New Zealand Foraminifera: Key Species in Stratigraphy—No. 1.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, October 11, 1938; received by the Editor, October 11, 1938; issued separately, March, 1939.]
This is the first of what is hoped to be a series of papers on New Zealand Upper Cretaceous to Recent Foraminifera. Since ceasing work on mollusca five years ago I have been working at the faunas, range of species, and extent of useable variation met with in New Zealand in these smaller shells, and have withheld publication of any results until a general survey was possible for the whole area. Many hundreds of fully sorted and mounted type slides have by now been prepared as a basis, from all the horizons known here as yet, and from most variations in facies of each. Although an enormous amount of detailed work will always remain, enough is now accurately known regarding general conditions and the occurrence of certain important forms to warrant a start on its publication. My thanks are due to the Research Council of the Australian Association for the Advancement of Science for providing financial help towards the cost of illustrations. Unfortunately it was not possible to find here artists experienced in this type of work, and also, after the figures were made, new conditions made available the receipt and study of much important additional material. Better preserved types were chosen in many cases, and certain figures rejected, but rather than postpone any longer the publication of much data urgently wanted by strati-graphers, it was decided to make a start. Apparatus is now available for the regular production of figures, and any inadequacy or absence of illustrations in the present two papers will be rectified shortly.
The most important immediate objective is the description and discussion of the more important stratigraphic species, long ranging or variable forms such as most Lagenidae being omitted. For this reason I am not adopting the usual procedure of describing total faunas, locality by locality; much of such descriptive work is unnecessary and to geologists unimportant, and present circumstances necessitate more concern with stratigraphically and commercially useful key forms.
The Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary of New Zealand is almost a virgin field. Stache and Karrer in 1864 incompletely described two faunas from horizons in the Mid-Oligocene and Lower Miocene. Their figures are idealised, and the species often misunderstood. Chapman's Bulletin (1926) was unfortunately based on poor material and lacked direct contact with the field geologists, and is consequently so full of errors of synonymy, identification and age conclusion that practically a fresh start must be made. Parr has already begun this work in several papers, and occasional species have been reviewed or described by Cushman. At the present time identification or union with external species is of less importance than elucidating
internal ranges; names mean little, utility much. Most of the collections originally studied were made in Poverty Bay under the auspices of the Vacuum Oil Co. during a geological reconnaissance for oil. The rapid work necessitated giving personal locality numbers, and I have since continued this practice for ease of reference in the Survey collections. These numbers will be largely quoted, for the sake of local workers and future check reference; the series 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 were collected by Vacuum geologists, from 5000 onwards are my own, and those prefaced by G.S. refer to standard locality numbers of the New Zealand Geological Survey. I have also, for the same reasons, made considerable use of certain local formational names adopted in Poverty Bay; these have mostly not been published, but are in general use there, along with the Survey's correlatives from other districts.
Paratypes of all species described and examples of any others discussed will be forwarded to the Cushman Laboratory, Sharon, Mass., and also to the Parr collection, Melbourne. The actual types are in all cases in the New Zealand Geological Survey collection. Other authentic specimens will in most cases be available for interested foreign workers willing to reciprocate.
Genus Vulvulina d'Orb., 1826.
Subgenus Semivulvulina n. subgen.
Genotype: Textilaria capitata Stache, 1864.
This segregation differs from typical Vulvulina in the initial and terminal development, chamber formation, and markedly in range. Vulvulina, typified by V. capreolus d'Orb., is more primitive in its early development, appears in New Zealand in our earliest Eocene, and is abundant up to the present; Semivulvulina is less advanced in final development, does not appear here till the Mid-Oligocene (though apparently in the Mexican Lower Eocene), and does not last beyond the Lower Miocene.
In true Vulvulina the coiling of the first few chambers is as markedly developed as in Spiroplectammina. The generic description is usually given, following Cushman, as “early stages biserial, or slightly coiled in the mierospherie form,” as a matter of fact, though both forms display this feature, it is the smaller megalospheric one that develops it far more, as is shown by Cushman's own figures (1932; pl. 10, figs. 6, 9—megalospheric; figs. 7, 8—microspheric). In Semivulvulina the coiling is apparent in the megalospheric shell (though to a smaller extent than in capreolus and its allies, where a relatively large area is spiral), and practically non-existent in the microspheric form, which tapers to an acute point. In Vulvulina, though many of the specimens found may be biserial, adults nearly always occurring with them show that two to eight large transverse uniserial chambers are normally developed. In the new subgenus, the great majority of specimens are regularly biserial, much resembling Spiroplectammina of the dentata-carinata type, and only in the most fully grown shells is there finally developed a single uniserial chamber—even this is asymmetrical and does not extend across the test, having more analogy with Loxostomum than with Recto-
bolivina. The aperture, too, remains incompletely developed—not symmetrical, closed and central as in Vulvulina, but depressed and open at one end where the base of the chamber was. Its development from the typical Textularian aperture of the young shell (a simple gap at the base of the chamber, longest across the thickness) does not seem to be the simple gradual lengthening in the direction of width seen in Vulvulina, but proceeds by perforation; the upper lip of the early aperture remains as a bridge behind which one or more gaps open in the base of the terminal depression; the bar or bars thus formed between openings are finally more or less absorbed.
The distinctness of shell habit has already been noted by Cushman (1932, p. 82) in discussing V. pectinata Hantken (Lower Oligocene of Hungary) and V. mexicana Nuttall (Lower Eocene of Mexico), both almost certainly members of the new subgenus. The low angle and but slight curvature of the sutures is much more characteristic of this group than of true Vulvulina.
Vulvulina (Semivulvulina) capitata Stache.
1864. Tewtilaria capitata Stache: Reise de Novara, Pal., vol. 1, p. 270, pl. 24, figs. 10a, b, c.
With this species must be synonymised two other forms described at the same time and from the same locality by Stache; T. carinata d'Orb. var. antipodum (I.c., p. 272, figs. 21a, b, c—maorica used in explanation of plate) and robusta (l.c., p. 272, figs. 22a, b, c—inflata used on plate). These are all individual forms of a not very variable species and have already been united by Chapman (1926, p. 32), though under the wrong names Spiroplecta carinata d'Orb.
The species is characterised by very sharply carinate sides, with a narrow but distinct, opaque, and frequently serrate flange; angle of expansion about 60°; more or less strongly limbate sutures; little coarse grained matter in the test, which is mostly of fine cement; and the presence of a more or less sharp medial angulation.
This is one of the most useful and reliable key species of the Oligocene. It is not always present in coeval samples, but tolerates a wide range of sediments, from glauconitie marl to limestone. It is sometimes replaced by typical Vulvulina and at a few localities the two occur together, notably in the Cobden limestone, where they are both abundant at locality 5361 (Runanga road, several hundred feet above base).
Its time range when abundant is strictly Upper Ototaran, though odd specimens may be found up to Lower Hutchinsonian; in this range it is widely spread over New Zealand. It is absent from all Waiarekan and Lower Ototaran localities, such as Lorne, basal Kaiata mudstone, and the rest of the Kaiata sequence, including the lower Point Elizabeth beds; Cormacks limestone just above diatomaceous earth; and lower Kakanui limestones (typical Lower Ototaran). It appears in the following Upper Ototaran localities: 5181 (Upper Kakanui limestone), 5359 (Upper Point Elizabeth), 5360 and 5361 (Cobden limestone; quite typical), many Whaingaroa localities, and G.S. loc. 1910,
Swinburn River (but not in the Lower Ototaran G.S. 2101 from same district). It is very uncommon in the Poverty Bay Oligocene, but is present at 1146A (Mangapapa Stream, Motu S.D., just below Ihungia). As regards the Duntroonian, it is not in the Wharekuri lower greensands of Fisherman's Rock, nor the middle greensands (though both these seem Upper Ototaran on foraminiferal evidence), but occurs at every locality in the upper greensands (Kekenodon beds); it is not uncommon and quite typical at G.S. loc. 1897 (Wendon Valley, Waikaka subdivision), a facies of the Chatton beds, though it has not been seen at Chatton. It is present at G.S. loc. 2108 (near Otorohanga, in the Te Kuiti series), which is in other respects very like Duntroonian. In the Porangahau district it is present in beds of about the same age (5388). Occasional specimens have also been found at four localities in the Poverty Bay Wheao beds (just above Oligocene); three of these are from the Whangaroa lowest dark mudstones (3143, 3144, 3017), the fourth from the Mangatu River (5394).
An interesting occurrence, together with other Upper Ototaran forms, is in the limestone at Tioriori, Chatham Is., where the only identifiable fossil apart from foraminifera is the abundant mollusc Notostrea tarda, a form simulating Gryphaea.
The line extends into the Waitakian (as the next described species) and a few Hutchinsonian localities, but is absent from every subsequent horizon. Lithologically there is a suitable facies at localities 5363 and 5364 (just above the Cobden limestone near the village), which appear to grade from the limestone and to have a Duntroonian and a Wheao fauna; typical Vulvulina continues on in abundance, but Semivulvulina disappears. There is a superficially similar form occasionally found in the Hampden (5178), Waitangi (4005), and Hurunui (5570) Bortonian, but adults from the last locality show several uniserial chambers and a different apertural development from capitata; it is in fact so close in details to V. advena Cushman (1932, p. 84, Pl. 10, f. 14), from the Jackson Upper Eocene of America, that it may be referred to that species. Also in the Hurunui Upper Bortonian (5573) is a smooth typical Vulvulina strongly resembling the Mexican Eocene V. colei Cushman (l.c. p. 84, Pl. 10, f. 21, 22). in the Awamoan are occasionally seen specimens like the early stages of Semivulvulina, but adults show that they really represent a Spiroplectammina allied to the Recent pseudocarinata Cushman.
Vulvulina (Semivulvulina) waitakia n.sp. (Plate 68, Figs, 1a, b).
