New Zealand Foraminifera: Key Species in Stratigraphy. No. 2.
Micropalaeontologist, N.Z. Geological Survey.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 1938; received by the Editor, December 18, 1938; issued separately, June, 1939.]
IN the descriptions here given are included notes on stratigraphic occurrence and limits as completely as possible. This will enhance their value to the stratigrapher, and enable them to be used more precisely in all the Dominion areas where oil search is being carried out. As mentioned in a previous number, topotypes will, in most cases, be available for outside workers willing to reciprocate, and will in any case be sent to the Cushman Laboratory and to the Parr collection, Melbourne. The actual types are all in cases in the New Zealand Geological Survey collection.
Textularia zeaggluta n.sp. (Plate 14, figs. 65, 66.)
Shell of medium size, rather narrowly tapering, initially compressed, rapidly becoming swollen, built of fine sandgrains and much cement, which shows only on middle of later chambers; rest of surface being roughened like sandpaper. Earliest chambers indistinct, but ending in a rather large blunt proloculum. Microspheric form very compressed initially, megalospheric form not nearly so much. Both forms widening rapidly at first for about one-fifth or less of shell, thence with sides slightly diverging, regularly thickening anteriorly; apertural section a little over half as thick as wide. Seven to eight chambers on each side in megalospheric form, regularly convex and inflated; terminal one slightly flattened and with a very small rounded aperture at its base. Sutures almost horizontal; on earlier quarter inconspicuous, on later whorls progressively deepening to become quite prominent channels between anterior chambers and down central line, always with a thicker deposit of sandy material than rest of chambers. Periphery flatly rounded, centre of front and back face lightly excavate.
Length, 1 5 mm.; width, 0.7 mm.
Holotype from loc. 5371, main road 1 mile South of Wanstead Hotel. Horizon, type Wanstead (= Upper Bortonian), i.e., Mid Eocene.
This is quite closely allied to agglutinans; typical Recent West Indian specimens of that species are only about half the size, but even then have a longer and lower aperture, do not inflate so rapidly after the very compressed initial chambers, have narrow clear-cut sutures, and altogether lack the sandpaper texture of the New Zealand form. It is much more like the Italian Eocene T. lontensis Lalicker (1935, p. 49, pl. 7, figs. 2, 3), but has a smaller aperture not set in a reentrant, and deeper later sutures.
This is a common species in the New Zealand Eocene, especially in the Wanstead facies. It occurs but rarely in the actual Hampden section and in the South Island generally, but is abundant in Poverty Bay in certain beds referable to the Te Hua formation. It is not in the Cretaceous and, though it carries on into the Whaingaroan (e.g. 5357, Upper Point Elizabeth beds; 1242, Awakino River), it is usually replaced in the Oligocene by a species extremely similar in all sculptural and chamber details but differing at sight in being much more slender, almost cylindrical; this may be called Textularia cuspis n.sp. (plate 14, figs. 63, 64), the type being from loc. 5182, Cormacks, lowest part of Oamaru limestone, just above diatomaceous earth; horizon Kaiatan, i.e. Lower Oligocene. This species is frequently met with in the Whaingaroa beds, and strongly recalls the American Upper Eocene T. recta Cushman, but has deeper sutures all over, more upwardly inclined.
Textularia marsdeni n.sp. (Plate 14, fig. 67.)
Shell moderately large, elongate, three to three and one-half times as long as wide; built of very fine sand grains, obscured by much cement. Surface only slightly roughened, though heavily sculptured; initially compressed, with a sharp keel regularly increasing in thickness and more slowly in width. Terminally sub-oval in outline, about one and a-half times as wide as thick; the keel becoming evanescent Sutures inclined upwards at about 20° from horizontal; mostly obscured by sculpture but on last few chambers forming distinct grooves. Chambers on later whorls only lightly convex, almost flush with surface; on earlier chambers they develop a heavy ornament of medial thick bars, completely crossing each half of shell alternately, with deep gutters of about same width between. There is a more or less pronounced double carina diverging up centre of shell enclosing about one-third of surface area; on the edges of this area the horizontal bars thicken into irregular knobs; this medial sculpture tends to weaken anteriorly. There are no fistulose projections. Aperture normal, a narrow slightly curved slit at base of last chamber, about one-third width of shell or a little more; terminal face somewhat flattened above it.
Length, up to 2.5 mm.; width, up to 0.8 mm.
Holotype from loc. 5274, Marsden, 6 miles South of Greymouth, “Blue Bottom.” Horizon Hutchinsonian (Lower Miocene).
The species is abundant at this locality and is restricted to Lower and Upper Hutchinsonian. It occurs in the highest horizons at Terakohe Marl Quarry, Takaka; in the Burnside sandstone; in the Trelissick Basin Tuffs (5054); in the Lepidocyclina basal Ihungian bed, Poverty Bay (3003), etc. It is also in the Janjukian and Balcombian.
This form is one of the agglutinans group and in some respects resembles one of the figures given by Brady (Chall. Zool., vol. 9, pl. 43, fig. 1), but the sculpture has distinct tendencies towards the group of corrugate Heron-Allen and Earland, though the latter is much wider and without the median double row of knobs. There are
numerous species masquerading as the West Indian agglutinans d'Orbigny, which Cushman has denned (1922, p. 7, pl. 1, figs. 4, 5) And recorded from the tropical Pacific (1932, p. 10, pl. 2, figs. 5–7). I have also seen Indo-Pacific specimens very similar to West Indian topotypes, but the species is quite different in sculpture from the present one and is not known to me from New Zealand. Chapman (1926, p. 29, pl. 7, fig. 12) has figured for this species a form which he recorded as typical and common in the Awamoan of Pukeuri; it is not in the least like true agglutinans, belonging to a different genus. It has a spout aperture, and is close to examples I have of T. heterostoma Fornasini from 77 fathoms off Ireland, as figured by Heron-Allen and Earland (1916, p. 229, pl. 40, f. 22, 23), but is much less compressed, the chambers being roundly inflated, with a groove but no flat hollowing down the centre; it may take the name Siphotextularia awamoana n.sp. (plate 14, figs. 89, 90), the holotype being from Awamoa Creek (5124). Rather curiously, a form very close to S. heterostoma occurs with it and is known from well back in the Tertiary and onwards till the present.
Two forms much closer in style of shell and sculpture are Textularia agglutinans var. fistula Cushman (1911, p. 10, fig. 11) from 200–300 fathoms North Pacific, and “Textularia rugosa” as figured by Brady (Chall. Zool., vol. 9, pl. 42, fig. 24). The former differs in many details of sculpture and aperture, while the latter has been re-described as Gaudryina rugulosa Cushman (1932, p. 15).
Two forms described by Karrer (1864, p. 78) from the Hutchinsonian of Orakei Bay need examination:—Textilaria hayi (l.c.; pl. 16, fig. 17) and T. convexa (pl. 16, fig. 8). The latter I cannot decipher at present, and it may be a Gaudryina; the former has been referred by Chapman (1926, pp. 4, 40) to Bolivina punctata, which the size alone makes an impossibility. It is obviously the large, very elongate, indistinctly sculptured form occurring together with, marsdeni in the Waitemata beds. The sculpture of the two is very similar, but much feebler in hayi, which has a different shape and is probably ancestrally related to the Recent T. stricta Cushman (1911, p. 11, fig. 13; see also 1921, p. 107, pl. 21, fig. 1); this is quite a common form in Recent North Island dredgings, but is not known in the South Island, nor in the Tertiary.
The present species is named after Dr. E. Marsden, Director of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, who has been responsible for geophysical work in the Greymouth area; the locality name is a coincidence.
Verneulina browni n.sp. (Plate 14, figs. 72, 73.)
Shell large, triangular, with sharp angles and many chambers; usually tapering fairly regularly to a sharp posterior point, but often with greatest width one-third of length from aperture, thence with a curved posterior taper and a much slighter anterior one; built of fine sandgrains in much cement. About 12 chambers on each side meeting in a zigzag central line between keels, which are sharp over the whole shell with practically flat surfaces between. Posterior ends of chambers form small backwardly pointing serrations along
keels. Sutures inconspicuous, terminal three chambers angularly flattened at top. Aperture a small subcircular opening with a narrow rim, situated in a small depression at junction of the three chambers The general appearance is very like that of Gaudryina proreussi, but it lacks the biserial stage and has a different aperture.
Length, 1.7 mm.; width, 0.7 mm. to almost 1 mm. (microspheric).
Holotype from Kakanui limestone (5181, Kakanui Point, 70 chs. at 82° from trig V); coll. by D. Brown. Horizon Whaingaroan, i.e. Mid-Oligocene. This is abundant at the type locality but has not been seen elsewhere in the Whaingaroan. It is also abundant in the Terakohe Marl, Takaka (5055, highest horizon), and occurs in the Burnside sandstone (5072, 6 ft. above glauconite band), so that its range extends to the Hutchinsonian. It has been seen neither above nor below these limits. The figured paratype (fig. 73) is from 3312, Waitemata beds, and is less finely grained and tapering, but the Takaka shells agree exactly with the type.
The Cuban Eocene V. villarensis Cushman and Bermudez (1937, p. 1, pl. 1, figs. 1, 2) is similar, but more elongate, with more foliate keels.
Gaudryina fenestrata n.sp. (Plate 14, fig. 68.)
Shell fairly large, elongate; triangular apical portion with sharp angles, relatively smooth, and of very small extent compared with rest of shell, which is about five times as long. Later part of shell quadrangular-rhombic in section, front and back practically flat, sides with a low but acute medial angle. From the three initial angles other keels diverge or are intercalated to enclose on front and back a long pointed area which widens more rapidly than shell outline:, so that the impression is given of keels converging posteriorly to meet the triangular ones. Another sharp keel runs medially down the sides. All these keels are connected by horizontal ridges outlining the chambers; anteriorly these thicken and widen; on sides they arc curved, producing a fenestrate effect. About seven biserial chambers on each side follow the triangular part; they are horizontal with grooved sutures between. Aperture normal, a small rounded opening at base of terminal face, which is flattened and not inflated.
Length, reaching up to 1.8 mm.; width, 0.75 mm. Thickness about two-thirds width.
Holotype from loc. 5274, Marsden, six miles South of Greymouth, “Blue Bottom.” Horizon Hutchinsonian (Lower Miocene).
This species is never abundant, but is highly characteristic and limited to the basal part of this horizon. It is the only ornamented species of Gaudryina, so far known in New Zealand.
The form at once recalls the figures given by Heron-Allen and Earland 1915, pl. 47, figs. 7–9) of their “Gaudryine variety of Textularia rugosa,” but the two keels along front and back are broken up and much closer together, as in the case of Brady's figures of rugosa; the figure given by Cushman (1932, pl. 4, fig. 1) when he
named this form G. rugulosa is not at all like the New Zealand shell. A more closely related shell is the Australian Tertiary species which Heron-Allen and Earland (1924, p. 142, pl. 8, figs. 23, 25) figured from the Batesford Miocene as G. rugosa d'Orb.; it is, of course, not this Cretaceous species, and has the latticing much less defined than in fenestrata.
Gaudryina (Pseudogaudryina) proreussi Finlay. (Plate 14, figs. 69–71.)
1939. Ibid., Finlay, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 68, pt. 1, p. 511.
Figures of the holotype and paratypes are here presented.
Large and typical specimens recently were found in the quartz glauconitic sands directly under the Amuri limestone, East Grey stream (coll. B. H. Mason, above lower Bortonian grey clays); also in the Chalk Marl lower part of the Amuri stone in the Motunau area (coll. B. W. Collins); and it occurs in the lower Amuri flint-stone at Conway Mouth (coll. J. Marwick)—defining all these as Bortonian.
In America, G. jacksonensis Cushman, with similar sharp angles but higher and fewer chambers, is common in the deeper-water Eocene, but is noted by Hedberg (1937, p. 667) to reach the Miocene in Venezuela, and develops into the Recent blunt-angled atlantica Bailey. In New Zealand, the sharp angled proreussi is limited to the Middle Eocene, and its blunter-angled descendant reussi does not usually survive the Middle Oligocene, Whaingaroan horizon; it has occurred, however, in samples from four different localities at the very base of the Grey Marls, just overlying the Weka Pass Stone— 5641 (Weka Creek; coll. B. H. Mason, also A. A. Olsson), 5648 (East Grey River; coll. B. H. Mason), and 5636 (Lower Gorge of Motunau; coll. B. W. Collins). Other forms also mark this distinct horizon as the same in each case, and P. reussi does not pass beyond it. The implications of this occurrence will be discussed elsewhere.
Clavulinoides olssoni n.sp. (Plate 14, fig. 76.)
Shell large, elongate, triangular and with sharp keels over whole length; composed of large and small sand grains set in much cement, giving a coarse but smoothly finished appearance. Initial, triserial part with the usual sharp angles, the surface between them smooth and distinctly hollowed, giving a pinched-in appearance; chambers quite indistinct; at the end of this portion there is a small but distinct change, the keels suddenly drop a little in height and there is a faint twist to the shell; the narrow hollowing ends and is replaced by a broad slightly concave surface between keels. The latter rapidly increase in strength again and remain high and sharp on to base of last chamber. About six uniserial chambers. Sutures between keels strongly arched and forming shallow excavations, sometimes obscure; their meeting on keels forms downwardly directed corrugations, slightly interrupting keel. Aperture terminal, small, raised above chamber surface by a very slight neck irregularly weakly notched all round.
Length, up to 2.4 mm.; width, 0.8 mm.
Holotype from loc. 5390, Rotokautuku Creek, Poverty Bay. Horizon, Middle Ihungian, i.e. Hutchinsonian.
This is a very characteristic species of this horizon and is not known out of it. It is abundant only at the type locality, but has been seen also in the lower Mahoenui and in the Greymouth “Blue Bottom.” It is named in honour of Dr. A. A. Olsson, Geologist of the New Zealand Petroleum Co., who collected the type sample.
This is, of course, similar to the tricarinata-pacifica group, being actually more like the former, but both these species are more smoothly finished and have a relatively wider aperture, with a tooth and practically no neck. Forms allied to C. pacifica are common in the Recent and Pliocene Australian fauna, but do not occur in the New Zealand Upper Tertiary or Recent. A Cretaceous relative is C. aspera and especially its variety whiteii Cushman and Jarvis (1932, p. 19, pl. 5, figs. 6–8) which seems to occur also in the New Zealand Upper Cretaceous Moeraki beds. One of the closest relatives is apparently the Cuban Eocene C. subulatus Cushman and Bermudez (1937, p. 2, pl. 1, figs. 8, 9), but this has a produced triserial portion; no form of this type is known from the Eocene or Oligocene of New Zealand.
