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Volume 67, 1938
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Notes on the Indigenous Flora of Marlborough (New Zealand) with Special Reference to Plant Distribution

[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, June 23, 1937; received by the Editor, June 28, 1937; issued separately, March, 1938.]



General Introduction.


Indigenous Plants not Hitherto Recorded in Marlborough.


From the Sounds-Nelson (S.N.) Botanical District.


From the North-Eastern (N.E.) Botanical District.


From the North-Western (N.W.) Botanical District.


Plants Endemic to Marlborough in.


Sounds-Nelson Botanical District.


North-Eastern Botanical District.


North-Western Botanical District.


Subalpine Plants at Low Levels.






Species of N.E. District invading the S.N. District.


Species of S.N. District invading the N.E. District.


Species of N.E. District invading the N.W. District.


Species of N.W. District invading the N.E. District.


Species of S.N. District invading the N.W. District.


Noteworthy Extensions in the Known Range of Species.


Previous Records believed to be Erroneous.


Summary of Results.


Literature Cited in this Paper.

A. Introduction

Prior to this research there existed in Marlborough several hundreds of square miles which so far as can be ascertained had never been studied by a botanist, notwithstanding the fact that numerous investigators have contributed to the botanical knowledge of the Province. Indeed, the absence of roads and the difficulty of access are responsible even to-day for the fact that little or nothing is known of the vegetation clothing the north-western slopes of the Seaward Kaikouras as well as of large areas of the Inland Kaikouras and the montane area at the head of the Pelorus Sound.

Apart from the work of visiting botanists, tribute must be paid to five indefatigable students and collectors resident in Marlborough who have done much to elucidate the provincial flora by forwarding to various botanical authorities many plants previously unknown to science and many that threw light on problems of distribution or of taxonomic and ecological botany. They are J. H. Macmahon, J. Rutland, H. F. Hursthouse, J. H. Hadfield, and Miss H. M. Jenkins, M.A.

More was known of the vegetation of Marlborough by Dr. L. Cockayne, B. C. Aston, and others than has been recorded in print and several of the records of this paper were discoveries first made by these and other investigators.

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Marlborough comprises portions of three botanical districts known as the Sounds-Nelson (S.N.), North-Eastern (N.E.), and the North-Western (N.W.) Botanical Districts of the South Island of New Zealand. These are in Marlborough clearly defined areas, the former two being separated by the Wairau River, and the latter occupying the triangle margined by the Wairau River and its tributary, the Waihopai River. Each of these areas is peopled by plants restricted thereto so far as Marlborough is concerned, as well as by an element in common. It is clearly insufficient and often quite misleading to record a plant as indigenous to “Marlborough,” or to “the mountains of Marlborough,” or to report it as “common throughout the South Island,” as Cheeseman so often does in his Manual of the New Zealand Flora, for in no small number of cases the plant is absent from hundreds of square miles of territory.

This paper is based on seven years' continuous study of the vegetation of the Province, and serves to place on record some of the more important and noteworthy of the writer's observations pertaining to plant distribution as well as several unpublished records by previous workers as evidenced by material in various public herbaria.

B. Indigenous Plants Not Hitherto Recorded in Marlborough.

(1) From the Sounds-Nelson Botanical District.

The following are the more noteworthy of some 58 species observed in the area of which no printed record is known to exist.

  • Athyrium umbrosum—In taxad forest. Pukaka Valley; Onamalutu.

  • Caladenia minor—Scrub margin. Parker's Bay (Queen Charlotte Sound).

  • Carex Dallii—Red Hills.

  • Carex stellulata—Red Hills near Summit tarns.

  • Clematis marata—Top Valley; Pukaka Valley.

  • Coprosma serrulata—Subalpine rocks. Mt. Richmond; Mt. Fishtail.

  • Cotula linearifolia—At 5000 ft. Chrome Peak, Red Hills. Gathered only once previously from the Raglan Mts.

  • Elaeocarpus dentatus var. obovatus—Kenepuru Sound. Previously known only from Takaka.

  • Epacris alpina—In scrub near base of Red Hills, eastern side.

