Descriptions and Notes on Some New Zealand Collembola.
[Read before Wellington Philosophical Society, June 23, 1937; received by Editor, June 26, 1937; issued separately, December, 1937.]
With the publication of his paper in Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 66, pt. 3, Womersley brought the number of Collembola known from New Zealand up to fifty-four, of which twelve only are peculiar to this country. It is the purpose of the present paper to add to this number ten more species, nine of which, including one genus, are new to science. The type material is located in the Dominion Museum, Wellington.
For the purposes of description the word “body” as used herein refers to the head, thorax, and abdomen without the appendages, and, similarly, the word “trunk” to the thorax and abdomen only.
Order Collembola Lubbock.
Suborder Arthropleona Börner.
Superfamily Poduroidea Till. Womersley.
Family Hypogastruridae Börner.
Subfamily Achorutini Börner.
Tribe Achorutini Börner.
Genus Achorutes Templ.
Achorutes viaticus Tullberg.
This almost cosmopolitan insect was first recorded from the New Zealand region at Macquarie Island (Sub-Ant. Isds. N.Z., vol. 1, p. 377). I am now able to record the species from the mainland, where it was first obtained at Foxton among rushes near the Mana-watu River mouth in March, 1932. Other localities since recorded include Island Bay, Wellington, from amongst rushes near high-water mark, November, 1932, and from amongst rushes and grasses at the mouth of the Makara Stream, March, 1937.
Family Onychiuridae Lubbock.
Subfamily Onychiurinae Börner.
Genus Onychiurus Börner.
Onychiurus makarensis sp. nov.
Description: Body 0.6–1 mm. in length, white in colour and sparsely covered by short hairs. Segmentation is distinct, the relative lengths of the trunk segments being as 2.5:6.5:6:5:5:6.5:3:3. A pair of anal horns and the ventral tube are present; but the furcula is absent. The antennae are four-segmented, short, hardly equalling the head in length, the ratio of their segments being as 1:1:1:2. Each leg terminates in a well-developed superior claw and a smaller inferior claw, both unarmed. The claw of the forefoot is relatively much smaller than those of the other feet. Ocelli are absent; but a pair of pseudocelli occurs at the base of each
antenna. A post-antennal organ is situated in a transverse groove down each side of the head and consists in each case of twenty-six prominences arranged in two parallel rows of thirteen each. The sense organ on antennae III is well developed and protected by seven strong spines.
Localities: Found always amongst the roots of grasses and rushes growing near the sea coast, in 1932 at Makara, and in March, 1937; at Orongorongo.
Superfamily Entomobryoidea Till. Wom.
Family Isotomidae Schäffer.
Subfamily Isotominae Schäffer.
Tribe Isotomini Börner.
Genus Isotoma Bourlet.
Isotoma parva sp. nov.
Description: Body 1.2–1.5 mm. in length, dull reddish brown to purple brown in colour, with pale purple to bluish purple appendages. Scales are absent; but the cuticle over the whole insect has a finely granulated appearance. Short, slender hairs occur all over the body with occasional longer setae, especially around the posterior region. The ventral tube is long and stout, swollen at its distal end, and invested with a few short hairs. Segmentation is distinct, the trunk segments being related in length as 10:7:4:6:11:9:5:4. The tergum of the mesothorax completely covers that of the prothorax. Abdomen IV and III approximately equal in length, or III a little longer than IV. The antennae four-segmented and approximately half as long as the trunk. The segments related in length as 7:11:11:15. Ocelli eight on each side, uniformly large, and regularly arranged. The superior claws of the feet are unarmed on their inner margins; but each bears a short external spine. The inferior claws short and acutely truncated. The dentes twice as long as the manubrium, prominently corrugated ventrally and provided on each side with a double row of slender spines. Mucrones tridentate each with a central conical tooth, a terminal, almost vertical, tooth, and a proximal lateral oblique tooth.
