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Volume 69, 1940
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New Zealand Seaweeds.—Reference List No. II.
The Rhodophyceae—Part A
(Bangiales, Nemalionales, Cryptonemiales, and Gigartinales).

[Read before the Canterbury Branch, October 5, 1938; received by the Editor, November 17, 1938; issued separately, June, 1939.]


Kylin has recently recast the Classification of the Rhodophyceae. Further, the nomenclature of many of our species has by him and other workers been altered. So it has become necessary to prepare a fresh list of species for the use of students of the subject. This is not, of course, a critical or definitive catalogue, but merely a check list to enable workers to follow what has been done up to date in the examination of any particular genus. This list should, therefore, be used in conjunction with previous catalogues or descriptions of species by Harvey, Agardh and others. There, further necessary information will be obtained. It is hoped, however, that here is provided a more accurate enumeration of our species than in any previous register of them, and that all forms that have been described with sufficient accuracy for re-identification are included. This list also includes a few species not yet published, but these will probably be in print before this appears.

Many difficulties are encountered in any attempt to draw up such a catalogue as this. Indeed, the more one investigates, the more unsure the foundations appear. In all the large and polymorphous genera many of the species have originally been described from insufficient material, and cannot be determined without reference to the type specimens, and often not then. Consequently the range of forms that should be included within the limits of a given species is frequently unknown. Further, there are many cases of the same species, when from different localities, being described under different names, and still more instances where the same name has been applied to different species. This is largely due to the tendency of the earlier workers to assimilate our species with British, Australian or other widely spread forms, and has caused much confusion in our nomenclature—a confusion which is still far from being eradicated. Further research tends always to increase the amount of endemicity displayed by New Zealand forms.

Too little is known about the internal distribution to enable one to give the range of each species within New Zealand; but all species are included in this list which are known from any station between the Kermadecs and Campbell Island, and also from the Chathams. It is obvious that in such a wide range of latitude, differences of illumination, sea temperatures, and of environment generally must be sufficiently great to set bounds to the distribution of many species. Further, our knowledge is limited by the small number

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of places at which intensive collections have been made. Very little collecting has been done on the West Coast of New Zealand by any investigators. True, both in the North and South Islands, long stretches of this coast are barren of seaweed; but there must be on the West Coasts of both islands many points where rich harvests of marine algae are yet to be obtained. What little collecting has been done on the West Coast has, however, so far tended to show that the species obtainable there are not markedly distinct from those on the East. As might be expected, what does definitely appear is that many species are confined to the Northern region of New Zealand and many others to the Southern. An attempt is here made to distinguish some of these, the Northern species being marked (N) -and the Southern (S); but no endeavour has been made to draw a definite geographical line of separation between them. Though some of the Northern species may be confined to the Kermadecs only, others may range as far South as Wellington; and on the other hand, though some of the Southern species are definitely sub-antarctic, others may come as far North as Cook Strait. So far very few species have been delimited which appear to have a definitely Central distribution, but no doubt there are a few. Many forms range throughout the length of both islands, others are known from only one or two localities; but our ignorance of distribution is such that in most cases we are quite unable to give the exact range of any particular species.

This list deals, therefore, chiefly with the species of the East Coast of New Zealand. Probably the region that has been most closely examined is the Bay of Islands. Most collectors have reaped a rich harvest there, and it is again being very thoroughly searched round the year by Mr V. W. Lindauer. In most other districts collections have been more or less seasonal or irregular. However, the neighbourhoods of Auckland, Wellington, Lyttelton and Dunedin have all been fairly well investigated, and collections have also been made at Hawke's Bay, Kaikoura, Akaroa, Timaru, The Bluff, Stewart Island and other places. The last-named place, if properly examined, would yield a rich harvest of new species, and one may hope much from its recent investigation by Professor Tilden and her students.

The list of habitats or range given to each species here can, therefore, in most eases only be regarded as provisional. Fuller details of its occurrence will be found in the writings of earlier phycologists. The general external distribution of each so far as is known has also been briefly given; but only such synonymy is given as will connect, the species with other lists.