Smooth triangular forms of Clavulinoides, however, occur here in the Tertiary, but are not of much zonal value. One of these is not uncommon in the Ihungian and Tutamoe, and is similar to several of the Cuban Eocene forms described by Cushman and Bermudez (1937, pp. 2–4); from C. cubensis it differs in having only three uniserial chambers instead of five and in being smaller (1.5 mm. in length instead of 2 or more); from eucarinatus in its sharply keeled early portion; and from marielinus in its large aperture—it has much higher, sharper and more compressed keels, with more concave interspaces than any of the Cuban species. There is more similarity indeed to the well-known European early Tertiary C. szaboï Hantken, recently well figured by Ostrowsky (1938, p. 352, pl. 24, fig. 7) from the French Marocco, but this has a longer and sharper triserial part. This New Zealand form may be called Clavulinoides instar n.sp. (plate 14, fig. 77), the holotype being from G.S. 1342, Waikura Stream, Patutahi S.D., Poverty Bay, “just under Tutamoe boundary”; horizon Tutamoe, i.e. Middle Miocene. Accompanying this species is a second much larger form which is most like the Cuban C. excurrens Cushman and Bermudez (l.c., p. 3, pl. 1, figs. 14. 15) but differs in having a shorter and more swollen initial portion, the rest of shell tapering to anterior end, and in having moderately sharp angles to keels, especially initially; it is the same size (1.5 mm.) and has also only two uniserial chambers. The name Clavulinoides virilis n.sp. (plate 14, fig. 78) may be applied to it, the holotype being from loc. 5373, Weber mudstone, Mangaotoro Surv. Dist., Dannevirke Subdiv., 33 chs. at 64° from trig AK; horizon below Ihungian probably in this ease Waitakian, i.e., Uppermost Oligocene. This species has, however, been seen in the Mahoenui beds and the Marsden “Blue Bottom’”
(5277A) of Hutchinsonian age, and as far up as the Taranakian (5558, Jedburgh grey marls, Cheviot); both species occur together in the Dannevirke Ihungian (5347, Pourere Surv. Dist.) and “Weber” (5373), and instar has been seen in the Lower Bortonian (4192). No such forms occur, however, in our Cretaceous.
Genus Arenodosaria nov.
Genotype (original designation): Clavulina robusta Stache, 1864; Reise der Novara, Pal., vol. 1, p. 169, pl. 21, figs. 9, 10 (Mid. Oligocene, New Zealand).
This is proposed for a few species which are not happily placed in Martinotiella. Stache's robusta is the most extreme form and as such is taken as the type, but his Clavulina antipodum (l.c., p. 167, pl. 21, figs. 3–8) is referable here, as is also, in my opinion, Clavulina elegans Karrer (1864, p. 80, pl. 16, fig. 11). The latter species has recently been fully dealt with by Parr (1937, p. 75, pl. 15, figs. 4–8), who has pointed out that a small biserial stage follows the initial bulbous portion. Actually this stage is a very brief transition from the bulbous apex to the uniserial portion; in all other respects, including the important and peculiar aperture (well figured by Parr), and details of both juvenile and adult, the species is so unlike Listerella primaeva and so closely related to antipoda and robusta that I prefer to associate it with them. Parr (l.c., p. 76) found no biserial stage in those species and referred them to Martinotiella, but that genus is described by Cushman as having “typically an elongate, narrow, arcuate opening about a rounded tooth, sometimes with a slight lip,” and his figure of topotypes of communis (Illustrated Key, pl. 8, figs. 6–8) show that this is not the same kind of aperture as exists in robusta. There is a line of several species throughout the Tertiary in New Zealand which has a distinct spout aperture somewhat like Uvigerina, and even to this group Martinotiella doubtfully applies, but they are all long, slender species, with the uniserial portion far outweighing everything else in proportion; robusta and its allies are large stout shells with far fewer uniserial chambers and an early bulbous portion, forming one quarter to one third of the shell. The aperture in juveniles is a vertical slit (sometimes almost Bulimine); in the adults a central opening surrounded by a notched rim (as in Nodosaria but cruder), which may finally become almost cribrate; it may be somewhat elevated, but there is no real spout. It seems to me more like a development from Plectina, while Listerella is a continuation from Karreriella, and Martinotiella from Arenobulimina.
I would therefore define the genus as having a large, bulbous triserial part, with a polyserial beginning; sometimes followed by a very short biserial stage; the aperture developing from a juvenile Bulimine slit to a Lageniform raised, fairly large, central opening; test coarsely arenaceous, with not much cement.
Listerella should not be used for any species which has not a spout aperture as in the genotype and in Karreriella.
Chapman (1926, p. 36) has placed robusta as “an incrassate form of … antipodum”; this may be so, but the two are usually easily distinguished and have different ranges, so are best kept apart. At first sight some localities (such at Otiake) seem to show the two
grading, but this is due to the large size reached there by antipoda. The latter is abundant throughout the Upper Bortonian, Kaiatan, Whaingaroan and Waitakian. In the Hutchinsonian it is sometimes common in the lower part, but tends to become rare as the Awamoan is reached, and after that it becomes infrequent. The much larger robusta is considerably more limited in its range, both above and below. It is abundant throughout the Oligocene, occurring commonly in the Duntroonian-Waitakian, but is rare in the true Hutchinsonian, where antipoda is often common (Marsden “Blue Bottom,” Waitemata beds, Makara facies of Ihungia, etc.). It is common still in the Uppermost Eocene (Tahuian of Burnside Marl and top of Hampden section), but rare or absent in the Bortonian. The genus has never been seen from the Cretaceous, so that its presence, with Pseudogaudryina proreussi in several Waitangi No. 1 Well cores, down to 1450 ft., is still further evidence that these bentonites must not be correlated with the surface outcrops of Rzehakina red shale.
The only other large form of this kind in the Tertiary is the species bradyi Cushman (1911, p. 73, figs. 118, 119)); this is referable to Martinotiella s.l., and occurs from the Whaingaroan to the present time in New Zealand.
Listerella weymouthi n.sp. (Plate 14, figs. 80, 81.)
Shell large, cylindrically club-shaped, bent and twisted, with large triserial part, few biserial, and several uniserial chambers. Triserial together with biserial part swollen and elongate, variable in length, but usually half or more of shell, initially polyserial, more or less twisted, the last three or four chambers biserial; four to five cylindrical uniserial chambers follow suddenly with a decrease in width to about two-thirds, nearly always irregular and somewhat staggered Sutures indistinct, except on last chambers, aperture in triserial and biserial stages exactly as in Karreriella, finally becoming in uniserial stage a central projecting spout situated in a slight depression.
Length, up to 2.3 mm.; major width, 0.7 mm.
Holotype from loc. 3089, base of alternating series North of Whangara, Poverty Bay. Horizon basal Tutamoe, i.e. Mid-Miocene.
This is a conspicuous species which cannot be mistaken, though at some localities specimens with uniserial stage are rare. It is usually abundant in the Lower Tutamoe sandy facies, but it occurs also in the Ihungian (5347, Pourere Surv. Dist. and many Poverty Bay localities) usually sporadically, but sometimes rather commonly: it is in the Pukahika, and extends down to the Maungatapere (4141 Waikura Stream; 3308, Coast, 2 m. W. of Tatapouri) and the equivalent, so-called “Weber” (5373, Mangaotoro Surv. Dist., Dannevirke), which is not true Weber.
The species is named after Mr. A. Weymouth, geologist of the New Zealand Petroleum Company.
Listerella levis n.sp. (Plate 14, fig. 79.)
Shell small, appearing very simple and primitive in structure, formed almost entirely of fine cement, which is very largely calcareous and soluble in acid. Initial chambers indistinct, but apparently more than three per whorl (at least in microspheric form); very quickly reduced to three and that almost at once to two, the impression given being simply of an early more than biserial bulbous part. Biserial portion of about four to six chambers; roughly equal in length to earlier part but variable. A final uniserial stage of about six chambers develops suddenly as in Bigenerina, and is similarly staggered at a slight angle to biserial axis. Chambers simple, convex, more so anteriorly; sutures forming distinct grooves. Aperture terminal, central, forming a small spout.
Length, 0.8 mm.; width, 0.1 mm.
Holotype from loc. 5371, main road, 1 mile South of Wanstead Hotel. Horizon, type Wanstead (= Upper Bortonian), i.e. Mid. Eocene.
This is a characteristic and not uncommon form in the Wanstead horizon, and occurs at many places in the Dannevirke area and in the Poverty Bay Te Hua beds. It is not in the Cretaceous, but reaches the Lower Ototaran, occurring commonly in the Kaiata mudstone (5332), and in a few indefinite samples from the “Weber.” This formation name is still unsatisfactory; faunas seen from the type locality are too poor to be decisive, but seem to be Tahuian.
This species resembles L. primaeva the genotype, except in being very much smaller and in having more convex chambers and a much shorter biserial stage. It is very similar to the Panama Upper Eocene L. anconensis Coryell and Embich (1937, p. 295, pl. 41, fig. 12) but has more convex chambers and deeper sutures. I can see no resemblance, however, to the various species from the Cuban Eocene placed in this genus by Cushman and Bermudez (1937, pp. 5–6, pl. 1). These all seem to me to have much stronger affinity to Martinotiella; forms extremely similar are common in the New Zealand Lower Tertiary.
Tritaxilina zealandica n.sp. (Plate 13, fig. 36.)
Acutely conical, posteriorly tapering evenly to a blunt point, swollen medio-anteriorly, slightly contracted towards aperture; built of large and small sandgrains in much cement. Four chambers per whorl, marked on later part of shell by very low angles where the heavily limbate sutural ridges meet in an irregularly sinuous pattern. Early third to half of shell distinctly five-angled, the angulations being sharper, higher and less sinuous than anteriorly and with fairly straight connecting limbations marking chambers. Sutural limbations rather narrow, high and bluntly rounded, leaving the depressions very long, relatively wide, with a flatly convex floor. In fully adult shell, chambers are reduced to three per whorl anteriorly, but no biserial stage has been seen. Aperture a small central opening at base of chambers as in Gaudryina.
Length, 2.25 mm.; width, 1.2 mm.
Holotype from Upper Point Elizabeth beds, loc. 5358, 1 mile-North of Cobden Bridge, Rununga Road. Horizon Whaingaroan, i.e. Mid. Oligocene. A single good and typical specimen has also been seen from the Pukahika of Whangara Beach (3148), and a few from Marsden “Blue Bottom” (5277A).
This has the heavy basal sculpture of the Recent Pacific caperata, but in absence of uniserial chambers is more like the American atlantica; it cannot be confused with either, nor with the Oligocene mexicana, whose chambers and biserial portion are quite different. A nearer relative appears to be the Cuban Eocene cubensis Cushman and Bermudez (1937, p. 7; and 1936, pl. 10, figs. 25, 26), but this does not have the five early angles, nor anything like such long and deep depressions between the much heavier limbations. A form still more like cubensis occurs in the New Zealand Eocene and may be called Tritaxilina languida n.sp.; it has five initial angles, similar to zelandica, but the chambers are separated by groved sutures without limbations; the deep pits that characterise cubensis are absent; the holotype (plate 13, fig. 38) is from loc. 5279, Wanstead mudstone, Motuotaraia Surv. Dist., 210 chs. at 20° from Trig. G, and it also occurs at 5573, chalk marl below Amuri limestone, Hurunui Mouth (plate 13 figs. 37, 39).
The genus has been found at quite a number of localities, but mostly as odd specimens. It continues into the Cretaceous Whangai.
Bolivina lapsus n.sp. (Plate 11, fig. 9.)
1926. Bolivina limbata of Chapman; N.Z.G.S. Pal. Bull., no. 11, p. 40, pl. 9, fig. 6, non Brady.
This and allied species have been masquerading under Brady's; name for many years. But, as plainly shown by the original figure and that of Cushman (1911, p. 48) the real tropical Recent species is a Loxostomum. Cushman's variety costulata (1924, p. 19, pl. 5, figs. 2, 3 and 6) from Samoa is very similar to the typical form (of which I have seen numerous Indo-Pacific examples) except in the addition of faint sculpture, and it too is definitely Loxostomid. The N.Z. shells never develop a terminal aperture, lack the pronounced twist and peculiar sides of limbata (very thick initially, regularly decreasing? to almost a sharp edge anteriorly), and have a quite different chamber development. About the only feature in common is the sutural limbation, which differs in detail and is found on many species. There are forms in the Australian Balcombian much more like true limbata, but these are apparently absent from New Zealand.
B. lapsus in general style of shell and limbation really more resembles the Cretaceous incrassata Reuss (see Cushman, 1921, p. 49, pl. 8, figs. 2–4—other figures seen less resemble lapsus). This species occurs in quite typical form and size also in the New Zealand Upper Cretaceous, being abundant in the Lower Rakauroa formation (3249, block 1, Waipiro Surv. Dist. and occurring as smaller specimens, (which Cushman also notes) in Mangaotoro Surv. Dist., Dannevirke area (5374), and at Tuparoa Stream (3250A) above 3249; the species is marked by its swollen proloculum, sutures sloping more steeply
with age up to 60° from horizontal; chambers about half as high as long, and very small aperture. It has recently been found in. the Waipara greensands (5665) of the type Piripauan, which correlates remarkably in its foraminifera with the Rakauroa and Tapuwaeroa.
The New Zealand Miocene species was recorded by Chapman as rare, but it is often extremely abundant in the Hutchinsonian, e.g., the Mahoenui and Ihungia beds, Marsden “Blue Bottom,” Waitemata Beds, etc. The holotype is chosen from Pakaurangi Point (G.S. 1189) and is 0.7 mm. in length, and about one third as wide; all chambers very distinct, at a constant angle of 45° throughout shell, which is so minutely perforate as to appear smooth and translucent. Sutures straight, meeting at sharp angles, formed of vitreous-matter, slightly more concentrated at upper angulation; periphery everywhere bluntly rounded; aperture rather large and widely open, not free of previous chambers. The species carries on into the Awamoan (common at 5273, All Day Bay) and Tutamoe, and is in the Taranakian (Kaiti beach section) but not above this; it is common, in the Pukahika, but extremely rare below this, though a few undoubted examples occur in the Whaingaroan (loc. 1278, 1 mile S.E. of Raglan). It thus has a range throughout the Miocene and penetrates rarely to the Middle Oligocene.