  • Gymnogramme leptophylla—Side of Rarangi track near White's Bay cable station.

  • Haastia Sinclairii—Mt. Fishtail, on shingle scree.

  • Hebe Gibbsii—Mt. Z. on Wairau Mts.

  • Korthalsella salicornioides—Waikawa, Picton.

  • Leptolepia novae-zealandiae—Onamalutu, margin of watercourse in forest.

  • Leucogenes leontopodium—Mt. Fishtail; Mt. Richmond; on rock at 5000 ft.

  • Melicytus micranthus—Tua Marina; Rai Valley; in swamp forest.

  • Nothoclaena distans—White's Bay, on track to cable station.

  • Olearia ilicifolia—Summit of Mt. Robertson.

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  • Olearia lacunosa—Mt. Riley; Mt. Sunday; in subalpine forest.

  • Oreostylidium subulatum—Red Hills, near summit tarns

  • Peperomia Urvilleana—On rock, Rarangi; Tory Channel.

  • Pimelea Suteri—Red Hills.

  • Pratia macrodon—Mt. Z.; Mt. Fishtail.

  • Pratia perpusilla—Picton Swamp, on dried margin of swamp one mile from Tua Marina. Second record for the South Island.

  • Sarchochilus adversus—Rarangi; Ship Cove.

  • Teucridium parvifolium—Rai Valley, on forest margins.

(2) From the North-Eastern Botanical District.

  • Acaena saccaticupula—Mt. Fyffe; Blue Mt.; Mt. Barometer; Mt. Harkness, etc.

  • Angelica geniculata—Mouth Flaxbourne R. in scrub at base of lime stone rock.

  • Brachycome pinnata—Kahutara Valley.

  • Caltha novae-zealandiae—Awatere riverbed near Upcot.

  • Carex Petriei—Mt. Harkness; Clarence Valley.

  • Chenopodium detestans—Mt. Tapuaenuku—collected by B. C. Aston.

  • Chenopodium carinatum—Awatere Valley, seven miles from the mouth.

  • Chenopodium pusillum—Awatere R. near the source (H. F. Hurst-house).

  • Dryopteris velutina—Oaro; Mt. Fyffe; Clarence Bridge.

  • Epilobium Hectori—Nidd Valley, and Ure Gorge (B. C. Aston).

  • Epilobium pycnostachyum—Mt. Kaitarau; Mt. B. J.; Awatere Mts.

  • Fuchsia Colensoi—Canister Creek; Avon Valley; Fuchsia Creek.

  • Hebe Haastii—Mt. Tapuaenuku; Hodder R.; Blue Mt.

  • Hebe pimeleoides—Upper Awatere Valley (perhaps not typical).

  • Hebe quadrifaria—Mt. Harkness; Camden Range; Tapuaenuku; Mt. B.J.

  • Hebe tumida—Seaward Kaikouras; Blue Mt.; Ferny Gair.

  • Korthalsella Lindsayi—Canister Creek in Waihopai Valley.

  • Limosella tenuifolia—Awatere Valley; Dee R. (B. C. Aston).

  • Myosotis Cheesemanii—Mt. Fyffe; Mt. Kaitarau (collected by A. Wall).

  • Nasturtium Enysii—Mt. Tapuaenuku; Mt. Gladstone; Blue Mt.; Kahutara Valley.

  • Nothopanax anomalum var microphyllum—Canister Creek.

  • Nothopanax Edgerleyi—Foot of Mt. Fyffe.

  • Olearia ilicifolia—Mt. Fyffe in subalpine forest.

  • Olearia odorata—Upper Awatere Valley.

  • Ourisia caespitosa—Mt. Kaitarau.

  • Pimelea aridula (?)—Kahutara Saddle; Ure Basin.

  • Pseudopanax ferox—Netherwood in Waihopai Valley.

  • Senecio Lyalli—Upper Holder Valley; Shingly Range.

  • Stackhousia minima—Mt. Tapuaenuku; Upper Awatere Valley; Dee Valley (B. C. Aston).