My thanks are due to many workers for assistance in the preparation of this list. In New Zealand special mention should be made of the help given by Mr V. W. Lindauer, of the Bay of Islands, who, besides typing this list, has given most willing aid in many ways. Miss L. M. Cranwell, of Auckland Museum, has also contributed the names of some species; and, abroad, Professor Setchell,

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Dr Kylin, and Dr Feldmann have lent their assistance in the determination of various specimens. The absence of type-forms in New Zealand is a great drawback to workers here, but the list of our species is slowly assuming a more reliable form.

Subclass Protoflorideae.
Order Bangiales.
Family Bangiaceae.
Bangia Lyngbye.
In all seas.

Bangia fusco-pupurea (Dillw.) Lyngb. (1819), Hydrophyt. Dan., p. 83.

Dunedin, New Brighton, Homewood (Pelorus), R. M. L.

Possibly common. Widely distributed.

Bangia lanuginose Hook, et Harv. (1855), 2, p. 264. “Parasitic on Chordaria Colenso.”

Endemic. A very questionable species which has not been recently identified.

Very widely distributed.

*Erythrotrichia hunterae Gardner (1936), p. 341.

This replaces E. ciliaris (?), v. Lg. (1928), p. 55. It is evidently a distinct and probably endemic species.

On Zostera, Cook's Straits, Lyall; on Zostera nova-zelandica Setch., Church Bay, Lyttelton, H. Hunter; Akaroa, R. M. L. Probably to be found wherever Zostera is abundant. Endemic.

Porphyra J. Ag.
In all seas.

Porphyra columbina Mont. (1842), Prodr. Antarc, p. 14. (= P. nobilis J. Ag.)

Auckland Island, D'Urville.

Common on the coasts between half tide and high water mark, R. M. L.

For a discussion of the characters of this species v. Lg. (1928), p. 39. Endemic.

Porphyra subtumens J. Ag. (nom. nud.) Lg. (1928), p. 45.

Always epiphytic on D'Urvillea, and perhaps common wherever D'Urvillea is found in New Zealand. Endemic.

[Footnote] * Species marked thus have not been included in preceding lists.

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Porphyra umbilicalis (L.) J. Ag. var. novae zelandiae Lg. (1928), p. 53.

In one form or another almost cosmopolitan.

Brythrocladia Rosenv.
In most seas.

Erythrocladia (??) insignia Lg. (1928), p. 56.

Endophytic in Porphyra, and probably occurring wherever P. columbina and P. laciniata var. novae-zelandiae are found.

The genus is quite doubtful. Endemic.

*Erythrocladia sub-integra Rosenvinge (1909, The Marine Algae, of Denmark, p. 73.

In terminal segments of Chaetomorpha darwinii, Timaru, North Mole.

Identified by Dr J. Feldmann.

North Atlantic and Indian Oceans in species of Chaetomorpha.

Order Nemalionales.

The New Zealand species of this order remain mostly unexamined or unidentified. The few that have been identified are often imperfectly known, and their present identifications cannot always be regarded as completely reliable.

Family Chantransiaceae.
Acrochaetium Naeg.
In all seas.

Acrochaetium corymbiferum (Thur.) Batters. (1902), p. 5 (= Chantransia corymbifera Thur.)

The Bluff, Capra, on Stilophora rhizoides (De Toni et Forti, 1923, p. 14). Widely distributed.

**Acrochaetium interpositum (Heydr.) Hamel (1928), p. 187.

In the fronds of Codium mucronatum f. novae-zelandiae, Bay of Islands, Heydrich.

This replaces Chantransia naumauni Asken of the previous list, which is a Cape Verde species, and quite distinct. Endemic.

Acrochaetium (Chantransia) polyrhizum (Harv.) J. Ag. (1892), Anal. Algol., p. 48.

Port Chalmers, Capra. Australia.

Family Batrachospermaceae.

Batrachospermum Roth.

Widely distributed, chiefly in fresh water.

The New Zealand species have recently been collected by Miss

[Footnote] * Species marked thus have not been included in preceding lists.

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E. A. Flint and Miss L. M. Cranwell, and have been named by Skuja; but so far as I know descriptions have not yet been published.

*Batrachospermum atrichum Skuja, sp. ined.

Stream in Anita Bay, Milford Sound, B. A. Flint. Endemic.

*Batrachospermum campyloclonum Skuja, sp. ined.

Running streams, Canterbury plains; Lyall; Inchbonnie (Westland),E. A. Flint; near Whangarei, L. M. C.

This replaces in part B. moniliforme Roth, of previous lists. Endemic.

