The Molluscan Faunule at Pakaurangi Point, Kaipara—No. 1.
[Read before the Auckland Institute, October 4, 1938; received by the Editor, October 10, 1938; issued separately, March, 1939.]
Recent collecting from the Tertiary beds at Pakaurangi Point, Kaipara Harbour, has made it possible to add a large number of new records of minute molluscs to the faunule, as well as new records of a number of larger species. There are 87 molluscs whose record is new to the beds. About 70 new species are named in the paper, and it has been found necessary to alter the identification of 21 fossils in Marshall's list (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 50, p. 273, 1918).
Not all the forms recently obtained are dealt with at present, as further investigation of the faunule is being undertaken and other papers are anticipated.
The writer is greatly indebted to Professor J. A. Bartrum, of Auckland University College, for his very willing assistance in photographing the new species; also to Mr J. Grant, honorary conchologist at the Wanganui Museum, and to Mr R. A. Falla, of Canterbury Museum, for their readiness in permitting the writer to inspect type-material. To Dr J. Marwick, Dr H. J. Finlay, and Mr A. W. B. Powell he is also grateful for assistance in identifying certain of the minute shells.
The holotypes of species described in this paper are located in the writer's collection.
|Present Classification.||Marshall's Identification, 1918.|
|Nucula otamatea n.sp||NR|
|Nuculana (Saccella) duplicarina n.sp.||Leda semiteres Hutton|
|Nuculana (Jupiteria) parleachi n.sp.||NR|
|Nuculana (Jupiteria) vadosa n.sp.||NR|
|Ledella clifdenensis Powell||NR|
|“Arca” mundeformata n.sp.||Arca novae-zelandiae Smith (?)|
|Glycymeris (Grandaxinea) finlayi n.sp.||Glycymeris subglobus Suter|
|Limopsis propeinvalida n.sp.||NR|
|Cratis ovata Marwick.||NR|
|Chlamys sp.||? NR|
|Cyclopecten (Cyclochlamys) shepherdi n.sp.||NR|
|Ctenamussium vafer Marwick||NR|
|Kidderia otamatea n.sp||NR|
|Salaputium tinopaica n.sp.||NR|
|Present Classification.||Marshall's Identification, 1918.|
|Cardita kaiparaensis n.sp.||Cardita calyculata Linn.|
|Eulopia (Notomyrtea) n.sp.||NR|
|Notolepton sanguineum (Hutton)||NR|
|Rochefortula cf. kaawaensis Bart. and Pow.||NR|
|Tellinella ferrari Marwick||Tellina eugonia Suter|
|Angulus (Peronidia) inflata n.sp.||Tellina glabrella Desh.|
|Nemocardium (Pratulum) n.sp.||Cardium pulchellum Gray|
|Hiatella cf. australis (Lam.)||NR|
|Scissurella condita n.sp.||NR|
|Schizotrochus miocenica n.sp.||NR|
|Emarginula komitica n.sp.||NR|
|Emarginula kaiparica n.sp.||Emarginula striatula Q. and G.|
|Zetela hutchinsoniana n.sp.||NR|
|Zetela parvumbilicata n.sp.||NR|
|Antisolarium tricarinatum n.sp.||NR|
|Conominolium n.sp.||? Solariella stoliczkai Zitt.|
|Lodderia komitica n.sp.||NR|
|Lodderia kaiparaensis n.sp.||NR|
|Lissotesta alpha n.sp.||NR|
|Lissotesta beta n.sp.||NR|
|Dolicrossea clifdenensis Finlay||Crossea labiata Suter|
|Dolicrossea atypica n.sp.||NR|
|Crosseola sinemacula n.sp.||NR|
|Crosseola tenuisculpta Laws||NR|
|Orbitestella praetoreuma n.sp.||NR|
|Orbitestella praehinemoa n.sp.||NR|
|Zeradina aculeata n.sp.||NR|
|Zeradina (Radinista) vivienneae n.sp.||NR|
|Zeradina (Naridista) jocelynae n.subg., n.sp.||NR|
|Haurakia onerata n.sp.||NR|
|Haurakia sodalis n.sp.||NR|
|Merelina saginata n.sp.||NR|
|Nobolira inflata n.sp.||NR|
|Dardanula praecursor n.sp.||NR|
|Brookesena duplicincta n.sp.||NR|
|Nozeba perpava n.sp.||NR|
|Zaclys (Miopila) mucro n.sp.||NR|
|Zaclys (Miopila) simulator n.sp.||Cerithiella fidicula Suter|
|Notosinister zespina n.sp.||NR|
|Triphora neozelanica n.sp.||NR|
|Maoricolpus sp.||Turritella semiconcava Suter|
|Pareora striolata (Hutton)||NR|
|Ellatrivia kaiparaensis n.sp.||Trivia avellanoides McCoy|
|Cyprœerato cf. submorosa Laws||NR|
|Archierato zepyrulata n.sp.||NR|
|Archierato simulacrum n.sp.||NR|
|Charonia cf. clifdenensis Finlay||NR|
|Austrosassia zealta n.sp.||Cymatium minimum Hutton|
|Oniscidia cf. finlayi Laws||NR|
|Cirsotrema firmatum n.sp.||(?) Epitonium browni Zittel|
|Turriscala kaiparaensis n.sp.||NR|
|Turbonilla komitica Laws|
|Pyrgolampros pakaurangiensis n.sp.||NR|
|Finlayola angulifera Laws||NR|
|Eulimella komitica n.sp.||NR|
|Eulimella parlimbata n.sp.||NR|
|Eulimella imitator n.sp.||NR|
|Graphis neozelanica n.sp.||NR|
|Balcis badenia n.sp.||NR|
|Balcis waikomitica n.sp.||NR|
|Balcis kaiparaensis n.sp.||NR|
|Uromitra neozelanica n.sp.||NR|
|Verconella parans Finlay||Siphonalia dilatata Q. and G.|
|Hima (Mirua) separabilis n.sp.||Alectrion socialis Hutton|
|Merica kaiparaensis n.sp.||NR|
|Bathytoma bartrumi n.sp.||Bathytoma haasti Hutton|
|Comitas kaipara n.sp.||Surcula fusiformis Hutton|
|Inquisitor komitica n.sp.||Drillia awamoensis Hutton|
|Daphnella kaiparica n.sp.||NR|
|Clavus kaipara n.sp.||NR|
|Nepotilla bartrumi n.sp.||NR|
|Acteon procratericulatus n.sp.||Acteon craticulatus Murd. and Sut.|
|Leucotina granulocostata n.sp.||NR|
|Ringicula zecorpulenta n.sp.||NR|
|Scaphander komitica n.sp.||NR|
|Cylichnania plana n.sp.||NR|
|Kaitoa recta n.sp.||NR|
|Atys lacrimula n.sp.||NR|
|Cadulus zecaninus n.sp.||Cadulus delicatulus Suter||NR|
Nucula otamatea n.sp. (Fig. 3).
Shell small, outline very like that of N. hartvigiana, pouting posteriorly, keeled on anterodorsal slope; beaks approximate, very near posterior. Posterior end descending at first obliquely and then curving downwards and descending vertically. Junction of anterodorsal margin with ventral margin sharply rounded. Valve angulated along a line from umbo to junction of posterior with ventral margin. Surface ornamented with obscure concentric folds and very fine radials; valve-margin crenulated. Escutcheon well marked, bounded by a ridge. Dentition not clear; there are 8 or 9 small teeth anterior to beak, but the only valve showing dentition is broken posteriorly.
Height, 3.0 mm.; width, 3.5 mm.; inflation (2 valves), about 1.6 mm.
The material consists of paired valves (holotype) and a broken paratype.
Nuculana (Saccella) duplicarina n.sp. (Fig. 2).
Probellula Marwick is the only Neozelanic species with which this form need be compared. The two are very similar indeed in outline and in sculpture, the concentric ridges of probellula being only a little coarser and more numerous. The Pakaurar — shell has the
beak a little fuller. In hinge characters there is no observable difference. They can, however, be separated at a glance in that the .duplicarina has two distinct folds running from the umbo posteriorly, the upper one ending at the rostrum and the lower one diverging from the upper and sweeping out to ventral margin some little distance away from beak. Just posterior to beaks the shell rises in two steps from hinge margin to outer surface of valve, and on these steps concentric sculpture is absent.
Height, 4.4 mm.; length, 7.1 mm.
Four specimens were collected. This is probably the “Leda semiteres Hutton” of Marshall's list, but is distinct from semiteres at a glance owing to different outline.
Nuculana (Jupiteria) parleachi n.sp. (Fig. 6).
There are two fully adult shells and a dozen or so immatureones that come closer to leachi Marwick, a fossil from Gisborne District, than to any other species. The Pakaurangi shells are very inflated, more so than leachi, and have the beaks a good deal fuller. The posterior dorsal margin descends more rapidly in leachi and the beak is not so blunt and is lower down. Leachi has the ventral margin regularly convex, whereas parleachi has it straightening out posteriorly. The angulation separating the posterior end from the lateral surface of the valve is scarcely defined in the Pakaurangi Point species, and does not extend to the extremity of the rostrum. The adult is smaller than that of leachi.
Height, 4.5 mm.; length, 6.9 mm.; inflation, 1.8 mm. Corresponding dimensions of leachi: 5.1, 7.7, 1.9.
Many shells of this species have been collected. The juveniles are more similar in outline to leachi than are the adults. No form corresponding to this occurs in Marshall's list.
Nuculana (Jupiteria) vadosa n.sp. (Fig. 1).
Shell small, little inflated, elongate, beak in front of middle, not much raised. Posterior dorsal margin long, convex, slowly descending to pointed rostrum which is very low down; ventral margin lightly convex; antero-dorsal margin almost straight; anterior margin rather quickly rounded. Sculpture of growth-striae with more or less regularly spaced concentric grooves; beaks smooth. Hinge moderately heavy, 10 to 11 teeth both in front of and behind beak; resilium small, distinct. Pallial sinus seems to be shaped like an inverted V, the anterior limb descending almost vertically from anterior end of muscle-scar.
Height, 2.1 mm.; length, 3.6 mm.
A pair of valves was collected. The elongate shape at a glance separates it from other Neozelanic species.
Ledella clifdenensis Powell.
1935. Proc. Mal. Soc., vol. 21, pt. 4, p. 254, pl. 27, fig. 7.
There are 45 shells that match Clifden ones perfectly. This constitutes a new record for these beds.
“Arca” mundeformata n.sp. (Figs. 10, 11).
Shell small, elongate, beaks a little in front of anterior fourth, small, incurved. Posterior height greater than anterior height. Dorsal margin straight; posterior one convex; valve considerably drawn down postero-ventrally; ventral margin almost straight, with a light concavity at about its middle; anterior margin regularly rounded. Hinge with teeth developed along whole length; teeth vertical in centre, converging ventrally at extremities. Cardinal area narrow, smooth anteriorly, but with several weak oblique grooves towards posterior. Valve margins crenate towards posterior. Sculpture of numerous fine radials and concentric ridges of equal strength to the radials over anterior two-thirds, giving a close regular fenestration of squares; posterior third with strong, regular radials, the concentric ridges here practically obsolete.
Height, 6.0 mm.; length, 9.0 mm.
Two sets of valves have been obtained. This species is in the meantime referred to “Arca,” as the writer has not been able to refer it satisfactorily to any of the subgeneric groups discussed by Reinhart. * This is apparently the “Arca novae-zelandiae Smith” of Marshall's list.
Glycymeris (Grandaxinea) finlayi n.sp. (Figs. 13, 24).
Shell large, very like G. laticostata in outline. Radial ribs about 40, rounded, weakening towards ventral margin. Ribs narrower, more rounded towards posterior end of valve, as has been remarked by Marwick (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 54, p. 64, 1923) for laticostata. Ligamental area wide and high, with many chevrons (11 ridges as against 6 in laticostata of same dimensions). Valve very convex, much more inflated than laticostata, and the posterior umbonal fold rather better defined. Hinge and teeth very alike in both species.
Height, 68 0 mm.; length, 61.0 mm.; thickness, 23.0 mm.
Localities: Clifden, Southland, roadcutting half a mile behind racecourse (= bed 7c along the river); Pakaurangi Point, Kaipara. The type is from Clifden.
There are six small valves (15 mm. in height and less) from Pakaurangi. These do not appear to be adult and they resemble closely the early stages of the Clifden shells. The radials and interstices alike are crossed by many fine concentric threads, and similar concentric sculpture is present in the early stages of growth of the Clifden specimens also. These small shells are no doubt the “Glycymeris sp. B” of Marwick (loc. cit., p. 67, pl. 1, figs. 5, 6), and may yet have to be separated out as new.