  • Uncinia macrolepis (?)—Ferny Gair; most northerly record if correct.

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(3) From the North-Western Botanical District.

  • Coprosma Colensoi—Mt. Bounds, upper beech forest on south side.

  • Ewartia Sinclairii—Mt. Schiza (Bounds Range).

  • Korthalsella Lindsayi—Leatham Valley, at base of Mt. Pinnacle.

  • Haastia recurva var. Wallii—Mt. Schiza, 4000–5000 feet.

  • Mazus sp. nov.—Lake Roto-iti, in boggy ground.

  • Ourisia glandulosa—Raglan Range.

  • Ourisia sessilifolia—Raglan Range; Mt. Schiza.

  • Pittosporum patulum—Leatham Valley, 3000 ft., near base of Mt. Pinnacle.

  • Pittosporum rigidum—Southern slopes Mt. Bounds. First record east of Wairau R.

  • Raoulia eximea—Raglan Range; Mt. Schiza.

  • Senecio Adamsii—Mt. Blowhard; Mt. Schiza. First records east of Wairau R.

  • Uncinia strictissima—Mt. Schiza, 4000 ft.

C. Plants Endemic to the Botanical Districts of Marlborough.

Dr. L. Cockayne (1928, pp. 388–392) published a list of the plants endemic to the Sounds-Nelson, the North-Eastern, and the North-Western Botanical Districts. The following notes are based on work done subsequent to the publication of that classic.

(1) Sounds-Nelson Botanical District.

Cockayne recognised 15 endemics, but this number has been raised to 19 by the inclusion of Danthonia Raoulii var. Cheesemanii, of Dracophyllum collinum Oliver, and by the separation from Celmisia cordatifolia of var. similis, and of var. Hadfieldii from Celmisia Macmahoni by the writer (1936, pp. 180 and 182). Of these 19 all are known to occur in the Marlborough portion of the area save Poa acicularifolia var., Festuca sp., and Poranthera microphylla, while Pimelea Suteri, Hebe Gibsii, and Olearia serpentina are here recorded from Marlborough for the first time. Carex Macmahoni Petrie (1926, p. 6), if a valid species, will be an additional endemic, and with Celmisia Rutlandii, C. cordatifolia, do var. similis, C. Macmahoni, do var. Hadfieldi forms a group restricted to the Marlborough portion of this Botanical District.

(2) North-eastern Botanical District.

For this district Cockayne lists 36 plants as endemic. Of these, however, Hebe rupicola, Schizeilema Roughii, and Haastia pulvinaris occur in all three botanical districts and should be removed from the list. Five others overlap the N.W. District at Mt. Schiza, where they grow in association with characteristic plants of the N.W. District such as Celmisia lateralis var. villosa, Senecio Bidwillii var. viridis, Celmisia Sinclairii, etc. They are: Ewartia Sinclairii, Haastia recurva var. Wallii, Celmisia Cockayniana, Helichrysum coralloides, and Epilobium chloraefolium var. Kaikourense (identification

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requires confirmation). I do not, however, consider this overlap as in any way invalidating their status as endemics of the N.E. District. The following additions to Cockayne's list should be made:—

  • Carmichaelia Monroi var. nov. (?). The exact status of this distinct-looking plant has not yet been finalized.

  • Celmisia Cockayniana.

  • Celmisia insignis (Martin, 1936, pp. 182–3).

  • Celmisia Monroi var. conspicua (Martin, 1936, p. 183).

  • Clematis spec. nov. This plant has previously been considered a well-marked form of C. Colensoi. Dr. L. Cockayne agreed that the plant should be considered a distinct species.

  • Hebe Hulkeana var. oblonga.

  • Muehlenbeckia debilis (Petrie, 1926, p. 10). Possibly a hybrid.

  • Notothlaspi rosulatum var Hursthousii (Petrie, 1926, p. 12).

  • Pachystegia insignis var. minor. A very distinct plant almost worthy of specific rank.

  • Wahlenbergia flexilis. Status rather uncertain.