Directly descended from capitata and with the same terminal chamber, aperture and initial development. The barring across the aperture seems to be more persistent, and a developed terminal chamber with closed in aperture even rarer. A particular feature is the test formation; the bulk of the shell is fine cement, but a row of coarse sand grains is incorporated just above the sutures, leaving upper two-thirds of chambers quite smooth, the lower third and the medial join roughened. This takes the place of sutural limbation and the joins of chambers are otherwise linear and not well marked. The form differs at sight in its slenderness, the angle of expansion
being only 30° to 40°. The sides are sharply carinate but have convex approaches and no trace of flange or serrations. The medial angulation is quite bluntly rounded.
Height up to 1.3 mm.; width, 0.7 mm.; thickness, 0.4 mm.
Holotype from locality 4409 (White Rocks, on road 2 miles west of Duntroon), chalky limestone above Duntroonian.
The species is abundant at the type locality and occurs also in the coeval Otiake beds (type of Waitakian). It seems to occur also a little lower. Specimens from G.S. 1825 (10 chains South of Wharekuri Bridge, hillside 100 feet above road level) are nearer to waitakia than to capitata; this is the highest Wharekuri horizon and is probably close to Waitakian. An anomalous feature is the occurrence of a few specimens at “The Earthquake,” near Duntroon where a Duntroonian brachiopod fauna occurs. Either, then, the ranges of the two species overlap or the Duntroonian and Waitakian stages are very close, with the Wharekuri upper greensands and the Chatton beds somewhat lower than Duntroonian yet probably higher than Upper Ototaran. The latter seems more improbable than that the Duntroonian and Waitakian are only separable zones (on molluscs and brachiopods) in the South Island type district, but for stratigraphic purposes practically indistinguishable in most other areas. There seems to bee no certain distinction in the Foraminifera, and the fauna which in the Cobden, Otorohanga, Pirongia, and perhaps Poverty Bay districts occurs between Ototaran and Hutchinsonian is best referred at present merely to the prior Waitakian.
The Semivulvulina line terminates with a few occurrences of the species waitakia in the true Hutchinsonian (Lower Miocene). A few juveniles at Clifden, bed 6A, probably belong to a true Textularia line, but undoubted examples are at 5054 (Trelissick Basin, tuffs between limestones, with Calcarina mackayi), 5275 (Greymouth Blue Bottom, with mackayi at the same horizon nearby), 3003 (Whakau Stream, Poverty Bay, with mackayi and abundant Nephrolepidina and Miogypsina), and 5056 (Takaka, Terakohe marl quarry, below Cyclocypeus zone). It has not yet been found in the actual Waitemata beds where C. mackayi is also abundant; the zonal importance of the latter is discussed later in this paper.
Genus Textularia Defrance, 1824.
Textularia awazea n.sp. (Plate 69, Figs. 2a, b).
Test fairly large, elongate, somewhat compressed initially, rather inflated terminally. Microspheric form with an initial smooth pointed tongue of many chambers indistinctly defined and probably about eight on each side, then developing about five normal chambers on each side. Megalospheric form with about nine normal chambers on each side and a carinate spiroplectine apex of several chambers. Chambers initially about a third to half as high as wide, rapidly increasing later, final chambers subequal in these dimensions. Early ones moulded into the general medial convexity of shell; later ones becoming individually flatly convex, with a well-developed more or
less sharp spine on keel at lower two-thirds jutting outwards and downwards at same angle as chambers. Sutures more distinct on later half of shell, there rather broadly and shallowly excavate; initially faintly limbate, inclined at about 20° to horizontal; medial sutures sub-linear and less marked. Sides strongly carinate, but keel interrupted by the sharp spines with broad bases, except initially, where it is sharply serrate. Aperture the normal creseentic slit, rather widely open, rounded at the sides and rather short, except in senile shells. Test typically consisting of sand grains of varying sizes, few of them large, except in terminal chambers, set in abundance of cement, the whole surface smoothly finished.
Height of holotype, 2 mm.; width, 1.7 mm.; thickness, about three-quarters width.
Holotype from Pukeuri, 4 miles North of Oamaru, Awamoan (middle Miocene). Identical forms are at Awamoa Creek (type of Awamoan), Mount Harris, Target Gully, Ardgowan, but not at other South Island Awamoan localities, such as Rifle Butts, All Day Bay, etc., where the next species is common. It also occurs at several localities in the type Tutamoe beds of Muddy and Island Creek, Poverty Bay, though much less commonly.
The full range of this species cannot be given yet, but it seems to be characteristically an Awamoan form, doubtfully occurring in the Hutchinsonian or Taranakian. These spined Textularias are an extremely common feature of the New Zealand Miocene, but after the description and figures for the above species had been prepared, it was discovered that there are two rather similar species, apparently quite distinct and of different range, though occurring together at some localities. The second species is briefly described below in order to make it available for use by local stratigraphers. It is much commoner, has a considerably longer range, and will be more fully dealt with and illustrated in a later paper.
Textularia miozea n.sp.
Shell closely resembling the previous species, but in every way coarser and stouter in build. General details of chamber formation and shape, sharp lateral keels, aperture and the distinctions between microspheric and megalospheric forms are extremely similar. The spines are less well developed; often absent, usually restricted to blunt serrations or occasional fistulose projections and only exceptionally strongly projecting. The test is regularly built of much coarser material (this is usually one of the best features of distinction) and though the cement is just as abundant the sand grains preferred are mostly larger and frequently dark coloured; the surface is sometimes smooth but more often roughened by the coarse grains. The species reaches a much larger size, though having about the same number of chambers. It is relatively wider, with a greater angle of expansion and considerably stouter at all stages, normally almost as thick as wide.
Height reaching 2.5 mm.; width, about 1.3 mm.
Holotype from Geological Survey locality 1342, Poverty Bay, Patutahi S.D., Waikura Stream, about 2 miles 60 chains E.S.E. of
Poha Trig, immediately below Tutamoe-Ihungia boundary. At this locality awazea also occurs, though somewhat rarely, while at Ardgowan the abundant awazea is accompanied by occasional specimens of miozea. They are easily distinguished when occurring together.
Typical specimens are common in the Hutchinsonian and throughout the Ihungian, and are also present, though much more rarely, in the Taranakian, but the Opoiti form differs. The lower limit is also definitely known. No Textularia of this type occurs in the Waitakian or lower horizons; as these are referred to not higher than the Oligocene the range of miozea strictly begins with the Miocene. The absence of this species or awazea in any sample where large Textularias do occur is practically sufficient evidence for a pre-Hutchinsonian age.
A fauna from the topmost part of the Te Kuiti formation (5348) contains miozea, and appears to be Wheao rather than Waitakian in age.
Genus Siphotextularia n.genus.
Genotype: S. wairoana n.sp.
Similar to Textularia in all respects, except that the aperture is a distinct short, slit-like tube, not at the margin of the chamber but in the apertural face. Here may be included also such forms as heterostoma Fornasini, which have a very elongate, asymmetrical slit, aperturalis Cushman, where the adult has the extremely long aperture divided medially, catenata Cushman, where the adult opening becomes subterminal and rounded—in fact, all Textularias whose aperture has risen above the contact of the two last whorls and is entirely surrounded by a raised lip. Practically all these species are subquadrate in section, instead of suboval or subrhomboid shaped, as in true Textularia, and nearly all are much smaller in size.
Cushman (1911, p. 23) has already noted that “Such species … have clearly essential characters different from the typical species of Textularia.” The great mass of species in this genus needs some subdivision other than that provided by the spiroplectine commencement, and the fact that these tube-apertured forms have evidently developed from those with simpler opening and that most stages to the extreme catenata type can be found is no valid reason for suppressing the significance of the unorthodox aperture. Plecanium concavum Karrer is probably one of the best known examples of this, but the frequency with which it has been misidentified and the rarity of the true species have militated against its selection as a genotype. Forms of the heterostoma type similar to the figures of Heron-Allen and Earland (1916, pl. 40, figs. 22, 23) are common throughout the New Zealand Tertiary, but I have not had access to the original figures or reliable specimens, so have also eliminated this species as a type.
The name Plecanium Reuss 1862 has been used by some older writers for this group, though species of Textularia, Spiropleetammina and Dorothia were also included. The genotype of this has been designated by Galloway (1933, p. 227) as Textilaria labriata (sic)
Reuss. Lalicker has stated (1935, p. 49) that “The aperture of T. labiata is at the margin of the chamber and only has a lip at the upper margin” (the species he there describes as Textularia lajollaensis would fall under Siphotextularia). This would make Plecanium a synonym of Textnlaria, as it is usually regarded.
Siphotextularia wairoana n.sp. (Plate 68, figs. 2a, b).
Shell small, composed of small sand grains set in much fine cement, rather smoothly finished. Initially compressed but very rapidly thickening and for practically its whole length markedly quadrate in section with sharp angles to the sides. In front view, lower third or less rapidly widens, thence much more slowly. A small apical proloculum, then about six chambers on each side, twice as long as high, encroaching on and merging into adjacent ones; sutures not distinct, chambers flattish, slightly swollen along upper margin and the long keels, leaving medial part of shell as a wide, shallow excavation. In side view, surface practically flat, chambers slightly corrugate basally. Apertural face narrow, horizontally compressed with a medial, small, slit-like tube-aperture at an equal distance from upper and lower margins and very slightly asymmetrical.
Height, 0.48 mm. (type); thickness, somewhat more than half width.
Holotype from locality 3120, Mangataikohu Stream, Waimata S.D., Poverty Bay, mudstone with Wairoan fauna.
The species is common in the New Zealand Lower Pliocene, especially in the Wairoan facies (Waitotaran) and in the succeeding Nukumaruan, but has not been found in the Upper Pliocene Kai-iwi and Castlecliff beds. It is present down to the base of the Pliocene, being in several Opoiti localities (4322, Pov. Bay; G. S. 2329, Takapau, together with heterostoma). In the South Island it is not uncommon in the Waitotaran of the Bourne sandstone (5567) and Caroline Creek (5565), Amuri district.
Genus Gaudryina d'Orbigny, 1840.
Subgenus Pseudogaudryina Cushman.
Gaudryina (Pseudogaudryina) proreussi n.sp.