Easily distinguished from laticostata by the very much more inflated valve, the more numerous chevrons, and the better elevated and more convex radials. Also the ligamental area cuts the plane of contact of valves more obliquely. G. monsadusta Marwick has a heavier hinge and much more prominent beak than either laticostata or finlayi.
[Footnote] *Classification of the Pelecypod Family Arcidae, Bull. du Musée royal d'Histoire naturelle de Belgique, 11, 13, 1935.
This species is named in honour of Dr H. J. Finlay.
Glycymeris (Glycymerita) marshalli Laws.
1930. Glycymeris marshalli Laws, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 61, p. 547, pl. 91, figs. 13, 14.
1937. Glycymeris (Glycymerita) thomsoni Marwick, N.Z.G.S. Pal. Bull., no. 15, p. 22.
Finlay and Marwick (N.Z.G.S. Pal. Bull., no. 15, p. 22, 1937) regard this species as identical with thomsoni Marwick. There is, however, no doubt whatever that the forms are distinct species. Marshalli is to be distinguished from thomsoni by its very much lighter build, more oblique valve, considerably less inflation, much less pronounced and less incurved beak, lighter hinge with more numerous and much finer teeth, which are not so horizontal as those of thomsoni, less prominent fold running externally from beak to posterior margin, and notable decrease of inflation towards ventral margin.
Dimensions—Marshalli: height, 67 mm.; length, 74 mm.; inflation, 24.5 mm. Thomsoni: 74.5 mm.; length, 74.5 mm.; inflation, 34.0 mm.
Limopsis propeinvalida n.sp. (Fig. 7).
Shell very small, oblique, beaks low, hinge rather heavy. Sculpture of thin, low concentric ridges with wide, flat interspaces. These are crossed by fine radial threadlets which feebly nodulate the ridges at intersections. Hinge with four teeth on either side of the wide triangular ligament pit, the posterior set with their long axes horizontal, the anterior set vertically disposed. No teeth below ligament area, which meets edge of hinge.
Height, 4.0 mm.; length, 3.4 mm.
The material consists of odd right and left valves and a para-type.
Distinct from invalida Marwick, a fossil from Chatham Islands, in sculpture, disposition and number of teeth, rather wider ligament pit, and greater obliquity. L. tenuis Marshall, though small, is a shell of different proportions. This is the first record of the genus from Pakaurangi Point.
Six valves have been collected, but none of them are good enough for description, and further they seem very close to a new species from Target Gully, which the writer has named in manuscript in a paper shortly to be presented for publication. New record for these beds.
Cratis ovata Marwick.
1931. Cratis ovata Marwick, N.Z.G.S. Pal. Bull., no. 13, p. 60, figs. 28, 31.
There are 8 valves. The only difference from ovata seems to be in the dentition. Marwick states that there are four transverse teeth behind the ligament pit. The Pakaurangi shells never have more than three, and some of them show only two. Since Marwick had only one valve for his description, and since the fossils from Pakaurangi themselves vary in this respect, the only course is to identify them as above.
Pallium (Mesopeplum) kaiparaense Finlay.
1918. Pecten subconvexus Marshall, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 50, p. 273, pl. 22, figs. 4, 5, 6.
1924. Pallium (Felipes) kaiparaensis Finlay, Proc. Mal. Soc., vol. 16.
This species is very close to costato-striatum Marshall from the same beds and described on the same page. Examination of Marshall's material and of that procured by the writer shows that kaiparaense does not grow so large and has finer and more numerous radials. Two of the shells figured by Marshall as subconvexus (loc. cit., pl. 22, figs. 5 and 6) should be identified as costato-striatus; thus the shell represented by fig. 4 remains to become the holotype, no type-designation having been made at the time of description.
Pallium (Mesopeplum) costato-striatum (Marshall).
1918. Pecten costato-striatum Marshall, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 50, p. 273, pl. 22, figs. 1, 2, 3.
1928. Pallium (Felipes) costato-striatum (Marshall), Marwick, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 58, p. 454.
Three different right valves were figured by Marshall and no type-designation formally made in his paper. However, the specimen represented by fig. 3 has inside it the letter T made in pencil, and this no doubt indicates Marshall's selection of the holotype.
Cyclopecten (Cyclochlamys) shepherdi n.sp.
This is the first fossil species of the genus to be recorded from New Zealand. A single left valve has been obtained. Of the three recent species it is nearest to C. aupouria Powell, but aupouria is more nearly equilateral and has the beaks central and raised into rounded knobs. Also the radial threads of the new species are better developed and run through the concentrics.
Height, 1.0 mm.; length, 1.3 mm.
Ctenamussium vafer Marwick.
1931. Ctenamussium vafer Marwick, N.Z.G.S. Pal. Bull., no. 13, p. 64, figs. 55, 56, 57.
About 30 valves, right and left in equal numbers. Judging by Marwick's figures and description these are not separable from vafer. There is a closely similar form in the beds at Clifden, which may or may not be this species.
There is one valve of a small individual that cannot be distinguished from similar small shells from Awamoan beds at Ardgowan and Target Gully.
Kidderia otamatea n.sp. (Fig. 5).
Shell very small, elongate, dorsal and ventral margins parallel, straight; posterior end lightly convex, descending obliquely posteriorly; anterior end pouting below beak, which is at about anterior fifth. Dentition obscure; there seems to be one or two minute denticles on hinge below beak. Externally there is a very well defined angulated ridge running from beak to postero-ventral margin, above which valve is distinctly winged. Surface unsculptured but for growth-striae and occasional weak corrugations.
Height, 1.1 mm.; length, 2.0 mm.
The type is a right valve. There are two paratypes.
This is the first fossil Neozelanic species of the genus to be described. The hinge is not unlike that of K. campbellica, which also, has very weak cardinal teeth.
Salaputium tinopaica n.sp. (Fig. 9).
This is the second Neozelanic species to be recorded, S animula (Marwick) being a fossil from Chatton. Shell small, beaks at anterior third, low, not prominently rising above dorsal margin; posterior end truncated, descending vertically; anterior end sharply rounded low down; posterior dorsal margin long, straight, scarcely descending; anterior dorsal margin straight, rapidly descending. There is a broad, low fold extending from beak to junction of ventral and posterior margins; sculpture of concentric ridges, evenly spaced and about their own width apart. Left hinge much as in animula, but anterior cardinal sloping more anteriorly, and posterior one about vertical (slightly backward sloping in animula); along upper part of posterior of ligament depression there is a weak backwardly directed ridge; posterior lateral straight, extending for three-quarters of dorsal margin. Right hinge with thin, sharply elevated, vertical cardinal; anterior lateral long, very thin, straight and parallel with margin; posterior lateral long, faintly curved; there is a low ridge on the upper part of the floor of the ligament depression. Valve-margins distinctly crenulated.
Height, 9.0 mm.; length, 11.0 mm.
The type material consists of odd right and left valves. There are 8 paratypes.
Easily separable from animula by the crenulated margins. Finlay (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol., 61, p. 256, 1930) separated this Pakaurangi Point shell out as new. He has stated (loc. cit.) that Australian forms of Salaputium have either smooth or crenulated margins.
This species is not described at present as better material is hoped for. There are 5 valves. This is the first record of the genus as a fossil in New Zealand, though it occurs in the Australian Tertiary.
Cardita kaiparaensis n.sp. (Fig. 17).
Externally similar to C. aoteana Finlay. Ventral margin straight, no byssal excavation. The ribs are the same in number as those of aoteana, and are disposed similarly; but they are narrower and are separated by shallower and wider grooves. The hinge is close to that of northcrofti Marwick. Anterior end straight, vertical; in northcrofti the antero-ventral border is thrust forward, and aoteana and brookesi have it considerably pouting. Kaiparaensis has the cardinal of the left valve not as vertical as that of northcrofti. Other differences from northcrofti are to be had in the pronounced posterior wing, narrower and more widely separated ribs and less conspicuous beaks.
Height, 6.0 mm.; length, 10.0 mm.; inflation (1 valve), 3.0 mm.
Type and two paratypes (left valves).
Eulopia (Notomyrtea) n.sp.
There is a single small left valve of an individual apparently not adult, but sufficiently distinct to be recognised as new. It is expected that more satisfactory material will be collected.
Notolepton sanguineum (Hutton).
After close comparison of a large series of Recent N. sanguineum with a large series of shells from Pakaurangi it has been found impossible to detect any divergent characters sufficiently constant to make it necessary to distinguish between them. If anything, the fossils are of slightly lighter build and the hinge not quite so heavy; and the posterior tooth in the left valve is generally better differentiated in the Recent forms. Individuals vary amongst themselves in much the same way and to much the same extent in the fossil series as in the Recent one. Thirty specimens (right and left valves) were obtained at Pakaurangi. N. sanguineum is not uncommon as a fossil in the Waitotaran beds at Kaawa Creek.
Rochefortula cf. kaawaensis Bartrum and Powell.
There are two small valves that offer no means of separation from the Kaawa Creek species.
Tellinella ferrari Marwick.
1931. Tellinella ferrari Marwick, N.Z.G.S. Pal. Bull., no. 13, p. 75, fig. 92.
Two topotypes. They match very well indeed Marwick's figure and description. The sculpture is finer and more lamellar than that of Recent shells that are usually (though erroneously, fide Powell) identified as eugonia Suter.
This is no doubt the “Tellina eugenia Suter” of Marshall's list, the species-name being mis-spelt in the list.
Angulus (Peronidia) inflata n.sp. (Fig. 4).
Shell small, inequilateral, beaks behind middle, valve broadly rounded in front, angled behind. Anterior dorsal margin lightly convex, slowly descending; posterior dorsal margin straight, descending rapidly, angulated at junction with ventral margin, which is convex. Valves rather inflated.
Height, 11.0 mm.; length, 17.0 mm.; inflation (two valves), 6.0 mm.
The type is the only specimen. Separable from already described Neozelanic species by smaller size, distinctly greater inflation, more convex ventral margin, and posterior position of beak.
Nemocardium (Pratulum) n.sp.
This is certainly not pulchellum Gray, as listed by Marshall. It is inflated much like semitectum Marwick from Lorne, and has a similar strongly incurved beak. Finlayi is a more coarsely sculptured species; nor can it be referred to any other Neozelanic species. The hinge is covered with matrix which cannot be removed.
Hiatella cf. australis (Lam.)
There are three small valves that it is quite impossible to separate specifically from Pliocene and Recent individuals of similar size.
Scissurella condita n.sp (Fig. 74).
Shell minute, nucleus depressed below level of later whorls, umbilical depression well differentiated, whorls enlarging rapidly. Early post-nuclear volution with strong, sharply elevated axials but no spirals; on second whorl spirals appear, 5 or 6 in number, and these are fine but distinct threads, irregularly spaced, and over-ridden by the axial ribs, which now become a little sinuous. On this whorl the slit-fasciole has its beginning, its edges turned up into sharp lamellae. The fasciole is situated about one-third of distance between periphery and suture. Periphery strongly convex. Base convex, with about 24 conspicuous, sinuous axials converging into umbilical depression. Below slit-fasciole the spirals are fine and closely spaced; on base they are coarser, spaced about their own width apart, and entirely over-ridden by the heavy axial costae. Aperture with its top margin straight and horizontal, the remainder of the peristome U-shaped. The axials weaken and tend to become crowded together towards aperture.
Height, 0.4 mm.; diameter (greatest), 0.9 mm.
There is the holotype along with two juvenile paratypes. The wide umbilical hollow is not typical of Scissurella.
Schizotrochus miocenica n.sp. (Fig. 48).
Shell small, trochiform, thin, narrowly umbilicate. Spire gradate, about three-fourths height of aperture. The double peripheral keel with sharp lamellar edges. Sculpture of fine hair-like curved radials, over both upper and lower surfaces. Also on both surfaces there are thin, hair-like spirals, widely and evenly spaced, 7 or 8 in number on penultimate whorl. The umbilicus is partly hidden by the reflected inner lip. The interval between the two lamellar ridges of the peripheral keel is crossed axially by numerous hair-like ridges, concave towards aperature. Peristome continuous, outer lip with notch at junction with anal slit, which runs back for half distance around body-whorl.
Height, 1.6 mm.; width, 1.7 mm.
Besides the holotype there are 16 paratypes, many of them not adult.
This is the first fossil species of Schizotrochus to be recorded from New Zealand. It is closest to S. finlayi Powell, a Recent shell taken in deep water off Three Kings Islands.