Plectofrondicularia pellucida n.sp. (Plate 11, fig. 7.)
Shell small, fragile, pellucid, compressed, elongate, about 6 to 7 uniserial chambers, sutures very steeply curved, but inconspicuous, often shown only by translucency of chambers. Microspheric form beginning as a sharp point, widening at about 45° for a short distance (about one-eighth of length), thence with but slightly diverging sides; megalospheric form similar, but with blunter apex (composed of spherical proloculum), smaller and more narrowly diverging biserial part. The latter is well marked off in microspheric shell by being slightly contracted at close and slightly thickened; biserial chambers about 3 on each side, mostly obscured by surface sculpture. This consists of about 9 equidistant hair-like threads that run evenly over the whole shell. On biserial part there are 1 to 3 additional short, irregular, raised ridges. Sides very compressed but rather bluntly angled.
Height, 1 mm.; maximum width, 0.2 mm.
Holotype from Eketahuna mudstone (5207) on roadside just South of the town. Horizon Opoitian, i.e. Lowest Pliocene. This is usually a not uncommon form in Opoiti faunas and may be of use in distinguishing that horizon. It is the “Plectofrondicularia sp.” already referred to by me (1939A, p. 530) as first occurring in the Opoitian; specimens are, however, known also from the Nukumaruan (5395, Devil's Elbow), and one from the Castlecliffian (5212). In the Opoitian of Hicks' Bay (G.S. 1155) it occurs together with the typically Upper Miocene P. pohana Finlay.
The species somewhat resembles the American Upper Eocene P. cookei Cushman (see Cushman, 1935, p. 34, pl. 12, figs. 11, 12), but is much smaller and finer, without the apical swelling; it has the
same sutures. In the Awamoan, there is a Miocene ancestor of pellucida, much more like cookei in general size, shape and apical thickening due to the bulbous proloculum; also in the uneven sculpture, the central ribs being stronger and more prominent, while those of pellucida are even all over. The New Zealand Miocene form differs at sight, however, in its extremely highly arched chambers, which even at first are higher than broad and become almost twice as much so. This form may be called Plectofrondicularia awamoana n.sp., the holotype being from All Day Bay upper marls (5273), and one specimen also occurring at Awamoa and in the Tutamoe of Island Creek, Poverty Bay, and in the Hutchinsonian Caversham sandstone at Burnside (5073).
Bulimina bortonica n.sp. (Plate 12, figs. 25, 26.)
Shell small, about one and three-quarter times as long as broad, microspheric form gradually tapering to a definite slightly blunted point; megalospheric form with a flatly domed top. Sutures distinct but shallow; chambers irregularly slightly inflated, roughly pentagonal in shape; in outline somewhat excavated on four of the sides (which are quite irregular in length), convex on side meeting next chamber. This gives the chambers a peculiar indented effect, where they join upper chambers near aperture. Surface smooth; apertural oblique truncation and excavation relatively large, but aperture itself fairly small, set in a hollowed out area, which is visible from back as a rounded notch in base.
Length, 0.35 mm.; width, 0.2 mm.
Holotype from Hampden section (5179B, 1 ¼ miles North of Kakaho Creek).
This is a common and ubiquitous Bortonian species occurring abundantly throughout the Hampden section, in the Wanstead formation of Dannevirke, the Te Hua beds of Poverty Bay, and the Pahi greensands On this occurrence alone the beds mentioned can be safely correlated, for the species is completely limited to, and a characteristic index fossil of, the Lower and Upper Bortonian, missing even from the Tahuian.
An allied form occurs very rarely in the Upper Cretaceous (e.g. 5301, Mangaotoro Surv. Dist.), but lacks the excavation depression in the chambers and the basal apertural notch. The two species are related to such forms as the Cuban Eocene B. tarda Parker and Bermudez, the French Eocene B. simplex Terquem, and the American Cretaceous B. exigua Cushman and Parker, but differ in several details.
Uvigerina maynei Chapman. (Plate 11, fig. 6; plate 12, figs. 18, 19.)
1926. Uvigerina maynei Chapman; N.Z.G.S. Pal. Bull., no. 11, p. 70, pl. 14, fig. 6.
This was described from the Oxford Chalk, North Canterbury, referred by Chapman to the Upper Cretaceous. The only analogy this locality or fauna has with Cretaceous is the word Chalk; topotypic material easily washes to yield a good fauna, very different in
size and preservation from what appears on Chapman's original slide: This contains 32 specimens allocated to 16 species; almost all are fragmentary, most are pieces of Gyroidina and Cassidulina, in the latter case being referred to three different genera and containing also bits of Rotaliatina. It would serve no purpose to discuss the identifications separately; the fauna is referable to the Whaingaroan Upper Ototaran, i.e. Mid. Oligocene, matching most closely.
In the case of maynei, it is evident that the original figure is peculiar and a careful examination will disclose that what Chapman took and figured for the anterior chambers and aperture (top right hand half of the figure) is adhering matrix, the apertural part being really the angularly truncate basal part of the figure, with the spout broken off. If this figure is inverted and compared with that of “pigmea” (fig. 7, same plate) the analogy is obvious. The matrix is soft, and the unique holotype was easily cleaned, exposing a posterior sculpture of sharp narrow ridges, especially prominent over-apex as jutting short blades. A topotype is here figured to show this effect (plate 11, fig. 6), also a Whaingaroan specimen (plate 12, figs. 18, 19) from loc. 5155, below Te Kuiti limestone, on road about 3 miles S.W. of Pakeho School.
The species is of the general schwageri line, but differs at sight from that species and its Tertiary relatives such as alazanensis Nuttall and gesteri Barbat and von Estorf in its far more numerous ribs, jagged apex, etc.; there are many somewhat similar species, such as the Upper Eocene cocoaensis Cushman, characteristic of the Jackson, and the Oligocene gallowayi Cushman, but this New Zealand form has a short range and is undoubtedly distinct. It is strictly limited to the Whaingaroan, and is usually abundant when present-Apart from the Oxford Chalk it is rare in the South Island (not seen so far in the Kakanui limestones or Cobden beds), but occurs at several places in the Poverty Bay Maungatapere (e.g. 4283, North of Trig. W9, Waingaromia; 5365, Waikura Stream, etc.). From all the species described below it is distinguished by smaller shell, with], practically no tendency to triangulation, and especially by the high plate-like character of the ribs posteriorly—starting inconspicuously at the lower sutures, they strengthen as they run up to form a more or less prominent shoulder just below upper suture, where jutting blades of uneven strength become more and more marked to culminate in a crown round apex. The ribs and apex are never smoothed off, but sculpture is obsolescent on lower half of last few chambers.
In a horizon just above Whaingaroan, probably Waitakian, there occurs at several localities a closely related form, Uvigerina dorreeni n.sp., which differs from maynei chiefly in reaching a larger size, tapering more acutely posteriorly, showing a distinct triangular habit, like the still later miozea, and having the aperture tending to move away from the junction of chambers to the isolation more typical of Siphogenerina; the sculpture of pointed plates is variable and sometimes almost disappears, foreshadowing the later developed U. paeneteres, which has quite blunt angles and inflated chambers. The holotype is from 5363 (“grading beds,” 100 ft. above Cobden limestone, but below Hutchinsonian); other records are from basal Grey Marl of
Weka Creek, lower Hutchinsonian Pachymagas beds of All Day Bay, Dannevirke “Lower Ihungian” (5344, 5383, above upper Wanstead), and in part of a large section (in Hawke's Bay) above Wanstead and below typical Ihungian.
An important fact is that this line does not occur at all in lower beds. Although species of Hopkinsina are common in the Kaiatan, Tahuian and Bortonian, no representative of the pigmea-schwageri group, so abundant in our Miocene, has ever been seen. The genus itself stops abruptly with the Bortonian and has no members in our Cretaceous.
Uvigerina pigmea d'Orb.
This has been given both Tertiary and Recent occurrences in New Zealand, but there are so many generally similar forms distinguished now in other countries that few, if any, of the shells examined by Chapman, Heron-Allen and Earland, etc., would pass the test of a close comparison with Italian Pliocene topotypes. These have been fully revised and illustrated by Cushman (1930, p. 62, pl. 3, figs. 14–20). It is interesting that at one horizon in the New Zealand Lower Pliocene (Wairoa beds, e.g. 2102, Clyde Surv. Dist., Pov. Bay, on Wairoa Road, West end of Lake Whakaki, examples do occur which are almost identical with Cushman's figures, and for these the name pigmea may be used. Other records will have to be distributed amongst different species. Shells of this general type occur as high up as the Kai-Iwi beds, but have not been seen so far in the true Castlecliff beds; this appears to be one of the few ready distinctions between the Castlecliffian and the underlying Kai-Iwi and Nukumaruan.
Uvigerina miozea n.sp. (Plate 12, figs. 12–14.)
This is proposed for the common Ihungian form, the holotype being from loc. 5389, N. branch Mangaoporo River, Ihungia mudstone upstream from bridge. Only the one species occurs here, and is characterised by moderately large shell with a very polished appearance (as if water worn, even in perfectly preserved shells), a distinct bluntly triangular habit, a greatest inflation at lower two-thirds, narrowing to a blunt worn-looking point apically (sometimes bearing a few jutting points marking ends of ribs), ribs fairly numerous, 2–4 times their width apart, becoming strikingly finer and more plentiful on each succeeding chamber, aperture short, rimmed, and smooth. This species is extremely common throughout New Zealand in the Hutchinsonian, and I have it from the Marsden “Blue Bottom,” the West Grey district, the Mahoenui beds, the Waitemata beds, and all through the Poverty Bay Ihungian and Tutamoe, in many samples. I have not seen it in the Pukahika, but it is in the topmost part of the Te Kuiti beds (5438), which seems to be its lowest limit. Examples from the Lower Hutchinsonian of All Day Bay and the “Grey Marls” of Weka Pass are close, but not typical, the ribs and apical points being stronger and less smoothed. A figure op this form, with abnormally sharp spikes, has been given by Chapman (1926, pl. 9, fig. 1) under the identification “Bulimina inflata”; his actual specimen shows the Uvigerina tube broken but
quite distinct. Such specimens should be referred to U. dorreeni. The South Island Awamoan forms seem inseparable from miozea.
A development from this form becomes almost entirely smooth, except for a few very distant and inconspicuous ribs in the first 2–3 apical chambers, slightly corrugating the blunt top; at the same time the groove which normally connects base of aperture to previous chambers disappears, and the aperture becomes entirely surrounded by last chamber, the semi-uniserial nature of which thus shows an approach towards Siphogenerina. This form, which occurs in the Upper Tutamoe and the Ihungian sandstone of Whangara (3029), may be called Uvigerina paeneteres n.sp., the holotype being from the Kaiti Beach section, Pov. Bay (3132, 400 ft. above alternating beds, 800 ft. below Ammodiscus bed of basal Taranakian); it is also present in the Upper Tutamoe of Muddy Creek (G.S. 1296; 60ft. above highest conglomerate).
Uvigerina mioschwageri n.sp. (Plate 12, figs. 15–17.)
This name is given to a development from miozea in which the shell is larger and more heavily sculptured. The worn appearance is not so evident, and every second or third rib becomes much stronger, developing into a posteriorly pointed wing. These are irregularly heavy on apical half of shell, but do not jut much beyond actual apex which has a single blunt spine or cluster of prickles. Interstitial areas between the plate-ribs may be almost smooth, but more often have a few riblets diminishing anteriorly.
Holotype from G.S. 1342, Waikura Stream, “just under Tutamoe boundary” (accompanying fauna Tutamoe). Horizon basal Tutamoe, i.e. Mid: Miocene.
This form seems to be absent from Ihungian sediments in Poverty Bay, but becomes increasingly the dominant form in the Tutamoe, where it has occurred quite often (e.g. G.S. 1342, Waikura Stream; 3109, Whangara, 900 ft. above base of Tutamoe; 1193, Mangatoetoe Stream; 3103, Knox Ck.; all Tutamoe and in Poverty Bay). It is accompanied there by dwindling numbers of miozea; elsewhere it seems to range down into the Hutchinsonian, for fig. 16 is of a specimen from Citrini's Area, near Kumara, Greymouth “Blue Bottom,” where both species occur and are quite distinct; this may possibly be a higher horizon than the Hutchinsonian “Blue Bottom” of Marsden. Only the miozea type occurs in the Clifden Hutchinsonian. U. mioschwageri continues on abundantly into the Taranakian, specimens being quite common in 3137 (Kaiti Beach section, 100 ft. above base of Poha), etc.
In the three primary shell angles, miozea and mioschwageri strongly recall the Oligocene Uvigerina cubana Palmer and Bermudez (see Cushman and Edwards, 1938, p. 79, pl. 13, figs. 18, 19) which also has three main flanges and secondary plate-like ribs; mioschwageri is especially close to this species but seems to have a sharper apex and more numerous ribs, which are more twisted and less vertically continuous.
Uvigerina sp. cf. interropta Brady.
This has been recorded by Parr (1934, p. 143) in a rock section from Chalky Island. The accompanying fauna is almost certainly Hutchinsonian and it is probable that Parr really had a member of the canariensis group. The tropical Indo-Pacific interrupta, with its strong uniserial tendency anteriorly, does not occur in New Zealand, and the record should be deleted.
Hopkinsina bortotara n.sp. (Plate 12, figs. 22–24.)
Shell with close knit chambers, roughly biserial; with many fairly strong, slender axial ribs, turning to prickles anteriorly. Shape elongate, three to almost four times as long as wide. Apex: bluntly pointed in microspheric form, widely rounded and dome shaped in megalospheric form; like H. notohispida in these respects. Sides sub-parallel over middle half, bent in on upper third and less so on lower third, where the apertural and penultimate chamber is usually narrower than the others. Upper quarter to third (3 or 4 chambers) regularly triserial, rest of shell (5 to 6 chambers) roughly biserial, somewhat twisted and more and more loosely wound as aperture is approached, somewhat as in U. interrupta, but less extreme. Sutures fairly deep, over-ridden by axials. About 16 to 18 axials on each chamber, forming narrow raised but blunted ridges, one and a-half to two times their width apart; somewhat irregular, slightly inclined to anastomose, continuing fairly in line with axials of later chambers over most of shell but inclined to meet them at sudden, sharp angles where chambers are narrowest; on last two whorls there is a gradual more or less complete break up into isolated ridglets, or even small prickles, with a tendency towards a smoother surface. Aperture a fairly long tube about one quarter width of chamber with prominent lip and several concentric rings.
