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Volume 67, 1938
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Notes on the Genus Leucaspis, with Descriptions of Thirteen New Zealand Species and Re-description of Eight Foreign Species.

[Read before the Canterbury Branch, May 5, 1937; received by the Editor, May 15, 1937; issued separately, December, 1937.]

This interesting genus of the Coccidae is exceedingly well represented in New Zealand, there being thirteen distinct species, with at least two varieties. When Myers (1922, p. 200) published a list of the New Zealand Coccidae, he included the names of five species of Leucaspis. Of these, one, viz., L. stricta Mask., has herein been eliminated owing to the types being lost and a doubt existing as to its identity with any of the other species included in this paper. In most other parts of the world it is an exception to find more than two, or perhaps three, species in any one country. Green (1915, p. 459), in his paper on the genus, after eliminating synonyms and disputed names, gives a list of seventeen species as found throughout the world, and since then seven more species have been added to the list, one of which was by the author (1915, p. 157), and three from this country by Green (1929, p. 382). To this list I must now add seven more, making in all a grand total of thirty-one species of Leucaspis found throughout the world, one of which. L. stricta Mask., is still doubtful, however. Apart from Green's paper on the subject, the only ones of any moment are those by Leonardi (1906), and Lindinger (1906), both of which papers unfortunately I have been unable to peruse. These authors have suggested many changes in nomenclature, but have left a few names in dispute, neither being able to agree as to priority. It is rather astonishing that out of thirty-one species found throughout the world at least half of them should be found in a small country like New Zealand. Through the courtesy of Mr. Green I have been able to examine nine foreign species that have been placed in this genus. Of these seven undoubtedly belong to the genus, but the remaining two, for reasons to be given later, will ultimately have to be removed from the list and allocated to a different genus.

One of the main characters of the genus is the entire enclosure of the adult female within the exuvia of the nympli. In this respect it closely resembles several other genera, notably the Fiorinia, from which it is separated by a difference in the male puparium.

Up to the present time the stage that has been mostly used for the purpose of identification is that of the nymph. This has been due doubtless to the great difficulty experienced in extracting the adult from the nymphal exuvia without it being more or less damaged or deformed during the process of extraction, and even when this has been accomplished, there at first sight appears little by which the identity of the species can be effected. Identification from the nymph, however, has never seemed to me to be at all satisfactory,

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and especially is this so when a rather large number of species is found in one isolated country, and the presence or absence of a single large pore on the pygidium of the nymph is likely to become the deciding factor. It therefore became evident to me that more consistent factors would have to be found, making the identification of the members of this genus not only easier, but less liable to error. It was with this idea that after much study—both of the adult and nymphal stages—I came to the conclusion that for the purpose of identification the adult stage was the best, even though there was a greater liability to damage during preparation, and thereafter confined my whole attention to it. In the New Zealand species at least I find that in the nymphal stage a slight difference often takes place during the period of growth, especially in the lobes and squamulae of the nymph. This appears to be mostly due in the older nymphs to the margin of the pygidium becoming so dense that it is hard to distinguish between the lobes and squamulae; and even the large lunate pores, usually so prominent a feature in this stage, are often quite obscured, and only a few pores in the centre of the disc can be made out with certainty. As these pores are sometimes very similar in their number and arrangement, their use for the purpose of identification was very unsatisfactory. The displacement of the rostrum in the nymphal exuvia, which has been used by Green as an aid to identification, did not seem to me sufficiently reliable, and there was then left for purposes of identification only the symmetrical division into median and lateral series of chitinous plates that is sometimes to be found on the posterior segments of the nymph. At the same time it may be said that a study of the nymph has a certain value, being an additional aid to the ultimate identification of the species, and this being so, a specimen should always be mounted for study preferably on the same slide with the adult.

In the adult stage the marginal appendages of the pygidium, though useful, are not always entirely satisfactory for the separation of species, and the same may be said of the perivulvar pores, which are also found to vary to a certain extent. In what may be called the supplementary groups of perivulvar pores, usually to be found on the preceding segments of the abdomen, we have the best means for separating the species of this genus into several main groups. These groups of pores when present are usually to be found near the outer margin of the preceding segments, but occasionally there are one or more groups sub-anterior to the usual five groups of perivulvar pores. These supplementary groups, although apparently constant as regards the number of groups in a particular species, are not so as regards the number of pores in a group, but as this latter factor is not of much importance, very little notice need be taken of it, as in only one foreign species have I found these groups with as few as one or two pores. By means of these supplementary groups we are able to separate into six natural groups all the species that I have yet been able to examine. These main divisions of the genus are as follows:—

  • A—Supplementary groups of pores absent.

  • B.—Two supplementary groups of pores.

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  • C.—Four supplementary groups of pores.

  • D.—Five supplementary groups of pores.

  • E.—Six supplementary groups of pores.

  • F.—Eight supplementary groups of pores.

Further investigation of the perivulvar pores revealed the fact that each of the main groups could be further separated into two sub-groups, viz. (1) those in which the three middle groups of perivulvar pores are more or less confluent, and (2) those in which all the groups are well separated. Even this, however, does not exhaust our means of further separating the species. Situated on each side of and between the rostrum and the margin of the body, there is usually a group of pores, varying in shape and size of pore, that are very useful for the purpose of identification. These, called paratrophic pores, vary according to the species, sometimes large, sometimes small, the groups being elongate or circular in form, and in only two foreign species which undoubtedly belong to the genus Leucaspis, have I found them absent. Then again we have the parastigmatic groups of pores, which are found immediately above the anterior spiracles. These groups, although varying slightly as regards the number of pores in a group, are generally constant enough to confirm the ultimate identification of a species.

I had found this method of separating the New Zealand species quite satisfactory, but the question still remained as to whether it would be applicable to foreign species. In order to satisfy myself as to this, I forwarded to Mr. E. E. Green, of England, a well-known authority on the Coccidae, a key that I had prepared for the classification of the New Zealand species in my own collection. He was much interested in the subject, and sent me in return specimens of nine foreign species from his own collection, asking me to add them to the key if possible. This I was able to do as regards seven of the species, i.e., L. salicis Green, L. pusilla Loew., L. cockerelli de Charm., L. riccae Targ., L. perezi Green, L. knemion Hoke, and L. signoreti Targ.; but there were two species, L. vayssierii Balach. and L. pistaciae Lindg., that by no means would fit in, being without perivulvar pores, paratrophic pores, and supplementary groups. The margin of the pygidium of the adult of both these species is without squamulae, a fact which sometimes occurs in the genus Leucaspis, and there is an almost entire absence of pores of any kind, while in both species there is a somewhat square marking in the centre of the pygidium that very much suggests a pouch. In one of the species the lobes are entirely absent, while the other species has a pair of large median lobes quite distinct from those usually found in the genus. I subsequently wrote Mr. Green forwarding him a fresh key which included all those he had sent me with the exception of the two species above mentioned, and suggested that these two species should be placed in a new genus, or might possibly be placed in the genus Neoleucaspis Green (1926, p. 63), which he had erected for a single species found on bamboo in India, the description of which appeared to me to be very similar to both these species. Unfortunately before Mr. Green was able to write he was taken seriously ill, as I was later informed, and there the matter rests.