The very distinct, large, glaucous-green plant usually listed as Aciphylla squarrosa var. is as yet an unnamed species or variety. Until the southern limit of its distribution is determined, I cannot say whether it is endemic or not.

(3) North-western Botanical District.

No modifications of Cockayne's list are here suggested, but two species supposed to be restricted to this district in the South Island—Epacris alpina and Peperomia Urvilleana—have been noted by me in the Sounds-Nelson Botanical District, the former at the base of the Red Hills and the latter on maritime rocks at Rarangi, Cloudy Bay, and in Tory Channel.

D. Subalpine Plants at Low Levels.

An association of plants occurs in several places in eastern Marl-borough less than 100 feet above sea-level (e.g. near the mouth of the Flaxbourne River, in the gorge of Woodside Creek at Wharanui, or on coastal cliffs near Lake Grassmere), which is noteworthy for the high percentage of plants most commonly subalpine. It invariably occurs on limestone rock or rubble, and very commonly in association with Pachystegia insignis. The following species are elsewhere almost invariably subalpine or upper montane:—

Anisotome filifolia, Pimelea Traversii, P. sericeo-villosa, Poa acicularifolia, Ranunculus lobulatus, Carmichaelia Monroi, Hymen-anthera alpina (only one specimen observed), and Senecio lagopus.

Near Flaxbourne mouth, Carmichaelia Monroi forms practically a pure association.

E. Hybridism.

The existence of hybrid progeny is very evident in many genera, especially in Acaena, Cassinia, Celmisia, Danthonia, Epilobium, Hebe, Myrtus, Poa, and Rubus. Many instances of bi-generic hybrids have

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also been noted between Raoulia and its closely allied genera Leucogenes and Ewartia, the former on Mt. Fishtail, Mt. Richmond, and Mt. Schiza, and the latter on Mt. Gladstone.

Both on Mt. B. J. and on Mt. Riley Olearia Forsteri hybridises with O. avicenniaefolia, while it is possible that a plant answering to the description of O. Haastii may be Olearia Forsteri X O. cymbifolia, both of which species were prevalent in the neighbourhood. It is noteworthy that O. Haastii has hitherto been reported in Marl-borough from only one other locality, Prof. A. Wall (1927, p. 253) having obtained it from the Dillon River, where it apparently is scarce. On Mt. B. J. the writer observed one plant only.

Dr. H. H. Allan, of the Plant Research Station, has also drawn the attention of the writer to the presence of hybrid material amongst specimens of Poa and Danthonia submitted to him by the writer for identification.

Hybrids new to the New Zealand flora are:—


Nothopanax arboreum X N. Edgerleyi.


Haastia pulvinaris X H. recurva var. Wallii.

The former of these two is well illustrated at the summit of Strachan Peak, where Mr. J. H. Hadfield first observed trees obviously combining characters distinctive of these species, both of which are common in the neighbourhood. I attribute two trees observed on Mt. Freeth, near Picton, to the same cross.

The presence of hybridism in the genus Haastia has not formerly been noted. A small swarm of individuals quite obviously hybrid in origin was observed on Blue Mt. near the source of the Waihopai River. At no time have I observed Haastia recurva in the Northeastern Botanical District, though it has been reported from Mt. Tapuaenuku and elsewhere, but always from localities where Haastia recurva var. Wallii and H. pulvinaris are present. The possibility of such plants labelled H. recurva being of hybrid origin is worthy of examination.

Among plants already known to cross, small swarms of Nothopanax simplex X N. anomalum var. microphyllum occur on Mt. Robertson in the S.N. District and at Roto-iti in the N.W. District, while on Mt. B. J. there are numerous hybrid individuals of Olearia Forsteri X O. coriacea. Numerous swarms of Myrtus bullata X M. obcordata occur in the Pelorus and Rai districts.

G. Overlap.

The zone of tension between neighbouring botanical districts may be an easily traceable line, or more commonly it may be a ribbon of territory containing plants from both districts. In other words, the “zone of overlap” may vary between nothing and a region of considerable width. It would appear that the width of this zone is inversely proportional to the rate of climatic change from the conditions prevailing in one botanical district to those in the contiguous district.