Height, up to 0.8 mm.; width, about 0.3 mm. Many specimens are relatively narrower than this.
Holotype from Burnside marl, near Dunedin (5068). Horizon Tahuian, i.e. Upper Eocene. It is common throughout New Zealand in the Eocene and Lower Ototaran, but is rare above this, being usually replaced in the Upper Ototaran and onwards by species of the “pigmea” group; however it is present at 5357 (Upper Point Elizabeth beds, Whaingaroan) and 3287 (lower part of Maungatapere, Pouawa Dome). It is possible that it does not extend into the Lower Bortonian, as in the Eocene it has been found associated only with Upper Bortonian or Tahuian faunas.
On the definition of the genus, this seems referable to Hopkinsina, but is not very like the style of shell figured for danvillensis, the genotype. It is plainly reminiscent of such Eocene forms as U. spinicostata Cushman and Jarvis and U. havanensis Cushman and Bermudez (see Cushman and Edwards, 1937, pp. 80, 83. pl. 12, figs. 2, 3, 11, 12), but differs in sculpture details.
Hopkinsina wanzea n.sp. (Plate 12, figs. 20, 21.)
A form of the previous species in which the reduction of the axials to prickles has proceeded almost completely. The whole surface is covered with minute pustules somewhat like but smaller in
degree than in U. notohispida. At first sight the resemblance to the latter species is close, but notohispida is considerably larger, has s much more pronounced difference in the microspheric and megalospheric apex and has no trace of linear arrangement in the close mat of flat-topped pustules, while wanzea has the prickles more separated and still in more or less vertical lines. The shape as a whole is stouter and shorter than in bortotara, with the sides hardly anywhere parallel; this gives it somewhat the appearance of the canariensis group, but it is larger and rougher than any of the latter in New Zealand. In the Whaingaroan Maungatapere formation (e.g. 4141) a species of that group closely simulates wanzea, but is smaller, with still finer prickles.
This form is common in the Wanstead facies of the Upper Bortonian, but occurs also at Hampden—together with bortotara at 5179B (Upper Bortonian) and alone at 5180 (Lower Bortonian). The holotype is from loc. 5371, main road 1 m. S. of Wanstead Hotel, type Wanstead.
Hopkinsina notohispida n.sp. (Plate 12, figs. 10, 11.)
This is the New Zealand Middle Tertiary representative of the Indo-PacifiC Pliocene Uvigerina hispida Schwager (1866, p. 249, plate 7, fig. 95). It is the same in size, general features and loosely biserial anterior chambers, and the ornament consists of numerous rather coarse, prominent pustules, but these are much more crowded and closer together than in Schwager's figure. The latter shows quite sharp and high spines two to three times their own width apart and two to three times as high as broad. In New Zealand shells the spines are very rarely sharp, mostly low, rounded knobs, no higher than wide (generally less) and less than their own width apart; the microspheric and megalospheric forms differ radically in shape, the former being sharply pointed posteriorly and swelling anteriorly, the latter smaller, subcylindrical, with inflated domed apex. Schwager's figures are reasonably accurate, and, though I have seen no typical material, I am unable to identify this species with his. Cushman (1929, p. 95, pl. 13, fig. 35) has figured a Venezuelan Oligocene specimen as hispida, but shows the spines closer (though not as abundant as in notohispida) and remarks that they are blunt; Cushman and Edwards (1938, p. 83, pl. 14, fig. 6) have since named this form Uvigerina rustica and noted considerable differences from hispida. New Zealand specimens, while like rustica in coarseness of spines, have a still greater density, and lack the wide oblique aperture; in shape and aperture they more resemble hispida. Quite recently, Lacoste and Rey (1938, p. 320, pl. 21, fig. 12) have well figured, under the name U. hispida, a Burdigalian French Maroccan specimen which could easily have come from New Zealand. Their illustration shows just the points of difference from hispida and rustica I have commented on, and it would seem that notohispida occurs also in that area, where it does not range below Burdigalian.
Holotype from Poverty Bay locality 3141, Kaiti beach, 1700 ft. above “Cyclammina” bed, which marks base of Poha formation. Horizon, Taranakian, i.e. Upper Miocene.
In New Zealand this form is somewhat sporadic in occurrence, but frequently abundant, especially in tuffaceous sediments. It is liable to occur throughout the Tutamoe and Taranakian; the upper limit seen is basal Opoiti (Lowest Pliocene) and the lower limit is G.S. locality 1342 (Patutahi Surv. Dist., Poverty Bay, Waikura Stream), a horizon supposed to be immediately below the Tutamoe-Ihungia boundary, but with a definitely Tutamoe fauna. I have never seen this species from Hutchinsonian or lower beds. On the Taranaki side it is quite common in Mohakatino faunas and in the Amuri district occurs in the Cheviot so-called “grey marl” (5557A).
The New Zealand Species Of Siphogenerina Schlumberger, 1883.
Of all the rhizopod genera in New Zealand this is one of the most useful in supplying key species. From the Eocene to the Upper Miocene the main formations may be distinguished with relative ease if species of this genus are present, though careful discrimination involving comparison of specimens is sometimes necessary. The species have a wide range, over most of New Zealand, and are largely independent of facies. The genus is used for forms directly derived from Uvigerina by the addition of a uniserial stage without any intervening biserial one; forms of the latter type are referable to Rectobolivina.
Siphogenerina striatissima (Stache).
1864. Nodosaria striatissima Stache. Reise der Novara, Pal., vol. 1, p. 198, pl. 22, figs. 25 a-f.
This was quite well and recognisably figured by Stache (except for an idealised initial portion), but nevertheless has been misinterpreted, due to his and Chapman's wrong generic locations. Chapman (1926, p. 51) as usual threw the name in synonymy, but his choice of the Cretaceous paupercula Reuss as an equivalent is erroneous even generically. Perhaps misled by this, Parr (1935, p. 77) has recorded Awatere specimens as Nodosaria striatissima, in spite of the enormous discrepancy in size between his fragment and Stache's species. His actual specimen proves to be what Stache called Nodosaria callosa (1864, p. 197, pl. 22, fig. 23), which is probably inseparable from his obliquecostata and substrigata (l.c., figs. 23, 22).
The real striatissima is a common fossil in the Whaingaroa beds, present usually in abundance in almost every sample, and shows at once by its triserial apex that it belongs to Siphogenerina. The triserial part is extremely small and well covered by sculpture, but the aperture is quite clear and not Nodosarian.
Of all our species this is the nearest in general habit to raphanus, but the ribs are very much weaker and more numerous, with typically a number of spinose projections at the posterior end, the chambers are more distinct, and the aperture is very weakly rimmed. In these respects it resembles S. basispinata Cushman and Jarvis (1929, p. 13, pl. 3, figs. 4—5) but is decidedly more elongate. It is characterised specifically by its very obscure, small apical portion (about one fifth the total length) hardly interrupting the shell outlines, which are
practically straight; the whole narrowly cylindrical, or slightly swelling anteriorly, the chambers hardly at all convex, uniserial ones numbering 6 to even 8 and the sutures very feeble. The ribs are narrow but fairly strong, numerous, about their own width apart, strongest posteriorly (and at apex jutting into small irregular spines) weakening anteriorly, evanescent on last chamber, and usually absent on base. The aperture is a very short, extremely slender, smooth spout, with a tiny fragile rim, usually broken.
The acicular form is characteristic, but there occur with it less abundant specimens, which are decidedly more slender still, quite cylindrical, and with faintly convex chambers and weaker sculpture; these are possibly distinct, but may be the megalospheric form.
The typical form is strictly limited to the Whaingaroan and overlying Duntroonian and, especially when abundant, unfailingly marks these Upper Oligocene horizons.
Apart from the actual Whaingaroa beds, the typical form has been seen only in the Upper Point Elizabeth beds (5357); Cobden limestone (5361); the uppermost Kakanui limestone (5181); the locality G.S. 1910, in Swinburn Surv. Dist., S.E. of Naseby; the Oxford Chalk, Canterbury (Sagraina striata of Chapman, 1926, p. 71, pl. 14, fig. 12; non Schwager); the Poverty Bay Maungatapere (4283, North of Trig. W9; and also 1176, North branch Wheao Creek); and the Amuri limestone. A Middle Amuri sample recently collected in East Grey district (5575) by B. H. Mason yielded a fauna containing S. striatissima, Notorotalia stachei Finlay and Rotaliatina sulcigera (Stache); this association supplies the first reliable evidence for the age of this classic deposit, and correlates this part of it with the Whaingaroan. Chapman (1926, pp. 10, 11) placed it in the Cretaceous on the basis of his record of Gumbelina and Globigerina cretacea; the former is common in the Ototaran and runs high into the Tertiary, while the latter occurs only in the Raukumara Upper Cretaceous formation and is not resembled by any Amuri form. The glauconitic base of the Amuri stone in the same area (5448) yielded a poorly preserved fauna containing Rotaliatina sulcigera, Pseudogaudryina reussi, Hopkinsina bortotara, Marginulina hochstetteri, Cibicides parki, and Siphogenerina postprandia (see below); this fauna is Lower Ototaran, i.e., Kaiatan. At Hurunui, the “Chalk Marls” under the Amuri stone already have an abundant Upper Bortonian fauna, so that the Grey Amuri limestone appears to be a compressed deposit filling the whole Ototaran sequence, from Kaiata to Cobden, the overlying Weka Pass stone being Duntroonian-Waitakian. The Hydraulic Limestone of Auckland and the Chalky Limestone of Poverty Bay, however, in spite of lithological similarity, have Wanstead faunas and correlate with the Amuri Chalk Marls.
Still more recent collections indicate clearly that in the typical Waipara Gorge area the sandy marl formation underlying the Amuri stone contains only Lower and Upper Bortonian faunas, while marly basal bands of the true stone yield S. postprandia, Bolivina cf. reticulata and lapsus, and other definite Ototaran species, while at the
Conway River mouth, close to the typefull exposure of the Amuri stone, the lower part of the limestone with flints is already Upper Bortonian. The Tertiary age of the whole deposit, even in its fullest development, is thus demonstrated, and backed by correlation evidence for the first time.
The species has been seen from the typical Duntroonian (5660; base of Duntroon limestone, with Waiparia elliptica), but not in the Wharekuri beds, Waitaki limestone, or Otiake beds. It is present at Kyeburn (G.S. 1903), at two localities in the lower Te Kuiti beds (5629, Orahiri S.D.; G.S. 526, Pirongia S.D., with mollusca like Wharekuri), just above the Cobden limestone (5363), in the basal Grey Marls (Weka Pass, East Grey, Motunau), and in the Dannevirke and Hawke's Bay “Lower Ihungian.” These Waitakian-Lower Hutchinsonian specimens are often not exactly typical, but differ too slightly for any useful separation.
A shell very similar to striatissima is abundant in the Kaiatan of Kakanui (5307, lowest limestone, 85 chs. at 55° from Trig. V) and Cormacks (5182, just above diatomite), but is considerably stouter, with more convex chambers and less acicular form, the ribbing being much weaker, especially in the sutures; uniserial chambers about five, lower ones almost smooth, apical spikes and plates much feebler. It may be called Siphogenerina postprandia n.sp (plate 13, figs. 40, 41), the holotype being from Cormacks and measuring 1 mm. by 0.2 mm. in size. There is a single not adult specimen in the Tahuian Burnside marl (5068), which seems closer to this species than to the Bortonian prisca, and another occurs in the Kaiatan of Swinburn S.D. (G.S. 2101). Three other forms derived from striatissima occur in beds above it and are now described.
Siphogenerina rerensis n.sp. (Plate 11, fig. 8.)
1926. Uvigerina tenuistriata, of Chapman; N.Z.G.S. Pal. Bull., no. 11, pl. 14, fig. 9; non Reuss (Orakei Bay).
Shell generally similar to striatissima and of the same size, but with notably longer and fewer chambers. Those of striatissima are oblong, about half as high as wide, with almost straight sides; those of rerensis are two-thirds to three-quarters as high as wide, with markedly curved sides. There are never more than five, usually four, uniserial ones; the triserial part is much less hidden by sculpture, the Uvigerine chambers distinctly convex and noticeable, forming a somewhat bulbous apex to shell (about one quarter of total length). Ribs are very similar but more distant, about twice their width apart, produced into the same irregular spines posteriorly (though these tend to coalesce more into one long and strong spine), of even strength over whole shell, not diminishing on last chamber or base. Aperture relatively longer and wider, with a rim and one or two concentric ridges.
Length, 1 mm.; width, 0.2 mm.
Holotype from loc. 3029, Whangara Beach, South of Whangara, Poverty Bay, in argillaceous sandstone, above the lowest massive mudstone. Horizon, Hutchinsonian, i.e. Lower Miocene.
This sandstone is the local equivalent of the Rere formation, in which the species is common but usually imperfectly preserved. Another equivalent is the Waitemata horizon of Orakei (Hobson's) Bay; on Chapman's actual slide from this locality the specimens identified as U. tenuistriata are elongate forms of the pigmea line, but his figure obviously represents the Siphogenerina common there.
All the distinguishing features of this species are already to be seen in the specimens from the underlying “Pukahika” shale, which belongs faunally with the Ihungian, as part of the Hutchinsonian. It is also present in the Mahoenui beds, and there is one undoubted shell in 5197, 20 ft. below top of Mokau, Awakino River mouth, South side (with an accompanying fauna very like Ihungian); but I have seen no specimens from the Tutamoe or Awamoan elsewhere, and it is probably a good Hutchinsonian index fossil. In the South Island Hutchinsonian a closely related but distinct species replaces it; this has the same general separative features from striatissima. in the distinct Uvigerine portion, regular and persistent ribbing and convex chambers, and differs from rerensis only in smaller size, still more distinct and convex chambers, the end ones tending to become globular and separated, and the more numerous finer and lower ribs, especially posteriorly, where the triserial part (about one third of length), instead of being more strongly and spikily sculptured is actually smoother, with the ribs twisting into a single terminal spike. This form may be called Siphogenerina vesca n.sp. (or variety) (plate 13, figs. 46, 47), the holotype being from locality 5105, Citrini's Area, near Kumara, Greymouth “Blue Bottom”; horizon, Hutchinsonian. The same species occurs also at loc. 5364, near Cobden village in a horizon below the true Blue Bottom, and above the Cobden, but is already replaced in a still lower horizon at the same locality (5363) (which is still 100 ft. above the Cobden) by striatissima, so that in this district the evolutionary line is plain. The species further occurs in the Burnside sandstone (5072, 6ft. above glauconite band) and Caversham sandstone (5092, with Pachymagas), but has nowhere occurred at any South Island Awamoan horizon with the exception of one doubtful shell from the Rifle Butts (5125A).