Emarginula komitica n.sp. (Fig. 40).
This species possesses the open lattice effect of galeriformis and paucicostata. The latter, however, is a smaller and flatter species, but galeriformis bears a strong resemblance to the shell being described. These two species agree in the number of primary ribs, but komitica has the ribs crowded with low, dense, close scales and more regularly spaced. The concentrics are regular and are evenly spaced. In profile the new species is seen to have the beak more strongly curved over, and the posterior slope considerably more excavated just below beak; consequently it rises from posterior margin much less steeply. Galeriformis has weak secondary ribs sporadically de-
veloped, whereas these are a regular feature of the ornament of komitica. In form komitica is not unlike the Pliocene and Recent striatula, but striatula has the beak not so far back, and the ribbing is different.
Height, 4.0 mm.; length, 6.6 mm.; width, 4.5 mm.
Seven specimens were collected.
Emarginula kaiparica n.sp. (Fig. 38).
This distinct species has the outline more of Tugalia, being more elongate than other local Emarginula, and having the sides straighter and longer, the shell being drawn out towards the anterior. In sculpture it is closest to striatula Q. and G., but is not so elevated and has the beak further back. There are about 18 primary ribs on each side, between each pair of which there is a thin, distant secondary rib. Fine, closely spaced concentric threads fenestrate the spaces between radials, which they faintly nodulate at intersections. Striatula has the sculpture coarser and more open. In profile kaiparica has the anterior slope more gradual and more evenly convex, the beak much lower and rather nearer the posterior, and the posterior slope shorter and straight. The slit of striatula does not penetrate as far as that of kaiparica. Pittensis has the sculpture coarser than that of striatula.
Height, 3.0 mm.; length, 8.5 mm.; width, 5.0 mm.
Five specimens were collected.
A dozen or so juvenile specimens and apices. Not those of M. gracilis from the same beds.
Zetela hutchinsoniana n.sp. (Figs. 57, 58).
Shell small, conical, narrowly umbilicate, spire a little higher than aperture. There are 3.¼ whorls excluding the protoconch. Protoconch bulbous, of one volution, unsculptured. Early post-embryonic whorls crossed by thin, sharp axial lamellae. On second post-embryonic whorl two spirals appear, angulating the whorls, one just above periphery, the other midway between the first spiral and the posterior suture. These spirals are hardly as strong as the axials at this stage. On the body-whorl there are 6 axials, the first below suture rather weak, the next two (on periphery) the strongest, and three weaker ones on the base; then follows the nodulated circum-umbilical cord. Axials on all adult whorls lamella-like, about 20 on last whorl; those on base, however, very weak and threadlike. Nodules produced at intersections of axials and spiral cords. Base lightly convex. Suture channelled. Width of umbilicus about one-fourth that of shell.
Height, 1.5 mm.; width, 1.5 mm.
Five specimens collected.
Nearest to Z. praetextilis (Suter) but smaller, has not the striated protoconch, has fewer spirals on base and the circum-umbilical cord much weaker and not so heavily gemmate. Textilis (Murdoch and Suter) has a much wider umbilicus.
Zetela parvumbilicata n.sp. (Fig. 56).
Very close to Z. hutchinsoniana n.sp. but with the spire more elevated and the sculpture heavier, and the umbilicus very much less open. The protoconch is true to type, but is not quite so small as that of hutchinsoniana. The first post-embryonic whorl has low, coarse axials and no spirals. On next whorl two heavy spirals cause reticulation of sculpture and also heavy nodules where they cross the axials. On the body there are 6 strong widely and regularly spaced spirals, two above periphery, one (the strongest) on periphery, and three on the base, these last becoming progressively weaker towards umbilicus. There are about 25 axials on the body-whorl. The umbilicus, which is very narrow, is enclosed on the left by the last (seventh) of the spiral cords. Suture strongly canaliculate. Base lightly convex.
Height, 3.9 mm.; width, 3.8 mm.
Three specimens were collected.
The feebly developed umbilicus distinguishes this species at a glance from all others.
Zetela awamoana n.sp. (Fig. 78).
Shell larger than that of hutchinsoniana n.sp. and more finely sculptured. Spirals always stronger than lamellar axials, which are exceedingly numerous and close together on the body. Penultimate whorl with three spirals, the upper one weak; body-whorl of immature shells with three spirals above periphery, one on periphery, and one fairly heavy one immediately below it; then comes a wide zone that appears smooth, but in reality has about four weak, flattened spirals; in fully adult shells the body carries about 12 well-developed spirals which are gemmate, but there are no axials developed in their interspaces. The circum-umbilical cord sweeps well around and is heavily nodulated; within the umbilical depression there are three or four weak cords entering umbilicus spirally. Protoconch smooth, of one volution. On first post-embryonic whorl spirals and axials appear. Suture impressed, not channelled; whorls convex and not angulated.
Height, 2.3 mm.; width, 2.5 mm.
Locality: Pukeuri, Oamaru (Awamoan), common.
Certain fragments show that this species grows to a larger size than that indicated by the type.
Antisolarium tricarinatum n.sp. (Figs. 29, 30).
Shell small, of three whorls, the last increasing rapidly in width; depressed (height of spire one-third that of aperture), flat on top; embryo tiny and coiled closely. A keel develops on first post-embryonic whorl at about anterior third; four spiral threads soon appear above the keel; on the body whorl these threads have developed into broad, low cords. In addition there are three smooth, strong, sharply elevated spiral cinguli around peripheral bulge of the body, the uppermost (the weakest) being the one originally traced on the spire; the middle one emerges at aperture from the suture and the lower one close beneath it. These three cords are equidistant and
the lower two are sub-equal in strength. In the flat-floored spaces between the three heavy spirals there are several very fine spiral threads. The base is very lightly convex and carries six low spirals, plus a heavy rather nodulated cord around edge of umbilical depression. Four or five fine spiral threads are present within umbilical hollow. Axial sculpture is confined to a few low growth-folds on the body extending obliquely from posterior suture towards the upper heavy cord. The features of aperture and pillar are entirely those typical of Antisolarium and Conominolium. The pillar is strongly sinuous, and from it a thin distinct ridge enters the umbilicus spirally. In the Waitotaran A. conominolium this ridge is not so thin and cord-like, and in the Recent A. egenum it is still less visibly developed, being but a broad low fold. The outer lip is denticulated by the heavy peripheral spirals.
Height, 2.6 mm.; greatest diameter, 3.4 mm.; least diameter 2.7 mm.
The holotype is the only specimen.
This species is referred to Antisolarium rather than to Conominolium in view of its depressed habit and few strong keels. Also the aperture and pillar agree better with those of the former genus. It lacks the broad smooth band on the base found in the type-species; but A. conominolium from the early Pliocene also has spirals on the base, though they are extremely weak and tend to be obsolete towards its outer edge. There is a greater difference between the Hutchinsonian and the Waitotaran forms than there is between the Waitotaran and the Recent ones. It is to be expected that the discovery of further ancestral species (possibly in the Awamoan) will help to connect tricarinatum with the lower Pliocene species.
This may or may not be the form recorded by Marshall (loc. cit., p. 273) as Solariella stoliczkai Zittel. There is also a new species of Conominolium in the same beds, and it is possible that this may have given rise to the record of stoliczkai.
Lodderia kaiparaensis n.sp.*
Shell very small, umbilicate, spirally ribbed and axially costate; whorls enlarging rapidly. Protoconch of one smooth turn ending at a low indistinct varix. The first post-embryonic whorl develops three spiral keels crossed by axial ribs that are weaker than the keels, though they cause nodulation at points of intersection. These keels angulate this whorl. On the body the axials and spirals are equal in strength, causing an open reticulation. Both elements of sculpture consist of thin sharply elevated ribs, spaced well apart. The body-whorl has five spirals, the first distant from suture, the last forming a prominent cord around umbilical depression. The axials are continued as thin threads down into this depression. Umbilicus moderately wide. Features of aperture similar to those of L. eumorpha (Suter).
Height, 0.9 mm.; width, 1.0 mm. (greatest).
One specimen only.
[Footnote] *A figure will be given in the next paper of the series.
This and L. komitica n.sp. are the first Lodderia to be found fossil in New Zealand, all previously recorded forms belonging to the Recent fauna. Both are separable from eumorpha at a glance on account of the few widely spaced and comparatively heavy axials. In eumorpha the axials are much more numerous and less conspicuous.
Lodderia komitica n.sp. (Fig. 41).
This species has a larger protoconch than kaiparaensis and no heavy spirals on the first post-embryonic whorl, but there are numerous thin, flexuous axials. This whorl is convex and not angulated as in kaiparaensis. On the body there are 6 spirals, the posterior some distance from suture, the next (strongest) on the periphery, and the third below that. On the base the remaining two keels are very weak and the axials are mere indistinct threads. The last spiral forms the border to the umbilical depression, and is not as well defined as that of eumorpha or kaiparaensis. On the body the axials are thin, well defined but more numerous than those on the other Pakaurangi fossil. The peristome is continuous, circular; columella thin, long, arcuate; umbilicus narrow, much more so than in either eumorpha or kaiparaensis.
Height, 0.9 mm.; width (greatest), 1.0 mm.
One specimen was collected.
A single very well preserved but immature specimen. Further collecting will probably bring to light a larger shell.
Lissotesta alpha n.sp. (Fig. 34).
Shell minute, of three post-embryonic whorls, resembling L. benthicola Powell very closely indeed in build and shape of whorl. Alpha, like errata Finlay, has spirals present generally over surface and also in the umbilicus, whereas benthicola has them limited to the base, and a single one as a margin to suture. Alpha is rather taller than errata, and has the suture in no sense canaliculate, and is a smaller more delicately built shell. L. granum (Murdoch and Suter) has no spiral sculpture and is broader across the body in relation to height of shell. Rissoaformis Powell, though similar in shape, is larger, more heavily built and has much coarser spirals. Canoidea Powell is much taller spired and has more whorls and the umbilicus better defined. The Awamoan L. exigua (Suter) is a larger species with the body-whorl a good deal wider in relation to height. Alpha has a low ridge bordering the umbilicus.
Height, 1.1 mm.; width, 1.0 mm.
One specimen was obtained.
Prior to the present record the Awamoan marked the earliest known appearance of Lissotesta as a fossil in New Zealand.
Lissotesta beta n.sp. (Fig. 37).
Shell minute, a shade smaller than alpha n.sp., to which it is very similar in shape and build. It differs from alpha in smaller protoconch, narrow early adult whorls, lack of spiral sculpture and of ridge bordering umbilicus, and suture below periphery, the whorls
almost tabulated. Also the whorls are strongly and evenly convex. There is a suggestion of a blunt angle encircling body just below periphery.
Height, 1.0 mm.; width, 0.9 mm.
One specimen collected. A perfectly preserved little fossil.
Very near to L. tenuilirata Powell, but much smaller. The specimen is not adult and more suitable material is awaited before naming the species.
Dolicrossea clifdenensis Finlay.
Two specimens, somewhat smaller than the Clifden shells, but undoubtedly conspecific. Probably the “Crossea labiata Suter” of Marshall's list.
Dolicrossea atypica n.sp. (Fig. 61).
Shell very small, height of spire about equal to that of aperture. Whorls strongly convex. Protoconch of one smooth turn, convex over summit. First few whorls distinctly broadly tabulated around suture, the edge of tabulation forming an angle or keel. Surface unsculptured; growth-lines strongly retracted from upper suture. Aperture circular, not notched below. Small umbilicus present with a deep narrow crescentic furrow entering it. There is no heavy cord bordering left side of furrow as in clifdenensis, but a low, ill-defined fold takes its place, the lower extremity of which causes inner edge of basal lip to protrude slightly, though not at all pointed as in other Neozelanic species.
Height, 1.5 mm.; width, 1.3 mm.
Three specimens collected. Distinct at a glance from any other Neozelanic species of Dolicrossea.
Crosseola tenuisculpta Laws.
1936. Crosseola tenuisculpta Laws, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 66, p. 104, pl. 16, fig. 57.
There are three shells, one of them adult but rather worn, that cannot be distinguished from the above species, apart from the fact that the Pakaurangi shells have a slightly smaller embryo. In outline and build of whorl the Kaawa specimens agree entirely with those from Pakaurangi.
Crosseola sinemacula n.sp. (Fig. 66).