*Batrachospermum dillenii Bory (1808), Ann. Mus., 12, p. 310.

Anawhata, Auckland, L. M. C.

*Batrachospermum fruticans Skuja, sp. ined.

Cleddau River, Milford Sound; Inchbonnie, West Coast; E. A. Flint.

*Batrachospermum gallaei Sirodot var. longifolium Skuja, var. ined.

Avon Christchurch, R. M. L; Anawhata, Te Henga, L. M. C.

*Batrachospermum novae zelandiae Skuja, sp. ined. (Sub. B. moniliforme partim Roth. Harvey, Fl. Nov. Zel., 2, p. 261).

Fresh water streams on the Canterbury Plains, Lyall, Whangarei, Waipoua Forest, Henderson, L. M. C. Endemic.

Sirodotia Kylin.
Widely distributed.

*Sirodotia fennica Skuja, sp. ined.

Cass, small stream draining a swamp, E. A. Flint. Endemic.

*Sirodotia suecica (Aresch.) Kylin (1912), Stud, ueber Arten der Gattung Batrachospermum und Sirodotia, p. 38.

The material is poor, and the determination by Skuja not quite certain. Hitherto confused with Batrachospermum vagum Bory var. dillenii Aresch.


Family Helminthocladiaceae.
Nemalion Targioni Tozzetti.

Probably widely distributed, but not well known.

Nemalion ramulosum Hook, et Harv. (1855), Fl. Nov. Zel., 2, p. 245.

Otea, Lyall.

A very questionable species. Endemic, and not sufficiently known, but v. Harvey Gibson (1893), p. 5.

[Footnote] * Species marked thus have not been included in preceding lists.

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Liagora Lamour.
In all warmer seas.

Liagora harveyana Zeh Ms.; in A. D. Cotton (1912), p. 258.

Little Barrier, Tiri-Tiri, E. M. Smith (N), Indian Ocean.

I have specimens of what appear to be three New Zealand species of Liagora from (a) Little Barrier, (b) Motu Arohia, Bay of Islands, (e) Crusoe Islands, Motuihi, etc. The Little Barrier specimen is certainly very close to L. viscida (Forsk.) Ag.; but the matter will have to be left thus till more material is obtained and better identifications made.

Helminthora J. Ag.
In European and Australian seas.

*Helminthora divaricata (Ag.) J. Ag. (1851), sp. vol. 2, p. 416.

East Coast of Otago, Kuri Bush to Moeraki, R. M. L.

H. divaricata is widely distributed in Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Australasian seas. The New Zealand form shows small differences from the type which may or may not be specific. One or more species of Helminthocladia, and probably Cumagloia, still unidentified also occur on the New Zealand coasts.

Family Chaetangiaceae.
Scinaia Bivona.

Widely distributed in most warmer seas.

Scinaia furcellata (Turner) Bivona (1822) var. australis J. Ag. (1876), p. 712.

A somewhat questionable New Zealand species. The plant so identified is, perhaps, the following species, but a comparison with the type is necessary. Specimens from the Bay of Islands collected by V. W. L. are in the hands of Prof. W. A. Setchell and will be identified by him. Widely distributed.

Gloiophlaea. J. Ag.
Australasian seas.

Gloiophlaea scinaioides J. Ag. (1870), p. 29; (1876), p. 510.

Lyttelton, Wellington, R. M. L.; Bay of Islands, Berggren, V. W. L.; Auckland, L. M. C.

I doubt if our species is the same as the Australian. Victoria.

Pseudoscinaia Setch.

Lower California and Australasian seas.

*Pseudoscinaia australis Setch. (1914), p. 128.

Not common, from the Bluff to the Bay of Islands.

[Footnote] * Species marked thus have not been included in preceding lists.

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Galaxaura Lam.

In most -warmer seas.

Galaxaora sp.

One or more species of Galaxaura, as yet unidentified, occur at the Kermadecs (N.), Meyer Island, A. et E. S. Gepp. A species collected also by H.M.S. Herald in 1854 was placed under G. lapidescens in Kew Herbarium. Greunow, Novara. p. 76, records G. driesingiana Zanard. This record requires further confirmation.

Chaetangium Kuetz.

South temperate and sub-antarctic seas.

Chaetangium variolosum (Mont.) J. Ag. (1851), p. 461.