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It would be as well here, I think, to bring up a matter of anatomical detail given by both Newstead (1901, p. 74) and Green (1896, p. 31) that—as far as the New Zealand species of the genus are concerned—appears to be contrary to fact. Speaking of the Diaspinae in general, Newstead states as follows: “The pygidium (fig. 11), which consists of several segments fused together, is a flat chitinised organ affording the salient characters for the separation of the species. On the dorsal surface of the pygidium is placed the anal opening (fig. 11a), and usually a varying number of secreting pores with connecting tubes (dorsal tubular spinnerets, fig. 11b). On the ventral surface is the vaginal opening (fig. 11g), surrounding which there are frequently groups of glands (circumgenital glands, fig. 11h), which are apparently absent in all viviparous species…” His figure gives a drawing of Mytilaspis pomorum, since renamed Lepidosaphes ulmi L., one side showing the pores of the dorsal surface and the other half those of the ventral surface. Now, as regards the New Zealand species belonging to the genus Leucaspis, this appears to be contrary to fact, although as regards other genera belonging to the Diaspinae it may be quite correct. When preparing specimens of the genus Leucaspis, and especially is this so of the New Zealand species of the genus, I have repeatedly noticed that the dorsal surface of the abdomen above the pygidium is very convex, and when the specimen has been flattened out by compression of the cover-glass, the perivulvar pores are nearly always displaced, so much so, in fact, as to be sometimes found below the pygidium. The anal orifice, however, is never displaced, thus showing that it was on the opposite—ventral—surface. Further confirmation of this was given when I happened to mount a specimen on its side—a rare occurrence—when the perivulvar pores (circumgenital glands of Newstead) were plainly seen on the dorsal surface, and the anal orifice on the ventral surface. As regards the nymphal stage, I have never yet been able to satisfy myself as to which surface the anal orifice is situated on, but it does not seem credible that it would be on the dorsal surface of the nymph, and on the ventral surface of the adult. As far as the other genera are concerned I can offer no opinion.

As regards the drawings accompanying this paper, I believe they will be found to be approximately correct, but care must be taken when using them for the purpose fo identification, as they are taken from a single specimen only, whereas the text has been drawn up from a number of specimens in each of which there is almost bound to be more or less variation; consequently the drawing may not always quite agree with the text.

In conclusion, I beg to tender my thanks to all those kind friends and co-workers who have assisted me in my study of the Coccidae. To Mr. E. E. Green, of England, I am especially indebted for the many specimens and much helpful advice he has given me during the past twenty years. To the biological staff of the Plant Research Station at Palmerston North, especially Messrs. Muggeridge and Cottier; to the biological staff of the Cawthron Institute, Nelson, including Dr. Miller and Mr. E. S. Gourlay, and to Mr. A. F. Clark, of the Forest Service, I tender my most hearty thanks.

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Key to the Classification of the Species of the Genus Leucaspis.

A.

Supplementary groups of pores absent.

(a)

Three middle groups of perivulvar pores confluent:

Paratrophic pores L.E. Parastigmatic group large (14–22). maskelli Brit.

Paratrophic pores S.E. Parastigmatic group large (12). ohakunensis sp. nov.

Parastrophic pores S.C. Parastigmatic group large (19–22). gigas Mask.

(b)

Three middle groups of perivulvar pores separate:

Paratrophic pores S.C. Parastigmatic group large (10–12). myersi Green.

Paratrophic pores S.C. Parastigmatic group small (8–10). carpodeti sp. nov.

B.

With two supplementary groups of pores.

(b)

Three middle groups of perivulvar pores separate:

Paratrophic pores L.E. Parastigmatic group large (21). greeni sp. nov.

(C)

With four supplementary groups of pores.

(a)

Three middle groups of perivulvar pores confluent:

Paratrophic pores L.E. Parastigmatic group large (16). melicytidis sp. nov.

Paratrophic pores S.C. Parastigmatic group small (2). salicis Green.

Paratrophic pores ab. Parastigmatic group small (4–6). pusilla Loew.

Paratrophic pores L.E. Parastigmatic group small (5–7). cockerelli de Charm.

Paratrophic pores S.E. Parastigmatic group large (26). cordylinidis Mask.

Paratrophic pores S.Sr. Parastigmatic group large (12). japonica v. darwiniensis Green.

(b)

Three middle groups of perivulvar pores separate:

Paratrophic pores S.E. Parastigmatic group large (12). brittini Green.

Paratrophic pores L.E. Parastigmatic group large (12–14). pittospori sp. nov.

Paratrophic pores L.C. Parastigmatic group small (3–4). riccae Targ.

Paratrophic pores ab. Parastigmatic group small (4–6). perezi Green.

D.

With five supplementary groups of pores (one group subanterior).

(b)

Three middle groups of perivulvar pores separate:

Paratrophic pores S.E. Parastigmatic group large (20). elaeocarpi sp. nov.

E.

With six supplementary groups of pores.

(a)

Three middle groups of perivulvar pores confluent:

Paratrophic pores L.E. Parastigmatic group large (27). hoheriae sp. nov.

Paratrophic pores S.E. Parastigmatic group large (16). knemion Hoke.

(b)

Three middle groups of perivulvar pores separate:

Paratrophic pores S.E. Parastigmatic group large (10–17). podocarpi Green.

F.

With eight supplementary groups of pores (two groups subanterior).

(b)

Three middle groups of perivulvar pores separate:

Paratrophic pores L.E. Parastigmatic group small (7–10). signoreti Targ.

  • L.—Large, referring to size of pores.

  • S.—Small, referring to size of pores.

  • E.—Elongate, referring to shape of group.

  • C.—Circular, referring to shape of group.

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      • Sr.—Single row.

      • ab.—Absent.

      • (2)—Number of pores in group.

Note.—One to ten pores constitute a small group of parastigmatic pores; above that number a large group.

L. maskelli (Brit.).

Fiorinia maskelli Brit., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 47, 1915, p. 157; Leucaspis maskelli (Brit.) Green, Bull. Ent. Res., vol. 7, 1916, p. 51.

Puparium of adult female elongate, convex, colour white.

Puparium of male similar, but smaller.

Adult female elongate, widest below middle and tapering slightly towards cephalic extremity. Rudimentary antennae with five long setae. Rostrum normal. Anterior spiracles with large group of about twenty-two parastigmatic pores. Paratrophic pores large, group elongate. Pygidium (Pl. 41A, fig. 6) rounded, with slight constriction at junction of free abdominal segments. Margin of pygidium with a crenulate appearance, and entirely without squamulae or recognisable lobes. A marginal series of minute fine setae interspersed with what appear to be very small pores. A row of four irregular chitinous thickenings on pygidium below anal orifice. Several short fine setae on disc of pygidium. Perivulvar pores in five groups, the three middle groups forming a thick confluent band, the posterior lateral groups are large and circular in shape. Supplementary groups of pores absent. Length about 1.26 mm.; width about 0.84 mm.

Exuvia of nymph elongate-ovate, with two prominent constrictions above pygidium. Rudimentary antennae with about four short setae. Pygidium (Pl. 41A, fig. 5) narrow, rather pointed, with four small lobes with long narrow extending bases. Squamulae broad, fimbriate; two between each of the lobes and about four more laterad of outer lobes. Large lunate pores present opening in deep indentations on the margin. A submarginal series of similar pores also present. Remainder of pygidium without lunate pores. Length about 1.64 mm.; width about 1.10 mm.