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Where a valley constitutes the boundary line betwen neighbouring districts, it commonly happens that the alpine and subalpine vegetation on either side halts abruptly, so that none of the characteristic subalpine plants of one district is to be found in the other; while the lowland flora comprises forest on the side of greater rainfall, and grassland on the side of lesser rainfall. This is conspicuously the case in the lower Wairau Valley, which separates the S.N. and N.E. districts, and again in the Waihopai Valley between the N.E. and N.W. districts, though in the latter case much of the forest has been removed by fire.

Apart from widely distributed species common to the whole province, few of the characteristic plants of any one district will be found to cross these valleys and invade the neighbouring territory. The few exceptions as noted by the writer are as follows:—

(1) Species of the N.E. District Invading the S.N. District.

Several plants of Celmisia Monroi growing on the lower slopes of Mt. Z (Wairau Mts.) constitute the sole example, unless Pittosporum divaricatum which grows on the foothills of the Wairau Mts. be so considered. This species, however, grows on Dun Mt. in the heart of the S.N. District. Pittosporum rigidum, so characteristic of subalpine forest throughout the S.N. District, nowhere invades the N.E. District.

(2) Species of S.N. District Invading the N.E. District.

The only species noted by the writer were Nothopanax anomalum var. microphyllum at Canister Creek, and Coprosma ciliata and Gentiana tenuifolia, both of which occur on Mt. B. J.

(3) Species of N.E. District Invading the N.W. District.

The following rock and shingle-scree plants very characteristic of the N.E. District occur on Mt. Schiza in the Bounds Range, side by side with plants equally characteristic of the N.W. District to which the mountain belongs:—

  • Celmisia Cockayniana.

  • Celmisia Monroi. (This may however be var. robusta, which does not occur in the N.E. District.)

  • Helichrysum coralloides. (This occurs also on Mt. Tarndale.)

  • Ewartia Sinclairii.

  • Haastia recurva var. Wallii. (In great abundance.)

  • Epilobium chloraefolium var. Kaikourense (?) (Several non-flowering plants alone were seen.)

  • Celmisia insignis invades this area at the Gosling R. at base of Mt. Bounds.

(4) Species of N.W. District Invading the N.E. District.

  • Celmisia bellidioides—Head of Awatere River.

  • Celmisia viscosa—Head of Awatere River.

  • Coprosma ciliata—Mt. B. J.

  • Pseudopanax ferox—Netherwood.

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Veronica Bidwillii, V. Lyallii, V. cataractae (?), and V. ciliolata which are found in several localities as far east as the Ure and Clarence Rivers are probably more correctly considered as botanical “outliers” than as overlapping species.

(5) Species of the S.N. District Invading the N.W. District.

  • Aciphylla polita—Mt. Blowhard.

  • Coprosma Colensoi—Mt. Bounds.

  • Cotula linearifolia—Mt. Blowhard (known only here and on Red Hills).

  • Celmisia cordatifolia var. Brockettii—Mt. Bounds. (This variety does not occur in the S.N. District.)

  • Drosera auriculata—Mt. Blowhard.

  • Schizeilema Roughii—Mt. Blowhard.

  • Senecio Adamsii—Mt. Blowhard.

  • Senecio Bidwillii—Mt. Schiza.

G. Noteworthy Extensions in the Known Range of Species.

All of the plants listed as first records from the several botanical districts are rightly included here; but the following notes supply more precise information on the range of species already reported from Marlborough than has hitherto been available.

Angelica trifoliolata.

This species was first discovered near Porter's Pass in Canterbury, and later under the name of Anisotome Enysii var. Tennysonianum on Mt. Princess in the Spenser Range (Laing, 1912, p. 72). These have remained the only records to date. The plant is quite common on the eastern slopes of the Seaward Kaikouras between 4000 and 5000 feet altitude, and is reported to me by Mr. Grant Taylor from the Lakes Killarney to the south.

Carex resectans.

This sedge grows on the riverbed of the Wairau River near the Renwicktown Bridge, this being its most northerly known habitat.

Cordyline indivisa.