This species is directly ancestral to the common Oligocene G. reussi Stache (1864, p. 171, pl. 21, figs. 11–16) and differs from it only in a few small but constant details. The most important differential feature concerns the angles of the test. In reussi these are bluntly rounded, acute only for a very short distance or more usually blunted right to apex. In microspheric form three strong angulations remain up to final chambers, in megalospheric form the angles tend to disappear at the upper third or quarter of shell and the last two to four chambers are of the usual convex biserial type, their sides fairly regularly flatly rounded. In proreussi the angles are very high, prominent and sharp, much more compressed and acute at all stages, and extend in both forms over the whole shell, weakening only slightly in the last chamber, where the apertural angles are blunt and discontinuous with the previous keel; the total effect, especially in the microspheric form, is to make the sides between keels notably
concave, whereas in reussi their convexity is always more or less apparent. The microspheric form of the new species is stouter and wider and the initial expansion of its angles considerably greater, about 40° to horizontal, instead of to vertical, as in reussi. The megalospheric form differs at sight in the absence of unangled terminal chambers. The aperture is on the whole smaller, though the shell is larger. The suture lines between chambers are usually less distinct and excavated. After this species was distinguished, much better specimens were found at Hampden, and the holotype chosen will be figured later.
Height, up to 3.5 mm.; width, up to 2.5 mm. (microspheric form). Megalospherie form about three-quarters this size or smaller.
Holotype from Hampden, 1.½ miles North of Kakaho Creek, upper-blue clays, about 5 ft. below top. Collected by J. Park. This isnear the top of the Bortonian.
This is one of the most useful species for distinguishing the Bortonian from the overlying beds and Oligocene. It is an abundant and characteristic form throughout the Upper Hampden section from the top of the Kakahoian marls (including the “Marly Clay” with Zeauvigerina) down to and including the greensands, i.e., the whole Bortonian. It is replaced by quite definite reussi in the very topmost Hampden sample from a locality at the extreme north of the section and exposed only at very low tide; for this and other reasons the bed is regarded as Tahuian. It is present in the Bortonian of Waihao Downs and in the McCullogh's Bridge lower greensands below the phosphatic band, but is clearly replaced by reussi in the Upper morefossiliferous greensands at the latter locality—the type Tahuian. This is one of the few Foraminiferal distinctions available for separating Bortonian and Tahuian, but it appears constant and valid. The foraminiferal fauna of the Burnside marl which has been variously classed as Eocene or Oligocene is definitely referable to the Tahuian on this and other counts. From this horizon G. reussi extends upwards commonly through the whole Ototaran, but is not known to me-from any Duntroonian or Waitakian facies. Towards the end of its range its presence is sometimes useful in distinguishing an Upper Ototaran from a Duntroonian fauna. The ancestral G. proreussi indicates by its presence the Bortonian age of such other beds as the Pahi greensands, the Waitangi marls of Poverty Bay, the chalk marls below the Amuri limestone and the Asterocyclina bed of White's Creek, North Canterbury, which is the same horizon as the Eyre River type locality of Discocyclina speighti Chapman (1932, page 483); these orbitoids were classed by Chapman as middle Eocene, which, from other viewpoints, also seems to be the best age for the Bortonian.
As regards a lower limit, the bed of greensands which forms a middle stage of the Moeraki-Hampden section is extremely poor in fossils, but has yielded a few specimens of proreussi and some calcareous species of the upper marls, so that this bed should be included in the Kakahoian Bortonian. The Moeraki glauconitic marls below this (including the “Moeraki boulders”) have a quite distinct series of faunules, consisting of only arenaceous species, but not including
G. proreussi. These sandy species are often different from those in the beds above, so this absence is significant. It is most unlikely to be due to facies, for in none of the numerous uppermost Cretaceous samples seen from elsewhere in New Zealand has proreussi appeared, though often common in overlying Eocene beds. It is at present, then, one of the most reliable and significant index species of Bortonian age. The same range is kept by a few calcareous species which will be described in due course.
As regards the generic name, I am unable to accept it as of 1839, the date always quoted. When d'Orbigny originally introduced the name (Hist. Nat. Cuba, Foram., p. 109) he gave no species, and the genus was then only a theoretical concept as regards publication. Further remarks on this matter are made later under Rectobolivina bortonica, but in the present case I regard Gaudryina as dating from 1840 (Mém. Soc. Géol. France, ser. 1, vol. 4, p. 43), when the first named species was described. In this case the alteration fortunately affects nothing.
The group of large species to which reussi belongs is evidently that of the American atlantica Bailey and jacksonensis Cushman, which has lately been split off as Pseudogaudryina. Parr (1935, p. 83) described two middle Tertiary species as of the reussi group, but they belong to an altogether different line, abundant in New Zealand from Oligocene to Recent, while the reussi lineage does not reach the Miocene.
All the other five species of Gaudryina described originally by Stache and retained as varieties by Chapman (1926, pp. 34, 35) are to be synonymised with reussi as entirely individual variants of no stratigraphic or biologic significance whatever.
Genus Rectobolivina Cushman, 1927.
Rectobolivina bortonica n.sp. (Plate 68, Fig. 6).
Test attenuate, subcylindrieal, slightly compressed initially. The distinctly biserial part occupies a little less than half length of adult shell, but change to uniserial chambers is rather gradual and uneven, later chambers appearing somewhat staggered, so that outline of test is usually uneven, seldom straight. Although final chambers are distinctly uniserial, even the end sutures are not horizontal to axis, but resemble those of some Nodosorella species. Microspheric form gradually tapering to pointed initial end. Megalospheric form with a large proloculum and blunt apex; 4 to 5 succeeding chambers on each side are Bolivine, then about 6 adult chambers irregularly uniserial. Aperture about one-third width of shell, terminal, central, oval, with no lip at either end, but an indistinct ridge at one side and a definitely higher lip on opposite side. Sculpture at first sight complex, but shell is in reality practically smooth, with very characteristic pore development. Approximately the upper half of each chamber is almost perfectly smooth and glassy, any pores being extremely minute. The lower half has a dense system of conspicuous pore channels radiating at an angle through the shell wall; the total effect gives on the initial whorls a
false appearance of striation, on the later whorls an alternating effect—a pitted suprasutural area followed by an upper oblique translucent band. Sutures linear, fairly well marked, chambers slightly convex and about two-thirds as high as wide.
Height, up to 0.9 mm.; width, 0.12 mm.
Holotype from loc. 5371, type Wanstead (Motuotaria S.D., main road 1 mile south of Wanstead Hotel).
This is an important and abundant index species of the Wanstead and Bortonian. It is almost invariably present in the many Wanstead samples seen from the Dannevirke area, and occurs also at several places in the Eocene Waitangi marls of Poverty Bay and in the Pahi marls. At all these localities it is associated with the genus described elsewhere as Zeauvigerina. It is present, though somewhat rarely, throughout the Kakaho marls at Hampden, thus covering the whole Bortonian. It is not known outside of this middle Eocenerange, being conspicuously absent in the abundant Tahuian fauna from the Burnside marl.
The new species is evidently closely allied to Bolivina applinae Plummer, which has been referred to Loxostomum by Nuttall (1930, p. 285, pl. 24, fig. 45), but which evidently is better placed in Rectobolivina. Nuttall notes that applinae has fine longitudinal surface striae and crenulate indentations along the base of the chambers, the biserial portion being over half the shell—these details allow of immediate separation from bortonica. Another ally appears to be the Lower Oligocene Bifarina vicksburgensis Cushman (1929, p. 45) from the Byram marl; it has the somewhat staggered chambers, but the early periphery is serrate and the coarse perforations are differently distributed.
The use of the generic name raises the question of related genera. The present position of species variously referred to Sagrina Loxostomum, Bifarina, Rectobolivina, Siphogenerina and Tubulogenerina seems to me in a state of some confusion, and often anomalous. The groupings adopted illustrate well certain defects of the system of genus-making and systematic location by means of theoretical definition, as opposed to lineage grouping round the type species. The former method holds complete sway at present in the Foraminifera but has not been very satisfactory in other groups and, while apparently simple, leads to a loose and contradictory use of genera, as seen in many families of the Foraminifera. It is absolutely contrary to the International Rules to regard a genus as a wordy concept. Article 25 makes it clear that a genus name is invalid unless “the author has applied the principle of binary nomenclature,” and a genus without species does not conform to the principles of binary nomenclature. Genera conceived only by definition cannot have any but a personal claim to acceptance; opinion 2 unequivocally states that “names based upon hypothetical forms, have no status in nomenclature.” It seems to me that some concepts. in the treatment of Foraminifera need modification if these ideas are logically applied.
Galloway synonymises Rectobolivina with Bifarina, and by theoretical definition this is right, but the Recent R. bifrons does not seem happily placed with the Cretaceous B. saxipara. Cushman retains both genera, with the distinction that Bifarina is not compressed and has a strong neck and lip. It is unfortunate that the genotype of Bifarina is based on a section, so that the external details are hard to visualise, but Cushman's diagnosis does not fit it well and the Recent species he illustrates in addition (fimbriata Millett) is not much like saxipara. Study of actual specimens of fimbriata shows that its generic relationship to bifrons, columellaris, dimorpha, advena, etc., is too close for this separation. The whole question is too complicated to discuss here and I have no material of Ehrenberg's species available, but am inclined to regard Bifarina at present as of uncertain status and use Loxostomum for Bolivine species regularly biserial but with aperture finally becoming closed off at base; Rectobolivina for species with an early conspicuous biserial part followed by some uniserial chambers with terminal, central aperture; and Siphogenerina for forms without a biserial stage between the initial triserial and final uniserial ones, even in microspheric form. This, of course, is subject to modification, as the affinities of the type species are considered, but is a working hypothesis.
Rectobolivina parvula n.sp. (Plate 68, Fig. 5).
Test minute, cylindrical, slightly compressed initially. Megalospheric form with a large blunt proloculum followed by four biserial chambers, then five uniserial, a little over half as high as wide, increasing gradually in this respect. Microspheric form with a somewhat smaller but still blunt apex, about six biserial chambers. The uniserial character is very sharply taken on, the suture being horizontal at once. In the megalospheric form all these chambers are even, forming a regular cylinder. In the microspheric form there is a constriction at the end of the biserial stage, thence the chambers slowly but regularly widen. Surface extremely finely and densely punctate but appearing smooth, no trace of sculpture. Sutures distinct but hardly differing in level from chambers. Aperture terminal, central, suboval without rim.