Hab.—On Plagianthus, Veronica, Pittosporum, Nothopanax, Canterbury.

Type slides in own collection, No. 59.

A very variable species. In some specimens the perivulvar pores appear to be almost separate, but usually the three middle groups are undoubtedly confluent. Again, there are sometimes small chitinous thickenings on the margin of the pygidium of the adult that have the appearance of very small lobes placed at regular intervals. Apart from these facts, however, I have been unable to distinguish any other difference in the adult female. The nymph appears to be fairly constant. According to Green (1916, p. 51) this species is very similar to, if not identical with, L.kermanensis Lindg. Not being acquainted with Lindinger's species, and as Green does not state whether L. kermanensis has supplementary pores or not, I can offer no opinion on this point.

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L. ohakunensis sp. nov.

Puparium of adult female broadly ovate, sometimes almost circular, larval exuvia greyish to light-brown, secretion white.

Puparium of male elongate, narrow, without carina.

Adult female broadly ovate. Rudimentary antennae with four stout setae. Rostrum normal. Anterior spiracles with group of about twelve parastigmatic pores. Paratrophic pores small, group elongated. Margin of pygidium (Pl. 42A, fig. 3) with three pairs of short truncate or ovate lobes without extending bases. Squamulae short and pointed, slightly longer than lobes: one between each pair of lobes and about three more laterad of outer lobes. At the base of each median lobe there are two long fine setae, and a single setae at the base of each of the other lobes. Slightly below and to each side of the anal orifice there are four very short fine setae. Perivulvar pores in five groups, the three middle groups forming a broad confluent band of pores. Supplementary groups of pores absent. Length about 1.0 mm. to 1.20 mm.; width about 0.7 mm. to 0.8 mm.

Exuvia of nymph ovate, with a slight constriction at abdomen, lightly chitinised. Margin of pygidium (pl. 42A, fig. 4) with four narrow spatulate lobes with narrow extending bases. Squamulae broad, deeply fimbriate, about same length as lobes. Large lunate pores present opening in deep indentations on the margin, a submarginal series of similar pores also present, with four or five pores near margin on the three preceding abdominal segments. A large lunate pore on each side of the anal orifice. Length about 1.88 mm.; width about 0.98 mm.

Hab.—On Astelia sp. and Myrtus sp., Ohakune; on Hoheria sp., Nelson.

Type slide in own collection, No. 254.

Very close to L.gigas Mask., in lobes and confluent perivulvar pores of adult, and also in the pygidium of the nymph. It differs in the paratrophic pores, the slightly fewer perivulvar pores, larger groups of parastigmatic pores, and in the presence of the short squamulae in the adult.

L. gigas Maskell.

Diaspis gigas Mask., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol 11, 1879, p. 201; Fiorinia asteliae Mask., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 12, 1880, p. 292; vol. 14, 1882, p. 217; vol. 17, 1885, p. 24; Uhleria gigas Comst., 2nd Rep. Cornell Univ., 1883, p. III; Leucaspis gigas (Mask.) Lindg., Jhrb. Hamb. wiss. Anst., vol. 23, 1906, p. 57; Fiorinia morrisi Brit., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 47, 1915, p. 149; Leucaspis gigas (Mask.) Green, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1914, p. 460; Bull. Ent. Res., vol. 7, 1916, p. 51.

Puparium of adult elongate, convex, generally straight, sometimes curved, colour white.

Puparium of male similar but smaller.

Adult female elongate, widest at cephalic extremity. Rudimentary antennae with three short stout setae. Rostrum normal. Anterior spiracles with group of nineteen to twenty-two parastigmatic pores. Paratrophic pores small, group circular. Pygidium (Pl. 41B, fig. 1) broad, the lower margin often appearing concave when

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mounted, with three pairs of small chitinous lobes set equidistant apart. Squamulae entirely absent. At the base of each lobe there is a long stout seta with several more shorter ones interspersed between the lobes, also one long and six shorter setae laterad of outer lobes. With five groups of perivulvar pores, the three middle groups being confluent, and the posterior-lateral groups circular in shape. Supplementary groups of pores, absent. Length about 1.24 mm.; width about 0.78 mm.

Exuvia of nymph elongate, widest at cephalic extremity, tapering towards posterior extremity, lightly chitinised. Pygidium (Pl. 41B, fig. 2) with two pairs of narrow lobes with long narrow extending bases, and an outer pair without extending bases. Squamulae broad, fimbriate, about same length as lobes; two between the median pair of lobes, two between the median pair of lobes, two between the median and second pair of lobes, three between second and third pair of lobes, and about six more laterad of outer lobes; beyong these are a number of broad truncate processes with their apices minutely serrate. Large lunate pores present opening in deep indentations on the margin. A single large lunate pore on each side of the anal orifice, and immediately above these on the next three free abdominal segments there are series of two or three similar pores. A submarginal series on pygidium laterad of median lobes. A cluster of very short fine setae on each side of anal orifice, and a similar cluster above each of the adjacent lunate pores. Length about 1.65 mm.; width about 0.80 mm.

Hab.—On Griselinia littoralis and Nothopanax arboreum, Oamaru, Christchurch.

This is a somewhat variable species, especially as regards the perivulvar pores. On Nothopanax the three middle groups are undoubtedly confluent, while on Griselinia it is often hard to say whether they are confluent or not. Apart from this, however, I have been unable to distinguish any other difference. The pygidium of the adult female might easily be mistaken for L. carpodeti, but the pygidium of the nymph is quite distinct from the nymph of that species.

L. myersi Green.

Leucaspis myersi Green, Bull. Ent. Res., vol. 19, pt. 4, March, 1929, p. 386.

Puparium of adult female irregularly ovate, broadest behind middle, very thin and translucent, the colour of the nymph showing through.

Puparium of male more elongate and slightly smaller.

Adult female ovate, narrowing slightly towards pygidium. Rudimentary antennae with five straight setae, two of which are stouter than the others. Rostrum normal. Anterior spiracles with group of ten to twelve parastigmatic pores. Paratrophic pores small, groups circular. Margin of pygidium with two pairs of short ovate lobes rather deeply chitinised and set equidistant apart, occasionally there is another pair, often appearing bi-lobed, some distance laterad of the second pair of lobes. Squamulae fusiform, slightly longer than lobes; two between each of the first two pairs of lobes, and about

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three to five more laterad of the second pair of lobes. Perivulvar pores in five groups, all groups well separated. Supplementary groups of pores absent. Length about 1.26 mm.; width about 0.86 mm.

Exuvia of nymph ovate, sharply incised at junction of the abdominal segments. Rudimentary antennae similar to those of the adult. Margin of the pygidium with two pairs of very narrow lobes with long extending bases. Squamulae broad, deeply fringed, about same length as lobes; two between each of the lobes, and about seven more laterad of the outer lobes, beyond these are some short truncate processes. Large lunate pores present opening in deep indentations on margin, a submarginal series of similar pores also present. Disc of pygidium without pores. Length about 2.0 mm.; width about 1.24 mm.

Hab.—On Griselinia litoralis, Oamaru, Nelson. On Winteria sp., Ohakune.

Types in Green Collection.

Closely related to L. gigas Mask., from which it can be separated by the acutely pointed fusiform squamulae, and by the groups of perivulvar pores being distinctly separated.