Localities: In leaf mould on the floor of native bush at Akatarawa (1933), and at Butterfly Creek, Wellington (1933).
Family Lepidophorellinae Börner.
Tribe Lepidophorellini Schäffer.
Genus Lepidophorella Schäffer.
Lepidophorella australis Carpenter.
Further localities for this species are: in native bush at Akatarawa (1933); Butterfly Creek, Wellington (1932); the Urewera country from Lake Waikaremoana to Te Whaiti (1937); and in open and bush country in the Manawatu district (1933). In all localities the species is quite common.
Lepidophorella communis sp. nov.
Description: Body 3.5–4 mm. in length, more or less completely clothed with scales. The colour varies from pale cream to jet iridescent black according to the denseness of the clothing of scales.
The scales are easily rubbed off, and specimens may be found in all intermediate stages and exhibiting, accordingly, varying degrees of colour pattern. The tergum of the mesothorax completely covers that of the prothorax. A tuft of short stout bristles occurs at the apex of the tergum of the mesothorax. Most of these are clavate, branching at their tips into from three to seven short, finger-like processes. Occasional slender setae occur on the head and trunk especially towards the posterior region. The ventral tube is elongate, extensible, bilobed at its distal end and invested with a few short hairs. Tenaculum bifid and situated on the posterior half of the third abdominal segment. Segmentation of the trunk moderately clear, the ratio of Th. 1 and 2: III: Abd. 1:2:3:4:5:6 being as 16:9:4:5:7:6:5:2. The antennae are four-segmented, the segments 1:2:3:4 being as 5:11:11:14. The terminal antennal segment is generally scaled on the lower half and clothed with short slender hairs. About one-third back from the tip there is a small sense organ consisting of a ring-like swelling from the centre of which projects a minute papilla. Eight large, regularly-arranged ocelli on each side, post-antennal organ wanting. Foot claws similar, the superior claw of each foot being tridentate along its inner margin and provided with an external basal spine. The inferior claw about two-thirds the length of the superior claw, lanceolate and acuminate. Furcula clothed with short, stout setae and occasional long hairs. The dentes slightly longer than the manubrium, strongly corrugated ventrally, mucrones simple, each with a single upturned terminal tooth and with or without a basal scale.
Localities: In open country and native bush at Karori, Wellington (February, 1932); in native bush at Akatarawa (1933–37); from open and bush country in the Manawatu district (1933); from the Urewera country in native bush from Lake Waikaremoana to Te Whaiti (1937); from native bush near Rotorua (1937). This insect is exceedingly common wherever it is found. It appears to be one of the commonest of the New Zealand Collembola.
Lepidophorella longiterga sp. nov.
Description: Body 2–4.5 mm. in length. Colour ochreous brown with dark brown dorsal band and dark brown edges to the terga. The mesothorax is relatively enormous, extending above, and halfway over, the head, being two and a-half times as long as the meta-thorax. It is provided at the apex, but on the inner surface only, with a tuft of long, thin, stiff bristles. Antennae four-segmented, one and a half times the length of the mesothorax, and darker brown towards the tips. Scales are present over the body; but the covering is not very heavy. Abdomen III approximately twice the length of Abdomen IV. Ocelli eight on each side; no post-antennal organ. Foot claws similar to L. communis, the upper tooth being slightly smaller than the lower two. The inferior claw with two small basal teeth on the outer edge. Furcula similar to L. communis.
Localities: One specimen taken at Karori, Wellington (1932). Apparently distributed throughout the Urewera country, where it was taken during February, 1937, at the following localities: Te Whaiti, Waihui Gorge, and on the shores of Lake Waikaremoana
at an altitude of 2,050 feet. All specimens found amongst leaves on the floor of the native bush.
Family Entomobryidae Schäffer.
Subfamily Entomobryinae Börner.
Tribe Entomobryini Börner.
Genus Entomobrya Rondani.
Entomobrya assymetrica sp. nov.