This may be only a form of C. fastigiatum J. Ag. (v. Cotton, Cryptog. from the Falklands, p. 175).

New Zealand, Aucklands, Campbell Is. Not very common, but occurring at intervals along the coast to as far north as (Bethell's) McGaffrey's Bay on the west coast, near Auckland. It appears to be more luxuriant in the South, and my finest specimens are from Campbell Island. Different species may be confused in this.

Western Australia, and widely distributed in the sub-antarctic.

Family Gelidiaceae.
Caulacanthus Kuetz.

In most warmer seas.

Caulacanthus spinellus (Hook. f. et Harv.) Kuetz (1849), p. 753.

Common along the coasts as far North as the Bay of Islands, also at the Chathams.

According to Okamura (1932), Distribution of Marine Algae in Pacific Waters, an article to be used with discretion, it is also found in most warmer southern seas.

Caulacanthus ustulatus (Mert.) J. Ag. (1876), p. 580.

In New Zealand only known so far from the Bay of Islands,. R. M. L. V. W. L.

Widely distributed in temperate and sub-tropical seas. Probably there are several forms of Caulacanthus in New Zealand, not yet sufficiently discriminated.

Gelidium Lmx.

In most warmer seas.

Gelidium asperum (Mert.) Grev.

G. asperum is an Australian plant, recorded from New Zealand by J. Ag. (1851), p. 475, but subsequently dropped. No doubt most of the forms from N.Z. placed under G. corneum by earlier collectors belong either to this species or to Pterocladia capillacea (v. under).

Bay of Islands, V. W. D.

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Gelidium caulacantheum J. Ag. (1876), p. 548.

Lyttelton to Bay of Islands, common, but apparently not known at present south of Lyttelton.

Gelidium corneum (Huds.) Lmx. (1813), Ess., p. 41.

I am leaving this species on our list with considerable misgiving. The actual type form is still “a bone of contention” with northern algologists. Much of the material recorded as this by earlier investigators was undoubtedly Pterocladia capillacea (= G. corneum var. capillaceum). As, however, the species has been recorded both by Harvey and Agardh, I am retaining it for the present. Undoubtedly we have forms of Gelidium somewhat similar to G. corneum in one or more of its many varieties, but these can only be determined by actual comparison with the types.

A form collected at the Bay of Islands by V. W. L. certainly comes close to typical G. corneum.

An almost cosmopolitan species in one form or another.

*Gelidium crinale (Turner) Lmx. (1825), p. 191.

Long Beach (Bay of Islands), V. W. L. Identified by W. A. S.

Widely distributed in Mediterranean, Atlantic and Japanese Seas.

Gelidium longipes J. Ag. (1876), p. 547.

Bay of Islands, Berggren, V. W. L.; Kermadecs, W. R. B. O. Endemic.

Gelidium microphyllum (= Nitophyllum ? microphyllum Smith, Lg., 1902) Kylin (1934), p. 2.

This distinct little species has only been collected once. It was found on the back of a Haliotis shell near Dunedin.

*Gelidium subuliferum Harv. (= G. corneum var. subuliferum).

I have several specimens from Keri Keri, thus identified by Reinbold, and introduce the name here for the sake of completeness. The whole genus requires re-investigation for New Zealand. Other undetermined species exist here, one very close to the Australian G. australe. Bornet refers to the genus as “genre diabolique.” Let us hope N.Z. algologists will not find it so.

Pterocladia J. Ag.
Widely distributed.

Pterocladia capillacea (Gmel.) Born, et Thur. (1876), Not. Alg., p. 57.

From Wellington northwards, apparently becoming more abundant towards the north (N.). It occurs in various forms which, so far, have not been studied.

Widely distributed.

[Footnote] * Species marked thus have not been included in preceding lists.

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Pterocladia lucida (R. Br.) J. Ag. (1851), p. 483.

Apparently common in at least two forms from Kaikoura northward. It has also been found, at the Chathams and at various islands off the East Coast of Auckland.

The type species of the genus.


Family Wrangeliaceae.
Wrangelia C. Ag.

N. Atlantic and Australian seas.

Wrangelia lyallii Hook. f. et Harv. (1855), 2, p. 245.

From the Bluff northwards to Lyttelton (S.). Endemic.

Family Bonnemasioniaceae.
Ptilonia J. Ag.

Australasian and Fuegian seas.

