata n.sp; holotype. Fig. 18, 23. Striarcana cryptohra n.gen. n.sp.; holotype. Fig. 19. Mormula locuples n.sp.; holotype. Figs. 20, 25. Mormula laevigata n.sp.; holotype. Figs. 21, 28. Mormula tutamoensis n.sp.; holotype. Figs. 22, 27. Striarcana tauranga n.gen. n.sp.; holotype. Figs. 24, 26. Planpyrgiscus extenuata (Marwick); holotype. Fig. 29. Mormula awakinoensis n.sp.; holotype. Fig. 30. Pyrgolampros albolapis n.sp.; holotype. (Magnifications 10 diameters, except Figs. 18, 24, in which magnification 13 diameters.)

– 179 –

narrower than ribs. Ribs and grooves dying out gradualy over base, not stopped abruptly at periphery. Two varices present on last whorl, one near outer lip and the other above aperture near beginning of whorl. Varices low, wide, about three times the width of a rib. Spiral sculpture not seen. Body-whorl long, nearly half height of shell; flatly convex above, widely convex at periphery; base long, faintly convex. Aperture probably ovate, but outer lip considerably broken back; columella straight, vertical; parietocolumellar angulation distinct.

Height, 2.7 mm.; width (estimated), 1.0 mm.

Locality: Weka Pass, power shell-bed in the uppermost Mount Brown beds, 30 ft. below the top limestone.

Type (unique) in collection of Dr. H. J. Finlay.

This shell has a different appearance from other species of Mormula, and is especially characterised by smoother and differently shaped whorls, and long body-whorl. The embryo is definitely a Pyramidellid one, and the axial sculpture, though not quite typical of Mormula, points to a Turbonillid group, of which the only two so far made to accommodate shells with varices are Mormula and Lancella. The present shell, however, lacks the strong spiral lirations and granulose sculpture of Lancella, and it is therefore referred to Mormula, though, admittedly, it does not appear to fit there quite as naturally as one would wish. The single, probably not adult specimen, is inadequate material on which to found a new genus, and the safest course is to place it for the time being at least in Mormula.

The importance of the apparent absence of spiral sculpture is minimised when it is remembered that the other New Zealand species of Mormula typically possess weak spirals, and that these are developed usually only on the later whorls, and would therefore not be present on immature specimens.

Genus Striarcana n.gen. Type (o.d.): Striarcana cryptolira n.sp.

This group is characterised by fine, dense, microscopic lirae over the whole adult surface of the shell. In good specimens the spirals are seen to surmount the axial costae, and they are present on the base also, but even with the aid of the microscope one often has to observe very closely in order to pick them up. The whorls are evenly and usually strongly convex, and in the adult the costae are distinctly arcuate (not sinuous), a feature which has been observed in no other group. The intercostal spaces end abruptly at the periphery. The embryo is large, convex and planispiral.

The group is widespread, and no doubt other species await discovery. It is herein recorded from the extreme north of New Zealand, from Auckland, Tauranga, Wellington, and Chatham Islands.

Key to Species of Striarcana.

Shell small; axials fine, almost hair-like, 26 in number. tauranga

Shell larger; axials distinctly coarser, 20 in number. oryptolira

– 180 –

Striarcana cryptolira n.sp. (Figs. 18, 23).

Shell small, elongate-conic, semi-transparent when fresh, of 6 ½ post-nuclear volutions; outlines of spire straight. Whorls shouldered, convex; suture distinct. Protoconch of 1 large, heterostrophic, convex and planorboid turn; nucleus rather more than one-half immersed. Axial ribs (about 20 on penultimate whorl) narrow, rounded, sinuous on upper two or three whorls, thereafter distinctly arcuate, the convexity towards aperture; intercostal spaces excavated, a little wider than ribs; both axials and grooves terminated abruptly at periphery of last whorl. Microscopic spiral lirae present over whole adult surface (grooves, axials and base), causing a dull, silky sheen on fresh specimens when viewed under the hand-lens. Body-whorl wide, its outline convex throughout. Aperture broadly ovate, rather effuse in front; columella vertical, arcuate; parieto-columellar angulation rather wide; basal lip broadly rounded; a faint fold seen in some specimens.