Height, 0.3 mm.; width, 0.005 mm.
Holotype from locality 5105 (Citrini's area, near Kumara, probably high in the Hutchinsonian).
The exact range of this species is still somewhat doubtful, as it is never common and its minute size makes it easily overlooked. It occurs at several Tutamoe localities of the Muddy Creek area in Poverty Bay, but has not been found in the underlying Ihungian. It is present, however, in several samples from the West Coast “Blue Bottom” above the Cobden limestone. These may not all be the same age; some seem to be near the Hutchinsonian-Awamoan contact, but others are almost certainly Hutchinsonian and may correspond to faunas from low in the Ihungian. It is also not uncommon in several samples from Jedburgh “Grey Marls” of the Cheviot district, whose fauna is definitely Taranakian.
The small size, even for the genus, and simplicity of character render comparison with other species unnecessary.
Genus Plectofrondicularia Liebus, 1903.
Plectofrondularia parri n.sp. (Plate 68, Figs. 4a, b).
Shell very close to P. floridana Cushman from the Miocene of Florida (see for example U.S. Geol. Surv., Prof. Paper 175A, p. 22, pl. 7, fig. 11, 1933) and evidently representing that species in New Zealand. There are the same doubly sigmoid suture lines, high and broken medially, but flattening to almost horizontal at sides. There is the same narrowly elongate shell, oblong in section, with three keels forming each edge. The shape is slightly different, the New Zealand shell having a slightly smaller angle of expansion, especially in the later half where the sides tend to become subparallel. The most striking difference is in the sculpture; in floridana there is a single very short median costa over the first few chambers; in parri, though occasionally the shell is almost smooth, there are normally two costae, a little weaker than the keels and equally dividing the area between them, running more than halfway up the shell, occasionally with traces of a third.
Height, up to 1.4 mm.
Holotype from locality 5273, All Day Bay beds, Kakanui Beach, 60 chains at 150° from Trig V (Awamoan). At this locality and others in these beds the species is abundant, but these samples were not seen till after a figure had been prepared. The figured example is from Pukeuri, where unfortunately the species, though well preserved, is rare and mostly smaller and much smoother than the normal Awamoan shell. Hutchinsonian examples, such as those from the All Day Bay Pachymagas bed and the Weka Pass Grey Marls, are mostly considerably smoother than those from Awamoan localities, but there is too much individual variation to separate them easily from parri. The holotype will be figured later.
This name will be available for the forms Chapman (1926, p. 55) has misidentified as bicostata d'Orb. and tenera Bornemann. The latter is a true Frondicularia, but even Chapman's figure shows the biserial early chambers.
The species is named after Mr W. J. Parr of Melbourne, who has rendered me much assistance. It has a Hutchinsonian-Awamoan range; a few specimens are known from one Whaingaroan locality (1279), and one Duntroonian horizon (G.S. 1825), but otherwise the species has not been seen below basal Hutchinsonian. It is common in the Awamoan and Tutamoe, but is replaced in the Upper Miocene by the following closely related form.
Plectofrondicularia pohana, n.sp. (Plate 68, Figs. 3a, b).
Extremely close in all respects to parri, but differing in having less convex sutures not suddenly raised medially.
Size, same as parri.
Holotype from Amuri Subdiv., Cheviot Surv. Dist., “grey marl” 30 chains S.W. of Trig Sub Y (Jedburgh marls—Tara-nakian).
The species is not uncommon in marls from the Cheviot district which have commonly been lithologically correlated with McKay's Grey Marls. There is, however, little resemblance in the foraminifera, the latter being lower Hutchinsonian (Basal Miocene), while the former is definitely Taranakian (Upper Miocene). It has occurred in numerous other Taranakian localities, notably in the Mapiri beds near Tinui. Just as parri is the New Zealand ally of floridana Cush. so is pohana the local representative of another well-known American species, P. californica Cushman and Stewart (1926, p. 39, pl. 6, figs. 9–11). This Pliocene species is very close to the Miocene floridana, differing (from the figures) only in less convex sutures—exactly the same evolutionary difference as appears in New Zealand.
Genus Notorotalia n.gen.
Genotype: N. zelandica n.sp.
This genus is proposed for the group of Rotaline shells clustered round the well-known Rotalia clathrata Brady (1884, p. 709, pl. 107, figs. 8, 9). They are distinguishable at sight by their complex Elphidium-Like sculpture, differing from that genus only in their asymmetry. The great majority of Austral specimens have hitherto mostly been identified as clathrata, but it is shown below that this is a Recent South-East Australian form separable from those of New Zealand. In this country only one of the many species has so far received a distinctive name, and that is Rotalia clathrata var. spinosa Chapman (1926, p. 85) from the Miocene. This was described from three localities, but two quite distinct species were confused, so I here select Pukeuri (Awamoan, Middle Miocene) as type locality, and name the figured specimen as lectotype.
Several Australian forms have been discriminated. Heron-Allen and Earland (1924, p. 181, pl. 14, figs. 114–116) figured a Lower Miocene species as Rotalia reticnlata Cushman, described from the Miocene of America; Chapman, Parr and Collins (1934, p. 566, pl. 9, figs. 20a–c), in rejecting this record, described the Australian species as Rotalia howchini, though the figures in the two publications are somewhat difficult to reconcile. There are at least three species of this group in the Balcombian beds at Muddy Creek, none of which is quite like the figures given. Cushman has described two more Australian species under the generic name Polystomellina (1936, p. 87), P. miocenica from the Lower Miocene, and the Recent P. australis from North Queensland.
Reference to these various figures will show that a very compact group is represented. Polystomellina is certainly a better location than Rotalia, but is not satisfactory for several reasons. The Japanese genotype P. discorbinoides Yabe and Hanzawa is a trochoid shell with only the dorsal side convex, the base being flat. Its ornament consists mostly of porous radial sutures and shows no trace of the heavy clathration or reticulation characteristic of the Notorotaia group. It and Faujasina are regarded as derivations from Elphidium, but the parent stock must have been one of the simpler smoothish
species with small retral processes. The diverse type of shell formation and sculpture makes Polystomellina an unhappy location for the Austral group, which seems to be associated more with the heavily and coarsely sculptured species of Elphidium.
Attention should be drawn to the aperture of the new genus. All of the descriptions and most of the figures quoted give this incorrectly. It has been variously described as “The normal arched fissure at the inner margin” (Brady), “An arched opening at the base” (Chapman, Parr and Collins), “A low opening at the peripheral margin, extending slightly to the ventral side” (Cushman). These are all misleading; I have never seen a true apertural opening in this group. A slight hollowing out may occur along contact with base and last chamber, but it does not continue inwards; the whole apertural face is a solid wall overrun by the heavy sculpture-ridges. The meeting of these with the base has somewhat the effect of producing cribrations, but in perfectly preserved shells there is no trace of a real opening. It is possibly unnecessary, as the whole shell is so porous and the terminal face so extremely thin and perforate. This complete absence of true aperture is regarded as highly diagnostic, and of course at once prevents any connection with Rotalia. It is extremely easy to get a wrong impression of this aperture if the shell is in the slightest degree broken or worn. A number of the strongly spirally sculptured species of Elphidium show the same aperture, while others have a row of pores in the terminal face.
Such a species as Elphidium imperatrix Brady (1884; pl. 110, figs. 13–15) must be very closely connected with the Notorotalia line; it shows the same development of peripheral spines as the Middle Tertiary New Zealand forms, has the same aperture and the same type of strongly ornamented proloculum. Apart from its perfect symmetry, it is in fact a Notorotalia. Another prominently spinous Indo-Pacific form is Rotalia trispinosa Thalmann (pulchella d'Orb., auct.), but the aperture and development show plainly that this is unrelated to Notorotalia, and is a true Rotalia of the beccarii type.
Notorotalia zelandica n.sp.
This species is best described by comparison with Rotalia clatthrata Brady. That species was described from “Pour Stations between Australia and New Zealand” and “Two Stations on the West Coast of Patagonia.” Brady noted that the latter were different, as is shown by his figure 9 (from Station 305, West Coast of Patagonia). His figure 8 was from Station 162, 38–40 f., off East Moncoeur Island, Bass Strait, and this must be taken as the typical form; if it has not been done before I now choose as lectotype of Brady's species the Australian specimen which was the original of his figures 8a, b, c.
Forms of this kind are extremely abundant in shallow water all around New Zealand at the present day, and a long ancestral line is known. The common Recent New Zealand form does not appear to be the same, however, as the Australian. I have not seen Recent samples from there; it is not present in my samples from 7 fathoms Derwent Estuary, Tasmania, and it is not in any of the large Peronian or Solanderian faunas I have available. It seems to be
more at home in a colder climate, though Heron-Allen and Earland have noted that it dies out as the sub-Antarctic is approached. Specimens I have from the Pliocene of the Abbatoirs Bore, Adelaide, (recently referred to the Lower Miocene howchini by Howchin and Parr, but not the same as any Muddy Creek lower bed species I have seen) agree in general with Brady's figure and, using this as a basis, one notes many differences in the New Zealand Recent form. The latter grows much larger (up to 1.4 mm.), while Brady's type was only 0–8 mm. The New Zealand shell has a relatively blunt periphery, the medial keel being masked by nearly similar ridges above and below it, and the sides not shelving steeply to meet it as in clathrata. The Australian shell is mostly domed above and fairly flattish below, but zelandica is nearly always flatly depressed above and more convex basally, especially just inside periphery. The central part of the base is notably depressed or excavated, with an umbilical pitted area as in Elphidium; clathrata has a more evenly flattened base and smaller pitted area. The sculpture of clathrata between the limbate sutures consists of relatively few and distant irregular ridges, the spirals on the ventral side unwinding slowly; zelandica has much heavier and closer intra-sutural ridging, the ridges on the upper two-thirds of each chamber pointing steeply outwards at about 80° to spiral suture, but on the lower two-thirds of chamber suddenly altering slope to about 45°, evenly covering whole surface between radial sutures. On the basal surface the spirals unwind much more rapidly and are frequently discontinuous at sharp angles from chamber to chamber. Microspheric form regularly spiral; megalospheric form with a large proloculum minutely papillate all over.