L. carpodeti sp. nov.

Puparium of adult female elongate, straight, widening towards posterior extremity, secretion white.

Puparium of male similar but smaller.

Adult female ovate, very convex. Rudimentary antennae with five long setae of various lengths. Rostrum normal. Anterior spiracles with small group of about eight to ten parastigmatic pores. Paratrophic pores small, groups circular in shape. Margin of pygidium (Pl. 42A, fig. 5) with two pair of ovate lobes, the median pair being the largest. Squamulae apparently absent, but there is a crenulate appearance of the margin that sometimes gives the appearance of minute squamulae. A long stout seta at the base of each lobe with a similar one laterad of outer lobes. A few short fine setae interspersed along margin of pygidium and also on disc. With five large groups of perivulvar pores, all groups being well separated. Supplementary groups of pores not observed. Length about 0.68 mm.; width about 0.60 mm.

Exuvia of nymph elongate, widest at cephalic extremity and deeply chitinised, except at the posterior extremity. Margin of pygidium (Pl. 42A, fig. 6) with two pairs of lobes slightly trilobate. The squamulae varying in shape; two between the median lobes are narrow and pointed. two between the median and second pair of lobes, the first being narrow and pointed and the second broad and obtuse, the remaining squamulae are generally broad and obtuse. Large lunate pores present opening in deep indentations on margin, a submarginal series of similar pores also present, no other pores observed on pygidium. A few truncate processes at margin of last five free abdominal segments. Length about 1.36 mm.; width about 1.0 mm.

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Hab.—On Carpodetus sp., Nelson.

Type slide in own collection, No. 255.

Closely approaches L. gigas Mask. in the paratrophic pores. Differs in the fewer parastigmatic pores, the well separated perivulvar pores, and in the pygidial processes of the nymph.

L. greeni sp. nov.

Puparium of adult female elongate, narrow, straight, secretion dirty-white; larval exuvia light-brown.

Puparium of male similar but smaller.

Adult female elongate, broadest across the abdominal half of the body, tapering towards the cephalic extremity. Rudimentary antennae with about four long setae. Rostrum normal. Anterior spiracles with a large group of about twenty-one parastigmatic pores. Paratrophic pores large, group elongate. Margin of pygidium (Pl. 41B, fig. 3) with two pairs of somewhat unequal obtusely-pointed lobes with very slightly extending bases. Squamulae broad, fimbriate, about same length as lobes: two between the median lobes, three between the median and outer lobes, and about six or eight laterad of outer lobes. A marginal series of short spine-like setae irregularly scattered along margin of pygidium, with a few more on disc. Perivulvar pores in five groups, the three middle groups elongate in shape but distinetly separated, the outer groups circular in shape. With two supplementary groups, each containing about three pores. Length about 1.10 mm.; width about 0.5 mm.

Exuvia of nymph elongate, narrow, tapering towards either extremity, lightly chitinised. Pygidium (Pl. 41B, fig. 4) small, rounded, with two pairs of small lobes with long extending bases. Squamulae broad, fimbriate, two between each of the lobes and about five more laterad of outer lobes. On the five free abdominal segments are broad truncate processes with extremities irregularly serrate. Large lunate pores present opening in deep indentations on the margin; a submarginal series of similar pores also present, with a pair of similar pores on each side of anal orifice, and another pair immediately above and slightly to one side. Length about 1.92 mm.; width about 0.60 mm.

Hab.—On Winteria colorata, Ohakune.

Type slide in own collection, No. 3.

Close to L. cordylinidis Mask. in size and shape, but differs in having only two supplementary groups. The parastigmatic groups are slightly larger, and the squamulae more broadly fimbriate.

L. melicytidis sp. nov.

Puparium of adult female very elongate, narrow, usually slightly curved, very convex, secretion transparent white.

Puparium of male similar in shape, secretion pure white.

Adult female very elongate with straight parallel sides. Rudimentary antennae somewhat larger than usual, with four long stout setae. Rostrum normal. Anterior spiracles with group of about sixteen parastigmatic pores. Paratrophic pores large, group elongated. Pygidium (Pl. 41A, fig. 4) rather small, with two pairs of

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small, subequal, distinctly bicuspid lobes. Squamulae about equal in length to lobes, with their apices bi-or tri-dentate: two between the median pair of lobes, two or three between the median and second pair of lobes, and about four more laterad of outer lobes. A few short fine setae interspersed with what appear to be minute pores along margin of pygidium. A series of four irregular oblong chitinous thickenings forming a transverse row below anal orifice. Perivulvar pores in five groups, the three middle groups being confluent. With four supplementary groups of pores: posterior groups with four to six pores each and the anterior groups with two to three pores. A number of short fine setae on disc of pygidium. Length about 0.83 mm.; width about 0.38 mm.

Exuvia of nymph elongate, narrow, tapering slightly towards cephalic extremity. Rudimentary antennae smaller than those of adult, with four stout setae. Pygidium (Pl. 41A, fig. 3) small, rounded, with four small minutely triobate lobes with long extending bases. Squamulae broad, deeply fringed: two between each of the lobes and about eight more laterad of outer lobes. Many short truncate processes extending up the sides of the next five free abdominal segments. Large ovate pores present opening in deep indentations on the margin, with a series of three more submarginal on each side. Two similar pores on each side of anal orifice, with another immediately above these. Length about 1.80 mm.; width about 0.61 mm.

Hab.—On Melicytus ramiflorus, Waipara.

Type slides in own collection, No. 91.

Closely related to L. pittospori mihi, but differs by having chitinous thickenings on the pygidium of the adult, and by the three middle groups of perivulvar pores being confluent.

L. salicis Green.

L. salicis Green, Trans. Ent. Soc., Lond., 1915, pts. iii, iv, p. 465.

Puparium of adult female very short, highly convex, exuvia dark-brown, secretion white.

Puparium of male similar but smaller.

Adult female elongate-ovate, highly convex on dorsum. Rudimentary antennae with about three stout setae. Rostrum normal. Anterior spiracles with one or two parastigmatic pores. Paratrophic pores small, group limited to about four or five pores. Pygidium rounded, margin apparently without lobes or squamulae of any kind. Green mentions four very small lobes as sometimes observable. A double row of very short fine setae along margin, and about eight setae—differing in size—on disc of pygidium. Anal orifice surrounded by a slightly chitinised area, with about six irregular chitinised thickenings below anal orifice. Perivulvar pores in a scattered row and not separable into groups, about twenty-six pores in the row. With four supplementary groups of pores, each group represented by a single pore. Length about 0.72 mm.; width about 0.32 mm.

– 292 –

Exuvia of nymph broadly ovate, narrowing slightly towards pygidium, often with an irregular fold demarking the cephalic area. Margin of pygidium with a single pair of rather broad lobes of irregular form. Squamulae entirely absent. With two large lunate pores opening on margin some distance laterad of lobes, and several more extending inward from these pores. Length about 0.90 mm.; width about 0.54 mm.

Hab.—On Salix sp., Baluchistan, India.

Types in the collection of Mr. E. E. Green.

According to Green (1915), “the character of the adult female suggests close affinity to L. kermanensis Lindg., which also occurs on Salix in Persia; but the pygidial margin of the nymph—as figured in Lindinger's paper—displays two pairs of comparatively narrow lobes and as many stout conical processes, while that of salicis is furnished only with a single pair of extremely broad lobes.” Not being acquainted with L. kermanensis Lindg., I cannot comment on this. The above diagnosis was drawn up from specimens received from Mr. Green.