Common in subalpine forest as far south as Mt. Fishtail in the Wairau Mts., but rare to the south of Mt. Sunday.

Cotula linearifolia.

Apparently noted but once previously by T. F. Cheeseman (1926, p. 999) on the Raglan Mts. It grows on Chrome Peak in the Red Hills between 5000 and 6000 feet altitude.

Danthonia Raoulii var. Cheesemanii.

Far from being a rare plant confined to Endeavour Inlet, its only reported habitat, this grass is abundant between the mist level and the upper forest level on most mountains north of a line from Dun Mt. to Mt. Sunday.

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Ewartia Sinclairii.

This plant has not hitherto been noted west of the Awatere River, but, like Celmisia Cockayniana and Helichrysum coralloides it grows as far west as Mt. B. J. and Mt. Schiza in the Bounds Range.

Eleocarpus dentatus var. obovatus.

Previously known only from Takaka. A single well-grown tree may be seen near the water's edge on the northern side of Kenepuru Sound.

Gentiana Astoni.

Hitherto known only from the Ure Basin. It grows in all limestone country from the Flaxbourne to the Clarence River and inland to the Camden and Chalk Ranges.

Haastia recurva var. Wallii.

Previously known only from Mt. Fyffe, but it is widespread over the mountains of the N.E. Botanical District as far west as Mt. Schiza. I have it from the Inland and Seaward Kaikouras, the Shingly Range, Blue Mt., etc. It may be the only form of the species in eastern Marlborough.

Helichrysum coralloides.

Formerly not known west of the Awatere River. It reaches Mt. B. J. and Mt. Schiza.

Korthalsella Lindsayi.

Not previously observed in the N.E. Botanical District. I have collected it in the valleys of the Leatham River and Canister Creek.

Korthalsella salicornioides.

This mistletoe is abundant in many localities in Marlborough when Leptospermum is plentiful. In the S.N. District it grows at Picton and at Waikawa, while in the N.E. District it smothers thousands of bushes of L. scoparium growing on the Wairau river-bed at the Wash Bridge. It occurs also in the valleys of the Waihopai, Awatere, and Ure Rivers and at Woodside Creek. There is no evidence here to support the contention of Miss Stevenson (1935, p. 186) that this is a moribund species. Hitherto it has not been recorded from the N.E. District.

Leucogenes leontopodium.

This species of eidelweiss is common on the Wairau and Bounds Ranges, but is absent from the mountains of the N.E. District.

Muehlenbeckia Astoni.

The known distribution of this plant in Marlborough has been recorded by Miss H. Jenkins (1931, p. 217). I have now to report it from the valley of the Winterton River, 30 miles south of previously known localities and at an altitude of 2000 feet. All previous records have been at or near sea-level.

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Metrosideros Colensoi.

At the base of Mt. Fyffe. The most southerly record.

Olearia ilicifolia.

In subalpine scrub on Mt. Fyffe, and as a tree on Mt. Robertson, these being the first records of the species from the N.E. and S.N. Botanical Districts respectively. Cockayne (1906, pp. 361–374) overlooked this shrub on Mt. Fyffe.

Olearia lacunosa.

This shrub is plentiful on Mt. Riley and on Mt. Sunday. It has not formerly been observed either in Marlborough or in the S.N. District.

Olearia odorata.

The occurrence of this species both in the Awatere and Leatham Valleys marks another first record for Marlborough.

Pachystegia insignis var. minor.

Known to the writer only from the neighbourhood of Ohau Bluff and at Haldon Hills. The area of distribution as indicated by H. J. Matthews (see Cheeseman, 1916, p. 210) is misleading in that the plant has not been found anywhere near Blenheim so far as is known, notwithstanding the citation, “Marlborough, between Kaikoura and Blenheim.”

Pimelea Gnidia (?).

The plant so-called in Marlborough is very distinct from the North Island plant of that name. It grows abundantly on the ridge summits of the foothills of the Wairau Mts. in clay soils.

Pittosporum rigidum.

The presence of this plant in the Leatham Valley marks the first known occurrence east of the Wairau River.