Shell very small, whorls strongly and evenly convex. Protoconch of one volution, smooth, depressed. Both axial and spiral sculpture developed, but texture though fine is very clear. Thin, sharply elevated axials appear first. The first spiral appears as a carina around centre of first post-embryonic whorl; shortly a second spiral comes in below, and then a third below that. The axials are antecurrent to upper suture. Axials and spirals of equal strength; sculpture of spire-whorls and upper part of body thus fenestrated. On body axials weaken at about periphery, but spirals are developed over whole surface. The penultimate whorl carries four spirals, the
upper one weak. On the body-whorl there are about 20 regularly spaced spirals. Towards the umbilical rib spirals are absent, only the ribs now in evidence. Umbilical rib crenulated. Aperture circular. Pillar thick, heavy, widening below, with a narrow notch below it.
Height, 2.0 mm.; width, 1.8 mm.
The type is the only specimen. This is an exquisite little shell, in a state of perfect preservation. The very fine, regular sculpture distinguishes it. Errata Finlay has only six cords on the body, and these are stronger than those of the Pakaurangi Point species; proerrata also has fewer and heavier ribs, and further the axials over-ride the spirals. Also the fasciolar cord makes a more pronounced sweep over base, whereas in sinemacula it more or less enfolds the columella and is set vertically.
Orbitestella praetoreuma n.sp. (Figs. 15, 16).
Shell tiny, discoidal, widely umbilicate. Whorls biangled by two strong spiral keels. Protoconch of one smooth volution. Umbilicus perspective, about one-third greatest diameter. Spire a little sunken. Very heavy axial ribs are prominent on all whorls. On the upper surface of body-whorl these are strongly elevated and almost toothlike. Towards the edge of upper surface they descend rapidly into a circular groove and then appear again on the strong peripheral cord as pronounced denticles. Immediately below this cord the vertically descending side of body is excavated and axials are not developed in this depression. The cord encircling the outer edge of the base is also denticulate. A spiral depression encircles its inner edge and then the base rises into a broad, convex zone carrying very heavy, thick radial costae, whose inner ends tend to overhang the umbilical hollow. Aperture very like that of O. toreuma Powell.
Height, 0.2 mm.; diameter (greatest), 0.6 mm.
Two specimens collected. Easily distinguished from toreuma by the very heavy, prominent axial sculpture.
Orbitestella praehinemoa n.sp. (Figs. 20, 21).
This shell is closely similar in many respects to O. hinemoa Mestayer. In the development of umbilicus and in sculpture of base the two forms are practically identical. If anything, the fossil has the umbilical depression a little wider. On the upper surface hinemoa has the spire slightly stepped, that of the fossil being perfectly flat, so that the suture becomes simply a linear groove. The numerous retrocurrent radials of hinemoa are represented in praehinemoa by low, irregular corrugations. The periphery is marked by a strong spiral cord, slightly nodulated above by the axial corrugations. This upper cord is separated from the lower one situated at angle leading on to base by a deep, narrow groove. Base convex and carrying coarse axial corrugations which sharpen somewhat towards inner ends. Disc very thin.
Height, 0.2 mm.; diameter (greatest), 1.0 mm.
One specimen collected. Separable at a glance from hinemoa, which has a single strong keel around centre of the vertically descending party of body-whorl, the fossil species, on the other hand, having a deep groove in the position of the keel on hinemoa. Otherwise there is a good deal of likeness between these two species.
These are the first fossil species of Orbitestella to be described from New Zealand, at least.
Zeradina aculeata n.sp. (Fig. 49).
Shell small, spire high and narrow, apex sharpened; height of spire about one-third that of body-whorl; whorls convex, suture well cut in, a little channelled. Protoconch pointed, of about two volutions, with fine axial lamellae just below suture for a short distance, spirals developing on lower half of last volution. Body-whorl very long, convex in a broad sweep from suture to base. Aperture ovate; outer lip effuse below; inner lip separated from body anteriorly by a groove. Columella long, thin, arcuate, set vertically. Axial sculpture other than rude growth-plications is lacking, except on the first adult whorl where there are thin, curved axial lamellae dependent a short distance from suture. Irregular weak spiral ridges and grooves are present over surface of all whorls, none of these spirals being consistently more in evidence than others.
Height, 3.2 mm.; width, 1.5 mm.
Type and two immature paratypes collected. Related to Z. producta (Odhner).
Two immature shells that may be compared with Z. ovata (Odhner) and odhneri Powell.
Zeradina (Radinista) vivienneae n.sp. (Figs. 53, 55).
Shell small, body-whorl very large and expanded, height of spire-about one-fifth that of shell. Suture strongly cut in. Whorls convex, shouldered above. Protoconch of about 1½ convex volutions, unsculptured. Sculpture similar to that of Z. corrugata Hedley, coarse growth-ridges simulating varices, and spiral threads which are rather uneven in strength. Aperture large, broadly ovate, continuous, inner lip separated from body by a groove; umbilicus distinct, entering from groove; a sharp ridge bordering left side of groove below and entering umbilicus.
Height, 2.0 mm.; width, 1.5 mm. Corresponding dimensions of a paratype (estimated): 2.8 mm.; 2.0 mm.
Type and three paratypes collected. Not so loosely coiled as corrugata, but it has similar development of furrow, inflated body and paucispiral, though not so sharply pointed, protoconch.
Zeradina (Radinista) exilis (Murdoch).
1900. Lacuna exilis Murdoch, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 32, p. 220, pl. 20, fig. 3.
1926. Zeradina exilis (Murdoch), Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 376 (provisional location).
Lacuna exilis Murdoch from the Pliocene of Wanganui is extremely close to corrugata; in fact some little study is required in order to satisfy one's self of the separate specific identity of these
two forms. So far as the writer is aware exilis is known only from the unique holotype, which Mr. Grant has kindly sent for inspection. Finlay (loc. cit., p. 376) provisionally located exilis along with ovata (Odhner) and producta (Odhner) in Zeradina s.str., and erected the subgenus Radinista for Couthouyia corrugata Hedley. There is no doubt whatsoever that exilis and corrugata are congeneric.
Couthouyia concinna Marshall and Murdoch, an Awamoan fossil from Target Gully, Finlay associated with ovata, producta and exilis in Zeradina s.str. Inspection of the holotype, however, shows concinna requires to be separated at least subgenerically from both ovata on the one hand and corrugata on the other. Its embryo is at once different, being polygyrate, conical with minute nucleus, and is reticulated. Superficially the furrow bordering the inner lip is akin to that of the ovata line, but a specimen of a closely allied form (jocelynae n.sp., described below) from Pakaurangi, having the callus removed from the inner lip, shows the Radinista ridge and deep furrow entering the umbilicus. In general build of shell and expanded body concinna resembles corrugata, but concinna has axial lamellae well developed on all whorls, and this seems not to be a feature of Radinista. The new name Naridista is provided, with N. jocelynae n.sp., as type, to cover shells like concinna Marshall and Murdoch and jocelynae n.sp., and is here given subgeneric tank under Zeradina.
One wonders what shell Suter (Manual, p. 193) used for his description of C. corrugata, for he describes the protoconch as “microscopically obsoletely reticulated,” and this is reminiscent of concinna and jocelynae. Also Suter's figure of corrugata (Atlas, pl. 35, fig. 15), which seems not to be a copy of Hedley's illustration, shows axials well developed.
Genus Zeradina Finlay.
Type (o.d.): Naridista jocelynae n.sp.
Subgenus Naridista n.subgen.
Type (o.d.): Fossarus ovatus Odhner.
This new subgenus is provided for shells having the ridge and furrow entering the umbilicus as in Radinista, but differing from Radinista in the character of the embryo, which is polygyrate, conical, with minute nucleus, and is reticulated. Axial lamellae are developed on all whorls.
Zeradina (Naridista) jocelynae n.sp. (Fig. 51).
Shell small, apex sharp, body very dilated, whorls convex, sutures very distinct. The protoconch is of about three volutions, and has four coarse threads around lower half of whorls, the whole width between sutures crossed by microscopic, hairlike, oblique axial threadlets. Subsequent whorls are crossed by thin, well elevated, very distinct spaced axials, antecurrent to upper suture. Axials extend entirely across body-whorl, converging on the umbilical area. Spiral sculpture in the form of evenly spaced axial threads is present in inter-axial furrows, and these rise on to the flanks of the
axials. Spirals spaced more closely than the axials. Aperture broadly elliptical; outer lip very effuse. Peristome continuous, separated from body by a narrow groove. Where parietal callus happens to be stripped away the groove is seen to be sharply ridged along its left border, deep and connected with umbilicus.
Height, 1.7 mm.; width, 1.0 mm.
The type and a fragmentary paratype were collected. Jocelynae has more numerous and sharper axial lamellae and more expanded outer lip than concinna. The paratype consists of the body-whorl of a larger specimen than the type. The writer has a further n.sp. of Naridista from the Waitotaran beds at Kaawa Creek.
Zeradina costellata (Hutton).
1885. Aclis costellata Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 17, p. 319, pl. 18, fig. 14.
1926. Zeradina costellata (Hutton), Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 376 (provisional location).
Through the courtesy of Mr. R. A. Falla the writer has been enable to examine the type-material on which this species was founded (a very well preserved holotype and an immature fragmentary paratype). Costellata is very close indeed to Z. producta in build and shape of whorls, features of aperture and umbilical groove, and in embryonic characters. The body-whorl, however, is fuller in costellata, but not so expanded as that of shells falling into Radinista and Naridista. It is distinct at a glance by reason of the obvious spiral cords. Weak axials are present also, and these fenestrate and slightly nodulate the upper few spirals. The spiral cord on the edge of the shoulder of the body-whorl is the strongest. Hutton describes the whole of the base as being “very finely spirally grooved,” This is hardly precise. The grooves between the shoulder and the line of suture of body whorl (5 in number) are practically linear; but below the line of suture they open out considerably, becoming increasingly wider apart towards the anterior. The cords likewise become coarser. There are four grooves on base below line of suture.
Argalista kaiparaensis Finlay.
1930. Argalista kaiparaensis Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 61, p. 56.
About 50 specimens have been obtained from sievings.
Haurakia onerata n.sp. (Fig. 54).
Shell small, very stumpy, spire gradate, whorls convex; height of body nearly two-thirds that of shell. The body is inflated out of proportion to rest of shell. Protoconch of about two smooth turns. Sculpture consists of weak axials extending from posterior suture to about middle of whorls, then gradually evanescing. Body-whorl has a fine spiral groove around periphery. Aperture broadly ovate to circular. Outer lip heavily thickened externally. Columella thin, vertical, straight. There is a very tiny umbilical chink present. Parietal wall thinly callused.
Height, 1.9 mm.; width, 1.4 mm.
Over 50 shells of this species were collected. The inflated body and weak development of axials are noteworthy.
Haurakia sodalis n.sp. (Fig. 63).
This species is easily distinguished from onerata n.sp. in that it is not so stumpy, the body not being so inflated. The axials are almost obsolete, and in some specimens it is difficult to pick them up at all. Spiral sculpture of well-defined cords is developed on the base and weak spirals are present here and there elsewhere on whorls. There is a cord as a margin to suture around posterior of whorls. The suture is narrowly channelled. In the general build of shell, feature of aperture (swollen exterior to outer lip) sodalis agrees closely with onerata.
Height, 1.8 mm.; width, 1.0 mm.
Six shells were collected.
Merelina saginata n.sp. (Fig. 65).
Shell very small, outlines straight, whorls lightly convex, suture not strongly cut in. Protoconch typical, spirally lirate. Whorls about 3½ in number, ornamented by strong axials and equally strong spirals, the points of intersection of both elements of sculpture nodulated. Spire-whorls with three spirals each, the anterior two cords the heaviest and closer together. The posterior cord weaker and margining suture. Axials 10 to 12 on penultimate whorl, continuous from suture to suture, but dying out not far below periphery of body-whorl. Base with four heavy spirals below termination of axials, these cords not nodulated. Aperture roundly ovate, peristome continuous; basal lip broadly rounded; outer lip thickened externally, its sinus broad and shallow and not as well marked as that of Pliocene and Recent forms.
Height, 2.1 mm.; width, 1.1 mm.
Three specimens collected.
Nobolira inflata n.sp. (Fig. 69).
Shell very small, spire gradate, whorls convex, body-whorl inflated. Whorls four plus protoconch, which is ornamented by seven fine spiral threads. Spire-whorls with two strong spiral keels, one around middle and the other not far above suture. Outline straight from posterior suture to upper cord. On penultimate whorl a very fine spiral thread borders posterior suture. On body-whorl a similar fine spiral appears from suture; base sculptured by fine spiral threads. Axial growth-striae present over whole surface. Aperture thickened outside by a very heavy rounded varix.