Height, 4 0 mm.; width, 1. 2. mm. (holotype).

Localities: Lyall Bay, Wellington (type); Takapuna, Auckland; Pilot Bay, Tauranga; Chatham Islands; Tom Bowling Bay, northern New Zealand. Recent.

Type in collection of Dr. H. J. Finlay.

The shells from Chatham Islands have the axials not so arcuate. These Chatham Island shells constitute the “Turbonilla zealandica Hutton” listed by Finlay in his report on the Recent Mollusea of Chatham Islands (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 59, p. 260, 1928).

Striarcana tauranga n.sp. (Figs. 22, 27)

Shell very small, elongate-conic, semi-transparent, of 5 ½ post-nuclear whorls; outlines of spire straight. Whorls convex, strongly shouldered, constricted to suture below; suture very distinct. Protoconch heterostrophic, planispiral, of about 1 volution, strongly convex; nucleus almost completely immersed. Axial ribs fine, close, rounded (about 26 on penultimate whorl), distinctly arcuate; intercostal spaces of about same width as ribs, not deep; ribs and grooves slowly evanescent late on base; but there is a repaired fracture at beginning of the body-whorl and this no doubt has caused abnormality of sculpture on the body. Spiral sculpture of very fine, rather wavy, dense microscopic lirae, over whole surface between sutures, and on base. Body-whorl high, over one-third length of shell, its outline forming a continuous convex sweep from shoulder on to base. Aperture broadly ovate, angled behind, moderately widely rounded in front; columella set vertically, strongly arcuate, parieto-columellar junction very obtusely sub-angled; basal lip fairly widely rounded; outer lip thin, straight, oblique to axis of shell (antecurrent towards suture).

Height, 3.0 mm.; width, 1.0 mm.

Locality: Tauranga (Pilot Bay). Recent.

Type in collection of Mr. A. W. B. Powell, Auckland.

– 181 –

Genus Planpyrgiscus n.gen.

Type (o.d.): Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) extenuata Marwick.

This genus has been provided for Turbonilla extenata Marwick, the protoconch of which is planispiral, while the manner of cessation of the axial sculpture is that of Turbonilla s.str., the grooves dying out gradually below the periphery and not ending abruptly as in Chemnitzia. The spiral sculpture consists of moderately strong lirae and is quite typical of that of the Pyrgiscid genera.

Planpyrgiscus extenuata (Marwick). (Figs. 24, 26).

1931. Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) extenuata Marwick, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull., no. 13, p. 107, fig. 206.

The protoconch consists of one volution and is high and exsert, the nucleus large and but little immersed. The spiral sculpture is barely visible under the hand-lens, but is distinct as well-raised cords under the microscope. These are developed in the interspaces only, and are present on both the early and late adult whorls. The axial ribs are straight and practically vertical. The whorls are convex, and the suture, which is impressed, is well below periphery. The axials are much more closely spaced, finer and less prominent on later than on earlier whorls.

Height, 3.0 mm.; width, 0.8 mm.

Locality: tuffaceous arenaceous mudstone, Wharekopae River, Gisborne District, N.Z.G.S. loc. 1340, Ihungia Series (Hutchinsonian).

Type in collection of N.Z. Geological Survey, Wellington.

Genus Gispyrella n.gen. Type (o.d.): Gispyrella finalyi n.sp.

Shells of this group possess an embryo of planorboid coiling, usually of about one volution. They are further characterised by abrupt cessation of grooves at the periphery, as in Chemnitzia. Spiral sculpture is usually confined to the base and to the intercostal depressions, and consists of moderately strong cords and grooves.

Key to Species of Gispyrella.

Shell large, 9.0 mm. or over.

Spirals moderately strong, weaker around upper third of whorl, very fine and weak on base; whorls bulging at lower third. finlayi

Shell smaller, 6 mm., or less.