Description: Body 0–8–1 mm. in length, pale lemon-yellow in colour with a patch of pale orange on dorsal surface of Abd. VI and on the ventral surface of the head. Naked of scales and almost devoid of hairs. The tergum of the mesothorax carries at its apex a tuft of stiff bristles. Segmentation of trunk not distinct but Th. 1:2:3: Abd. 1:2:3:4:5:6 being as 2:9:6:4:5:6–5:15:2:2. Antennae four-segmented, lightly clothed with hairs which are denser on the terminal segment. The relative lengths of the segments are as 6:8:7:14. Ocelli eight on each side. Each ocellar group is asymetrically arranged as two unequal collateral groups of five and three, respectively, the larger being external, and the whole set in a triangular mass of black pigment with its apex directed posteriorly. The superior claws of the feet are simple, curving gently towards the apex. Inferior claws about two-thirds the length of the superior and acuminate. Furcula slender, reaching forward to the thorax. Dentes and manubrium about equal in length, dentes corrugated ventrally, mucrones bidentate, the distal tooth long and curved, the proximal stouter and conical.
Locality: In open country in the Manawatu District near Newbury.
Genus Lepidosika Schött.
Lepidosira fuscata Womersley.
Common amongst leaf-mould on the floor of native bush in Urewera country near lakes Waikaremoana and Waikare-iti up to an altitude of 3,000 feet above sea-level.
Genus Pseudosinella Schäffer.
Pseudosinella magna sp. nov.
Description: Body 2.75–3 mm. in length and more or less completely clothed with scales which increase in size progressively from the head backwards. Colour a pale cream with dark brown to purplish brown markings. Ventral surface a pale greenish-yellow. The scales are easily dislodged from the body, which then presents a creamy grey appearance. Abdomen IV three times as long as Abdomen III. A tuft of long, stout setae is situated at the apex of the mesothorax. Some of these are bent over at their tips, flattened, and ciliated on the outer flat portion. Occasional long, ciliated hairs occur at random on the trunk and appendages. Antennae four-segmented, the ratio of the segments being as 2:5:3:5: First segment of the antennae is pale ochreous in colour, the remainder dark reddish brown. The joints are very weak, especially that between the second and third segments, specimens often being found with one or both antennae broken off at this joint. Antennae densely
clothed with short hairs and, except on Ant. IV, occasional slender-setae. Ocelli, eight on each side, six being large, one small and one intermediate. Post-antennal organ wanting. Legs dark brown in colour with, generally, yellow bands at the joints. The superior claws of the feet carry two rudimentary teeth on the inner margin and on the outer edge a large, slightly-curved tooth. The inferior claws about two-thirds the length of the superior, lanceolate and acuminate. Two long, slender basal wing-like processes occur on each foot. A tenent hair to each foot. Fureula reaches forward to the ventral tube. The dentes and manubrium related as 11:9 respectively. Dentes corrugated ventrally. Mucrones tridentate, the terminal tooth oblique and slightly curved, the middle large and conical, the proximal rudimentary. A small tenaculum invested with a single long curved seta is situated on the posterior margin, of the third abdominal segment.
Locality: In leaf mould in native bush on river bank at Akatarawa (March-May, 1933–37).
Tribe Orchesellini Börner.
Genus Orchezelandia gen. nov.
This genus agrees with Orchesella Temp. in being without scales but differs in having antennae with five segments, Abd. IV three to four times as long as Abd. III and the mucrones tridentate.
Orchezelandia rubra sp. nov.