Ptilonia magellanica (Mont.) J. Ag. (1852), p. 774.

“East Coast, Lyall.”

The occurrence of this sub-antarctic species in New Zealand requires confirmation.

Delisea Lmx.

Australasian, Indian and sub-antarctic seas.

Delisea elegans (C. Ag.) Hook f. et Harv. (1844), Lond. Journ.

Bot., p. 442.

Stewart Island to Wellington, sub-littoral, usually obtained only in dredging or drift.

S. and E. Australia, Tasmania, Indian Ocean.

Delisea pulchra (Grev.) Mont., Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 3, vol. 7, p. 158.

Only so far known in New Zealand from Kermadecs and North-Auckland, but probably occurs further south as well.

Australia, Tasmania, South Georgia, Graham Land, Indian. Ocean, Japan.

Asparagopsis Mont.

Widely distributed in warmer seas.

Asparagopsis armata Harv. (1855), p. 544.

Apparently usually sub-littoral, but occasionally found on the coasts throughout the Islands.

Pacific coast of America, Tasmania, Australia, and Mediterranean.

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Asparagopsis sandfordiana Harv. (1855), p. 544.

Kermadecs, W. R. B. O. (N.).

This is questionably distinct from A. taxiformis, Delile. v. Lucas (1935), Marine Algae of Lord Howe Island, Proc. Linn. Soc. of N.S.W., vol. 60, p. 232.

Order Cryptonemiales.
Family Squamariaceae.

Peyssonnelia Decaisne.

In most warmer seas.

Peyssonnelia rubra (Grev.) J. Ag. (1851), p. 502.

Kermadecs, W. R. B. O. (N.).

An endemic sp., P. rugosa, is recorded from Cape Kidnappers, Harv., (1855), 2, p. 245, but as it was sterile, it remains very doubtful.

Hildenbrandia Nardo.

*Hildenbrandia le canellieri Hariot (1886), Mission Scientifique du Cap Horn, Algues, p. 81.

Auckland, L. M. C.

Magellan Straits.

*Hildenbrandia crouanii J. Ag. (1851), p. 495.

Anawhata, and fairly widely distributed, L. M. C.

In European seas.

*Hildenbrandia rivularis Liebm. (1839), Kröy. Tidskr., p. 174.

Waitakerei Ranges, Taranga Is., L. M. C.


Family Corallinaceae.

No New Zealand specimens, so far as I know, have been examined since my previous list (Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1926, p. 129). It is hoped, however, that a fresh examination will shortly be made. It does not seem necessary, therefore, to relist them here, and older lists should be consulted, if required, together with the excellent re-investigation of the family by Suneson (1937), Lunds Univ. Arsskrift, bd. 33, no. 2.

Family Grateloupiaceae.

In most warmer seas.

Grateloupia filicina (Wulf.) J. Ag. (1851), p. 180.

Chathams, Rbd.

In most temperate and sub-tropical seas.

The species of Grateloupia are highly polymorphic, and until the limits of each form are known, it is obvious that they cannot be strictly defined. I have only one specimen, from Kaingaroa, Chatham

[Footnote] * Species marked thus have not been included in preceding lists.

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Islands, that can be placed here; and of it I am somewhat doubtful. One or two undescribed species of Grateloupia also appear in my collection. The whole genus really requires re-identification for New Zealand and comparison with sets of specimens from elsewhere.

Grateloupia polymorpha (Hook. f. et Harv.) Lg., nom. nov.(= G. pinnata(H. et H.) J. Ag.)

As the specific name pinnata is preoccupied in G. pinnata (P. et R.) Setchell, I have replaced it for our species. The plant was originally put in the genus Nemastoma by Harvey, and divided into three species (N. pinnata, N. davisii and N. endiviaefolia). J. Agardh, in removing it to the genus Grateloupia, replaced the species by varieties. Until full collections of the plant from different places and at different stages of growth are made, these varieties should, I think, be left to stand.

The species occurs abundantly on tidal rocks and in pools from Otago to the Bay of Islands.

Perhaps endemic, though G. australis from Australia in some of its forms closely approaches it.

Grateloupia prolifera J.Ag. (1876), p. 150.

On tidal rocks and boulders, from the Bluff to the Bay of Islands, common. New Zealand, the Chathams.


Grateloupia stipitata J. Ag. (1876), p. 151.