On the evidence, both rerensis and vesca seem to be characteristic Hutchinsonian species; both are related to the Trinidad Oligocene multicostata Cushman and Jarvis (see Cushman, 1929, p. 95, pl. 13, f. 38), especially the former, but have ribs interrupted much more by sutures, not continuous over shell.
Siphogenerina pohana n.sp. (Plate 13, figs. 44, 45.)
Shell related to the previous species but smaller and with very fine sculpture. Triserial part distinct, slightly bulbous (about one fifth of total length), followed by 5 to 6 uniserial chambers about two-thirds to three-quarters as high as wide, lightly convex, sutures distinct but not deep, whole surface evenly covered with excessively fine and dense axials, not overrunning sutures as in the other species and visible only with a favourable light reflection. Apex with a very short single spine. Apertural tube relatively large and wide.
Length, 0.75 mm.; width, 0.12 mm.
Holotype from loc. 3099, Uawa Surv. Dist., Poverty Bay, just East of Trig. 166. Horizon, Poha formation = Taranakian, i.e. Upper Miocene.
This species is known mostly from the Poverty Bay area and is never common but has occurred in numerous samples, e.g. 2103, Waikaretaheke Rd.; 2128, Whaingake; 3137, 100 ft. above base of Poha, Kaiti Beach; and 5018 and 4151, directly below Otomahukua limestone, Hangaroa Stream, type Poha section. Its downward range is uncertain; it has not been seen in the Poverty Bay Tutamoe, but fine examples occur in 5630 (Owen road saddle, Totoro S.D., Taranaki) at a horizon which is certainly below Tongaporutu, and is either high in the Mokau or Mohakatino. In basal Mokau from the same area was one small specimen more like rerensis. The fauna of 5630 is closely similar to that of the South Island Jedburgh “Grey Marls” of the Cheviot district, where S. pohana also occurs (5558, 5560); no Bolivinita occurs, but the fauna is very like Taranakian and like other Jedburgh marls with Bolivinita (5557A).
Siphogenerina prisca n.sp. (Plate 13, figs. 48–51.)
Shell small, with a disproportionately large triserial part, and few uniserial chambers, with inconspicuous ribs. Surface smooth and glossy between ribs, chambers inflated, especially the Uvigerine ones, separated by fairly deep sutures. Uniserial chambers usually only two, never more than three. Axial ribs thin and delicate, very little raised, numerous but several times their width apart, discontinuous across sutures, produced into little spikes on apex, subobsolete on uniserial chambers, absent on base, which rather flatly and narrowly truncates the globular last chamber, the aperture being a small rimmed tube in the depression. The whole impression is that of a juvenile Uvigerina pigmea with a couple of extra staggered cylindrical chambers.
Length, 0.6 mm.; width, 0.2 mm.
Holotype from topmost part of Hampden section (loc. 5179A, one mile North of Kakaho Creek), coll. by Professor Park. It is fairly common here, but almost absent elsewhere in the Hampden beds.
This was an interesting discovery, as the species had been known to me previously only as a very distinct form in the well-cores of Waitangi No. 1 Well, Poverty Bay, which correlate faunally with the surface Te Hua beds. In the well-cores it is present both above and below red bentonitic shales, so that this part of the section is certainly a correlative of the Bortonian. Neither the genus itself nor Hopkinsina, which is common in the well, is known from the Cretaceous; this supplies further evidence for regarding the surface outcrops of Upper Cretaceous red shale (with Rzehakina) as a distinct formation (see Finlay, 1939B, p. 536). In all other key species the well Te Hua beds correlate with the Bortonian, both Upper and Lower, and are undoubtedly Tertiary; these key species are absent from the surface outcrops, where the abundance of Rzehakina and Bolivinopsis spectabilis, etc., points strongly to the Rakauroa Cretaceous horizon.
Since the above was written, the species has been observed at three more localities—in the Dannevirke Wanstead (5279, Motuotaraia Surv. Dist.; with Zeauvigerina zelandica Finlay an index form of the Upper Bortonian; in the Motunau district (5635, Stoneyhurst S.D., chalk marl below hard Amuri stone); and in the East Grey area (5449, glauconitic quartz sands below the Amuri limestone). The latter occurrence is particularly interesting, as it occurs in a known section, the glauconitic base of the Amuri stone above (5448) having a Kaiatan fauna, while the grey clays below (5328) carry a good Lower Bortonian assemblage.
S. prisca thus seems to be an Upper Bortonian indicator of considerable value.
Siphogenerina ongleyi n.sp. (Plate 13, figs. 42, 43.)
Shell large and stout, microspheric form strongly tapering posteriorly to a point, megalospheric form almost cylindrical with blunt apex, lower half of both forms subcylindrical, narrowly truncate below, the aperture being situated in a shallow crater exactly as in prisca. Triserial portion very large, occupying about two-thirds of shell length; the chambers moderately inflated and separated by deep sutures. Uniserial chambers two or three at most, considerably staggered; whole shell covered with fine, close, low but fairly prominent axials, about twice their width apart. They are very regular in direction, and are crossed by a shallow groove posteriorly on each chamber to form a slight infrasutural shoulder of short, blunt points. These project more prominently near apex, which has numerous small spines.
Length, 1 mm.; width, 0.25 mm. (microspheric). Megalospheric form reaches 0.8 mm.
Holotype from loc. 5093, Porangahau-Wimbledon Rd., Porangahau (S.E.) Surv. Dist.; coll. M. Ongley. This locality has exactly the same fauna as 1005, Taiporutu Stream, Mahia Peninsula; the exact field relationships and horizon of both are uncertain.
Except at these two localities the species occurs but rarely; nearly always in Ihungian faunas. It has been seen in the following: 3013, Whangara, mudstone below Tutamoe; 2093, Tunanui Creek; 2155, Hicks' Bay; and, in the Dannevirke area, 5347, Pourere Surv. Dist and 5380, Porangahau Surv. Dist.—all these axe in the Ihungian, but the Kaiti Beach Upper Tutamoe localities 3132 and 3133 each have one specimen, so the range is apparently middle Ihungian-Tutamoe.
The species is very closely related to the Trinidad Eocene Uvigerina seriata Cushman and Jarvis (1929, p. 13, pl. 3, figs. 11, 12) (see also Cushman and Edwards, 1937, p. 82, pl. 12, figs. 9, 10), but this has a stouter aperture and seems to lack the infrasutural groove across the posterior points of the axials, which forms the shoulder effect in ongleyi. A form which better agrees with the New Zealand shell in these respects has been figured from the Burdigalian of
French Marocco (not ranging below this stage) by Lacoste and Rey (1938, p. 320, pl. 21, fig. 14). These forms are obviously of the same lineage as the Recent Hawaiian irregularis (Bagg); these species and prisca differ from the striata line in the basal depression surrounding the spout.
Cassidulina arata n.sp. (Plate 14, figs. 74, 75.)
Shell very small, in shape practically a miniature of C. subglobosa, and with the same aperture. Specifically characterised by the presence of distinctive sculpture, each chamber ploughed in direction of growth by fine and numerous irregular bifurcating; furrows; the low ridges between are sometimes prominent on well-preserved shells, but are more often so inconspicuous that only a transverse illumination reveals them.
Major diameter, 0.3 mm.; minor diameter, 0.25 mm.
Holotype from Marsden “Blue Bottom” (5275).
This is a characteristic and important key species of the Hutchinsonian. When present it is often abundant, but easily overlooked as a juvenile of subglobosa, though the two specimens seldom occur together. It is widespread and has been seen often in the Poverty Bay middle Ihungian, the lower Mahoenui beds, the Waitemata beds, and the Greymouth “Blue Bottom.” It has never occurred in the Upper Ihungia or Tutamoe, or in beds below the basal Waiparia bed of the middle Ihungian and is apparently a safe indicator of true Hutchinsonian age. It is interesting therefore that it also occurs at Pakaurangi Point (G.S. 1189, and in the Miogypsina band) and in the basal limestone at Clifden with type Hutchinsonian brachiopods.
Cassidulina subglobosa Brady.
1926. Bulimina globocapitata Chapman; N.Z.G.S. Pal. Bull., no. 11, p. 38, pl. 8, figs. 16 a, b.
Chapman described his species as common in the Amuri limestone and possessing a “sharply tapering aboral series … strongly curved or twisted to one side.” His actual slide contains three specimens so identified; all, as can be seen even from his figure, are fragments of Cassidulina subglobosa with pieces of hard matrix adherent—this matrix is the “aboral series.”
The species ranges throughout the whole New Zealand Tertiary and into the Recent, but is not in the Cretaceous.
Family Robertinidae nov.
I propose this new family to contain the genera Robertina d'Orbigny, 1846, Ceratobulimina Toula, 1920, Pseudobulimina Earland, 1934, and the two new groups here proposed, Ceratocancris and Cerobertina, basing the family name, as should be done, on the earliest named genus it contains. The three already known genera are variously associated at the present time with families and genera to which they seem but little related. Pseudobulimina is so like Ceratobulimina in all but the series of supplementary chambers that it seems anomalous to refer the former to the Cassidulinidae and
the latter to the Turrilinidae, as lately done by Chapman and Parr (1937, p. 80); Astrononion remains in the Nonionidae, close to Nonion in all respects, except in the possession of similar supplementary chambers. Cushman (1933, p. 254) associates Ceratobulimina with Pulvinulinella in a sub-family Ceratobuliminidae of the Cassidulinidae, but this seems a very strange allocation, as the apertural characters are totally unlike, and neither much resembles the large and homogeneous Cassiduline group. Galloway (1933, p. 280) puts Ceratobulimina near Cancris and Lamarckina in the Rotaliinae, but places (page 368) Robertina with Cassidulina, while the more usually accepted location is near Buliminella in the Buliminidae. I can see little affinity between the aperture of Robertina and that of any of the forms legitimately referred to Buliminella. Compare, for example, the excellent figures of the species of Robertina given by Cushman and Parker (1936B, p. 92, pl. 16) with those of the Buliminellid forms from the Cretaceous (Cushman and Parker, 1936A, p. 5, pl. 2) and Tertiary (Cushman and Parker, 1937, p. 65, pls. 9, 10).
There is a very striking general similarity in structure, texture, and aperture in the live groups mentioned. The structure is a rather tightly wound spiral, varying from narrowly acute to flatly rounded, or laterally expanded; the texture is smooth and glossy, the shell wall usually thick and laminated; though frequently thin in the more primative Robertina; the aperture is especially characterised by a simple deep slit in the terminal face. Robertina is described as having a supplementary smaller aperture at the junction of this face with previous chambers; this seems to represent the more or less prominent umbilicus seen in the other groups. A comparison of the figures of Robertina charlottensis (Cushman) (see Cushman and Parker, 1936B, pl. 16, fig. 12) and Pseudobulimina chapmani (Heron-Allen and Earland) (see Earland, 1934, pl. 6, fig. 11–14) makes it extremely difficult for one to deny the close relationship of these two micro-organisms; the secondary chambers are exactly the same in type and position. Earland noted (l.c., p. 134) that these apparently constituted the only observable difference from Ceratobulimina, of which he had been “unable to find any with even a vestigial trace of the second series.” I am describing below a genus of several species which again is extremely like Ceratobulimina, but has a definite series of secondary chambers on the umbilical instead of the dorsal side, and I have seen related Recent Indo-Pacific forms which, though very flat and almost Nonion-like, still show distinctly similar umbilical chamberlets.
As regards the systematic location of this group, I suggest that it is more likely derived from a Bulimine than a Rotalid ancestor, and that the resemblance to Cancris, Valvulineria, etc., is due to isomorphism. The Cassidulinidae as a whole have very similar texture and double chambering, and many species show a sort of double aperture, the principal cleft in the terminal face together with another at right angles along the parietal wall, not unlike the arrangement seen in Robertina. But the group as a whole has diverged
so far from Cassidulina and its immediate allies that it would seem best to erect for it a separate family following Bulminidae and Cassidulinidae.
In Robertina and Pseudobulimina there are secondary chamberlets along the suture on the dorsal side; Robertina is spirally elongate, higher than wide, Pseudobulimina is spirally depressed, wider than high. In Cerobertina there are secondary chamberlets along the umbilicus on the ventral side. In Ceratobulimina and Ceratocancris there are no secondary chamberlets, the former having an open Robertina like apertural trench, the latter having an entirely covering plate, leaving a Discorbis or Cancris-like opening along the base of the last chamber from umbilicus to periphery.
In the abundant specimens I have studied the constancy of coil direction, at least in Ceratobulimina, Ceratocancris and Cerobertina, is remarkable. In a dextral species no examples have been seen of sinistral individuals, or vice versa, and I would regard this as a specific feature. All the species seen have been dextral, with the exception of Cerobertina tenuis and C. mahoenuica.
Genus Robertina d'Orbigny, 1846.
Genotype (monotype): Robertina, arctica d'Orb.; Foram. Foss. Bass. Tert. Vienne, 1846, p. 202, pl. 21, figs. 37, 38 (Recent, Siberia).
Half a dozen species have ben observed in the New Zealand Recent and Tertiary faunas, as far back as the Waiarekan (Lower Oligocene), where there is a species very similar to R. ovigera (Terquem) (see Cushman and Parker, 1936B, p. 98, pl. 16, figs. 15 a, b) but much larger, reaching 0.75 mm. in length, with less rapidly expanding chambers (there being about seven primary ones visible in front view, as against five in the Parisian form), and with the apertural slit running two-thirds of the way into the terminal face, instead of less than half. This may be known as Robertina lornensis n.sp (plate 12, figs. 27, 28), the holotype being from Lorne (5064), type Waiarekan; horizon, basal Kaiatan, i.e. Lowest Oligocene. The species has not occurred elsewhere. All other Tertiary examples observed so far have been very small and rare.
A species equally close in many respects is the German lower Oligocene R. germanica Cushman and Parker (1938, p. 73, pl. 16, fig. 2), which is as large, but has shallow sutures and narrower chambers.
Genus Pseudobulimina Earland, 1934.
Genotype (monotypic): Bulimina chapmani Heron-Allen and Earland; British Antarct. Exped., 1922. “Terra Nova,” Zool., vol. 6, no. 2, pt. 2, p. 130, pl. 4, figs. 18–20 (Recent, Antarctic).
No New Zealand records are known. Chapman and Parr (1937, p. 80) have lately noted that all records are from off the Ice Barrier.