L. pusilla Loew.

L. pusilla Loew., Wien. Ent. Zeit., ii, 1883, p. 3.

Puparium of adult female elongate, narrow, secretion white.

Puparium of male similar but smaller.

Adult female elongate, widest below middle. Rudimentary antennae with about four long setae, one of which is longer and stouter than the others. Rostrum normal. Anterior spiracles with a group of five or six parastigmatic pores. Paratrophic pores absent. Margin of pygidium usually with six small pointed lobes slightly chitinised, but it is not uncommon for one or more lobes to be missing. Squamulae very long and slender, sometimes appearing spatulate, those between the lobes being about three times longer than the lobes but shortening laterad of outer lobes: two between the median lobes, two between the median and second pair of lobes, three between the second and outer lobes, and five or six more laterad of outer lobes. A long stout seta at the base of each lobe with one or two more laterad of outer lobes. A number of very short fine setae interspersed along margin and on disc of pygidium. Perivulvar pores forming an irregular transverse band. Four supplementary groups present, the posterior groups each with three or four pores. the anterior groups each represented by a single pore. Length about 0.85 mm.; width about 0.50 mm.

Exuvia of nymph elongate. Margin of pygidium with two pairs of narrow minutely trilobate lobes with long extending bases. Squamulae shorter than lobes, irregularly dentate or fimbriate: two between each of the lobes and about eight more laterad of outer lobes. Large lunate pores present opening in deep indentations on the margin, with a submarginal series also present. A large lunate pore on each side of anal orifice, with a similar pore immediately above. Length about 1.28 mm.; width about 0.45 mm.

Hab.—On Pinus halepensis, Egypt, per E. E. Green. On Pinus sp., Firenze, per G. Paoli.

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Very closely related to L. perezi Green, which may ultimately have to be placed as a variety of the above species. Further remarks will be found under L. perezi.

L. cockerelli de Charm.

Fiorinia cockerelli de Charm., Pr. Soc. Amic. Scien., 1899, p. 33.

Puparium of adult female elongate, narrow, slightly curved, colour light-brown.

Puparium of male similar but smaller.

Adult female elongate, tapering towards cephalic extremity. Rudimentary antennae with four long stout setae. Rostrum normal. Anterior spiracles with group of about five parastigmatic pores. Paratrophic pores present in the form of a single row of large conical tentacular processes. Margin of pygidium with two pairs of stout lanceolate lobes. Squamulae long and slender, fimbriate, two between each of the lobes, with three more laterad of outer lobes. Several short fine setae scattered along margin of pygidium. Perivulvar pores in five groups, the three middle groups more or less confluent. Four supplementary groups present, each group containing from four to six pores. Length about 0.65 mm.; width about 0.25 mm.

Exuvia of nymph very elongate, narrow, widest behind middle. Margin of pygidium with two pairs of narrow trilobate lobes. Squamulae as broad as lobes, deeply fimbriate: two between each of the lobes and numerous more laterad of outer lobes, and extending up sides of free abdominal segments. Large lunate pores present opening in deep indentations on the margin, with two similar pores on each side of anal orifice, and a pair submarginal on each side of the two preceding segments. Length about 1.60 mm.; width about 0.42 mm.

Hab.—On palm, Ceylon, per E. E. Green.

In the paratrophic pores this species closely resembles L. japonica Ckll., which also has two supplementary groups of pores. It differs in the squamulae of the adult, and in the lobes and squamulae of the nymph.

L. cordylinidis Mask.

L. cordylinidis Mask., Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 25, 1892. p. 209; Leucaspis cordylinidis (Mask.) Green, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1914, p. 460; Bul. Ent. Res., vol. 19, pt. 4, March, 1929, p. 383.

Puparium of adult female elongate, narrow, usually straight, sometimes curved, secretion white.

Puparium of male similar but smaller.

Adult female elongate, widest across abdomen. Rudimentary antennae with five long setae, two of which are longer than the others. Anterior spiracles with group of about twenty-six parastigmatic pores. Paratrophic pores small, in a close elongated group. Margin of pygidium with two pairs of small pointed lobes, the median pair appearing wider apart than usual. Squamulae shorter than lobes and irregularly bi-or tri-dentate, or serrate: two between each of the lobes, and about three more laterad of outer lobes; those between the median lobes are much the broadest. Several short fine setae

– 294 –

at base of lobes, and about three more laterad of outer lobes. Anal orifice surrounded by a slightly chitinous area, and near the posterior margin of the pygidium there is a transverse row of four irregular chitinous thickenings with a smaller one on each side immediately above the outer ones. Perivulvar pores in five groups, the three middle groups forming a broad confluent band. With two pairs of supplementary groups: the posterior groups with nine to ten pores, the anterior groups with nine to fourteen pores in each. Length about 1.0 mm.; width about 0.5 mm.

Exuvia of nymph elongate, narrow, lightly chitinised. Rudimentary antennae similar to those of the adult female. Margin of pygidium with four small lobes with long extending bases. Squamulae slightly shorter than lobes, irregularly fringed; two between each of the lobes, and about five more laterad of outer lobes. Large lunate pores present opening in deep indentations on the margin; a submarginal series of similar pores also present, the first one being laterad of outer lobes. A single large pore on each side of anal orifice with another pore immediately above each of these. Length about 2.0 mm.; width about 0.70 mm.

Hab.—On Carmichaelia sp., Seddon.

Type slide in Maskell collection.

I give this species on the authority of Mr. E. E. Green, who identified the specimens for me. He has in his collection specimens received direct from the late Mr. Maskell. It appears to be closely related to both L. pittospori mihi and L. melicytidis mihi. From the first it can be separated by the smaller paratrophic pores, the larger group of parastigmatic pores, the confluent groups of perivulvar pores, and by the different shaped lobes and squamulae. From melicytidis it differs in the lobes and squamulae, in the smaller paratrophic pores, and in the number of pores in the supplementary groups.

L. brittini Green.

L. brittini Green, Bul. Ent. Res., vol. 19, pt. 4, March, 1929, p. 389.

Puparium of adult female elongate, narrow, strongly convex, secretion white.

Puparium of male similar but smaller.

Adult female elongate, widest at abdomen, tapering towards cephalic extremity. Rudimentary antennae with about four long setae. Rostrum normal. Anterior spiracles with group of about twelve parastigmatic pores. Paratrophic pores small, group elongate. Margin of pygidium with two pairs of small irregular lobes, the median pair are broadest and usually bicuspid, the outer pair narrow and pointed. Squamulae slightly smaller than lobes and inconspieuously bi-or tri-denatate: two between each of the lobes and about six more laterad of outer lobes. Marginal setae present, there is a long fine seta on each side of the median lobes, a single one at the base of the outer lobes, and two more laterad of outer lobes. Some very short fine setae interspersed along margin of, and on disc of pygidium. Perivulvar pores in five groups, all groups distinctly separated. Usually with two pairs of supplementary groups:

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posterior groups with six to eight pores and anterior groups with four to five pores. One of the posterior groups is sometimes divided into two separate groups, each of which contain three to four pores. Length about 1.34 mm.; width about 0.53 mm.