Pratia perpusilla.

Margin of pool, Picton Swamp. This is the second record for the South Island and the first for the Sounds-Nelson District.

Nothopanax Edgerleyi.

Base of Mt. Fyffe. This is the first observed occurrence in the North-Eastern District of a species plentiful enough in the Sounds-Nelson District.

Rhopalostylis sapida.

The nikau palm ranges south in Marlborough to the lower flanks of Mts. Dobson and Riley, but no farther.

Senecio Lyallii.

This species invades the North-Eastern District as far north as the Hodder River.

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Teucridium parvifolium.

In Marlborough, known previously only from the Awatere Valley, but common enough in the valleys of the Swale and the Rai.

Veronica Bidwillii.

Mt. B. J. and Mt. Tapuaenuku—the mostly northerly records.

Veronica Lyallii.

Clarence Valley near Coverham (B. C. Aston), and on a tributary of the Ure River.

H. Previous Records Believed to be Erroneous.

There is reason to believe that the following plants have been erroneously recorded by Buchanan (1867) through faulty identification:—

  • Colobanthus subulatus—Subantarctic Islands only.

  • Coprosma petiolata—Kermadecs.

  • Gunnera monoica—I doubt if this plant has yet been collected in Marlborough.

  • Hymenophyllum minimum—Quite a possible record, but as yet not corroborated.

  • Lycopodium clavatum—Obviously this plant was L. fastigiatum.

  • Lycopodium densum—This plant has not since been seen in Marlborough.

  • Myosotis capitata—Subantarctic Islands only.

  • Pterostylis micromega—Probably confined to the North Island.

  • Ranunculus pinguis—Auckland and Campbell Islands.

  • Raoulia mammillaris—Not since seen in Marlborough.

  • Senecio Colensoi—North Island only.

  • Veronica Hectori—This probably should be Hebe lycopodioides.

There is also reason to doubt the following records from the North-Eastern Botanical District:—

  • Hebe divaricata—Reported from Mt. Blairich by H. J. Matthews, but probably endemic to the S.N. District.

  • Hebe vernicosa—Cockayne (1928, p. 316) cites the N.E. District as a habitat. This appears to the writer to be improbable.

  • Celmisia Sinclairii—Kirk's record (1899, p. 285) from Mt. Fyffe refers to C. Cockayniana.

In conclusion, I wish to express my thanks to the curators of the Dominion Museum and the Christchurch Museum; also to Miss G. Sutherland, B.Sc. For., Botanist to the Dominion Museum, for facilitating my study of the herbaria. For any errors in identification I alone am responsible.

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J. Summary of Results.


Many plants are reported from Marlborough for the first time.


26 plants new to the Sounds-Nelson Botanical District are listed.


34 plants new to the North-Eastern Botanical District are listed.


12 plants new to the North-Western Botanical District are listed.


Various additions and subtractions are made in the lists of endemic plants published by Cockayne for the botanical districts of Marlborough in his “Vegetation of Marlborough.”


Attention is drawn to the occurrence almost at sea-level of many species normally subalpine or high montane.


Several hybrids new to the New Zealand Flora are indicated, including the first known occurrence in the genus Haastia.


The delimitation of Botanical Districts in Marlborough is facilitated by the study of “overlap.”


Many plants previously known from a single habitat or thought to have a very restricted distribution are shown to be common or widespread.


Existing records believed to be erroneous are indicated.

K. Literature Cited in this Paper.

Buchanan, J., 1867. Botanical Notes on the Kaikoura Mountains and Mount Egmont, Rept. Geol. Surv. N.Z., no. 4.

— 1869. Notes on the Botany of the Province of Marlborough, Jour. Linn. Soc. (Botany), vol. 10, pp. 63–68.

Cheeseman, T. F., 1916. New Species of Plants, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 48, pp. 210–215.

— 1926. Manual of the New Zealand Flora.

Cockayne, L., 1906. Notes on the Subalpine Scrub of Mt. Fyffe, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 38, p. 361.

— 1928. The Vegetation of New Zealand, Second Edition.

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