Genus Ceratobulimina Toula, 1920.
Genotype (monotypic): Rotalina contraria Reuss; Zeitschr. deutsch geol. Ges., 1851, vol. 3, p. 76, pl. 5, fig. 37 (Oligocene, Germany).
Galloway's Manual gives the date of Toula's work as 1915; I am unable to check it.
There seem to be more than one group included in the species discussed by Cushman and Harris (1927, p. 171–176, pl. 29). The forms represented by C. hauerii (d'Orbigny) with their plate-like extension completely covering the aperture are in New Zealand quite distinct from those of the C. pacifica Cushman and Harris type, in which the aperture is always perfectly open and is a much narrower slit; this aperture is not so well seen in the figure given by them as it is in Brady's (Chall. Zool., vol. 9, p. 54, fig. 18). Forms resembling the variety australis of C. hauerii are not uncommon in New Zealand and perfect examples always show an unslit terminal face, the plate leaving merely a Discorbis-like aperture, but being noticeably thinner over a relatively wide medial tongue-like area, somewhat as in Cancris. No narrow slit is observable in these specimens. Only when broken do they show the tongue-like area open and inclined to one side of the terminal face. Individuals of the pacifica group never have a projecting plate even when fully adult. Shells at all stages show a deep, narrow slit extending straight into the terminal face for some distance. In both groups broken shells show that earlier chambers have the opening filled in from the umbilicus to leave only a sub-oval chink at the extremity of the tongue. This is less than halfway down the face in the hauerii type; more than halfway in pacifica. The faint groove on the terminal face seen in illustrations of the hauerii group apparently merely marks one side of the wide tongue, and is not the complete homologue of the pacifica furrow. The length of this feature seems to vary; in New Zealand, specimens of the former group always have it considerably shorter than those of the latter, but the Australian hauerii var. australis has it fairly long in the illustrations.
The presence at all, however, of a completely covering plate in some species, and its total absence in others, whose adults develop instead a normal deep and long cleft, is an apertural feature worthy of subgeneric status. The figures of Reuss's contraria show a long deep groove, without covering plate, so that the new group must be for the other type.
Ceratobulimina (s.str.) kellumi n.sp. (Plate 13, fig. 60.)
Shell at least one and a half times as long as broad, compact, very inflated, elongate-globular, with no pronounced angles; six chambers in last whorl. Sutures distinct, practically flush with surface, usually markedly limbate, depressed into short furrows near umbilicus, which is practically closed. Aperture a very deep, narrow, entirely open furrow, extending from umbilical area two-thirds of distance into terminal face, slightly sigmoid, about one-fifth width of face. Dorsal surface tightly coiled, smoothly and evenly rounded; earlier chambers forming an almost flat top, spiral suture distinct but not sunken.
Length, 0.65 mm.; width, 0.45 mm.
Holotype from locality 4270, Tangihanga, Waikohu Surv. District, Poverty Bay. Horizon, Ihungian, i.e. Hutchinsonian, close to Awamoan.
Quite a number of perfect specimens in all stages occurred here and no trace of a covering plate is ever developed. Also common at 3029, Ihungian sandstone, Whangara beach, and at G.S. 1342, Waikura Stream (Tutamoe). In the definite Tutamoe, i.e. Awamoan, it occurs at G.S. 1296, Muddy Creek, is common at 1186 (Avondale Station) and 1195 (Te Aroha Stream), and continues into the Taranakian (3137, Kaiti Beach, and 4256, Ngatapa, both Poha formation). All these localities are in Poverty Bay, and so far the species has not often been seen elsewhere, nor in company with the previous one; that it has a longer range is evident from the occurrence of a few typical examples in the Waitakian of McClay's Farm, Otama Valley, Southland (G.S. 1909) and one in equivalent beds at Waikaia (5387).
It is named after Dr. L. B. Kellum, Chief Geologist of the New Zealand Petroleum Company, at present working in this area.
Ceratobulimina (s.str.) lornensis n.sp. (Plate 13, fig. 61.)
Shell sub-circular, almost as broad as long; last chamber somewhat projecting, considerably inflated, not compressed. Six chambers in last whorl, progressively more separated as growth proceeds so that sutures become deeper and periphery more lobulate anteriorly; last chamber irregularly bulbous, with a rounded or slightly flattened terminal face into which projects for one third to half its length a narrow, not very deep, apertural furrow. Umbilicus widely open, about a quarter of width of shell, overlapped for half its width by free margin of last chamber before it joins previous whorl. Dorsal side with the radial sutures of last three chambers distinct, all others obscure. No ornament, surface smooth.
Length, 0.75 mm.; width, 0.65 mm.
Holotype from Lorne (5064), type of Waiarekan. Horizon basal Kaiatan, i.e. Lowest Oligocene. Not known from any other locality.
In its flattish sub-circular shell this differs conspicuously from the Miocene kellumi, and can be compared with the American Lower Eocene C. perplexa (Plummer). The figures of this species given by Cushman and Harris (l.c., page 173, pl. 29, figs. 2 a-c), show that it is considerably more compressed vertically, giving it an acutely instead of bluntly rounded periphery. It has a similar short apertural cleft and open umbilicus less encroached on, however, by final chamber, and has conspicuous sutural ornamentation on the dorsal side. A species with even closer affinity is the recently described C. westraliensis Parr (1938, p. 83, pl. 2, figs. 12 a-c). This is a common species in the Upper Eocene of Western Australia and was also compared with perplexa; the figures show it to be of similar
inflation but with a still more extensive umbilicus and aperture notch and with chambers more numerous and more distinctly marked off. It is interesting that these three similar forms should all be from the Lower Tertiary.
Subgenus Ceratocancris nov.
Genotype: Ceratobulimina (Ceratocancris) clifdenensis n.sp. (Lower Miocene, New Zealand).
The separative features from Ceratobulimina s.str. are only in the aperture, and have been discussed above. Without seeing specimens I am unable to locate all the species discussed by Cushman and Harris, but the group contains the Miocene C. hauerii (d'Orb.) (Europe), the Lower Miocene C. australis Cushman and Harris (Australia) and probably the Eocene C. eximia (Rzehak) (Europe and America). C. alazanensis Cushman and Harris would seem from the original figure to be not unlike eximia, but the later much fuller figures of Coryell and Embich (1937, p. 302, pl. 43, figs. 8 a, b). show plainly that it is a true Ceratobulimina, quite close to kellumi.
Ceratobulimina (Ceratocancris) clifdenensis n.sp. Plate 13, fig. 62.)
This is so closely related to the Australian C. australis that it is best described by comparison. I have only broken specimens of the latter from Muddy Creek, but they agree with the good figures given by the original authors and later by Chapman, Parr and Collins (1934, p. 559, pl. 10, figs. 26 a-c). These show that the Balcombian species has a notably longer furrow (and probably corresponding tongue), a more rounded and inflated terminal face, and a less involute coiling on the dorsal side. In New Zealand shells the furrow is extremely faint, and it and the tongue reach only one-third of the way into the face; this is very markedly and sharply flattened off at an acute angle with the basal periphery, which is thus more sharply bevelled than in australis; dorsally the chambers expand rapidly, the initial coils being very small. There are seven chambers visible ventrally as in australis.
Length, 0.7 mm.; width, 0.5 mm.
Holotype from Clifden, Southland, band 5 (5132); not uncommon (also in 6B). Horizon, just above Hutchinsonian, but below Awamoan.
This has a widespread distribution. Other Hutchinsonian localities at which it is present are Marsden “Blue Bottom”; Mahoenui beds (especially the lower part); Pakaurangi Pt. (several samples); Poverty Bay Ihungia beds of Muddy Creek (G.S. 1237 and “d-sandstone”) and of Island Creek (G.S. 1262, 1240). In specimens from the last locality and from 5241 (Takapau, Ihungian) the shells are small, somewhat more inflated, and the ventral sutures tend to become limbate, though not raised. Limbation is much more a feature of kellumi.
Outside of this horizon it is extremely rare, and I have only ones undoubted specimen from Awamoa Creek, type Awamoan (5124). It has not been seen in the Mokau, nor in G.S. 1342 (Waikura Stream, just at the Tutamoe boundary), a Tutamoe locality with very similar lithology to the Ihungian; but it does occur in G.S. 1259 and G.S. 1262, both 150–200 ft. above base of Tutamoe in Island Creek, and both very similar to the Ihungian in their foraminiferal and also molluscan faunas. The usual Tutamoe and Mokau form is kellumi.
Genus Cerobertina nov.
Genotype: Cerobertina bartrumi n.sp. (Lower Miocene, New Zealand).
Shell formation very similar to Ceratobulimina, with the same gloss, coiling and furrow-aperture, but with a series of supplementary chambers along the umbilical edge of the main chambers, more or less distinctly marked off by a groove or internal line.
Quite a number of species of this group are known to me, falling into three lines in New Zealand Tertiary history, while still other lines have been seen in Recent faunas from the Malay Archipelago.
A Recent species, almost certainly congeneric, has been described from Samoa; the figure of Pulvinulina mayori Cushman (1924, p. 41, pl. 13, fig. 6) shows distinctly the same shell formation, secondary chambers and slit aperture. When such forms become more symmetrically coiled, it is not long before almost an isomorph of Nonion is reached; three distinct species I have from Malay Archipelago show a regular transition from a very flattened but typical Cerobertina, through a glassy Anomalina-like species with very tiny umbilical secondary chambers, to finally an almost symmetrical form with the secondary chambers entirely enclosed within the main ones but distinctly visible in broken shells—this last form has been named Nonion translucens by Cushman (U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 161, pt. 2, p. 45, pl. 11, figs. 2 a, b, c; 1933).
Two Austral species of the group have already been described, Bulimina convoluta var. dehiscens Heron-Allen and Earland (1924, p. 143, pl. 8, fig. 26–28. Miocene) and Ceratobulimina tenuis Chapman and Parr (1937, p. 80, pl. 7, figs. 11 a, b. Recent). In both these species the secondary chambers can be easily overlooked, but are distinct on close examination.
It is to be noted that the original description of dehiscens refers to two sets of chambers, of which “the inferior or smaller series of chambers is entirely invisible when the specimen is viewed from the dorsal aspect.”
Cerobertina bartrumi n.sp. (Plate 11, figs. 2, 3.)
Shell small, elongate, flattened (but still slightly rounded) ventrally, broadly convex dorsally, the convexity being greatest on periphery, which on last chamber becomes rather acutely bevelled. About eight chambers visible ventrally, the suture lines (which are quite inconspicuous, flush with surface and marked only by whitish bands) showing a regular downward dorsal sweep from initial
coil to periphery, where they gently curve up on to the ventral side; here at a distance a little less than height of chambers from periphery they meet a similar curving white band which terminates main chambers. The radial sutures swing slightly upwards past this into umbilical cleft, whose margin on that side is lobulated by the ends of these secondary chamberlets. Terminal chamber ventrally forms a long, narrow strip reaching up to threequarters of shell length, widening anteriorly and swinging round sharply to end in a well-marked angulation, whose summit joins the white band dividing the two sets of chambers; in its lower part a small deep cleft in direction of coiling penetrates terminal face for about half its length. For a little distance to the side of this and for a long vertical distance the space between secondary chambers and last main chamber is occupied by a deep umbilical cleft about equal to width of terminal strip alongside it. In ventral aspect the outline of outer edge is a rapidly unwinding spiral, the inner edge being straight or very slightly convex.
Length, 0.4 mm.; width, 0.2 mm.
Holotype from Pakaurangi Point, G.S. locality 1181. Horizon Waitematan, i.e. Hutchinsonian (Lower Miocene). Abundant in several samples from this locality, but not known elsewhere. Named after Professor J. Bartrum, of Auckland, who has sent me Pakurangi material.
This species is evidently the New Zealand representative of C. dehiscens (Heron-Allen and Earland). The Australian species is easily separated by its much more acutely rounded and laterally projecting apical portion, by its tendency to flare out to a greatest width anteriorly, and by the sharply pointed ending of the terminal chamber outer strip, which seems to swing laterally almost under the apical chambers instead of forming a flatly rounded ending in front of them. The ventral view of dehiscens shows the outer edge markedly convex. These differences are borne out both by Cushman and Harris's and the original figures, and by actual Muddy Creek specimens.
Cerobertina tennis (Chapman and Parr). (Plate 11, figs. 4, 5.)
1937. Ceratobulimina tenuis Chapman and Parr; Aust. Antarct. Exped., Ser. C, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 80, pl. 7, figs. 11 a, b.
This was described from 1320 fathoms in the Antarctic, lat. 42° 38 ½′, long. 48° 41 ½′. I have one specimen (fig. 5) reaching 0.4 mm. from off Stewart Island, and two smaller and narrower ones from 6 fathoms Enderby Island (fig. 4), which I am unable to separate on the basis of the Australian figure and description. With all features noted by the authors the New Zealand specimens agree.
Cerobertina mahoenuica n.sp. (Plate 13, fig. 58.)
Shell elongate, comparatively large, flattened ventrally, very convex dorsally. In features of shell structure like bartrumi but, because of convexity, the spiral tendency is much more pronounced and the consequent resemblance to a Robertina with a depressed spire
heightened. Eight chambers visible ventrally, all dorsal sutures inconspicuous, last three ventral sutures distinctly grooved. Secondary chamberlets very much more distinct than in bartrumi, marked off by a definite very undulating groove; increasing in size with growth (much more rapidly than main chambers), the final one appearing like a triangular swollen pustule in centre of shell, filling much of umbilicus; earlier ones rapidly becoming indistinct, usually no more than three visible altogether. Details of terminal face and aperture much as in bartrumi except that outer strip of last chamber is much shorter and widens rapidly, the umbilical cleft between it and chamberlets, though very deep, being shorter, about one third of shell length or less, and inclined at 30° when shell is vertical; in bartrumi cleft is almost vertical and about half length of shell.
Length, 0.8 mm.; width, 0.5 mm.
Holotype from Mahoenui beds (5576, 10 ft. below Mokau, ¼ mile East of tunnel), head of Awakino Gorge. Horizon, Hutchinsonian. (Lower Miocene).
The species is not uncommon in lower Mahoenui beds, but well preserved specimens are rare. It also occurs at Pakaurangi Point; Hobson's Bay, Waitemata beds; and in the Marsden “Blue Bottom” (5274). It seems to range somewhat higher, for good specimens occur in the Awamoan of All Day Bay (5273), but it has not been found elsewhere in the Awamoan.
Cerobertina kakahoica n.sp. (Plate 13, fig. 59.)