Exuvia of nymph elongate, usually straight, narrow. Rudimentary antennae similar to those of adult. Pygidium rather pointed and margin heavily chitinised. With two pairs of broad trilobate lobes. Squamulae narrow and pointed, shorter than lobes, but those laterad of outer lobes are broad and appear as if chitinised. Large lunate pores present opening in deep indentations on margin. A submarginal series of similar pores also present, with a single pore on each side but slightly below the anal orifice. Length about 1.76 mm.; width about 0.56 mm.

Hab.—On Muehlenbeckia sp., Oamaru; Seddon.

This species can be separated from L. pittospori mihi, by the smaller paratrophic pores of the adult, and by the much larger lobes and differently shaped squamulae of the nymph; from L. melicytidis and L. cordylinidis by having the three middle groups of perivulvar pores distinctly separated.

L. pittospori sp. nov.

Puparium of adult female elongate, narrow, convex, secretion very thin, white.

Puparium of male similar but smaller.

Adult female elongate, widest across abdomen, tapering slightly towards cephalic extremity. Rudimentary antennae with four long setae, one of which is much longer than the others. Rostrum normal. Anterior spiracles with group of twelve to fourteen parastigmatic pores. Paratrophic pores large, in an elongated group. Margin of pygidium (Pl. 41A, fig. 2) with four small irregularly-shaped lobes, usually bi-dentate at extremity. Squamulae about same length as lobes, some of which are pointed, others bi-or tri-dentate: one or two between each of the lobes, and three or four laterad of outer lobes. A few long fine setae on margin of pygidium: one at base of outer lobes, and median lobes, with three or four more laterad of outer lobes. Five rather large groups of perivulvar pores, all groups well separated. With four supplementary groups of pores: the posterior groups each with two or three pores, anterior groups each with five or six pores. Length about 0.82 mm.; width about 0.54 mm.

Exuvia of nymph elongate, narrow, usually straight, widest across the middle and tapering slightly towards either extremity. Rudimentary antennae similar to those of adult. Margin of pygidium (Pl. 41A, fig. 1) with four small narrow lobes the extremities of which appear to be slightly dentate or serrate, and with long narrow extending bases. Squamulae broad, minutely serrate: two between each of the lobes, and four or five more laterad of outer lobes. Large lunate pores present opening in deep indentations on the margin. A submarginal series of similar pores also present. Disc of pygidium without lunate pores. Length about 1.75 mm.; width about 0.58 mm.

– 296 –

Hab.—On Pittosporum sp., Lyttelton.

Type slides in own collection, No. 141.

Closely approaches L. melicytidis mihi, but differs in the differently shaped lobes of the nymph and of the adult, in the three middle groups of perivulvar pores being well separated, and in the absence of chitinous thickenings on the pygidium of the adult.

L. riccae Targioni.

L. ricocae Targioni, Annali di Agr., no. 34, 1881, p. 160; Chionaspis riccae Targioni, Annali di Agr., 1884, p. 397; Chionaspis riccae Targioni, Boll. Soc. Tosc. di Orticultura, xiii, 1888, pp. 5, 12, 14; Mytilaspis (?) riccae Ckll. in litt., 1902. (The above references are taken from the Fernald Catalogue.)

Puparium of adult female light-brown, almost straight, narrow, elongate.

Puparium of male similar but smaller.

Adult female elongate-ovate, widest across middle. Rudimentary antennae with about three long setae. Rostrum normal. Anterior spiracles with group of about four parastigmatic pores. Paratrophic pores large, group circular. Margin of pygidium with two pairs of small ovate lobes which sometimes appear as if bi-dentate at apices. Squamulae long and narrow, usually pointed, but sometimes with their apices furcate: two between each of the lobes and three more laterad of outer lobes, the furthermost being widely separated from the other two. A row of minute setae along margin of pygidium, with a few more on disc. Five groups of perivulvar pores, all groups well separated. Supplementary groups in two pairs, each group with two to three pores. Length about 0.8 mm.; width about 0.36 mm.

Exuvia of nymph elongate, narrow, almost straight, widest at middle, deeply chitinised. Margin of pygidium with two pairs of narrow lobes with long extending bases. Squamulae broad and fimbriate, but becoming truncate as they approach the free abdominal segments: two between each of the lobes, with about four more laterad of outer lobes. Large lunate pores present opening in deep indentations on margin, with about five similar pores on each side of anal orifice. Length about 1.52 mm.; width about 0.48 mm.

Hab.—On olive, Cyprus, per E. E. Green.

This is undoubtedly a good species of the genus Leucaspis, although a glance at the synonmy may lead students to think otherwise. This is due, I believe, wholly to the fact that on maceration in caustic potash, the very thin ventral skin of the nymph becomes broken and curls up, thus allowing the adult to become free.

L. perezi Green.

L. perezi Green, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., Feb., 1915, pts. iii, iv, p. 463.

Puparium of adult female elongate, narrow, straight, secretion white.

Puparium of male similar both in size and shape, secretion pure white.

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Adult female elongate, widest across middle. Rudimentary antennae with four stout setae. Rostrum normal. Anterior spiracles with group of about four parastigmatic pores. Paratrophic pores not observed. Margin of pygidium with six long narrow lobes, somewhat truncate. Squamulae long and slender, spatulate, about three times length of lobes: two between the median lobes, two between the median and second pairs of lobes, three between the second and outer pairs of lobes, and seven or eight more laterad of outer lobes. Several long slender setae on margin of pygidium, interspersed with a number of short fine ones. With five groups of perivulvar pores, all groups set close together but still distinctly separable. With four supplementary groups, each group represented by one or two pores. Length about 0.82 mm.; width about 0.42 mm.

Exuvia of nymph elongate, narrow, almost straight, widest at middle, deeply chitinised. Pygidium rounded, with four small narrow lobes with long extending bases. Squamulae broad, minutely serrate, about same length as lobes: two between each of the lobes, and about seven more laterad of outer lobes. Large lunate pores present, opening in deep indentations on margin, with a submarginal series of similar pores present, and also a number on disc of pygidium. Length about 1.14 mm.; width about 0.47 mm.

Hab.—On Pinus halepensis and P. canariensis, Teneriffe, per E. E. Green.

This appears to me to be a doubtful species, and, if not identical with, is very close to L. pusilla. In both species the paratrophic pores are absent, the lobes and squamulae of both the adult female and nymph separately are practically identical, and in each case the parastigmatic groups are limited to a few pores. The main difference appears in the perivulvar pores, which, in L. perezi are more numerous than those of L. pusilla, and can be distinctly separated into groups. In the nymph the main difference appears to be in the conspicuous fold at the cephalic extremity of L. perezi, which is quite absent in L. pusilla. It is a coincidence that both species should be found on Pinus halepensis.

L. elaeocarpi sp. nov.

Puparium of adult female elongate, narrow, straight, secretion very thin, white. Larval exuvia dark-brown.

Puparium of male similar but smaller, pure white.

Adult female elongate, narrow, with two slight constrictions near middle of body. Rudimentary antennae with three long stout setae and two shorter ones. Rostrum normal. Anterior spiracles with large group of about twenty parastigmatic pores. Paratrophic pores small, group large and elongate in shape. Margin of pygidium (Pl. 42A, fig. 1) with two pairs of obtusely pointed lobes with short extending bases. Squamulae narrow, finely pointed or irregularly dentate at side, those near outer margin of pygidium broadly fimbriate, longer than lobes: two between median lobes, two or three between median and outer lobes, and from nine to eleven laterad of outer lobes. A few fine setae on margin and disc of pygidium. With five groups of perivulvar pores, all groups well separated.