Axials numerous, 22–24; interstices narrower; spire outline straight. spatha

Axials more numerous, close, 26; interstices of equal width; spire pupoid towards summit. hemiorycta

Gispyrella finlayi n.sp. (Fig. 9).

Shell tall and slender, earliest two or three whorls decollated; outlines of spire straight. Whorls nearly flat, usually a little swollen over lower third or half; a faint sulcus present encircling whorl at about its upper third, best developed on last few whorls; suture not strongly marked, situated below periphery. Protoconch heterostrophic, planispiral, of 1 volution; nucleus large, about one-half

– 182 –

immersed. Axial ribs (about 23 on penultimate whorl) rather thin for size of shell, vertical, straight; intercostal spaces flat-floored, well incised; grooves and ribs end abruptly at periphery. Spiral sculpture plainly seen under hand-lens, in interstices between sutures, fainter on base; spirals rather more conspicuous on lower half of whorls. Body-whorl distinctly angled at periphery; base lightly convex. Aperture sub-quadrate, wide below; columella about verical, arcuate, reflexed below; parieto-columellar junction sharply rounded; basal lip broadly and regularly rounded; outer lip straight, descending nearly vertically.

Height (estimated), 10.5 mm.; width, 2.3 mm. (holotype).

Localities: Pukeuri, near Oamaru (type); Awamoa Creek, Oamaru; shell-bed, Target Gully, Oamaru. Awamoan horizons.

Type in Auckland Museum (ex writer's collection).

Named in honour of Dr. H. J. Finlay, of Dunedin.

Gispyrella spatha n.sp. (Fig. 14).

Shells small, elongate-conic, of 7 ¼ post-nuclear whorls; outlines of spire straight. Whorls flattish, upper few evenly and very lightly convex, lower ones slightly bulging below; there is the very faintest indication of a sulcus at about upper third of latest whorls; suture impressed, distinct, situated at periphery. Protoconch large, heterostrophic, of nearly 1 planorboid volution; nucleus large, almost entirely immersed. Axial ornamentation of straight, vertical, closeset, rounded ribs (about 22–24 on penultimate whorl), separated by interspaces of width about equal to that of ribs, and a little excavated; grooves and ribs stopped abruptly at periphery. Spiral sculpture not prominent, just visible under hand-lens; weak on base but best seen in intercostal spaces between sutures, those nearer lower suture a little coarser than those on upper part of whorl. Body-whorl flatly convex above; periphery well rounded; base convex, with obsolete axial corrugations. Aperture sub-quadrate, broadly rounded in front, angled behind; columella set vertically, a little arcuate, a faint swelling just below its insertion; parieto-columella junction broadly rounded; basal lip broadly rounded; outer lip straight above, descending almost vertically.

Height, 4.5 mm.; width, 1.3 mm. (holotype).

Locality: greensand and shell-bed, Target Gully, Oamaru (Awamoan).

Type in Auckland Museum (ex writer's collection).

This species is distinguished by smaller size, more numerous and finer axials, much weaker spirals, less strongly marked sulcus and a much lighter bulge over lower part of whorls.

Gispyrella hemiorycta n.sp. (Fig. 7.)

Shell small, slender, elongate-conic, of 7 ½ post-nuclear whorls; outlines of spire pupoid towards summit. Whorls flattish with a distinct sulcus at upper third, and a low swelling below; suture moderately distinct, below periphery. Protoconch large, conspicuous, swollen, heterostrophic, of nearly 1 helicoid turn; nucleus large. almost wholly immersed. Axial ribs (about 26 on penultimate whorl) small, fine, rounded, straight, vertical; intercostal spaces incised and

– 183 –

of same width as ribs; axials and grooves stopped abruptly slightly below periphery. Spiral sculpture well developed over base and in interstices of swollen part of whorls, but very weak around sulcate zone. Body-whorl moderately high, concave above, and then convex; periphery convex; base lightly convex. Aperture sub-pyriform; columella thin, set vertically, arcuate, with a low, indistinct swelling just below its insertion; parieto-columellar junction broadly concave; basal lip narrowly rounded, a little drawn down and inwards; outer lip straight, descending almost vertically.