Height, 2.0 mm.; width, 1.0 mm.
Eighteen specimens collected. Inflata is close to manawatawhia Powell, but it has the suture more cut in, so that the spire is more gradate, the third and upper spiral of whorls is weaker, and there are five as against three basal spirals. Charassa Finlay is not so stout and has three keels on whorls of spire and four spiral threads on base. Polyvincta Finlay is larger, more elevated, and has four spiral keels on whorls of spire.
Dardanula praecursor n.sp. (Fig. 67).
This species is remarkably like such Recent littoral forms as olivacea (Hutton) and limbata (Hutton). It also is very close to
the Awamoan rivertonensis Finlay, which up till now has been the earliest known species in New Zealand. The present record dates Dardanula back to Hutchinsonian times. Finlay (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 55, p. 491, 1924) has stated “it is interesting that a form (i.e., rivertonensis) so close to the Recent species should be abundant in a locality of this (Awamoan) age, when up till now it has been found nowhere else.” A similar statement can be made with regard to praecursor, 43 specimens of which have been collected.
Rivertonensis is larger, has more pointed apex, rather better defined sutures, the periphery not so angled, and the outer lip drawn in towards axis. In praecursor the outer lip is in line of spire produced. Olivacea is a distinctly larger and more heavily built species. Limbata also is larger with better defined sutures and has not the periphery so angulate. Praecursor differs from both olivacea and limbata in having the aperture more oblique both from left to right and from front to back. In this respect it agress with rivertonensis. Further, rivertonensis has the outline of spire faintly convex, that of praecursor being perfectly straight.
Height, 1.7 mm.; width, 1.0 mm.
Brookesena duplicincta n.sp. (Fig. 75).
Shell minute, turreted, whorls bicarinate, strongly cut in to suture, height of body-whorl half that of shell. Protoconch with four heavy spiral keels. All adult whorls have two strong spiral keels with a thread above them bordering suture. There are thin, thread-like axials, spaced many times their own width apart, crossing spaces between spiral keels, to which they are always subsidiary. The base has one moderately heavy spiral cord below periphery and several very weak ones below that. Aperture broadly oval to rounded. Umbilical perforation not apparent.
Height, 1.0 mm.; width, 0.5 mm.
The type is the only specimen. B. succincta (Suter), which the writer has recently found fossil in the Waitotaran beds at Kaawa Creek, has one spiral more pronounced than the others, giving the whorls a medianly situated angle, whilst B. neozelanica (Suter) has at least three strong spiral cords per whorl, as well as other differences. B. quadricincta Marwick has a smooth protoconch.
Nozeba perpava n.sp. (Fig. 68).
Shell very small, spire low, height of body-whorl over two-thirds that of shell. Whorls 3½, lightly convex, rapidly increasing; suture distinct. Protoconch small. Body-whorl strongly convex, flattish on base. Aperture very broadly ovate; inner lip callused, basal lip very broadly rounded; outer lip effuse below, external varix present. Anterior notch broad, shallow. No spirals present on base. Umbilical chink narrow.
Height, 1.5 mm.; width, 0.9 mm.
Mica Finlay has grooves on the base, unthickened inner lip, pyriform aperture, suture margined.
The apical whorls with the embryo of one shell is referable to this genus. Near to S. exaltatus (Powell).
Zaclys (Miopila) simulator n.sp. (Fig. 79).
Shell attenuate, outline straight, sutures indistinct. Each whorl has three equally strong and evenly spaced spirals, the upper and lower bordering sutures, the centre one around mid-whorl. These are crossed by numerous vertical axials (about 20 on body-whorl) spaced a little further apart than their own width, and of strength equal to that of spirals. Intersections of axials and spirals nodulated. Whorls considerably broader than high. The aperture is broken in all specimens. The columella bears a thin but distinct ridge low down. The protoconch is normal, tall, of about four convex volutions, unsculptured.
Height (estimated), 7.0 mm.; width (estimated), 1.5 mm.
Eight specimens collected. This species bears a striking resemblance to Z. aequicincta (Suter), there being very slight differences indeed in the sculpture. Aequicincta is more attenuate, has no plait, and generally has the middle spiral a little nearer posterior suture. In features of embryo, however, these two forms are sub-generically apart. This species is probably the “Cerithiella fidicula Suter” of Marshall's list.
Zaclys (Miopila) mucro n.sp. (Fig. 81).
Shell moderately attenuate, outlines convex, especially towards summit, sutures very indistinct. Sculpture similar to that of simulator n.sp., but axials not so strong, though the gemmules at intersection of spirals and axials are heavier. The reticulation of sculpture is not so open in this species, nor is the second spiral situated around mid-whorl, but higher up close to the posterior one. Spirals are thus not equally spaced as in simulator. Outer lip broken; columella with a low fold high up. The protoconch is much narrower and more sharply pointed than that of simulator, and consists of three to four convex, smooth volutions.
Height (estimated), 4.1 mm.; width, 1.0 mm.
Two specimens collected. No other recorded species of Miopila has the convex outline of this species.
Five apical fragments with the protoconchs in good condition.
Notosinister zespina n.sp. (Fig. 77).
This is a very strikingly ornamented shell, and although much of the spire is decollated, it is sufficiently distinct to be given a name. Each whorl is sculptured with two rows of spaced and very pronounced prickly granules, distinctly like tubercles, and standing out in unusually high relief. These are connected axially by low folds, and spirally by weak threads. The original spirals and axials have become suppressed, and the original granules have become accentuated as described. Base flattish, smooth, except for a thin spiral thread near its outer edge. Outer lip broken. Columella twisted, canal narrow.
Height (estimated), 7.5 mm.; width, 1.5 mm.
The type is the only specimen.
Five fragments represent this new species. It is very close to N. fascelina (Suter), but the sculpture is not so heavy and the shell is of lighter build. Fascelina has the cord encircling outside of columella smooth, that of the Pakaurangi species being much lighter and moniliform. It is not unlike N. insertus Marwick, a fossil from the Chatham Islands. Protoconch not seen.
Two apical fragments, one with the protoconch intact. N. fascelina, the type of the genus, has the embryonic whorls keeled medianly. In the present shell the first two whorls of the embryo are keeled low down, the following two being keeled by two cords running close together. Axial threads of protoconch as in the Recent species. The post-embryonic whorls remaining all carry two spiral rows of gemmules, but the fragmentary material available does not allow any closer discrimination than that above.
Triphora neozelanica n.sp. (Fig. 82).
Shell small, dextral, outlines practically straight, protoconch missing. Whorls flat, suture very indistinct, bordered by a strongly beaded cord. Anterior half of each whorl bears heavy, closely set, rather sharpened tubercles, arranged spirally and connected by a very light thread which crosses their summits and follows the saddles between them. The upper half or third of whorl is concave and unsculptured. Axial sculpture, which is indicated by vertical rows of tubercles, is seen to trend backwards towards upper suture. Body-whorl with a sharp angled periphery, on which are set heavy tubercles; base flat, not wide, encircled around its outer edge by a granular spiral, otherwise smooth, but slightly undulating. Aperture small, circular; peristome continuous, its edge raised up into a strongly projecting sharp rim. Anterior canal almost entirely closed to form a tube, strongly flexed in a dorsal direction, with two closely spaced threads encircling it externally. Outer lip sinused not far from suture. A little back from outer lip, on line of sinus, there is a very distinct, strongly projecting and slightly backwardly directed tube.
Height (estimated), 7.0 mm.; width, 1.6 mm.
The type is the only specimen. This species is assigned to Triphora in the wide sense. Definitions of the genus given by various authors do not entirely agree. Cossmann (Essais, livr. 7, p. 164, 1906), for instance, states that the coiling is always dextral, and the present species fits well his diagnosis, which is based on specimens of T. plicatus Desh. (Eocene), which Cossman states is the type-species. Woodring (Miocene Molluscs from Bowden, Jamaica, part 2, p. 328, 1928) quotes Triphora gemmatum Blainville as genotype by monotypy and states in his diagnosis that the shells are sinistral. Apart from this the species just described accords well with his diagnosis. Grant and Gale (Pliocene and Pleistocene Mollusca of California, p. 766, 1931) state that the shells are sinistral, but make no reference to the feature of the aperture.
The present record marks the advent of the genus Triphora into New Zealand faunal lists. Suter has recorded a number of Recent forms under Triphora, but Finlay (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, p. 384, 1926) has noted their divergence from that genus and has provided several new generic names to cover the series.
The only turritellid listed by Marshall is Turritella semiconcava Suter. So far as the writer knows no form answering to this has since been collected. There are, however, the body-whorls of two large shells that do not answer to the description of semiconcava; and as well a number of apices of a Maoricolpus. It is likely that the form listed as semiconcava from Pakaurangi Point is a Maoricolpus. Better material is required before the specific indentification of the present specimens can be decided.
Pareora striolata (Hutton).
About 150 specimens have been collected. There is no record of this, however, in the original lists. The Pakaurangi shells are all stouter than those from White Rock River, the type-locality. But as there is considerable variation amongst individuals from the latter locality, both as regards attenuation and sculpture, consideration of the status of the shells from Pakaurangi Point is left over until they can be examined in conjunction with shells from other localities.
There are four apical fragments of a shell with the heterostrophe protoconch and sculpture of Mathilda. The arrangement of spiral ornamentation is suggestive of that of Promathilda amoena (Desh.), but the shell is apparently not so attenuate. In general form and attenuation the adult of this New Zealand species probably resembles M. quadricarinata (Brocchi). There are rude axial corrugations and thin axial lamellae here and there, but the spiral sculpturing is always predominant. The heavy keel is rather nodulated where crossed by the axials.
Ellatrivia kaiparaensis n.sp. (Figs. 26, 28, 31).
Shell small, ovate, dorsum ribbed to summit, but ribs weaken along summit where those from either flank coalesce. Spire concealed, position located by a low swelling, which, however, is crossed by ribbing. Ribs separated by concave interstices, whose width is about three times that of ribs. Outer lip with 16 ribs, inner with 14. Now and again there is sporadic divarication of a rib, but this is unusual and not a feature as in avellanoides McCoy. One or two of the ribs do not reach as far as the inner lip, but the specimens to hand show that this is variable. Aperture widening below and curved to left above. Outer lip rounded, swollen above level of external surface of body-whorl, projecting beyond apex. Columella much as in T. memorata Finlay.
Height, 5.0 mm.; width (side to side), 3.6 mm.; width (dorso-ventral), 3.0 mm. (figured paratype).
Two specimens in good condition.
Archierato simulacrum n.sp. (Fig. 36).
Somewhat similar to A. accola but smaller, with the body less convex, and outer lip quite straight. Spire scarcely projecting above posterior surface; aperture with its sides parallel; terminal ridge heavy; inner lip hollowed behind upper end of ridge, this depression continuing along parietal wall as a broad shallow fossula. Denticles on body-wall very weak, spaced widely, seen best towards posterior. Outer lip with four small sharp denticles posteriorly and one or two weak ones in front.
Height, 4.2 mm.; width, 2.8 mm.
The type is the only specimen.
Archierato zepyrulata n.sp. (Fig. 35).
Spire moderate, broad, heavy. Body-whorl swollen behind, convex, early and rapidly drawn in to axis; base excavated. Aperture fairly wide, its sides about parallel; anterior opening broad. Parietal wall excavated from posterior third downwards. Terminal ridge narrow but well differentiated. Fossula fairly broad, lightly excavated, extending almost to upper third of inner lip, its outer edge marked by a low ridge with indistinct denticles, which become obsolescent towards posterior end. Outer lip dentate.
Height, 3.5 mm.; width, 2.5 mm.
Two specimens collected.
Cypræerato cf. submorosa (Laws).
There is a single shell closely resembling submorosa, but with higher spire, narrower beak and somewhat different arrangement of plications on columella. In the event of another similar individual turning up this will no doubt require a separate name.
Charonia cf. clifdenensis Finlay.
Part of the body-whorl showing aperture and suture. Very close indeed to clifdenensis.
Austrosassia zealta n.sp. (Fig. 62).