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With five groups of supplementary pores, one group being subanterior to the usual perivulvar groups and contains about seven pores, the remaining four groups each with four to six pores. Length about 1.62 mm.; width about 0.52 mm.

Exuvia of nymph elongate, narrow, generally straight, sometimes curved, widest about middle, lightly chitinised. Margin of pygidium (Pl. 42A, fig. 2) with two pairs of narrow spatulate lobes with long extending bases. Squamulae fimbriate, about same length as lobes: two between each of the lobes and nine more laterad of outer lobes. Large lunate pores present opening in deep indentations on margin, a submarginal series of similar pores also present. A single lunate pore on each side of anal orifice, with a pair of similar pores submedian on the two free abdominal segments. A few fine setae on margin of pygidium. Length about 1.90 mm.; width about 0.54 mm.

Hab.—On Elaeocarpus sp., Westport.

Type slides in own collection, No. 272.

This species is closely related to L. melicytidis mihi, from which it can be separated by the different shaped lobes, the different shape and larger number of squamulae, and by the presence of a subanterior group of supplementary pores.

L. hoheriae sp. nov.

Puparium of adult female elongate, narrow, straight, covered with a semi-transparent white secretion.

Puparium of male similar but smaller.

Adult female elongate, narrow, widest across middle. Rudimentary antennae with five long straight setae. Rostrum normal. Anterior spiracles with large group of about twenty-five parastigmatic pores. Paratrophic pores large, group elongate. Margin of pygidium (Pl. 41B, fig. 5) with four narrow pointed lobes with extending bases. Squamulae usually narrow and pointed, slightly longer than lobes, some with a single point, others irregularly bi-or tri-dentate: two between each of the lobes and five or six more laterad of outer lobes. A few fine setae present on margin. A row of four irregular chitinous thickenings near margin of pygidium below anal orifice. With five crowded groups of perivulvar pores, the three middle groups more or less confluent, and the posterior-lateral groups rounded in shape. With six supplementary groups present: the posterior pair each with eight to ten pores, the middle pair each with about ten pores, and the anterior pair with one or two pores each. Length about 1.82 mm.; width about 0.54 mm.

Exuvia of nymph elongate, narrow, slightly curved, highly chitinised, segmentation of abdomen very distinct. Margin of pygidium (Pl. 41B, fig. 6) with four subequal lobes with long extending bases. Squamulae deeply fimbriate, longer than lobes: two between each of the lobes and three or four more laterad of outer lobes. Margin of free abdominal segments with numerous processes, broad to truncate, minutely serrate at extremities. Large lunate pores present opening in deep indentations at margin. A submarginal series also present, with a similar pore on each side of anal orifice. Length about 2.0 mm.; width about 0.60 mm.

Picture icon

Plate 41B Fig. 1—Leucaspis quas. margin of pygidium of adult.
Fig. 2—Leucaspis quas, margin of pygidium of nymph.
Fig. 3—Leucaspis greeni, margin of pygidium of adult.
Fig. 4—Leucaspis greeni, margin of pygidium of nymph.
Fig. 5—Leucaspis hoheriae, margin of pygidium of adult.
Fig. 6—Leucaspis hoheriae. margin of pygidium of nymph.
Plate 41A
Fig. 1—Leucaspis pittospori. margin of pygidium of nymph.
Fig. 2—Leucaspis pittospori. margin of pygidium of adult.
Fig. 3—Leucaspis melicytidis, margin of pygidium of nymph.
Fig. 4—Leucaspis melicytidis, margin of pygidium of adult.
Fig. 5—Leucaspis maskelli, margin of pygidium of nymph.
Fig. 6—Leucaspis maskelli, margin of pygidium of adult.

Picture icon

Plate 42A Fig. 1—Leucaspis elaeocapi, margin of pygidium of adult.
Fig. 2—Leucaspis elaeocapi, margin of pygidium of nymph.
Fig. 3—Leucaspis ohakunensis, margin of pygidium of adult.
Fig. 4—Leucaspis ohakunensis, margin of pygidium of nymph.
Fig. 5—Leucaspis [ unclear: ] , margin of pygidium of adult.
Fig. 6—Leucaspis [ unclear: ] , margin of pygidium of nymph.
Plate 42B
Fig. 1—Leucaspis knemion, pygidium of adult female.
Fig. 2—Leucaspis knemion, pygidium of adult female enlarged.
Fig. 3—Leucaspis knemion, margin of pygidium of pygidium of nymph.
Fig. 4—Leucaspis knemion, [ unclear: ] area of adult.
Fig. 5—Leucaspis knemion, rudimentary antenna of adult.
Fig. 6—Leucaspis knemion, rudimentary leg of adult.

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Hab.—On Hoheria sp., Nelson.

Type slides in own collection, No. 253.

Somewhat similar in appearance to L. cordylinidis Mask., but differs in the paratrophic pores of the adult female which in this species are large, and in the additional pair of supplementary groups.

L. knemion Hoke.

L. knemion Hoke, Proc. Ent: Soc. Wash., vol. xxvii, no. 2, Feb., 1925, p. 36.

Puparium of adult female elongate, straight, secretion white, larval exuvia dark-brown.

Puparium of male not known to me.

Adult female ovate, tapering somewhat towards posterior extremity. Rudimentary antennae with five long setae. Rostrum normal. Anterior spiracles with large group of about sixteen parastigmatic pores. Paratrophic pores small, group elongate. Three pairs of rudimentary legs present in the form of small tubercles, with a slightly curved and rather wide claw at apex; digitules not observed. Margin of pygidium (Pl. 42B, fig. 2) with three pairs of lanceolate lobes. Squamulae narrow, slender, pointed, longer than lobes: two between the median lobes, three between the median and second pair of lobes, five or six between the second and outer pair of lobes, and about twenty-three more laterad of outer lobes. What appears to be a large pore with a chitinised ring between the median lobes, with a similar pore on each side of the second pair of lobes, with another—sometimes two—on the inner side of the outer lobes, and several more laterad of outer lobes. A few fine setae interspersed along margin of pygidium. Perivulvar pores in five groups, the three middle groups being confluent. With six supplementary groups, each containing from four to eight pores. Length about 1.56 mm.; width about 0.84 mm.

Exuvia of nymph elongate, straight, margin at side appears slightly incurved. Margin of pygidium (Pl. 42B, fig. 3) with two pairs of long straight narrow lobes rounded at extremity. Squamulae deeply fimbriate or serrate: two long narrow ones between each of the lobes and about seven more laterad of outer lobes. The first two free-abdominal segments with similar serrate squamulae. Large lunate pores present opening in indentations on the margin, with about eight similar pores scattered on disc of pygidium. Length about 2. 30 mm.; width about 0.90 mm.

Hab.—On Pinus pinea, Cyprus, per E. E. Green.

A very distinct species, and is, I believe, the only species of Diaspinae known to possess rudimentary legs. I wish to point out that in the drawings of the pygidium accompanying the original description, Miss Hoke shows the perivulvar pores in distinct groups, whereas I find that the three middle groups are confluent. The peculiar pores along the margin of the pygidium are quite unlike anything I have seen in the genus Leucaspis.