Height, 4.2 mm.; width, 0.95 mm. (holotype).

Localities: shell-bed, Target Gully (type); greensand below shell-bed, Target Gully; Awamoa Creek. These are Awamoan horizons around Oamaru.

Type in Auckland Museum (ex writer's collection).

This species represents a different line of Gispyrella from its two associates. It is at once distinctive in its much smaller size, convex summit of spire, and strongly sulcate whorls.

Genus Graphis Jeffreys. 1867. Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., 4, 102.

Type (monotypy): Turbo unicus Montfort. (Recent, Britain).

Syn. Cioniscus Jeffreys, 1869 (Brit. Conch., 5, 210).

New name for Graphis Jeffreys.

Graphis blanda (Finlay).

1924. Turbonilla (Pyrgolampros) blanda Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 55, p. 522, text-fig. 4.

Forbes and Hanley (Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. 2, p. 299, pl. 2, fig. 2) have given a figure and description of the genotype of Graphis. The reference to Graphis has been made (in manuscript) by Dr. Finlay, and he has stated his opinion that Graphis is referable to the Pyramidellidae.

Height, 3.0 mm.; width, 0.7 mm. (holotype).

Localities: Taieri Beach, Otago, in seaweed washings, type; Hen and Chickens Islands, in 25 fathoms; Auckland Harbour.

Type in collection of Dr. H. J. Finlay.

The protoconch, which is low, very little exsert, and considerably tilted, has no lateral nucleus visible. Forbes and Hanley's description (loc. cit., p. 299) informed that their illustration suggests a Pyramidellid embryo.

Removal of Species From Pyramidellidae.

The following species, originally described as Turbonillids, have been removed from the Pyramidellidae.

Notacirsa oamarutica (Suter).

1917. Turbinilla (Pyrgiscus) oamarutica Suter, N.Z. Geol, Surv. Pal. Bull., no. 5, p. 16, pl. 1, fig. 7.

1926. Notacirsa oamarutica (Suter). Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 56, p. 231, pl. 56, fig. 16.

– 184 –

Cossmann (in Marshall, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 49, p. 462, 1917) stated that this species is probably an Acissella,* but Finlay (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 56, p. 231, 1926) has since made it the type of his genus Notacirsa, which he locates in the Epitoniidae. The apex is not heterostrophic, but is a high, polygyrate, pointed one, quite of Epitonid type.

Notacirsa awamoaensis (Marshall and Murdoch).

1921. Turbonilla awamoaensis Marshall and Murdoch, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 53, p. 84, pl. 19, fig. 6.

1930. Notacirsa awamoaensis (Marshall and Murdoch). Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 61, p. 233.

Finlay (loc. cit., p. 233) has removed this fossil also to Notacirsa (Epitoniidae). It is a very close relative of the preceding species, differing mainly in having its spiral sculpture a good deal finer. The apex again is high, polygyrate and pointed. The holotype, which is in the Wanganui Museum, has been examined by the present writer. The authors' illustration is poor, and shows the spire narrowing much too rapidly. Actually, spirals are more in evidence on the periphery and very faint on the base, where, however, the figure shows them too prominently.

Notacirsa prisca (Suter).

1917. Turbonilla (Mormula) prisca Suter, N.Z. Geol, Surv. Pal. Bull., no. 5, p. 16, pl. 3, fig. 10.

Finlay (Trans N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 406, 1926) stated that possibly this species should be referred to Notacirsa, but indicated that its position must remain in doubt till the apex should be known. Inspection of the apex of a topotype shows that prisca must be located as above. It has not the appearance of Mormula, but Suter was misled by the presence of varices, and further the type has the early whorls decollated.

Note.

In the tabular summary of Turbonillid genera given in No. 1 of this series of papers (Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 66, p. 407, 1937) the name “Taurangia n.gen.” was inserted in error. The name was placed there tentatively in the original scheme and through an over-sight was not removed. So far as the writer is aware there is no genus having the characters required by that particular location in the scheme.

[Footnote] * Undoubtedly a misprint for Acirsella.