Description: Body 1.5–2 mm. in length, and densely covered by delicate clothing hairs, with prominent dorsal tufts of very long stout setae. Similar setae occur singly all over the body. The colour varies from a bright orange-red to a deep vermilion. Scales entirely absent. The trunk segments are related in the proportions of 4:10:7:4:7:6:21:4:3. Antennae five-segmented and about twice as long as the head. Thickly covered by hairs with occasional long setae. Ant. V thickly clothed with short hairs only. The segments are related as 1:3:7:4:6. Ocelli eight on each side, four of which are large, three medium, and one small. Post-antennal organ wanting. The superior claw of the foot may, or may not, have one small tooth about one-third the way down the inner margin. There is a prominent spine on the outer margin. The inferior claw about two-thirds the length of the superior, lanceolate. There is a tenent hair to each foot. Furcula reaching forward to the ventral tube clothed with hairs and occasional setae. Dentes a little longer than the manubrium, slender and corrugated ventrally. Mucrones very small, tridentate, the teeth arranged anterio-posteriorly along the inner margin, the proximal and distal teeth being oblique, the middle tooth small and conical.
Locality: In open country near Newbury, in the Manawatu district (1933).
Sub-family Paronellinae Börner.
Genus Salina MacGillivray.
Salina karoriensis sp. nov.
Type: Salina karoriensis karoriensis sp. nov.
Description: Body 2–2–5 mm. in length and thickly clothed with short hairs and long, slender setae, the latter being prominent along
the dorsal surface of the head and thorax. The colour is particularly striking, the head, thorax and first abdominal segment and portion of the second being a deep violet colour, the remainder of the body a pale yellow oehre. Legs and furcula pale ochreous tinged with violet at the joints, the tarsi with deep violet bands. Antennae pale orange darkening towards violet at the joints. The second abdominal segment is bisected by the line of demarcation between these two colours. Ventral tube elongate, bilobed at its tip, darkly pigmented and clothed with short hairs. The relative proportions of the trunk segments are as 7:4:2:3:3:16:2:1. Segmentation is distinct. Antennae four-segmented and usually exceeding the body in length. The relative lengths of the segments being as 6:8:5–5:12. The first three segments clothed with hairs and occasional setae, the last with somewhat shorter hairs only. Ocelli eight on each side, six of which are large and two smaller. A post-antennal organ is present, appearing as a wheel with seven spokes lying on a line of dark pigmented patches extending backwards to the ocelli. The superior claw of the foot is grooved on its inner edge, each wall of the groove bearing a tooth, the one about one-third from the apex of the claw, the other about two-thirds. On its outer edge, the superior claw carries a large accessory spine. The inferior claw is almost as long as the superior and sharply pointed. There are two basal wing-like processes and a tenent hair to each foot. Fureula almost as long as the trunk and lying in a deep groove along the ventral surface of the abdomen. Tenaculum absent. The dentes pass one to each side of the ventral tube and terminate at about the level of the anterior pair of legs. Dentes somewhat longer than the manubrium, tapering only very slightly to the mucrones and provided near the manubrium with a few short spines. Mucrones bidentate, each with a large basal scale-like structure, and provided with two elongate scale-like appendages one on each side of each mucro. These appendages often are absent, due, probably, to their fragile attachment.
Localities: In open bush country at Karori Park (1933); Butterfly Creek, Wellington (1933); Akatarawa (May, 1937).
Salina karoriensis maculosa var. nov.
This variety, which is characteristic, differs from the main species principally in that it is not bisected into two colour regions, but instead presents a mottled appearance of violet to bluish patches on a creamy yellow ground.
Localities: Karori Park in open country (1933); Butterfly Creek, Wellington, in native bush (1933).
Genus Chaetoceras Handschin.
Chaetoceras pritchardi Womersley.
This species is very common in the Urewera country from Lake Waikaremoana to the Waihui Gorge, numbers of specimens being taken from the Waihui Gorge, altitude 1,600 feet, the Hopuruahine Gorge, altitude 2,500 feet, near edge of Lake Waikaremoana, altitude 2,050 feet. In all cases the insects were amongst the debris on the forest floor.
With the exception of that from the Manawatu district, the material described in this paper has been collected by the author. For the Manawatu specimens I am indebted to Mr. D. K. Ross, of Wellington, to whom I take this opportunity of expressing my thanks.