Shell ancestral and very similar to C. mahoenuica. It is considerably smaller, half to two-thirds the size, relatively wider and with less tendency to elongate, the terminal chamber especially being semicircular instead of drawn out and its outer strip consequently hardly at all narrowly produced, the junction line with previous chamber being almost straight. The aperture is shorter and wider, appearing more like a triangular notch ending in a sharp point. Terminal face flat over whole area, instead of convex on outer peripheral side of aperture. Secondary chamberlets considerably reduced in size—all but last one practically obscured, so that the most marked feature is a single small circular pustule immediately above aperture notch.
Length, 0.5 mm.; width, 0.4 mm.
Holotype from locality 5179B, Kakaho Blue Clays, 1 ¼ miles North of Kakaho Creek, Hampden Beach. Horizon, Upper Bortonian (Middle Eocene). This species usually occurs in Hampden samples, though never commonly; it is also in the Lower Bortonian there (5180). It has not so far occurred in the equivalent Wanstead of Hawke's Bay and Te Hua beds of Poverty Bay, but it does range into the Tahuian (extreme top of Hampden section, and also 4401, McCulloghs Bridge) and even Ototaran. It is not actually in the Waiarekan of Lorne, nor in the Oamaru limestones, probably because of facies, but in the lower Point Elizabeth beds (5354, 2171), which belong faunally with the Kaiata mudstone in the Kaiatan, there are examples, slightly larger than Hampden ones, but otherwise quite
typical, showing especially the one to two tiny rounded pustular chamberlets, instead of the large ones of the Miocene. Crushed specimens also occur in the Whaingaroa beds (5231, Waitetuna estuary), so that the known range is Lower Bortonian—Whaingaroan. All these specimens are dextral, while the Miocene mahoenuica is sinistral.
Cerobertina crepidula n.sp. (Plate 11, fig. 1.)
Shell sub-triangular, anteriorly regularly rounded, thence narrowing apically to a blunt point, ventrally perfectly flat or slightly concave, the terminal chamber nearly always broken, but when present nearly semicircular, as in kakahoica, but occupying more than half of the surface; its surface is shallowly hollowed below the aperture, and above it there is a sudden drop in level. The whole of this surface is bounded by a narrow blunt rim, forming the periphery. Dorsally the chambers and sutures are very ill-defined. Ventrally about nine are visible, the obscure sutures crossing the space above last chamber sub-horizontally at narrow intervals, the length of each strip about four to five times height. Secondary chamberlets cannot be resolved but are probably present. The chambered side encroaches so much on the long slit-like umbilical area that the secondary chamberlets are probably folded under and hidden. The aperture is an extremely narrow deep cleft in direct line with the linear umbilicus, extending about halfway across terminal face. The shell is nearly always broken, revealing merely an open chink near dorsal edge of terminal face.
Length, 0.5 mm.; width, 0.4 mm.
Holotype from Clifden, Southland, Band 5 (5132). It occurs also in 6B and rather commonly in 6C, all being horizons just above Hutchinsonian and below Awamoan.
It has been met with, usually rarely, in numerous samples from all over New Zealand, but has never been seen outside of the Hutchinsonian and Awamoan. Other Hutchinsonian occurrences are Grey-mouth “Blue Bottom” (5088, 2182); Pakaurangi Pt.; and Terakohe Quarry, Takaka (5056). Some Awamoan localities are All Day Bay; Goodwood series, Moeraki (5259); lower Tutamoe beds, Poverty Bay (G.S. 1259, G.S. 1342); Tunanui beds, ½ mile from mouth of Tutaematuatua Creek (2047).
This is a somewhat anomalous species and the non-visibility of secondary chambers makes its definite reference to Cerobertina a little doubtful, but it is extremely like the other species in all other features.
Eponides lornensis Finlay. (Plate 13, figs. 52, 53.)
1938. Ibid., Finlay, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 68, pt. 1, p. 522.
The holotype and paratype are here illustrated. This species also occurs at 5244 (Bridge Point) and 5243 (Rifle Butts conglomerate under limestone), both coastal South Island Kaiatan horizons. It seems limited to such very shallow water deposits, and does not occur in the Kaiata-Cobden area except in the basal bed which is
equivalent to Lorne. Nor has any member of the group been seen in the Whaingaroan elsewhere, so that the change from lornensis to repandus cannot yet be vertically localised.
Cibicides tholus n.sp. (Plate 12, figs. 34, 35.)
Shell fairly small, hemispherical, of coarse texture, heavily sculptured dorsally, almost smooth ventrally; about 11 chambers per whorl, visible on both sides; dorsally not quite as long as wide; dorsal surface very coarsely punctate, with heavy, close papillae covering the inner whorls, surrounded by an equally heavy, nodular spiral ridge marking the inner rim of last whorl. The ridge ends before last two or three chambers and from the nodules narrow limbations proceed radially halfway out along each suture. Between the papillae ridge, and limbations are various deep grooves and pits. Ventrally almost smooth, an area on periphery and halfway down base quite smooth and almost free of punctae. Lower part of base with coarse but inconspicuous perforations, especially along the faint suture lines; no umbilicus; completely involute. Apertural face flat, smoothly rounded at joint with base and dorsal surface, where it rises considerably above peripheral subangulation; aperture a narrow, convex slit, with a distinct rim, equally spread for a short distance below and above angulations, and extending back dorsally for two or three chambers in the usual generic fashion. Dorsal outline practically flat; basal outline almost a perfect semicircle.
Diameter, 0.7 mm.
Holotype from near Waihiriri, Block 14, Waimata Surv. Dist., Poverty Bay (3294); this is a Te Hua equivalent, with Zeauvigerina. Horizon, Upper Bortonian, i.e. Middle Eocene.
This is a highly characteristic species of the Bortonian and occurs in the type Wanstead (5371) and the Waitangi No. 1 well-cores, and is one of the few Bortonian key species present also in the Poverty Bay Chalky Limestone (4008), wherever it is associated with Te Hua marls (in which tholus also occurs). It appears to be limited to Upper Bortonian of the North Island, for it has not been seen at Hampden or elsewhere in the South Island. It seems to be fairly closely related to C. grimsdalei Nuttall (1930, p. 291, pl. 25, figs. 7, 8, 11), restricted to the Mexican Lower Eocene, but has heavier dorsal sculpture and more evenly convex base. The later figure of this species from French Marocco by Ostrowsky (1938; p. 353, pl. 24, figs. 1 a-c) is less like the New Zealand shell, and has more sinuous ventral sutures.
Genus BÜNingia nov.
Genotype: B. creeki n.sp.
This is proposed for a new group of the Rotaliidae. As no species but the genotype is at present known, the generic characters and affinities depend on that species, and are discussed in its description.
Büningia creeki n.gen., n.sp. (Plate 14, figs. 82–84.)
Shell small, very inflated; dorsally flattened and vitreous, with a peripheral rim, deeply umbilicate, not quite involute; ventrally deep and globose, no umbilicus, quite involute; aperture entirely dorsal, a horizontal opening at side of umbilicus. Chambers five per whorl, very globose basally and at side, flattened on top; sutures inconspicuous, not limbate, marked only by shallow grooves; meeting on base (at a point off centre and nearest to aperture) in a shallow lateral depression but no umbilicus. Whole of base and two-thirds up side finely and evenly perforate; upper third of periphery marked by a low wide swelling forming a very blunt keel with a shallow groove between it and test below; this sub-keel has the pores obsolete or absent, giving it a translucent or vitreous appearance in sharp contrast to rest of shell; dorsally it is perfectly flat, truncating the shell, and is about as wide as the umbilicus. The latter is a wide deep pit corrugated inside by the chambers whose sutures there become deeper; the flat area rounds off evenly into umbilicus, except at last chamber where there is a sharp, thin curved lip, marking entrance to the low horizontal aperture; the opening of this is not visible from above and only partly in side view, being considerably hidden by and merging with the sunken umbilical opening. Contact of last chamber with rest of shell quite even and gradational from base to just inside the sub-keel dorsally, then immediately free as the aperture lip; on periphery at lower edge of sub-keel this contact is pushed back, the chamber running slightly forwards both above and below; a deeper transluceney is sometimes visible here, but there is no opening.
Major diameter, 0.37 mm.; minor diameter, 0.31 mm.; height, 0.23 mm.
Holotype from Marsden “Blue Bottom” (5275), 6 miles South of Greymouth, 4 miles East from sea coast. Horizon, Hutchinsonian, i.e. Lower Miocene.
This is apparently a characteristic and restricted species of the Hutchinsonian. It is quite common in the “Blue Bottom,” but easily overloked on account of small size and resemblance to Globigerina. In the Cobden area it has not been seen below the typical “Blue Bottom,” being absent in the “grading beds” (5363, 5364) above the limestone. In West Grey Stream it is present in sandy mudstone above (5262) and below (5263) the narrow band of brachiopod limestone, which is thus an intra-Hutchinsonian formation. It has not been seen in the Weka Pass Grey Marls (G.S. 71), nor the All Day Bay basal and lower greensands, nor at Takaka or Clifden, but is in the Trelissick Basin tuffs (5054, below limestone, Porter and Thomas Rivers); it has occurred several times in the Mahoenui beds, especially the lower part, and is present in the Ihungian beds of Dannevirke area (5347, Pourere Surv. Dist.) and Poverty Bay (5390, Rotokautuku Creek; 5389, Mangaoporo River, etc.), and also in the Lower Ihungian (Pukahika) shales of the same district (5394).
The affinities of this form are doubtful. It is not like anything else so far seen in New Zealand, where various forms of Anomalina, Valvulineria and Discorbis commonly occur and, as I cannot relate it to any species seen in literature, it is here made the type of a new genus. There is at first sight some relationship to certain species of Valvulineria, e.g. the Calfornian Eocene V. involuta Cushman and Dusenbury, and the Miocene V. casitasensis Cushman and Laiming, but these seem to grade into forms such as araucana (d'Orbigny) and californica Cushman, the genotype. The last-named, which must be the real criterion in judging affinity, is not in the least like creeki, which shows a complete reversal of dorsal and ventral sides (and corresponding aperture) and could be considered a Valvulineria derivative only if wrongly orientated and widely aberrant in its dorsal involution and absence of umbilical pad.
There is more possibility that the New Zealand form is connected with Discorbis, especially some of the small globular types with funnel aperture, such as the Australian Tertiary inflata and globigeriniformis Heron-Alien and Earland (1924, pp. 171, 172), but in this “pulvinata” group the aperture has become very distinctive and again could not be closely compared with creeki, unless the orientation were reversed.
There are not many genera with dorsal apertures. Anomalina is stated by Galloway (1033, p. 287) to be involute on the side opposite the aperture, but creeki is not like the genotype and other species usually placed there. By far the most affinity seems to be with the Cibicidinae, and Büningia can readily be visualised as an extreme development of the lobatulus type, in which the aperture has simply migrated entirely to the dorsal side (where more than half of it already is in some species) and become hidden by lateral crowding in of the last coil. Such a simple species as the Western Australian Eocene Cibicides pseudoconvexus Parr (1938, p. 86, pl. 3, figs. 5 a-c) has already begun this migration and has approximately the same habit of shell; specimens quite close to the latter species are very common in the New Zealand Ototaran and show this sort of development quite plainly. An allied form is Karreria Rzehak; authentic, specimens show that this is another separable group also derived from a simple type of Cibicides; German examples from the Cretaceous of Maderberg show a mostly dorsal aperture, but not terminal as stated by Galloway.
The genus name is given in honour of Dr. W. L. Büning, micropalaeontologist of the Shell Oil Company, who independently found this form in Mahoenui beds. The specific name given is that of Dr. C. W. Creek, Chief Geologist in New Zealand for the same company.
Genus Globigerinoides Cushman, 1927.
The usual association of conglobata Brady, sacculifera Brady, and rubra d'Orbigny (the genotype) is commonly found in Recent gatherings from New Zealand, and the last two extend back into the Waitotaran (e.g. 5408, Wairoa silts between Whakake and Nuhaka) but not earlier. The genus seems to be completely absent throughout the Middle Tertiary and does not reappear until the Lower Ototaran
or Kaiatan is reached. From this horizon down into Upper Bortonian (i.e. Lower Oligocene to Mid. Eocene) a distinct species, which may be called Globigerinoides index n.sp. (plate 14, figs. 85–88), occurs in great abundance and becomes the dominant Globigerinid. From conglobata it is separable at sight in its fewer and regularly inflated, instead of flatly rounded, chambers and its totally different apertural system, each chamber having instead of the several tiny openings of conglobata one very large and widely gaping final opening and two others somewhat smaller above the sutures of previous chambers. The two species are similar in their deeply cleft sutures and robust shell walls. There is a slight resemblance to a Mexican Eocene form figured by Nuttall (1930, p. 290, pl. 24, figs. 12, 15), which he compared with orbiformis Cole. The latter species has been recorded from the West Australian Eocene by Parr (1938, p. 87, pl. 3, figs. 7 a, c), who quotes Thalmann's consideration of it as synonymous with Globigerinoides mexicana (Cush.); all these forms are more tightly coiled and have more chambers than the New Zealand form.
This is an important key species of Upper Bortonian to Kaiatan time, its ubiquitous nature and constancy within that range and easy determination increasing its usefulness. It is the only Globigerinoides in the New Zealand early Tertiary and, though abundant in the Lower Ototaran Oamaru limestones and Kaiata beds, has vanished completely from the overlying Whaingaroan, where Globigerina angipora Stache is quite dominant and equally abundant. It is not to be confused with a small subspherical Globorotalia (aff. dehiscens Chapman, Parr and Collins), which ranges through Bortonian. In the Lower Bortonian the latter is accompanied by another very distinct Globorotalia, which is like aragonensis Nuttall (1930, p. 288, pl. 24, figs. 6–8, 10, 11) but has only 4–5 chambers per whorl, a sharp keel, and a practically flat top. This may be called Globorotalia crater n.sp.; the holotype is from 5570 (Chalk Marls, below Amuri stone, Hurunui River, ½ m. S.W. of Trig. B); it has been met with in many localities throughout New Zealand, but never above the Lower Bortonian, of which it may be regarded as the index fossil.