Diameter of adults, 1 to 1.4 mm. Height somewhat variable, about half diameter in adults and somewhat less in young.
Holotype from upper part of Castlecliff beds, Uppermost Pliocene; chosen in preference to a Recent specimen, as the latter are mostly worn and therefore show weaker sculpture. Figures of this and aperture details will appear later.
This Recent and Upper Pliocene species is characterised chiefly by its large size, rounded or bluntly sub-angled periphery, with a greater convexity below it than above. It occurs also in the underlying Nukumaruan (mid-Pliocene) but is not known as yet from the Waitotaran or Opoiti stages (Lower Pliocene).
Numerous Tertiary species are known from all horizons back to the Bortonian, where very rare and tiny forms may indicate the beginning of the lineage, but have all essential characters, such as aperture, perfectly developed.
Notorotalia stachei n.sp. (Plate 69, Figs. 3a, b).
Shell small, depressed biconvex, but often flattened above or below. About 2.½ whorls, with eight to nine chambers in last one, distinct ventrally, obscure dorsally. Whole dorsal surface covered with short, strong, blunt ridges, masking sutures in most cases; where clearly developed they are seen to consist of 5–6 subparallel cords with subequal interstices, as strong as or stronger than the limbate radial sutures and completely crossing the chambers between
the latter at approximately right angles to them, but more frequently they become so irregular and towards the centre especially so anastamose and twist that accurate description is impossible. Ventral surface much more clearly sculptured, the radial sutures distinct, limbate, with about seven subequal ridges, 1 ½ to 2 times their width apart, not parallel but radiating irregularly fanwise; here again the general effect is frequently one of indefinite direction. Umbilical region very small, with hardly any plug or papillae. Dorsal surface often with a number of irregular swollen bumps. Periphery sharply carinate, expanded into a narrow but marked thin translucent flange, undulating with chambers; it may or may not bear a number of quite irregularly-spaced tiny flatly-compressed spines. Aperture normal for the genus, with no opening but the pseudo-clefts formed by the overridden sculpture.
Diameter, up to 0.6 mm.; height, about one-third diameter.
Holotype from locality 4407, Wharekuri greensands, 300–400 ft. downstream from Fisherman's Rock. These are the middle greensands and have a fauna recognisably distinct from the lower ones at Fisherman's Rock itself and Wharekuri Bridge, and also distinct from the upper Kekenodon beds. The middle and lower greensands are referable by their faunas to the Upper Ototaran; in the probably Duntroonian upper greensands a quite different species of Notorotalia occurs. The specimens from the lower greensands are even smaller in size and rather battered, but more resemble stachei than they do any other Ototaran form. The species has also occurred at locality 5306 (middle Kakanui limestone, above tuff) and as a single specimen at 5181 (Uppermost Kakanui limestone), but has not been seen from any lower or higher horizons, where very different species occur. This makes it a strictly Upper Ototaran key form of considerable value. It has not occurred anywhere in the samples from the Cobden limestone or just above it, which is probably due to the preference of the genus for shallower water; the same reason probably explains the absence of any member of this group from the Maungatapere. It is present at G.S. locality 1910 (Swinburn River, S.E. of Naseby), and is quite typical and often abundant at several localities in the Whaingaroa beds—one of the best pieces of evidence for referring this horizon to the Upper Ototaran. Abundant specimens from Kawhia (5577) (mudstone, bedded with volcanic agglomerate), match in every detail with the Wharekuri types, and it is strange that Stache did not discover this very distinct form.
Genus Nuttallides n.gen.
Genotype: Eponides trümpyi Nuttall 1930 (Journ. Pal., vol. 4, no. 3, p. 287, pl. 24, figs. 9, 13, 14. Eocene, Mexico).
Test rotaliform, more or less planoconvex, with a strong tendency to develop a peripheral flange. Sutures sloping back at sharp angle dorsally, somewhat markedly sinuous basally. Umbilical area usually with a prominent boss of clear material. Aperture a linear slit with a sharp, projecting outer edge, extending from plug almost to periphery, where it suddenly turns backwards into the flange, like Pulvinulinella.
The discovery of abundant specimens in the New Zealand Eocene of a species closely related to the Mexican Eocene Eponides trümpyi is very interesting. The Mexican form was recorded by Nuttall as frequent in the Chapapote (upper) and Aragon (lower) members of the Eocene, but not outside this age. In New Zealand, specimens are common in the Upper Bortonian and apparently less so in the Lower Bortonian. It has not occurred in the Tahuian (Uppermost Eocene) but a closely related form is present in the lower and middle Rakauroa (Upper Cretaceous). The New Zealand Eocene form is best described by comparison with trümpyi as follows.
Nuttallides subtrumpyi n.sp.
Shell of entirely the same build and general features as trümpyi, with similar dorsal and ventral sutures. The flange is much sharper; Nuttall described and figured “a rounded peripheral flange,” but New Zealand specimens have a fairly acute, bevelled, translucent peripheral border. They are distinctly planoconvex, the dorsal side being mostly flat or slightly raised medially, while trümpyi is apparently biconvex. This feature varies somewhat, but the New Zealand shell as a whole presents a recognisably different shape from Nuttall's figures. An immediate distinction is the character of the ventral boss; this, in trümpyi, is mentioned and figured as rounded, and does not disturb the basal outline; in subtrümpyi it is almost always quite flat over its whole area, the basal outline being thus sharply truncated. The dorsal surface and to some extent the ventral has a heavy layer of translucent shell material evenly spread all over, through which the sutures are visible, the central ones indistinctly where the layer becomes thickest. This feature is not mentioned by Nuttall, who figures the central portion as clearly as the rim.
Diameter, up to 1 mm. (trümpyi averages 0.7 mm.); width, two-thirds to three-quarters diameter.
The figures prepared for this description did not show the essential details clearly, and illustrations will be given in a later paper.
Type from locality 3310, greasy marl, Matakohe Survey District, Auckland, 1 mile north-west of Pahi, Paparoa Arm. This is interbedded with greensands of the Pahi series, contains also Zeauvigerina and Hantkenina and is definitely Upper Bortonian. Elsewhere the species extends throughout the Bortonian (but not above), with a few rare specimens, possbily a distinct species, from the uppermost Cretaceous.
The reference of this type of shell to Eponides can hardly be upheld. Nautilus repandus, the genotype of Eponides, is a common Indo-Pacific shell, and its lineage is continued well back in our Tertiary. Fairly typical specimens extend down to the Lower Miocene, but in the Lower (and perhaps Upper) Ototaran a distinct ancestor occurs. This differs in having a less-pointed base, a distinctly open umbilical area formed by the great spread of the aperture ventrally, and especially in having fewer chambers; regularly five to a whorl, instead of seven to ten as in repandus. This form is especially common in the Waiarekan tuffs of Lorne (G.S. locality 1100) and
may take the name of Eponides lornensis, new species. Chapman, Parr and Collins (1934, p. 565, pl. 9, figs. 18a–c) have recorded and figured repandus from the Australian Tertiary as far down as the Oligocene Balcombian; as they say, Muddy Creek examples seem inseparable from typical Recent shells, and the same applies to N.Z. examples from the Miocene onwards. Waitematan specimens occasionally look like lornensis, but adults always have six or more chambers.
All these true representatives of Eponides show the typical generic aperture, a widely open space entirely confined to the straight contact between the last whorl and base; its outer margin notably convex and with a wider gape ventrally before the umbilical union of the sutures is reached. In the ancestral lornensis it spreads into this area; in all forms there is a definite end at the periphery with no tendency to invade that area at a new angle. The apertural face in typical Eponides is usually more or less cribrate. Other species of Eponides, such as the American Tertiary guayabalensis Cole and the European Miocene to Recent schreibersii d'Orb., keep this type of aperture with not a great transition in shell features.
This is totally unlike the apertural features of trümpyi and its allies, with the angled lateral extension into the peripheral face, and as several diverse species are known with this type of aperture it is here made the principle basis for generic segregation, though general habit of shell and type of chambers are not without significance also.
I suggest as a congeneric species Discorbina alata Marsson, which has been figured and described as a Pulvinulinella by Cushman (1931, p. 311, pl. 36, figs. 5a–c). Specimens extremely similar to those there figured from the Saratoga chalk occur at locality 3250A, Tuparoa Stream, Waipiro S.D., Poverty Bay, in marls of mid-Rakauroa age. The aperture in Cushman's figures is not altogether distinct, but the New Zealand specimens show exactly the Nuttallides aperture. The basal knob of clear callus is prominent only in juveniles, adult examples tending to surround this below with a basal ridge, forming a pseudo-umbilicus. The later figures of this species given by Cushman and Jarvis (1932, p. 48, pl. 15, figs. 1, 2) are less like the Tuparoa and Saratoga specimens and more resemble in shape another species occurring in the New Zealand Rakauroa.
The devolpment of the basal characteristics in alata lead me to suggest that the characteristic Upper Cretaceous species recorded by authors as Gyroidina or Globorotalia micheliniana d'Orb. also belongs to Nuttalides. Cushman's figures of Annona chalk and Antigua specimens show clearly the sinuous suture and flange development and the characteristic aperture. Also the pseudoumbilicus, as in alata, is quite different from the pervious one of Gyroidina. Two other Cretaceous species certainly to be grouped with micheliniana are Gyroidina alabamensis Sandidge (Alabama Ripley) and Globorotalia subconica Morrow (Kansas).
Another genus which must necessarily be brought into the discussion is Pulvinulinella Cushman. The genotype of this is P. subperuviana Cushman, the description and figures of which show an
elongate aperture just below the periphery and entirely in the plane of coiling, without prolongation along the basal margin towards umbilicus. The aperture was originally described as “somewhat loop shaped,” with the remark that the type species “does not show the apertural characters as definitely as do the Recent species.” This was evidently overlooked by Chapman, Parr and Collins (1934, p. 569, pl. 9, figs. 19a–c) when describing the Australian Oligocene tenuimarginata as doubtfully belonging to this genus. In shell features it is quite like the genotype except for the straight aperture, which, however, is seen in Recent species such as pacifica Cushman. The Balcombian form, which can be taken as gencrically typical, is abundant also in New Zealand, where is has an extended range from at least Lower Oligocene to Upper Miocene.