A very fine new species after the style of maoria Finlay, but notably different in a number of characters. Like A. procera Finlay it is tall-spired, but is much larger, has different tubercles, different shaped body, and less distinct spirals. It has a much taller and narrower spire than maoria, very much stronger and more pointed tubercles, and lacks the lower of the two rows of tubercles on the body; and the suture is further below periphery so that the spire is more stepped. The spirals are also finer and the growth-striae are elevated into very fine threads. The aperture is more elongately oval in an antero-posterior direction, and there are seven denticles within outer lip. Anterior portion of inner lip not so excavated, and posterior not so nearly horizontal as that of maoria. The anterior canal trends to the left, that of maoria being almost vertical when shell is viewed ventrally. The anterior tuberculate cord of maoria is represented in the n.sp. by a row of granules larger than those on the spiral cords, but there is no angulation along the line on which these granules are set. No spirals on base are differentiated into heavy cords, but all are fine and threadlike. Base of inner lip
with one horizontal plait and several smaller below. There are five tubercles between varices, which are two-thirds of a whorl apart; tubercles decreasing in strength towards next later varix. The protoconch is similar to that of maoria.
Height, 53.5 mm.; width (estimated), 30 mm.
Oniscidia cf. finlayi Laws.
There is the body-whorl of a shell resembling O. finlayi, a fossil from Clifden, Southland. The specimen is not adult and the posterior part of the inner lip is badly damaged, as also is the outer lip.
Cirsotrema firmatum n.sp. (Fig. 46).
This species is distinguishable from C. lyratum, to which it is nearly allied, by the broad, heavy, close axials with very narrow interspaces. There are 12 axials on the body-whorl and these are disposed more obliquely than those of lyratum; the last whorl also bears three heavy varices, the last at outer lip and the others in turn at about a quarter whorl back. There are six primary spiral cords on the body-whorl (about 8 on lyratum) excluding the heavier one around basal disc, most of which is heavily covered by the flattened lower ends of the twisted and converging axials. The aperture is rather narrower from side to side than that of lyratum, its rim strongly thickened, there being a thick pad of callus on parietal wall. The plane of the peristome is set more oblique to the axis of the shell than is that of lyratum.
Height (estimated), 29.0 mm.; width, 11.5 mm.
Turriscala kaiparaensis n.sp. (Fig. 72).
Shell small, considerably attenuate, whorls convex, sutures distinct. Protoconch missing. Axial ribs thin, sharply elevated, distant, ten in number on last whorl of bigger fragment, some of them a little antecurrent to suture above. Spiral sculpture very faint, seen in interstices and surmounting axials; the sharp peripheral keel is seen as a margin just above suture. The axial ribs end against this keel. The rather flattened base carries a strong keel around its outer edge; and there are two weaker ones inside this. Aperture broken. Columella vertical, short.
Height (estimated), 18.0 mm.; width (estimated), 2.0 mm.
T. marginata (Hutton) is larger and has fewer (eight) axials per whorl. The peripheral keel is not as strong in the new species and the spiral sculpture is much better developed. Marginata has the whorls flatter, whereas in kaiparaensis they are quite strongly convex.
There are three fragments, one of them of the last three whorls of a small shell and two apical pieces with the protoconchs intact. These conform very well indeed with Cossmann's description of the genus (Essais de Paléoconchologie Comparée, no. 9, p. 83, 1912); the larger shell bears a striking resemblance to his figure (loc. cit., pl. 6, fig. 25) of Pliciscala macilenta de Boury.
The protoconch is polygyrate, smooth and sharply pointed. The axial ribs are narrow, distinct, though not greatly elevated, and there are light varices present. Spiral sculpture is distinct under the hand-lens; the microscope shows the spirals to be strongly incised. They are about 12 per whorl, broad and separated by very narrow grooves bearing perforations.
Murdochella tricincta (Marshall).
1918. Epitonium trioinctum Marshall, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 50, p. 263, pl. 19, figs. 8, 12.
1930. Cirsotrema tricinctum (Marshall), Finlay, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 61, p. 233.
Finlay (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 61, p. 233, 1930) has tentatively referred this shell to Cirsotrema, but examination of the specimen recently obtained shows that it has little in common with that genus. It is reminiscent of Clathroscala de Boury, judging by the figures of several species given by Cossmann (Essais, livr. 9, 1912); but Cossmann makes no reference to embryonic characters. In the meantime the writer prefers to locate tricinctum in Murdochella Finlay on account of its relationship with M. superlata Finlay, which, however, is doubtfully a Murdochella. Tricincta agrees with superlata in embryonic characters, general build, and pattern of sculpture, though the basal keel is not so heavy; and the axials, though thin, are not elevated into vertical lamellae like those of superlata. M. alacer Finlay and M. tertia Finlay along with M. laevifoliata (Murdoch and Suter), the genotype, form a series apart from tricincta and superlata, and are characterised by rather heavier embryo, lack of fenestrated sculpture, and presence of fine, close, very numerous axial foliations in place of definite, distant axial ribs.
The “Epitonium trilineatum n.sp.” of Marshall's list (p. 273) no doubt is meant to be Epitonium tricinctum, which is described on p. 263 of Marshall's paper.
A specimen with the protoconch and upper whorls of spire only. The protoconch is coiled in a helicoid spiral, so that the shell represents a species of Group A, as defined by the writer in a previous paper (Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 67, p. 49, 1937).
Pyrgolampros pakaurangiensis n.sp.
This shell has the typical Pyrgolampros build of whorl and the gross sculpture of that genus. Spiral sculpture is not evident, but the fine scratches typical of the genus are frequently only visible on the later whorls, which are damaged in the only specimen available. The protoconch is of very low helicoid type, and is broad and heavy, its nucleus considerably immersed. These characters at once distinguish the species from the Awamoan semilaevigata, its nearest relative, which it resembles closely. The outline is faintly convex; the whorls faintly sulcate at about their middle, and the axials weakly defined and broader than the interstices, which are almost linear. There is a faint swelling on the columella.
Height (estimated), 4.0 mm.; width, 1.3 mm.
Separable from semilaevigata, the only species with which it is necessary to compare it, by more slender habit, weaker axials, sulcate whorls and heavier protoconch, the nucleus of which is more immersed.
Finlayola angulifera Laws.
1937. Finlayola angulifera Laws. Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 67, p. 312, pl. 44, fig. 18.
A single shell matches well this species from Clifden, Southland. The protoconch is more upright. Otherwise the shells from these two localities bear a striking resemblance.
Eulimella komitica n.sp. (Fig. 80).
Shell quite small, outlines straight, suture distinct, whorls flattish above, slightly overhanging suture below. Protoconch small, coiled in a low helicoid spiral, its lower edge tangent to suture below. Whorls a good deal broader than high. Body-whorl sharply rounded over periphery, flattish above, lightly rounded over base. Columella heavy, straight, vertical, Aperture sub-quadrate, but outer lip is broken back in all specimens.
Height, 2.0 mm.; width, 0.7 mm.
Seven specimens collected. E. coxi is larger, has heavier and larger protoconch, whorls higher between sutures, and the suture not so well defined.
Eulimella parlimbata n.sp. (Fig. 70).
Shell of moderate size, outlines convex over early whorls, straight below that. Protoconch heterostrophic, coiled in a low helicoid spiral, nucleus with its lower edge tangent to suture below. Upper whorls of spire convex, later ones flat; suture distinct; early whorls a little shouldered high up at suture. Body-whorl long, over one-third height of shell; flat behind, broadly and evenly rounded over periphery; base convex. Columella thin, straight, oblique downwards to left. Aperture sub-quadrate; outer lip broken.
Height, 4.8 mm.; width, 1.6 mm.
The type is the only specimen. Very like E. limbata Suter. The body, however, is relatively higher, the whorls are higher in relation to width, and the sutures not so distinct. Limbata of the same height as parlimbata consist of 7 whorls as against 6 in the fossil.
Eulimella imitator n.sp. (Fig. 71).
This species combines the adult shell characters of Terelimella with the protoconch of Eulimella. Were it not for the embryo one would have no hesitation in placing it in Terelimella. The habit is acicular, the protoconch large when compared with the first few shell-whorls, and very exsert. It is coiled in a very low helicoid spiral, the lateral nucleus very small and quite clear of suture. The whorls are flat above and rather bulging below, thus tending to overhang suture. Pillar thin, arcuate, set vertically, with a tiny swelling well inside aperture. Aperture pyriform, angled behind and rather broadly rounded in front.
Height, 3.5 mm.; width, 0.8 mm.
Three specimens were collected.
Graphis neozelanica n.sp. (Fig. 76).
Shell very small, elongate-conic, axially ribbed, whorls strongly convex with a sloping shoulder above; suture well impressed. The protoconch is as described by Cossmann for Graphis, rather bulbous, few-whorled. Axials distinct, thin, sharply elevated, about three times their own width apart, straight below, antecurrent to suture above. On body-whorl axials evanesce quickly at about periphery. Base exceedingly finely spirally striated, as also is the surface of the last few whorls. Aperture broadly ovate; outer lip broken away; columella thin, faintly arcuate, set vertically.
Height, 2.5 mm.; width, 0.7 mm.
One specimen collected. This species has a strong resemblance to Graphis gallica de Boury, figured by Cossmann (Essais de Paléoconchologie Comparée, no. 9, pl. 6, figs. 26, 27, 1912).
There are three specimens none of which is sufficiently well preserved for accurate discrimination.
Balcis badenia n.sp. (Fig. 12).
Shell small, shining, outlines straight, sutures very indistinct, whorls flat. Height of body not much less than half that of shell. Apex conical, of about three volutions rapidly increasing in width and convex in outline. Body-whorl flattish above, convex over periphery lightly convex on base. Aperture Rissoinid in outline, but there is no anterior notch. Columella short, thick, arcuate. Inner lip lightly callused. Outer and basal lips very heavily and broadly thickened. Outer lip practically straight, except for a very slight recession towards suture; ascending at an appreciable angle from anterior. Outer lip notably effuse. Sculpture absent.
Height, 2.8 mm.; width, 1.2 mm.
About 100 specimens collected. The thickening of apertural rim recalls Badenia Finlay.
Balcis waikomitica n.sp. (Fig. 14).
Shell of moderate size, axis slightly curved, outlines perfectly smooth, sutures hardly visible. Apex sharply pointed, terminal volutions minute. Height of body-whorl about one-third that of shell. Aperture narrowly ovate, sharply angled behind and narrowly rounded in front. Columella thin, faintly arcuate, set vertically. Inner lip lightly callused. Outer lip thin, sharp; broadly and shallowly sinused above, convex below.
Height, 6.3 mm.; width, 1.8 mm.
Several specimens collected. A shell from Clifden, Southland (band 6C) is quite indistinguishable from those from the Pakaurangi Point beds. M. tutamoensis Marwick has the sutures better shown and is not so slender nor so much sharpened posteriorly. Treadwelli Hutton, also a curved form, has the protoconch globose and the outer lip almost straight.
Balcis kaiparaensis n.sp. (Fig. 73).
Shell small, elongate, outlines straight, though some individuals show a tendency to slight curvature of axis. Edge of spire quite
even in profile, sutures very indistinct, whorls quite flat. Apex conical, of about three lightly convex volutions regularly increasing in width, the tip sharp and pointed. Body sub-angled at periphery, flat above periphery, lightly convex on base. Columella fairly long, thin, slightly arcuate, set vertically. Inner lip very thinly callused. Outer lip rounded over in fully adult shells, not thickened, broadly sinused behind and convex in front. Aperture ovate-rotund. Height of body-whorl less than one-third that of shell.
Height, 4.9 mm.; width, 1.4 mm.
About 100 specimens collected. Kaiparaensis differs from waihaoensis Allan in that the latter is a much larger and more heavily built species, stouter in habit and with the outer lip straighter above and less convex below than that of the Pakaurangi Point shell. Otaioensis Laws is also a heavier, stouter species, with blunter and heavier apex and body more angled at periphery. Christyi Marwick is somewhat similar in build, but is much larger and has the protoconch depressed and bulbous. Vegrandis Murdoch and Suter has protoconch of fewer volutions, whorls not so flat, and is a larger species.
Uromitra neozelanica n.sp. (Fig. 43).
There are four shells that agree with Woodring's description of Uromitra belardii (Mioc. Moll. from Bowden, Jamaica, pt. 2, Gastropods, p. 246, 1928) and that show close alliance with such forms as U. callipicta and U. uncida (loc. cit., p. 248, pl. 14, fig. 20; and p. 248, pl. 15, fig. 1, respectively). None, however, have the protoconch preserved. Height of spire 1¾ times that of aperture plus canal. Whorls seven, lightly and evenly convex, slopingly shouldered; suture distinct. Whole surface sculptured by axial costae and spiral cinguli, the former the more strongly developed, although the latter are strong enough to cause cancellation of sculpture. Number of axials varies a good deal; holotype with 14 axials on penultimate whorl, a paratype with 25. There is axial acceleration over last half of body-whorl. Spirals broad, low, flat, their interstices almost linear, 7 to 8 in number on penultimate whorl, surmounting axials and causing very slight nodulation. Beak with certain spirals outstanding. Pillar with four folds decreasing in strength anteriorly; the posterior one horizontal and the others becoming more oblique in order towards anterior. Parietal callus present. Outer lip internally lirate throughout entire length, the lirae being set a little distance from edge of lip. Anterior canal fairly long, twisted and practically no notch.