Abundant in Bortonian and reaching Whangai below and Kaiata just above is a true Globigerina of the bulloides-triloba type, which is easily distinguished from the more typical forms in later horizons by a slight flattening and compression of each chamber and especially by its wide but very low and hardly open aperture directed laterally to overhang a previous chamber, instead of centrally, and with a pronounced rim. This may be called Globigerina linaperta n.sp. (plate 13, figs. 54–57). The holotypes of both these forms are from the Hampden section (5179A, beach 1 mile North of Kakaho Creek); here index reaches a diameter of 0.4 mm. and linaperta of 0.38 mm., but both have been seen larger elsewhere. Especially characteristic of the Upper Bortonian is a variety of linaperta, which reaches a much larger size, has swollen chambers, and a strong tendency to cover the aperture with a supplementary small, smooth chamber; this may be called var. turgida nov., the type being from 3310, Pahi marl.
List Of New Names Proposed.
(For European age-equivalents here used, see Finlay, 1939, p. 531.)
Robertinidae n.fam. for Robertina, Ceratobulimina, Pseudobulimina, Ceratocancris and Cerobertina.
Arenodosaria n.gen. (Fam. Valvulinidae). Genotype: Clavulina robusta Stache (Eocene-Miocene, perhaps Recent).
Ceratocancris n.subgen. (Fam. Robertinidae). Genotype: Ceratobulimina (Ceratocancris) clifdenensis n.sp. (Lower Miocene).
Cerobertina n.gen. (Fam. Robertinidae). Genotype: C. bartrumi n sp. (Eocene-Miocene, Recent in Pacific).
Büningia n.gen. (Fam. Rotaliidae). Genotype: B. creeki n.sp. (Lower Miocene).
Textularia zeaggluta n.sp. (5371, Bortonian). Middle Eocene.
" cuspis n.sp. (5182, Kaiatan). Lower Oligocene.
" marsdeni n.sp. (5274, Hutchinsonian). Lower Miocene.
Siphotextularia awamoana n.sp. (5124, Awamoan). Middle Miocene.
Verneulina browni n.sp. (5181, Whaingaroan). Middle Oligocene.
Gaudryina fenestrata n.sp. (5274, Hutchinsonian). Lower Miocene.
Clavulinoides olssoni n.sp. (5390, Hutchinsonian). Lower Miocene.
" instar n.sp. (G.S. 1342, Awamoan). Middle Miocene.
" virilis n.sp. (5373, Whaingaroan). Middle Oligocene.
Listerella weymouthi n.sp. (3089, Awamoan).) Middle Miocene.
" levis n.sp. (5371, Bortonian). Middle Eocene.
Tritaxilina zelandica n.sp. (5358, Whaingaroan). Middle Oligocene.
Tritaxilina languida n.sp. (5279, Bortonian). Middle Eocene.
Bolivina lapsus n.sp. (G.S. 1189, Hutchinsonian). Lower Miocene.
Plectofrondicularia pellucida n.sp. (5207, Opoitian). Lowest Pliocene.
" awamoana n.sp. (5273, Awamoan). Middle Miocene.
Bulimina bortonica n.sp. (5179B, Bortonian). Middle Eocene.
Uvigerina miozea n.sp. (5389, Hutchinsonian). Lower Miocene.
" dorreeni n.sp. (5363, Waitakian). Upper Oligocene.
" paeneteres n.sp. (3132, Awamoan). Middle Miocene.
" mioschwageri n.sp. (G.S. 1342, Awamoan). Middle Miocene.
Hopkinsina bortotara n.sp. (5068, Tahuian). Upper Eocene.
" wanzea n.sp. (5371, Bortonian). Middle Eocene.
" notohispida n.sp. (4141, Taranakian). Upper Miocene.
Siphogenerina postprandia n.sp. (5182, Kaiatan). Lower Oligocene.
" rerensis n.sp. (3029, Hutchinsonian). Lower Miocene.
" vesca n.sp. (5105, Hutchinsonian). Lower Miocene.
Siphogenerina pohana n.sp. (3099, Taranakian). Upper Miocene.
—– prisca n.sp. (5179A, Bortonian). Middle Miocene.
—– ongleyi n.sp. (5093, Hutchinsonian). Lower Miocene.
Cassidulina arata n.sp. (5275, Hutchinsonian). Lower Miocene.
Robertina lornensis n.sp. (5064, Kaiatan). Lower Oligocene.
Ceratobulimina kellumi n.sp. (4270, Hutchinsonian). Lower Miocene.
—– lornensis n.sp. (5064, Kaiatan). Lower Oligocene.
—– (Ceratocancris) clifdenensis n.sp. (5132, Hutchinsonian). Lower Miocene.
Cerobertina bartrumi n.sp. (G.S. 1181, Hutchinsonian). Lower Miocene.
—– mahoenuica n.sp. (5576, Hutchinsonian). Lower Miocene.
—– kakahoica n.sp. (5179B, Bortonian). Middle Eocene.
—– crepidula n.sp. (5132, Hutchinsonian). Lower Miocene.
Elphidium hampdenensis n.sp. (5540, Lower Bortonian). Middle Eocene.
—– saginatum n.sp. (5459, Upper Bortonian). Middle Eocene.
Büningia creeki n.sp. (5275, Hutchinsonian). Lower Miocene.
Cibicides tholus n.sp. (3293, Bortonian). Middle Eocene.
Globigerinoides index n.sp. (5179A, Bortonian). Middle Eocene.
Globigerina linaperta n.sp. (5179A, Bortonian). Middle Eocene.
Globorotalia crater n.sp. (5570, Lower Bortonian). Middle Eocene.
List Of References.
Brady, H. B., 1884. Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zool., vol. 9.
Chapman, F., 1926. Cretaceous and Tertiary Foraminifera of New Zealand, N.Z.G.S. Pal. Bull., no. 11.
—– and Parr, W. J., 1937. Foraminifera, Aust. Antarct. Exped., Ser. C, vol. 1, pt. 2.
—–, Parr, W. J., and Collins, A. C., 1934. Tertiary Foraminifera of Victoria, Australia, Journ. Linn. Soc., Zool., vol. 38, no. 262.
Coryell, H. N., and Embich, J. R., 1937. The Tranquilla Shale of Panama, Journ. Pal., vol. 11, no. 4.
Cushman, J. A., 1911. A Monograph of the Foraminifera of the North Pacific Ocean, Pt. 2, U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 71.
—– 1921. Foraminifera of the Philippine and Adjacent Seas, U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 100, vol. 4.
—– 1922. The Foraminifera of the Atlantic Ocean, pt. 3, U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 104.
—– 1924. Samoan Foraminifera, Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Publication 342.
—– 1930. On Uvigerina pigmea d'Orbigny, Contr. Cush. Lab., vol. 6, pt. 3, no. 94.
—– 1933. Foraminifera, Cush. Lab. Special Publication, no. 4.
—– 1935. Upper Eocene Foraminifera of the South-eastern United States, U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 181.
—– and Bermudez, P. J., 1936. Additional New Species of Foraminifera and a New Genus from the Eocene of Cuba, Contr. Cush. Lab., vol. 12, pt. 3, no. 173.
—– 1937. Further New Species of Foraminifera from the Eocene of Cuba, Ibid., vol. 13, pt. 1, no. 180.
Cushman and Edwards, P. G., 1937. The Described American Eocene Species of Uvigerina, Ibid., vol. 13, pt. 3, no. 188.
—– 1938. Notes on the Oligocene Species of Uvigerina and Angulogerina, Ibid., vol. 14, pt. 4, no. 200.
—– and Harris, R. W., 1927. Some Notes on the Genus Ceratobulimina, Ibid., vol. 3, pt. 4, no. 51.
—– and Jarvis, P. W., 1932. Upper Cretaceous Foraminifera from Trinidad, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 80, art. 14.
—– and Parker, F. L., 1936a. Notes on Some Cretaceous Species of Buliminella and Neobulimina, Contr. Cush. Lab., vol. 12, pt. 1, no. 167.
—– 1936b. Some Species of Robertina, Ibid., vol. 12, pt. 4, no. 179.
—– 1938. Two New Species of Robertina, Ibid., vol. 14, pt. 4, no. 199.
Earland, A., 1934. Foraminifera, Pt. 3, Discovery Reports, vol. 10.
Finlay, H. J., 1939a. New Zealand Foraminifera: Key Species in Stratigraphy, no. 1, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 68, pt. 1.
—– 1939b. New Zealand Foraminifera: The Occurrence of Rzehakina, Hantkenina, Rotaliatina and Zeauvigerina, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 68, pt. 1.
Galloway, J. J., 1933. Manual of Foraminifera.
Hedberg, H. D., 1937. Foraminifera of the Carapita Formation, Journ. Pal., vol. 11, no. 8.
Heron-Allen, E., and Earland, A., 1915. The Foraminifera of the Kerimba Archipelago, Trans. Zool. Soc., London, vol. 20, pt. 2, art. 18.
—– 1916. The Foraminifera of the West of Scotland, Trans. Linn. Soc., Ser. 2, vol. 11, Zool. Art. 13.
—– 1922. Foraminifera, British Antarct. “Terra Nova” Exped., Zool., vol. 6, no. 2, pt. 2.
—– 1924. The Miocene Foraminifera of the Filter Quarry, Journ. Roy. Micro. Soc., Art. 7.
Karrer, F., 1864. Reise der Novara, Pal., vol. 1, no. 3.
Lacoste, J., and Rey, M., 1938. Sur l′àge et la répartition de certains faciès du Miocène dans le Prérif, Bull. Soc. Geol. de France, Tome VIII, fasc. 5, 6.
Lalicker, C. G., 1935. New Tertiary Textulariidae, Contr. Cush. Lab., vol. 11. pt. 2, no. 157.
Nuttall, W. L. F., 1930. Eocene Foraminifera from Mexico, Journ. Pal., vol. 4, no 3.
Ostrowsky, V., 1938. Note préliminaire sur la répartition stratigraphique des petits Foraminifères dans le Nummulitique du Prérif (Maroc), Bull. Soc. Geol. de France, Tome VIII, fasc. 5, 6.
Parr, W. J., 1934. Tertiary Foraminifera from Chalky Island, S.W. New Zealand, Trans. Roy. Soc., N.Z., vol. 64, pt. 2.
—– 1935. Some Foraminifera from the Awamoan of the Medway River District, New Zealand, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 65, pt. 2.
—– 1937. Tertiary Foraminifera from near Bombay, Franklin County, Auckland, New Zealand, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 67, pt. 1.
—– 1938. Upper Eocene Foraminifera from Deep Borings in King's Park, Perth, Western Australia, Journ. Roy. Soc. West. Aust., vol. 24.
Fig. 1.—Cerobertina crepidula n.sp. × 90.
Figs. 2. 3.—Cerobertina bartrumi n.sp. (2, holotype). × 90.
Figs. 4, 5.—Cerobertina tenuis (Chapman and Parr). × 90
Fig. 6.—Uvigerina maynei Chapman (topotype). × 60.
Fig. 7.—Plectofrondicularia pellucida. × 60.
Fig. 8.—Siphogenerina rerensis n.sp × 60.
Fig. 9.—Bolivina lapsus n.sp. × 60.
Figs. 10. 11 —Hopkinsina notohispida n sp (10, microspheric holotype, 11. megalospheric). × 30
Figs. 12–14.—Uvigerina miozea n.sp. (12, holotype). × 30.
Figs. 15–17.—Uvigerina mioschwageri n.sp. (15, holotype; 16, from 5105, Citrini's Area). × 30.
Figs. 18, 19.—Uvigerina maynei Chapman (Whaingaioa examples). × 30.
Figs. 20, 21.—Hopkinsina wanzea n.sp. (21, holotype). × 30.
Figs. 22–24.—Hopkinsina bortotara n.sp. (23, holotype). 24 × 70; others × 40.
Figs. 25, 26.—Bulimina bortonica n.sp. (26, holotyype). × 45.
Figs. 27, 28.—Robertina lornensis n.sp. (27, holotype). × 30.
Figs. 29, 30.—Elphidium hampdenensis n.sp. (30, holotype; 29 side view). × 45.
Figs. 31–33.—Elphidium saginatum n.sp. (33, holotype; 31, side view) × 45.
Figs. 34. 35.—Cibicides tholus n.sp (35. holotype). × 30.
Fig. 36.—Tritaxilina zelandica n sp. × 15.
Figs. 37–39.—Tritaxilina languida n.sp. (38, holotype; others from 3573). × 30.
Figs. 40, 41.—Siphogenerina postprandia n sp. (41. holotype). × 30.
Figs. 42, 43.—Siphogenerina ongleyi n.sp. (43, holotype). × 30.
Figs. 44. 45.—Siphogenerina pohana n.sp. (45, holotype) × 30.
Figs. 46, 47.—Siphogenerina vesca n.sp. (47, holotype). × 30.
Figs. 48–51.—Siphogenerina prisca n.sp. (51, holotype). 49 × 90, others × 45.
Figs. 52, 53.—Eponides lornensis Finlay (52, holotype). × 30.
Figs. 54–57.—Globigerina linaperta n.sp. (56, holotype). 57 × 60, others × 45.
Fig. 58.—Cerobertina mahoenuica n.sp. × 30.
Fig. 59.—Cerobertina kakahoica n.sp. × 45.
Fig. 60.—Ceratobulimina kellumi n.sp. × 30.
Fig. 61.—Ceratobulimina lornensis n.sp. × 30.
Fig. 62.—Ceratobulimina (Ceratocuncris) clifdenensis n.sp. × 30.
Figs. 63, 64.—Textularia cuspis n.sp (64, holotype). × 30.
Figs. 65, 66.—Textularia zeaggluta n.sp. (65, holotype). × 30.
Fig. 67.—Textularia marsdent n.sp. × 15.
Fig. 68.—Gaudryina fenestrata n.sp. × 30.
Figs. 69–71 —Gaudiyina (Pseudogaudryina) proreussi Finlay (69, holotype; 69, 70. microspheric; 71, megalospheric). × 10.
Figs. 72, 73.—Verneulina browni n.sp. (72, holotype; 73, Hutchinsonian paratype). × 30.
Figs. 74, 75.—Caasidulina arata n.sp. (74, holotype). × 45.
Fig. 76.—Clavulinoides olssoni n.sp. × 15.
Fig. 77.—Clavulinoides instar n.sp. × 30.
Fig. 78.—Clavulinoides virilis n.sp. × 30.
Fig. 79.—Listerella levis n.sp. × 45.
Figs. 80, 81.—Listerella weymouthi n.sp. (81. holotype). × 30.
Figs. 82–84.—Buningia creeki n.gen., n.sp. (82. holotype). × 45.
Figs. 85–88.—Globigerinoides index n.sp. (88, holotype) × 45.
Figs. 89, 90.—Siphotextularia awamoana n.sp. (90, holotype). × 30.