A series of such typical species shows that the Pulvinulinella aperture is well defined and not really much like that of Nuttallides, where the lateral extension, though definite, is merely an adjunct to the main aperture, and it is stretching the limits of the genus too much to include alata and similar types. The recently described P. gyroidinaformis Cushman and Gaudkoff (1938, p. 2, pl 1, figs. 1, 2) has some unusual shell features but apparently a fairly typical aperture. Another type of aperture, however, which is decidedly atypical is that shown by Planorbulina culter Parker and Jones. This has been very generally referred to Pulvinulinella but some writers have questioned this, and Nuttall (1930, p. 293) has stated that the appertures are very different. The good figures given by Brady (Chall., pl. 96, fig. 3c) and Schwager (1866, pl. 7, fig. 111; as bengalensis) clearly show that the striking feature of this aperture is an oblique slit in the end face, well below the periphery, opening out from the contact slit between base and last chamber, and descending well into the face at an angle about midway between basal and peripheral margins. A number of similar forms are known, including mexicana Cole, velascoensis Cushman and probably the lately described texana Cushman (1938, p. 49), which, though compared with alata, seems to have more the culter type of aperture and shell coiling. This kind of shell is common practically throughout the Tertiary succession in New Zealand, and the lineage extends into the Upper Cretaceous. The apertural and shell distinctions from Pulvinulinella and Nuttallides are here emphasised by the proposal of the new genus Parrella, with Anomalina begalensis Schwager as genotype. This form is chosen for the type instead of Parker and Jones' culter on account of the ambiguity associated with the latter. Chapman and Parr (1937, p. 119) have noted that the true culter differs from Brady's interpretation, which probably was equivalent to Schwager's species; since my remarks on apertures have been based on shells like Brady's and Schwager's figures, it is plain that bengalensis must typify the genus. These remarks were written before Chapman and Parr's were seen; their independent suggestion that a new genus is probably needed is much wiser than their unsatisfactory location in Cibicides.
Cushman has figured (Contrib. Cush. Lab., vol. 14, pt. 3, pl. 11, figs. 4, 5) as Pulvinulinella two species which show very clearly indeed the characteristics of the two apertures, glabrata being a typical Pulvinulinella, while navarroana is plainly a Parrella.
It is fitting that the genus name should mark the independent research of Mr. W. J. Parr into this matter.
Genus Calcarina d'Orb., 1826.
It is interesting to compare the aperture of Parrella with that shown by another rotaloid group. Brady's figure (Chall. Rep., pl. 108, fig. 2c) of his Rotalia venusta shows a peculiar development, the aperture developing a rimmed slit projecting into the terminal face at an upward angle—the exact opposite of the downward spur in Parrella. Heron-Allen and Earland discovered this species abundantly in the Kerimba Archipelago, and though their figures (1915, p. 720, pl. 53, figs. 15–22) are concerned mainly with the shell development and do not show the aperture, they note its close alliance to Rotalia calcar (d'Orb.), occurring with it. This alliance is indubitable, and study of excellent specimens I have of venusta from 12 f., Cape Bedford, Queensland, and various forms of calcar from Malay Archipelago, Fiji, etc., together with their Tertiary relatives in the Parisian Eocene and Australian Miocene, makes it plain that the aperture keeps certain constant features, fundamentally distinct from true Rotalia. There is always a basic linear slit along contact of last whorl and base; this is not widely open like Rotalia, nor distinctly and roundly terminated at either end; it vanishes obscurely at the plug end, being concealed by the lobate overhanging termination of the chamber; at the peripheral end it expands into what is usually the only visible portion, a strongly rimmed slit with parallel sides, projecting suddenly into the terminal face at an angle of some 45° to the previous path in venusta, somewhat less in calcar and its ancestors. There is a general faint resemblance to the Nuttallides aperture, but the likeness is not really close, and they have arisen independently; the ornament and heavy basal plug in the venusta-calcar line is quite unlike anything seen in the other group.
This aperture is not at all like that of Rotalia and there is little except family affinity between the two. R. trochidiformis Lamk., the French Eocene genotype of Rotalia has been fully discussed and figured by Cushman (1927, p. 124, pl. 24, figs. 5–7) and by Davies (1932); in ventral opening and dorsal surface it is practically identical with Eponides, and this has caused Galloway (1933, p. 281) to synonymise the two. But the complex structure of the ventral face and the possession of a distinct umbilical plug, apart altogether from the canal system, are valid distinctions for Rotalia and are observable in numerous Recent species living alongside of typical Eponides. In such forms as beccarii and even the complex schroeteriana-conoides group the aperture does not depart radically from the defined type, except in greater concentration, a tendency to closure in senility with development of subsidiary openings near the enormous plug.
The distinction of the calcar group from typical Rotalia has been recognised by both Cushman and Galloway, the former placing it in the separate family Calcarinidae, while the latter used the older name Tinoporus as family basis. But in each case the sundering was made on the complex shell features exhibited by the more specialised genera, and little heed was paid to the aperture. Cushman wrote “The family in its simplest forms is close to Rotalia, in fact Calcarina calcar may be a Rotalia,” while Galloway stated that “if the family consisted only of the genera Calcarina and Tinoporus it could well be left in the Rotaliidae.” To the rather slight distinctions Galloway gives between Calcarina and Rotalia I would now add as a primary feature the distinctive aperture, and though I do not accept the complete groupings of either author, the development of the more complex genera from the simpler calcar line seems clear, and separate family rank justified. Cushman includes more genera than Galloway; whatever may be the objections to some of them, there can be little doubt of the affinities of the Cretaceous Siderolites Lamarck, 1801—the oldest generic name in the family. It is the practice of many outstanding workers on mollusca and other groups to take the earliest genus name as automatically fixing that of the family, but this position has not been taken in Foraminifera, and in view of the numerous alterations it would cause in classification, I hesitate to adopt it. Yet I personally feel that this is the safest and most logical method, for obvious reasons, and that a family Siderolitidae in the present case will some day be used. The question of authorship of family names is immaterial and leads to much useless personal controversy.
It is to be noted that Cushman and Galloway have used the name Calcarina in different senses, and the validity of its interpretation must be considered. Cushman's interpretation is based on his Philippine Report (1919, pp. 363–368, and 1921, p. 351), where he considered that “The type species of Calcarina is Nautilus spengleri Gmelin. This species is definitely taken as the genotype by d'Orbigny”; at the same time (p. 354) he recognised and figured Montfort's baculatus as a valid species, though suppressing his generic name Tinoporus on the ground that his diagnosis did not agree entirely with his figure and evidently included specimens of Baculogypsina sphaerulata. Galloway (1933, p. 312) disagreed with this, regarding Tinoporus as a valid name, based on the figure, and giving the genotype of Calcarina as calcar “by absolute tautonymy and designated by Parker, Jones and Brady, 1865.” As regards the former contention, it seems obvious that since baculatus is recognisable, Tinoporus, whatever the diagnosis, was introduced with one valid species, and only one, and is therefore a monotypic genus; as it represents the earliest name for the spengleri-defrancii-mayori group it must be used. As for the second contention, Cushman later (1933, p. 312) pointed out that the complete statement of Parker and Jones was not free from ambiguity, and continued to regard spengleri as the type. But d'Orbigny did not definitely designate types, and the question of tautonymy was passed over by Cushman. Article 30 of the International Rules, however, gives a number of cases gov-
erning type designation, to be applied in definite order of precedence—cases 1a, b, and c do not apply in the present instance, but 1d states that “If a genus, without originally designated or indicated type, contains amongst its original species one possessing the generic name as its specific name or subspecific name, either as valid name or synonym, that species or subspecies becomes ipso facto type of the genus.” This adequately covers the case of Calcarina calcar d'Orb., 1826, whatever other species he included, and Calcarina is thus the valid name for the calcar-venusta group, as distinct from Tinoporus for the heavily spiked, secondarily thickened species.
The discussion of this family and generic name is necessary here, since Calcarina has been credited with a New Zealand Tertiary species, which is quite unrelated, while an important index species which truly belongs here has been obscured by a wrong location elsewhere.
Tinoporus hispidus (Brady).
This, as Calcarina hispida, has been reported from the New Zealand Oligocene by Chapman (1926, p. 87; pl. 17, fig. 9) as an initial fossil record of the species. All reference to the record and to the species in New Zealand should be expunged; nothing remotely like this Recent tropical shallow water species occurs in this country, Recent or fossil. I have examined Chapman's type and slides and much topotype material from Flat Top Hill, and what Chapman had is quite evidently a species of Notorotalia, very abundant here. Similar shells covered with minute spines have been seen only at Landon Creek, Everett's Quarry, and the uppermost limestone at Kakanui Point—all Upper Ototaran horizons. It is difficult to see the details exactly on account of bad preservation, the deposits having been subjected to re-crystallisation by percolating water, but it is almost certain that the “spines” are secondary calcite crystals and have nothing to do with the original shell structure. Similar spines appear on parts of other species in these beds, though this genus seems peculiarly liable to develop them; specimens in the Bridge Point green tuffs are sometimes finely spinose, sometimes partly and irregularly coated, sometimes smooth. I have already (in Allan, 1938, p. 90) drawn attention to this species, which will be described later from better preserved material; apart from the pseudo-spines, the Duntroonian form is very different, and Dr. Allan's argument is not affected. Tinoporus, however, can be completely dispensed with in New Zealand.
While on this subject it may be mentioned also that all reference to and records of “Rotalia papillosa var. compressiuscula Brady” must be deleted from the New Zealand area. There is nothing in this country recalling this obvious relative of schroeteriana, a true Rotalia, which genus is represented in New Zealand only by a form of beccarii. Heron-Allen and Earland recorded the species from “a few fossil specimens” in the “Terra Nova” Report, and Chapman (1926, p. 86) has identified it from the Weka Creek Grey Marls (Basal Miocene). Since on his type slides the same form is variously identified as Pulvinulina elegans and P. karsteni, and mixed
indiscriminately with at least two other genera, not much weight can be allowed to this record. His specimens are once again a species of Notorotalia, close to his own spinosa.