Height, 19.0 mm.; width, 6.0 mm.
Four specimens collected.
Verconella parans Finlay.
1930. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 61, p. 70, pl. 3, figs. 17, 27.
Two shells of this species have been collected. The protoconch is smaller than that of parans from Clifden and consists of two volutions, and the early post-embryonic whorls of Clifden specimens are a little higher in relation to width than those of Pakaurangi shells. Otherwise there is no difference. The shells are not fully adult, and the question as to whether they are to be regarded as distinct must be left over in the meantime.
Hima (Mirua) separabilis n.sp. (Fig. 52).
Comparison of Pakaurangi Point shells with abundant topotypes shows a number of constant differences that warrant recognition of a separate species. Socialis is more heavily and more rudely sculptured and has not the thin, regular axials of separabilis. The former has 9 axials on the penultimate whorl and the latter 16. The spiral sculpture also is much coarser and the spirals fewer in number in the Awamoan species, the interstices between spirals about equal to width of ribs, whereas the new species has the interstices linear. The spirals of socialis nodulate the axials perceptibly, a feature that is not obvious in separabilis. Separabilis has 11 to 12 spirals on penultimate whorl, socialis but 6. There are also embryonic differences. In both the protoconch is conical, polygyrate and pointed, but socialis has an embryo of about three volutions and separabilis one of four turns. In the latter the protoconch is larger and noticeably wider across the base. There is an important contrast in the incidence of adult sculpture; socialis has spirals (about 4) developing first and the axials developing later, whereas it is the reverse in the case of separabilis. Also the early axials of separabilis are strongly arcuate (convex backwards), those of socialis straight.
Height, 5.5 mm.; width, 3.1 mm.
Twelve specimens collected.
Terefundus n.sp. aff. quadricinctus (Suter).
There is one immature shell. The protoconch is finely spirally striated. It is expected that better material will yet become available.
Merica kaiparaensis n.sp. (Fig. 50).
Close to M. pukeuriensis Finlay. Finlay's description of the protoconch of his species fits that of the Kaipara one, except that there are three instead of the 3½ volutions of pukeuriensis. The spiral on shoulder on border of the deep channel around suture heavily tuberculates the axials, as does that on angle of whorls. There is no intercalation of weak spirals as in pukeuriensis, and the spirals of that species are more strongly developed. On the body-whorl there are 13 low, thin, spaced spiral threads with two very weak ones on the shoulder between the two heavy cords. Penultimate whorl has no spiral threads on shoulder. Axials much as those of pukeuriensis, except that there are 13 instead of 16 on body-whorl. In the features of aperture there is little difference between the two forms. The basal fasciole of kaiparaensis is rather more swollen and the beak not so pointed.
Height, 10.0 mm.; width, 6.0 mm.
The type is the only specimen.
Zemitrella inconspicua (Marshall).
1918. Mitrella inconspicua Marshall, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 50, p. 266, pl. 19, figs. 9, 13.
The writer has 24 specimens. The protoconch contrasts with that of choava in that it is very tiny and the apex very sharply pointed.
Bathytoma bartrumi n.sp. (Fig. 25).
Shell of moderate size, outline of spire straight, its height a little greater than that of aperture plus canal. Whorls keeled at
about anterior fourth on mid-spire, almost at suture on early post-embryonic volutions, and a little below middle on last one or two. Protoconch of several volutions, conical. The carina bears strongly elevated nodules, closely spaced on early whorls, but widely separated on later whorls; 14 nodules on penultimate whorl. Whole adult surface ornamented with spiral sculpture, the spirals on shoulder being fine threads, those below keel and on base coarser and distinctly granular, the granules set close together as in haasti. There are three or four fine, wavy spiral threads between the cords on the body.
Height, 42.0 mm.; width, 18.5 mm.
Several specimens collected. This species is readily separated from both haasti and mitchelsoni by the straight spire-outline and rather prickly, stronger, distant nodules.
Bathytoma finlayi n.sp. (Fig. 23).
This species has the convex spire-outline of haasti and the prickly nodules of bartrumi. The situation of the keel on whorls is the same as that described for bartrumi. The nodules, though sharply elevated are more numerous than those of bartrumi, 22 on penultimate whorl. The spirals on the base are much stronger, fewer in number, and tend to be nodulated rather than granulated. Only two interstitial spirals are present on base between the cords. In this respect the species is akin to haasti.
Height, 36.0 mm.; width, 16.0 mm.
Locality: Clifden, Southland, bed C on left side of Waiau River.
Comitas kaipara n.sp. (Fig. 44).
Twelve individuals have been obtained and these consistently differ from fusiformis in a number of characters. The adult kaipara attains nothing like the size of adult fusiformis, and is of more slender habit; the axials are more nodulous and give the whorl an angulated profile, the profile of an axial on fusiformis being convex. The spiral cords on and below the angle of whorls are coarser than those of fusiformis, and these spirals thicken on surmounting the axials. The early post-embryonic whorls have only two spiral cords, on later whorls others appear below them; those on the keel, however, always remain the strongest. The shoulder is smooth and has only weak spiral, almost linear, grooves on it. The number of axials is approximately the same for both species. The protoconch of kaipara is closely similar to that of fusiformis.
Height (estimated), 25.0 mm.; width, 8.0 mm.
“Guraleus” axialis (Marshall).
1918. Mangilia axialis Marshall, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 50, p. 269, pl. 19, figs. 10, 14.
Through the courtesy of Mr. J. Grant, honorary conchologist, Wanganui Museum, the writer has been enabled to examine the material on which this species was founded. There are three shells one of which is complete. The shell figured by Marshall can be
identified among the material, and is not the complete specimen, but has the outer lip considerably broken, and as no other type-designation was made, this shell must be taken as the lectotype.
The embryo is polygyrate, conical, and pointed, its whorls lightly convex and the sutures ill-defined. Marshall's description of the axial ribs as “rounded” is hardly sufficient; they are spaced at intervals of about three times their own width, and are narrow, rounded over crests, but somewhat pinched up, their flanks being concave. The whole surface has fine spiral threads (not “lines”), weaker on the shoulder of whorls. Axials on body flexuous, ante-current to suture (on shoulder). Outer lip thickened by last rib. convex from the side. There is a low denticle on parietal wall at posterior end of aperture. The spirals towards beak are coarser than those elsewhere. Whorls shouldered above middle, the shoulder lightly concave; convex below.
There are two topotypes in the writer's collection.
Inquisitor komiticus n.sp.
Shell fairly small, attenuate, resembling very closely I. awamoaensis (Suter). Protoconch pointed and polygyrate, closely similar to that of awamoaensis. Waihoraensis has the keel lower on whorls and the shoulder consequently wider; the axials are sharper and it has fewer and heavier spirals than komiticus. The swollen sub-sutural border of awamoaensis has two low, indistinct threads on it, that of komiticus carries three distinctly incised ones. The shoulder of the former has two very distinct, widely separated spiral thread lets, while komiticus shows eight distinct, close threads on the shoulder. Below the angulation of whorl there are 7 to 8 strong, thick spirals (frequently with interstitial threadlets) on komiticus, whereas awamoaensis has only 5 or 6, which are widely spaced, thinner, and each pair with an interstitial threadlet.
Height (estimated), 22.0 mm.; width, 6.0 mm.
Four specimens collected. In the Awamoan beds at Pukeuri, Awamoa Creek and elsewhere, there are shells agreeing with awamoaensis in almost every respect except that the apex is paucispiral and rather globose, that of awamoaensis being polygyrate and pointed.
This species will be figured in paper No. 2 of this series.
Zemacies climacota (Suter).
1917. Surcula climacota Suter, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull., no. 5, p. 50, pl. 9, fig. 15.
Seven individuals have been collected, two of them complete. The protoconch is seen to be closely similar to that of elatior Finlay, the genotype. Climacota may be distinguished from ordinaria, associated with it in the same beds, by its smaller adult size and more numerous, sharper and more closely spaced nodules on keel; the axial prolongation of nodules downwards, typical of climacota, is not present in ordinaria; also the spirals on the body are more definite and regular, and have not the weaker interstitial riblet typically developed in ordinaria.
Daphnella kaiparica n.sp. (Fig. 22).
Shell small, whorls strongly convex, axially costate, ornamented also with spiral threads. Height of spire one and one-third times that of aperture. Protoconch polygyrate (four turns), conical, nucleus minute, volutions distinctly convex, its sutures distinct; it is sculptured over anterior two-thirds of all its turns by a criss-cross pattern of excessively fine threads, each series running obliquely to lower suture; the upper third of each embryonic volution is ornamented by thin hairlike vertical axials. Adult whorls retreat to suture quickly above, the shoulder narrow and faintly excavated. Axials ribs spaced widely, thin, rounded, sharply elevated, extending entirely across whorls, those on body (11 in number) dying out low down. Spiral threads (about 8 on penultimate whorl) fine, thin, spaced, distinct, weak on shoulder; present on and between axials, rather thicker on surmounting the ribs forming slight nodules; interstitial threadlets present. Beak with six strong nodulous spirals. Very fine axial growth-threads are present on shoulder. Body-whorl early and rapidly drawn in to axis of shell; beak long; inner lip smooth, sunken on parietal wall; a light denticular swelling on parietal wall near posterior angle of aperture. Sutural sinus shallow.
Height, 4.7 mm.; width, 2.1 mm.
A single specimen collected.
Daphnella clifdenica n.sp. (Fig. 19).
Shell small, whorls convex, suture very distinct, height of spire 1½ times that of aperture plus canal. Protoconch large, polygyrate (1½ turns), conical, nucleus minute, volutions very convex, sutures strongly cut in; sculpture of embryo of same pattern as that of kaiparica n.sp., only the ridges are very much more delicate and more perfectly executed. Adult whorls not shouldered, convex throughout; notably high compared with width. Axial ribs widely spaced, about four times their own width apart, 7 in number on last whorl, narrow, convex, vertical, straight, extending low down on base of body-whorl. Spirals 7 or 8 primary ones on penultimate whorl; interstitial secondary riblets universally present; spirals surmounting axials, but causing no nodulation. Beak with 6 or 7 spirals, but not as strong as those of kaiparica. Aperture moderately wide, roundly angled behind; outer lip chipped away in parts, curving in to suture above, then descending almost straight for half its length, thereafter widely rounded to merge into basal lip; inner lip smooth, sunken on parietal wall. Body-whorl contracting early and rapidly. Sutural sinus shallow.
Height, 6.45 mm.; width, 2.5 mm.
The type is the only specimen.
Locality: Clifden, Southland, roadcutting behind racecourse.
Distinguished from kaiparica by larger, more convex, and more finely sculptured embryo; more widely spaced axials; less prickly sculpture. Not unlike an Australian fossil from Altona Bay. Both have the protoconch closely similar, and they are much alike in sculpture.
Surcula latiaxialis Marshall.
1918. Suroula latiaxialis Marshall, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 50, p. 267, pl. 20, figs. 3, 3a.
A single specimen with the upper whorls lost has been collected. The characters of the adult whorls are those of Comitas Finlay.
Clavus kaipara n.sp. (Fig. 47).
Shell small, elevated, height of spire twice that of body; whorls strongly shouldered over upper third, the shoulder distinctly excavated and unsculptured. Axial sculpture consists of strong, sharply pinched up ribs extending over anterior two-thirds of whorl, and pointed at posterior extremities. Axials 11 in number on penultimate whorl. Protoconch conical, polygyrate, of about 3½ lightly convex, smooth volutions, its summit sharply pointed, nucleus minute. Spiral sculpture limited to about ten weak threads near beak, which is twisted somewhat to the right. Aperture filled with matrix and outer lip broken back; but part of the posterior notch and the pad of callus at posterior extremity of inner lip can be seen.
Height, 7.0 mm.; width, 2.3 mm.
This species is congeneric with Surcula nitens Marshall from the same beds. Nitens has heavier, more rounded and fewer axials per whorl (about 10), the shoulder is not concave, and the axials are not muricated at their posterior extremities. Though these species show affinity with Clavus revision of the Neozelanic Turridae may warrant their recognition as a group apart from Clavus. Other species occurring at a number of South Island localities await description.