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L. podocarpi Green.

L. podocarpi Green, Bul. Ent. Res., vol. xix, pt. 4, March, 1929, p. 385.

Puparium of adult female elongate-ovate, secretion white.

Puparium of male narrower and smaller, colour pure white.

Adult female elongate-ovate, widest just below middle, tapering slightly towards cephalic extremity. Rudimentary antennae with four long setae. Rostrum normal. Anterior spiracles with group of from ten to seventeen parastigmatic pores. Paratrophic pores small, group elongate. Margin of pygidium with six small fusiform lobes, the outer pair being placed at some distance from the two median pairs. Squamulae few, small and simple, very like the lobes but not chitinised, asymmetrically disposed. A few very small fine setae along margin. Perivulvar pores in five groups, all groups distinctly separated. With six supplementary groups, the posterior pair each with six to eight pores, the middle groups with five to seven pores, and the anterior groups each with five to six pores. A transverse row of four irregular chitinous thickenings below anal orifice. Length about 1.25 mm.; width about 0.65 mm.

Exuvia of nymph elongate-ovate, lightly chitinised. Margin of pygidium with two pairs of small obscurely trilobate lobes with long narrow extending bases. Squamulae broad, deeply and irregularly fringed: two between each of the lobes and about five more laterad of outer lobes. Short truncate processes, serrate at apices, extend up sides of free abdominal segments. Large lunate pores present opening in deep indentations on the margin. A submarginal series of similar pores also present, with two lunate pores on each side of anal orifice, and another group of three or four immediately above these. Length about 1.60 mm.; width about 0.72 mm.

Hab.—On Podocarpus totara, Christchurch; Ohakune.

Type slides in the collection of Mr. E. E. Green.

L. signoreti Targioni.

L. signoreti Targioni, Atti. Soc. Ital. di Sci. Nat., xi, 1869, p. 734.

Puparium of adult female elongate, straight, secretion white.

Puparium of male similar but smaller.

Adult female elongate. Rudimentary antennae with about four long setae. Rostrum normal. Anterior spiracles with group of about ten parastigmatic pores. Paratrophic pores large, group elongate. Margin of pygidium with four pairs of small pointed lobes, the two median pairs being set close together, while the other two pairs are widely separated. Squamulae long and thin, sometimes spatulate: two between the median lobes, three between the median and second pair of lobes, seven to nine between the second and third pair of lobes, and nine to twelve between the third and fourth pair of lobes. A double row of short fine setae round margin, with a few setae scattered on disc of pygidium. With five groups of perivulvar pores. all groups well separated. With eight supplementary groups, two of which are sub-anterior to the usual groups of perivulvar pores, the remaining groups being in their usual place near the margin of the free abdominal segments. Length about 1.06 mm.; width about 0.64 mm.

– 301 –

Exuvia of nymph elongate, straight, tapering towards cephalic extremity, deeply chitinised. Pygidium slightly pointed, with four small narrow lobes. Squamulae deeply fimbriate: two between each of the lobes, and about eight more laterad of the outer lobes. There are similar squamulae on each of the next two free abdominal segments. Large lunate pores present opening in deep indentations on the margin, with three similar pores on each side of anal orifice. Length about 1.20 mm.; width about 0.94 mm.

Hab.—On Pinus sp., Corsica, per E. E. Green.

A very distinct species and easily recognised by the eight supplementary groups of pores.

Since the above paper was written I have received from the Entomological division of the Department of Agriculture, United States, specimens of Leucaspis japonica Ckll., as it is recognised in that country, and I herewith include a description of the species.

L. japonica Ckll.

Leucaspis japonica Ckll., Psyche, viii, 1897, p. 53; Leucaspis japonica (Ckll.) Green, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., Feb., 1915, p. 466; Leucaspis japonica var. darwiniensis Green, Bull. Ent. Res., vol. vii, pt. 1, May, 1916, p. 61.

Puparium of adult female elongate, secretion thin, white.

Puparium of male similar but smaller.

Adult female elongate, entirely enclosed within the exuvia of the nymph. Rudimentary antennae with two long and two short setae. Rostrum normal. Anterior spiracles with group of about twelve parastigmatic pores. Paratrophic pores in the form of small conical points extending in a single row on each side from the rostrum nearly to the pygidium. Margin of pygidium with four small lanceolate lobes with narrow extending bases. Squamulae slightly longer than lobes, narrow, deeply fringed at extremities: two between each of the lobes and two or three more laterad of outer lobes. A number of short fine setae interspersed along margin of pygidium. Perivulvar pores in five groups, the three middle groups confluent. With four supplementary groups, each group with four to eight pores. Disc of pygidium with numerous short tubular pores. Two transverse series of irregular chitinous thickenings below anal ring. Length about 0.84 mm.; width about 0.30 mm.

Exuvia of nymph elongate, widest across middle, tapering sharply at anterior extremity. Margin of pygidium with two pairs of small tri-cuspid lobes, the median pair being slightly the largest. Squamulae very minute, shorter than lobes: two between each of the lobes, with two or three more laterad of outer lobes. Large lunate pores on margin but appearing very indistinct, a double submarginal series present, with two pores on each side of anal orifice. Length about 1.48 mm.; width about 0.56 mm.

Ham.—On privet, Washington, U.S.A., per Bur. Entom.

These specimens agree perfectly with Green's description of variety darwiniensis from Australia. According to Green (1915) Cockerell's original description of L. japonica refers to the nymphal insect only. Both Leonardi and Lindinger received specimens from

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the author of the name, but the latter was the only one who was able to describe all stages of the insect. Green (1916) mentions that the variety differs from the type in its smaller size, its pygidial lobes more deeply cleft, the ventral series of conical points more extended, and the posterior margin with longer and more deeply fimbriate squamulae.

Literature Cited.

Brittin, G., 1915. New Coccidae, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 47, p. 157.

Fernnald, M. E., 1903. Catalogue of Coccidae.

Green, E. E., 1896. Coccidae of Ceylon, pt. 1, p. 31.

— 1915. Some Remarks on the Coccid Genus Leucaspis, with Descriptions of Two New Species, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., pts. iii, iv, Feb.

— 1916. Observations on some Recently Described Coccidae, Bull. Ent. Res., vol. 7, pt. 1 (May), p. 51.

— 1926. On Some New Genera and Species of Coccidae, Bull. Ent. Res., vol. 17, pt. 1 (July), p. 63.

— 1929. Some Coccidae Collected by Dr. J. G. Myers in New Zealand, Bull. Ent. Res., vol. 19, pt. 4 (March), pp. 385–389.

Leonardi, 1906. Saggio di Sistematica delle Leucaspides, Anneli di Agr., vi.

Lindinger, 1906. Die Schildlausgattung Leucaspis, Jahr. Hamb. wiss. Anst., xxiii.

Myers, J. G., 1922. A Synonymic Reference List of New Zealand Coccidae, Jour. Sci. Tech., vol. 5, p. 200.

Newstead, R., 1901. A Monograph of the Coccidae of the British Isles, vol. 1, p. 74.

Paoli, G., 1915. Contributo alla conoscenza delle Cocciniglie della Sardegna, Redia, vol. 11, fasc. 1, pp. 257–259.