Calcarina mackayi (Karrer).
1864. Rosalina mackayi Karrer; Novara Exp., Pal., vol. 1, p. 82, pl. 16, fig. 14.
Described from the Lower Miocene Waitemata beds of Orakei Bay, this species has been misunderstood ever since. Chapman (1926, p. 85) referred it to Rotalia, “as closely related to Rotalia beccarii,” but there is not even family resemblance. Karrer's figure is somewhat idealised, but good specimens for a new figure are hard to find as the form is very restricted. The aperture, not shown by him, is distinctive. It is of the same general style as already described for Calcarina, but differs in some details; the slit along contact of base and last whorl is absent or filled in and the large slit in the terminal face is considerably lower down than in calcar. This gives the appearance of an isolated opening slightly removed from and at a small angle to the contact margin, outlined by a strong rim all round. This development seems not a far step from the typical, and probably well-preserved juveniles would show gradation; indeed there is some evidence of it in Australian specimens.
C. mackayi is strictly limited to that part of the Hutchinsonian represented by the Waitemata beds, and is very rare in New Zealand. It is a large and characteristic species, but has so far been seen from only four other localities. At the first, 3303 (Whakau Stream, Tutamoe S.D., Poverty Bay), it is not uncommon (though badly preserved) in company with enormous numbers of orbitoids, mostly Nephrolepidina. This is the only locality in New Zealand where free orbitoids are abundant; it is an isolated outcrop, but from other evidence probably marks the base of the Ihungia, and can safely be correlated with the Waitemata series. This is in keeping with Marwick's record of the Waitematan index molluscan genus Paracominia from the Igneous Conglomerates of the basal Ihungian. The two other localities are 5277 (“Blue Bottom” sandy marl, 6 miles S. of Greymouth, 4 miles E. from coast), and 5054 (Trelissick Basin, tuff between limestones, junction of Porter and Thomas Rivers). Both these represent the same Hutchinsonian horizon as the two previous; from similar tuffs at Whitewater Creek, not far from 5054, Thomson has recorded the index Hutchinsonian brachiopod Pachymagas parki. The final locality is from basal Mahoenui, 4 miles N. of Pio Pio (5579), where the species occurs with abundant Semivulvulina waitakia Finlay.
This Calcarina apparently occurs also in Australia; specimens are rather common at Torquay (Lower Miocene) and seem to differ little from the New Zealand ones. The characteristic aperture is quite the same, as is also the case in abundant specimens from the Lower Miocene of Filter Quarry, Batesford, though the latter are highly nodulose and evidently a distinct species. This discounts the references by Heron-Allen and Earland (1924, p. 181) and Chapman (1909) of this form to Rotalia calcar. The aperture and shell ornament are distinguishable at sight and the Batesford species has
rightly been described as new by Howchin and Parr (1938, p. 310, pl. 19, figs. 8, 9, 11, 15), under the name Rotalia verriculata. The reference of the flatter spineless accompanying form to C. defrancii can hardly be upheld—it also seems to occur in New Zealand.
Genus Cibicides Montfort, 1808.
Cibicides parki n.sp. (Plate 69, Figs. 1a, b).
Test biconvex, with considerable variability; sometimes dorsal surface low and ventral projecting medially; sometimes ventral almost flat and dorsal raised into a high dome. Umbilical region always obscured by raised corrugations. Periphery expanded into a wide, thin, transparent flange which undulates but continues the dorsal curve to overhang immediate ventral surface; broadest and most transparent on side opposite aperture, reduced to vanishing point on last chamber. Chambers about seven to nine, increasing in number with age; very indistinct dorsally, except near aperture, those of earlier whorls entirely hidden by the punctate, semitranslucent surface material; ventrally more distinct, separated by narrow, deep, undulating grooves, which become more obscured the further from the aperture. Base very heavily and characteristically pustulose-corrugate, the pustules massing irregularly between and about the sutures towards the umbilical area, which has some heavy, short, raised ridges quite irregularly directed and anastomosing; pustules rapidly becoming obsolete towards outer half of base, which eventually is smooth, except for fine perforations. Dorsal surface just as characteristically ornamented with very coarse, tubular perforations, entering sideways and reminiscent of Siphonina; they are prominent over most of triangular surface of chambers, but these areas are separated from each other and from the concentric sutures by smooth, opaque areas; the whole surface seems to be coated with a sub-translucent layer, through which earlier whorls and their coarse punctae are indistinctly visible. Last chamber normal dorsally but frequently with irregular, inflated areas and a smoother surface ventrally. Aperture small; heavily rimmed ventrally, forming a semicircle round flange to join base just inside it; rim almost flush with surface dorsally, but running back short distance to join suture acutely.
Diameter, up to 0.9 mm.; thickness, half to two-thirds diameter.
Holotype from locality 5068, Burnside marl, Tahuian (Upper Eocene).
This is one of the most characteristic, ubiquitous and important species of the New Zealand Lower Tertiaries. It is present in abundance in all kinds of lithology in practically every Eocene deposit. Fine examples are present throughout the glauconitic marls of the upper Hampden beds, and the specific name is chosen partly to acknowledge the help Prof. Park has rendered in collecting from and elucidating these beds, and partly to give one of our most useful index species the name of this pioneer in our palaeontology. C. parki is as widespread throughout New Zealand as it is in facies locally, and I have it from the Amuri chalk marls, the Dannevirke Wanstead, the Poverty Bay Waitangi marls and cores, and the North Auckland
Pahi marls and greensands, in most of these cases from localities too numerous to mention separately. Abundant in marls and chalky limestone, it is just as common and well-marked in almost pure greensands, such as at McCullogh's Bridge and Waihao Downs.
It is not, however, limited to the Eocene. In the lower Ototaran it is quite as plentiful and characteristic in the deeper water sediments, such as the siliceous fine limestone of Cormacks immediately above the Oamaru diatomaceous earth, the lower Kakanui limestones corresponding to the true Oamaru limestone, and the Kaiata mudstones. It is absent, however, in such very shallow water faunas as the basal Ototaran (Waiarekan) of Lorne, and the tuffs below Oamaru limestone at Rifle Butts and All Day Bay. Certain other typically Eocene species persist into the lower Ototaran with it, but there are numerous key species by which the associations can be distinguished. On the West Coast this species is abundant from the so-called “Island Sandstone” base of the Kaiata mudstone up through that formation and into the lower Point Elizabeth beds, but it is completely lacking from there through the rest of the Ototaran, as it is also in the Upper Kakanui limestones and the Whaingaroa and Te Kuiti beds. Its definite absence from all samples of the Poverty Bay “Maungatapere” (though it occurs in the Eocene Te Hua series beneath) is further evidence for relegating this formation to the Upper Ototaran.
The species is so abundant in the Bortonian that one may suspect its occurrence still earlier. The only evidence for this as yet, however, is the presence of a single specimen at locality 5104 (Manawaangiangi Gorge, Mangaotoro S.D.) associated with Rzehakina and other typical Upper Cretaceous species in a fauna which is undoubtedly Rakauroa. It is therefore to be looked for in these beds, but its occurrence in abundance is a sure sign of Eocene—Lower Oligocene age.
Some explanation should be given of the basis on which European stage-names have been used here. As there are practically no definite direct means of correlation, any system must be more or less artificial and dependant on the accuracy of intial hypotheses. The stratigraphical order of a large number of units or stages is known in New Zealand, all of which have been defined by their content of molluscs or brachipods. These have been spread over the Tertiary and artificially allotted to the broad European divisions by various workers; one of the best known published tables being that of Marwick (1927, p. 573) whose distribution was as follows:—
Eocene Wangaloan, Bortonian, Tahuian.
Oligocene Waiarekan, Ototaran, Hutchinsonian.
Miocene Awamoan, Taranakian.
Pliocene Waitotaran, Nukumaruan, Castlecliffian.
Still later, in another stage discussion (1931, p. 3), he referred Wangaloan to Danian or Montian. The application of some of these names has been considerably revised and new ones have been proposed. Wangaloan has been more definitely referred to the Danian
by Finlay and Marwick (1937, p. 15). Waiarekan I would eliminate entirely as merely a basal facies of the lower Ototaran; if used at all it should be only in a zonal sense. The new term Duntroonian has been proposed by Allan (1938, p. 89) for a stage directly above the Ototaran, and directly below the Waitakian, which name was proposed long ago by Park for the Waitaki limestone, known now to underly the Hutchinsonian. As pointed out in this paper, though the distinction between Duntroonian and Upper Ototaran is valid as Allan set forth, the separation from Waitakian seems impractical elsewhere in the absence of good molluscan and brachiopod faunas, and the differences may again be merely zonal or even facies. A term is possibly needed for the Lower Hutchinsonian, characterised by less evolved Pachymagas of the hectori-haasti type, leaving the true Hutchinsonian for the faunal horizon of P. parki, Rhizothyris rhizoida, and the Waiparia-Neothyris association. At least one new stage, though of small extent, seems to be needed between the Hutchinsonian and Awamoan, as shown by the Clifden and Poverty Bay sequence; the higher Clifden and Mt. Brown beds with Stethothyris sufflata and Neothyris novara being very probably an Awamoan facies—they are not recognisable elsewhere and the mollusca are close. The Opoiti series has been recognised by Ongley (1928, p. 7) as a necessary unit between the Taranakian and the Waitotaran; it is well marked in the North Island and from the Foraminifera belongs in the Wanganuian System. In order to have a definite stage name available I here propose the Opoitian Stage for the interval of time represented by the depositions of the beds quoted by Ongley as between the Mapiri series and the Waitotaran (represented by his Waihua beds, the Ormond and Tokomaru being of uncertain and varying age and better dropped altogether), together with such periods as may be represented therein by non-deposition or erosion. Faunally, I define this stage as characterised by abundance of Rectobolivina aff. bifrons, the first appearance of Patellinella, Bigenerina aff. nodosaria, Globorotalia inflata, Siphotextularia wairoana, Sigmoilina n.sp., and Plectofrondicularia n.sp., and the last appearance of Haeuslerella and many long-ranging Miocene lineages.