Nepotilla bartrumi n.sp. (Fig. 45).
Shell minute; spire staged, a little higher than aperture plus canal; whorls strongly, flatly shouldered, almost tabulated. Protoconch of 1½ spirally lirate volutions. Whorls biangled, flatly shouldered above, quickly drawn in to suture below. Each whorl has two strong spiral cords, one at edge of shoulder, and the other at about middle; between the latter and suture there is a third but very weak spiral. On the body the anterior of the two strong cords is on the periphery, and there are three weak ones on base. The axials (10 to 12 on body-whorl) are thin, narrow, sharply elevated, and very conspicuous, somewhat muricated at summits by the cord around edge of shoulder, and also nodulated where crossed by the more anterior strong cord. On body-whorl axials extend well down on to base. The sculpture tends to be reticulated, but the spirals are not as pronounced as the axials. Aperture typical; sinus deep, situated immediately below suture; canal short, open.
Height, 1.55 mm.; width, 1.0 mm.
Seven specimens collected. This is the second Neozelanic species of the genus, and the first fossil one, to be described, N. finlayi Powell being a Recent shell taken in deep water off Three Kings Islands.
Acteon procratericulatus n.sp. (Fig. 64).
This shell is very close to the Recent A. cratericulatus Hedley. However, it has the spirals quite regular and all of equal width; the interspaces are always distinctly narrower than the spiral ribs. The
Fig. 1—Nuculana (Jupiteria) rcadosa n.sp., holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 2—Nuculana (Saccella) duplicana n.sp.; holotype, X 5.5. Fig. 3—Nucula otamatea n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0. Fig. 4—Angulus (Peromdia) inflata n.sp.; holotype, X 2.0. Fig. 5—Kidderia otamatea n.sp., holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 6—Nuculana (Jupiteria) parleachi n.sp.; holotype, X 8. Fig. 7—Lamopsis propeinvalida n.sp.; holotype, X 9.4. Fig. 8—Cyclopecten (Cyclochlamus) shepherdi n.sp.; holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 9—Salaputium tinopaica n.sp.; holotype, X 3.7. Figs. 10, 11—Arca mundeformata n.sp.; holotype, X 5.5.
To face page 500.
Fig. 12—Balcis badenia n.sp; holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 13, 24—Glycymeris (Grandaxinea) finlayi n.sp.; holotype, X 0.9. Fig. 14—Balcis watkomitica n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0. Figs. 15, 16—Orbitestella praeioreuma n.sp.; holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 17—Cardita kaiparaensis n.sp.; holotype, X 3.3. Fig. 18—Cadulus zecaninus n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0. Fig. 19—Daphnella clifdenica n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0. Figs. 20, 21—Orbitestella praehinemoa n.sp.; holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 22—Daphnella kaiparica n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0. Fig. 23—Bathytoma finlayi n.sp.; holotype, X 1.3. Fig. 25—Bathytoma bartrumi n.sp.; holotype, X 1.3.
Fig. 26, 28—Ellatrivia kaiparaensis n.sp; paratype, X 8.0. Fig. 27—Scaphander komiticus n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0. Figs. 29, 30—Antisolarium tricarinatum n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0. Fig. 31—Ellatrivia kaiparaensis n.sp.; holotype, X 5.5. Fig. 32—Atys lacrimula n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0. Fig. 33—Scaphander komiticus n.sp.; paratype, X 10.0. Fig. 34—Lissotesta alpha n.sp.; holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 35—Archierato zepyrulata n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0. Fig. 36—Archierato simulacrum n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0. Fig. 37—Lissotesta beta n.sp.; holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 38—Emarginula kaiparica n.sp.; holotype, X 5.5. Fig. 39—Kaitoa recta n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0. Fig. 40—Emarginula komitica n.sp; holotype, X 5.5. Fig. 41—Lodderia komitica n.sp.; holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 42—Cylichnania plana n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0.
Fig. 43—Uromitra neozelanica n.sp; holotype, X 3.4. Fig. 44—Comitas kaipara n.sp.; holotype, X 2.1. Fig. 45—Nepotilla bartrumi n.sp.; holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 46—Cirsotrema firmatum n.sp.; holotype, X 1.6. Fig. 47—Clavus kaipara n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0. Fig. 48—Schizotrochus miocenica n.sp.; holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 49—Zeradina aculeata n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0. Fig. 50—Merica kaiparaensis n.sp; holotype, X 5.5. Fig. 51—Zeradina (Naridista) jocelynae n.subgen., n.sp.; holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 52—Hima (Mirua) separabilis n.sp.; holotype, X 8.1. Figs. 53, 55—Zeradina (Radinista) vivienneae n.sp.; Fig. 53, holotype; Fig. 55 X 19.0. Fig. 54—Haurakia onerata n.sp.; holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 56—Zetela parrumbilicata n.sp.; holotype, X 21.5. Figs. 57, 58—Zetela hutchinsoniana n.sp., holotype; Fig. 58 X 21.5.
Fig. 59—Ringicula zecorpulenta n.sp.; holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 60—Leucotina granulocostata n.sp.; holotype, X 16.0. Fig. 61—Dolicrossea atypica n.sp.; holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 62—Austrosassia zealta n.sp.; holotype, X 0.9. Fig. 63—Haurakia sodalis n.sp.; holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 64—Acteon procratericulatus n.sp.; holotype, X 5.5. Fig. 65—Merelina saginata n.sp.; holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 66—Crosseola sinemacula n.sp.; holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 67—Dardanula praecursor n.sp.; holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 68—Nozeba perpava n.sp.; holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 69—Nobolira inflata n.sp.; holotype, X 21.5.
Fig. 70—Eulimella parlimbata n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0. Fig. 71—Eulimella imitator n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0. Fig. 72—Turriscala kaiparaensis n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0. Fig. 73—Balcis kaiparaensis n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0. Fig. 74—Scissurella condita n.sp; holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 75—Brookesena duplicincta n.sp.; holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 76—Graphis neozelanica n.sp.; holotype, X 21.5. Fig. 77—Notosinister zespina n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0. Fig. 78—Zetela awamoana n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0. Fig. 79—Zaclys (Miopila) simulator n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0. Fig. 80—Eulimella komitica n.sp.; paratype, X 19.5. Fig. 81—Zaclys (Miopila) mucro n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0. Fig. 82—Triphora neozelanica n.sp.; holotype, X 10.0.
reticulation of sculpture is very regular and not so open, but finer than that of cratericulatus. The spire of the fossil is shorter, its height only one-third that of shell and not nearer the half as in Hedley's species; further, the body is heaped up more posteriorly and is not so full below the periphery. The plait is distinctly heavier and the channel behind columella deeper and better differentiated.
Height, 7.5 mm.; width, 4.0 mm.
Leucotina granulocostata n.sp. (Fig. 60).
This is a peculiar little shell, of unusually heavy build, rude sculpture, large flat embryo, and the plane containing the peristome set at an unusual inclination. Spire higher than aperture, whorls convex, not shouldered, last whorl descending quickly from suture, which is indistinct. Apex blunt, widely rounded over top; embryo smooth, of about one volution. Whorls four in number, heavily spirally ribbed; body with 10 spirals, 8 of them heavy and rudely fashioned, the anterior two fine and small. Spirals rather granulose. Axial sculpture not well developed, the fine axial threadlets typical of other species now replaced by low, wide, irregular, crude connections across spiral grooves. Aperture narrowly ovate, rim thick; narrowly rounded in front, angled behind; columella long, heavy, flattened below, junction with parietal wall very obtusely rounded. There is a small but distinct plait high up and well within aperture. Outer lip dentate.
Height, 3.0 mm.; width, 1.6 mm.
The type is the only specimen. Easily separable from the other tall-spired Acteons such as ambiguus, articulatus, ovalis, and praecursorius.
Ringicula zecorpulenta n.sp. (Fig. 59).
Shell very small, spire stepped, its height less than half that of body. Body-whorl extremely inflated. All adult whorls marked by clearly incised linear spiral grooves. On body there is a groove close below suture, then a broad flat zone without spiral ornamentation; anterior to this spiral grooves are again developed, the first few rather widely spaced, the remainder more closely spaced. Columella with two heavy plaits horizontally disposed, a third arising from body-wall above and further within aperture; inner lip heavily callused; outer lip very considerably thickened.
Height, 2.3 mm.; width, 1.5 mm.
Twenty-five specimens collected. Torquata Marwick differs from zecorpulenta in having the suture margined by a cord, spirals only on the body, and grooves pitted. Castigata Marwick is smaller, has the spire higher relative to height of shell, and the body not so full. Both obesior and tutamoensis have the spire much less conspicuous, not so stepped, and the body not so swollen.
Scaphander komiticus n.sp. (Figs. 27, 33).
Shell small, almost regularly boat-shaped. Whole surface ornamented by regular, spaced, punctate spiral grooves, weaker and closer together around posterior. No constriction below posterior
end as in S. hiulcus and S. scaphus. Columella long, thin, gently arcuate, with a very light, narrow groove paralleling it on the outside. Inner lip barely callused. Outer lip regularly convex when viewed ventrally, and not drawn outwards as in scaphus, more like that of hiulcus, but not projecting above posterior end of shell. Separable from hiulcus also by the body swelling very much more into aperture posteriorly. In scaphus the aperture is more constricted behind and more effuse in front.
Height, 5.5 mm.; width, 3.0 mm. Corresponding dimensions of a paratype: 8.0, 4.5.
Seven specimens collected.
Cylichnania plana n.sp. (Fig. 42).
Shell small, outline gently and evenly convex, narrowly umbilicate at posterior end. Much smaller than C. bartrumi and with a relatively narrower posterior end. The posterior extremity of aperture scarcely protrudes behind, whereas in bartrumi it is distinctly produced. Weak linear spiral grooves are developed towards the anterior end only. Bartrumi has the grooves not linear, more strongly incised, and present over whole surface of body. The features of aperture are similar in both species. C. circumscripta Marwick has two weak folds and is sculptured differently.
Height, 4.9 mm.; width, 2.1 mm.
Seven specimens collected.
Kaitoa recta n.sp. (Fig. 39).
Shell small, outlines gently and evenly convex; spiral grooves developed towards anterior only, not punctate. Summit consists of a circular depression, its rim sharp. Apex visible at bottom of depression, at least in young specimens. Aperture narrow behind, widening considerably in front. Outer lip regularly convex when viewed ventrally. Inner lip very lightly convex over posterior third, then turning in rapidly towards columella. Columella smooth, long, thick, almost straight, tapering anteriorly, with thick outer edge bordering a narrow groove running back towards its insertion.
Height, 4.3 mm.; width, 2.0 mm.
Eight specimens collected. K. islandica Marwick has the columella arcuate, a differently shaped inner lip, and spirals over whole surface. K. haroldi Marwick is much larger and has the columella concave.
Atys (Aliculastrum) lacrimula n.sp. (Fig. 32).
Shell small, spire involute, summit perforated, posterior of aperture produced and notched. Posterior end of shell much narrower than anterior. Aperture extending whole length of shell, widening in front. Basal lip broadly rounded; columella thick, a weak fold appearing internally; outer lip almost straight, twisted, over behind and bearing a small fold near its insertion in apex. Body-whorl narrow behind, faintly concave towards posterior, expanding con-
siderably below, its outline broadly and gently rounded. Surfacewith, low, vertical, fairly regular growth-plications and faint spiral grooves, more numerous and closely spaced towards each extremity, elsewhere extremely faint and wide apart, apparently easily worn off. A moderate umbilical groove borders left of columella.
Height, 4.0 mm.; width, 2.0 mm.
Twelve specimens collected. This shell bears a striking resemblance to Volvulella dekayi (Lea) figured by Cossmann (Essais, pl. 4, figs. 1, 2, 1895), on which species Cossmann based his diagnosis of Volvulella. It is also reminiscent in general build of Retusa chipolana Dall from the Chipola Oligocene (Trans. Wag. Free Inst. Sc. Phil., vol. 3, pt. 6, pi. 59, fig. 9, 1903).
Cadulus zecaninus n.sp. (Fig. 18).
Shell small, surface perfectly smooth, shining; lightly curved, notably swollen at middle; outer side of shell curved almost uniformly, though straightening a little below; inner side straight below, swollen at middle, concave above that. Aperture broken, but apparently broadly oval; posterior opening circular, edge thin.
Length, 3.9 mm.; diameter (greatest), 0.95 mm.
Four specimens collected. Probably the “Cadulus delicatulus Suter” of Marshall's list.