In allotting all these stage names to the broad European divisions, molluscan and brachiopod workers have been hampered by the frequent poverty or absence of faunas from critical horizons. I have now seen large foraminiferal faunas from every stage mentioned, with the exception of Wangaloan, and my conclusions have been reached solely from their study, though I have naturally utilised my experience with the two other groups. I have taken two outside levels and one fundamental hypothesis as guides in drawing up the table here suggested, and its validity depends on theirs. The levels are:—Middle Eocene age for the Bortonian, because of the occurrence of Discocyclina and Asterocyclina, and Lower Miocene age for the Hutchinsonian, because it is almost without exception the horizon of Nephrolepidina spp. and Miogypsina, and correlates with the Australian Janjukian, already referred to that age. The hypothesis is that the major observable faunal changes will most likely be at the dividing planes between Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene and Pliocene; there is definite evidence elsewhere that this is not so, and therefore
may not be so here, but it is a provisional suggestion. The Hutehinsonian, Awamoan and Taranakian are much closer inter-allied faunally than they are to the beds above or below.
Finally, the Ototaran, so poor in molluscan fossils, and only locally rich in brachipods, has become an unwieldy unit now that its numerous rhizopod faunas are known. The Lower is more distinct from the Upper than are the Hutchinsonian and Awamoan, and names are obviously needed for both. For the lower, Morgan's old name Kaiatan (see Allan, 1933, p. 91) can be revived; it is founded on a unit of known stratigraphic position, and can be determined faunally by the presence of Cibicides parki, Martinotiella robusta, Pseudogaudryina reussi, Notorotalia n.sp., Bolivina cf. reticulata, Globigerinoides sp. and several other forms. For the upper, I here propose the Whaingaroan Stage founded on the Whaingaroa Series of the North Island West Coast. I define it as the period of time represented by the deposition of the Whaingaroa clay-stones or sandy marls below the Te Kuiti limestone, as well as such intervals as are represented therein by non-deposition or erosion; and I cite as a characteristic assemblage Notorotalia stachei, Semivulvulina capitata, Rotaliatina sulcigera, Polymorphina lingulata, Pseudogaudryina reussi, Marginulina hochstetteri, Martinotiella robusta, Globigerina angipora, the absence of Cibicides parki, Globigerinoides and Globigerina triloba and the initial appearance of several later Tertiary lines. The Waiarekan has been restricted to tuffs (see Allan, 1933, p. 96), and cannot be used as equivalent to Kaiatan; it is a basal zone of that formation.
The suggested table is:—
[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]
For convenience of reference, I give the following list of new names proposed:—
Semivulvulina n.subgen. (Fam. Textulariidae). Genotype: Textilaria capitata Stache (Middle Oligocene–Lower Miocene).
Siphotextularia n.gen. (Fam. Textulariidae). Genotype: S. wairoana n.sp. (Eocene–Recent).
Notorotalia n.gen. (Fam. Rotaliidae). Genotype: N. zelandica n.sp. (clathrata auct, non Brady) (Eocene–Recent).
Nuttallides n.gen. (Fam. Rotaliidae). Genotype: Eponides trümpyi Nuttall (Upper Cretaceous-Eocene).
Parrella n.gen. (Fam. Rotaliidae). Genotype: Anomalina bengalensis Schwager (Upper Cretaceous-Recent).
Vulvulina (Semivulvulina) waitakia n.sp. (Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene).
Textularia awazea n.sp. (Middle Miocene).
Textularia miozea n.sp. (Lower to Upper Miocene).
Siphotextularia wairoana n.sp. (Lower and Middle Pliocene).
Gaudryina proreussi n.sp. (Middle Eocene).
Plectofrondicularia parri n.sp. (Lower and Middle Miocene).
Plectofrondicularia pohana n.sp. (Upper Miocene).
Rectobolivina bortonica n.sp. (Middle Eocene).
Rectobolivina parvula n.sp. (Lower to Upper Miocene).
Notorotalia zelandica n.sp. (Upper Pliocene–Recent).
Notorotalia–stachei n.sp. (Middle Oligocene).
Nuttallides subtrümpyi n.sp. (Eocene).
Eponides lornensis n.sp. (Lower Oligocene).
Cibicides parki n.sp. (Upper Cretaceous–Lower Oligocene).
List of References.
Allan, R. S., 1933. On the System and Stage Names Applied to Subdivisions of the Tertiary Strata in New Zealand, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 63.
—— 1938. In Speight, The Geology of the Mount Somers District, N.Z. Geol. Memoirs, no. 3.
Brady, H.B., 1884. Chal. Reports, vol. 9.
Chapman, F., 1926. Cretaceous and Tertiary Foraminifera of N.Z., Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull., no. 11.
—— 1932. Discocyclina and Assilina from near Mount Oxford, N.Z., Rec. Cant. Mus., vol. 3, no. 7.
—— and Parr, W. J., 1937. Foraminifera, Austr. Antarct. Exped., ser. C, vol. 1, pt. 2.
Chapman, F., Parr, W. J., and Collins, A. C., 1934. The Balcombian Deposits of Port Philip, pt. 3, Linn. Soc. Journ. Zool., vol. 38, no. 262.
Cushman, J. A., 1911. Monograph of the Foraminifera of the North Pacific Ocean, U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull., 71, pt. 2.
——1919. Foraminifera of the Philippine and Adjacent Seas, U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull., 100, vol. 1, pt. 6.
—— 1921. Ibid., vol. 4.
—— 1927. Some Notes on the Early Foraminiferal Genera Erected before 1808. Contrib. Cush. Lab. for Foram. Research, vol. 3, pt. 2, no. 43.
—— 1929. Notes on the Foraminiferal fauna of the Byram Marl, Ibid., vol. 5, pt. 2, no. 77.
—— 1931. Foraminifera of the Saratoga Chalk, Journ. Pal., vol. 5, no. 4.
—— 1932. The Genus Vulvulina and its Species, Contrib. Cush. Lab. for Foram. Research, vol. 8, pt. 4, no. 123.
Figs. 1a, b—Vulvulina (Semivulvulina) waitakia n.sp.; 1a co-type, shows aperture bars too regular, 1b holotype, X 45.
Figs. 2a, b—Siphotextularut wairoana n.gen, n.sp.; 2a co-type, 2b holotype, X 90.
Figs. 3a, b—Plectofrondicularia pohana n.sp.; holotype, X 60.
Figs. 4a, b—Plectofrondicularia parri n.sp.; Pukeuri paratype, X 60.
Fig. 5—Rectobolivina parvula n.sp.; holotype, X 120.
Fig. 6—Rectobolivina bortonica n.sp.; holotype, X 60.
To face page 532.
Figs. 1a, b—Cibicides parkt n.sp.; 1a holotype, X 40.
Figs. 2a, b—Textulariidae auazea n.sp.; both microspheric, 2a holotype, 2b juvenile abnormally stout, X 20.
Figs. 3a, b—Notorotalia stachei n.sp.; 3b holotype, X 40.
Figs. 4a, b—Zeauvigerina zelandica n.gen., n.sp.; Pahi paratypes, X 80.
Fig. 5—Hantkenina australis n.sp.; Waitangi paratype, X 40.
Figs. 6a, b—Rotaliatina sulcigera (Stache); Waitangi Eocene specimens, X 40.
Figs. 7a, b—Rotaliatina sulcigera (Stache); Awakino Oligocene specimens, X 40.
—— 1933. Foraminifera, Ibid., special publication, no. 4.
—— 1936. Some New Species of Elphidium and Related Genera, Ibid., vol. 12, pt. 4, no. 176.
—— 1938. Additional New Species of American Cretaceous Foraminifera, Ibid., vol. 14, pt. 2, no. 195.
Cushman, J. A., and Gaudkoff, P. P., 1938. A New Species of Pulvinulinella from the Californian Miocene, Ibid., vol. 14, pt. 1, no. 192.
Cushman, J. A., and Jarvis, P. W., 1932. Upper Cretaceous Foraminifera from Trinidad, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 80, art. 14.
Cushman, J. A., and Stewart, R. E., 1926. A New Plectofrondicularia from the Pliocene of California, Contrib. Cush. Lab. for Foram. Research, vol. 2, pt. 2, no. 28.
Davies, L. M., 1932. The Genera Dictyoconoides Nuttall, Lockhartia nov., and Rotalia Lamarck, Trans. Roy. Soc., Edinburgh, vol. 57.
Finlay, H. J., and Marwick, J., 1937. The Wangaloan and Associated Molluscan Faunas of Kaitangata–Green Island Subdivision, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull., no. 13.
Galloway, J. J., 1933. Manual of Foraminifera.
Heron-Allen, E., and Earland, A., 1915. Foraminifera of the Kerimba Archipelago, pt. 2, Trans. Zool. Soc., London, vol. 20.
—— 1916. The Foraminifera of the West of Scotland, Trans. Linn. Soc., Ser. 2, Zool., vol. 11, art. 13.
—— 1924. Miocene Foraminifera of the “Filter Quarry,” Batesford, Journ. Roy. Micr. Soc., for 1924, art. 7.
Howchin, W., and Parr, W. J., 1938. Notes on the Metropolitan Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. 62, pt. 2.
Lalicker, C. G., 1935. New Tertiary Textulariidae, Contrib. Cush. Lab. for Foram. Research, vol. 11, pt. 2, no. 157.
Marwick, J., 1937. The Veneridae of New Zealand, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57.
—— 1938. The Tertiary Mollusca of the Gisborne District, N.Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull., no. 13.
Nuttall, W. L. F., 1930. Eocene Foraminifera from Mexico, Jour. Pal., vol. 4, no. 3.
Ongley, M., 1928. Wairoa Subdivision, Ann. Reps. Geol. Surv., no. 22.
Parr, W. J., 1935. Some Foraminifera from the Awamoan of the Medway River District, Trans. Roy. Soc, N.Z., vol. 62, pt. 2.
Schwager, C., 1866. Fossile Foraminiferen von Kar Nikobar, Reise der Novara, Geol. Theil., vol. 2.
Siache, G., 1864. Die Foraminiferen des Whaingaroa-Hafens, Reise der Novara, Pal., vol. 1, art. 5.