Dunedin, Berggren.

I have a specimen thus identified by Agardh, but it is obviously only a form of a highly polymorphic species abundant along the coasts of both Islands. It includes forms which might be identified as G. filicina, but apparently far outranges that species in the multitude of its varieties.

Possibly endemic.

N. American Pacific and N.Z.

Aeodes nitidissima J. Ag. (1876), p. 680.

Tauranga to Mangonui. Crusoe Island, L. M. C. (N.).

Perhaps endemic, as the American species, A. gardneri, according to Kylin, is distinct.

Cryptonemia J. Ag.

In many warm seas.

Cryptoremia latissima J. Ag. (1876), p. 682.

Bay of Islands, Berggren. Endemic.

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Halymenia (C. Ag.) J. Ag.
Most warmer seas.

*Halymenia lindaueri Setch., sp. ined.

Bay of Islands, V. W. L.


Pachymenia J. Ag.

Japanese and Southern temperate seas.

Pachymenia dichotoma J. Ag. (1876), p. 146.

Bluff, Berggren.

The various forms of this polymorphic genus are as yet insufficiently known, and consequently the distribution of the species within New Zealand is unknown. I doubt if all the species described by Agardh are really distinct. I have no definite forms of this from north of Otago (S).


Pachymenia himantophora J. Ag. (1876), p. 680.

Bay of Island, Berggren.

West Coast near Auckland, Whangarei Heads, L. M. C.

Apparently to be found on most open rocky coasts, but, perhaps, commoner in the Auckland Province.


Pachymenia laciniata J. Ag. (1876), p. 145.

Bluff, Dunedin, Berggren.

Apparently common on open coasts, but requires further investigation.


Pachymenia lusoria (Grev.) J. Ag. (1876), p. 146.

This is the original N.Z. species; but its limits have never been satisfactorily described or examined.

The Antipodes, Snares, Otago, Banks Pen., and, perhaps, extending far to the North, but certainly far more abundant in the South (S.).


Thamnoclonium Kuetz.

Malay Archipelago and Australasian seas.

Thamnoclonium claviferum J. Ag. (1876), p. 168.

Foveaux Str. (ident. Rbd.), R. M. L.

Australia, Tasmania.

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Family Callymeniaceae.

Callophyllis Kuetz.

Widely distributed.

Callophyllis calliblepharoides J. Ag. (1876), p. 231.

From Foveaux Straits to Wellington, The Chathams, and Auckland Islands (S.).

Questionably distinct from C. hombroniana. Endemic.

Callophyllis centrifuga J. Ag. (1876), p. 688.

Only known from Bay of Islands, Berggren. Endemic.

Callophyllis coccinea Harv. (1847), Alg. Tasm., p. 8. var. carnea J. Ag. (1876), p. 234. var. crinalis J. Ag. (1876), p. 234.

A very polymorphic species.

The only definite locality known on the mainland seems to be Tauranga, but it has not been recently collected there. The Chathams. I have a specimen from Stewart Island that might well be placed here.

Southern Australia, Tasmania (the type locality).

Callophyllis decumbens J. Ag. (1876), p. 688.

Fishermen's net, Lyall Bay, R. M. L.; Bay of Islands, Berggren Endomic.

Callophyllis hombroniana (Mont.) Kuetz. (1849), p. 746.

Common on rocky coasts of the South Island, Aucklands and Chathams (S.).

Endemic. (The locality Amsterdam Island—Botany of the Novara—is probably erroneous.)

Callophyllis lambertii (Turn.) Hook. f. et Harv. (1847), Alg. Tasm., No. 55.

A very doubtful indigene. I have seen no New Zealand specimens. It was originally identified for N.Z. by Reinbold from specimens collected at New Brighton by Dr. Schauinsland. These might well have, been some form of the polymorphic C. coccinea, but a whole series of specimens is required.

Callophyllis ornate (Mont.) Kuetz. (1849), p. 746; v. also Kylm (1931), p. 11.

Auckland Islands. Campbell Is., R. M. L. (S.).

Callophyllis tenera J. Ag. (1849), Act. Holm., p. 87; (1876), p. 235.

Dunidin and Banks Pen., Berggren; Moeraki, Lyall's Bay,. R. M. L. (S.).

New Zealand, Chathams.

It may be doubted whether this is the same as the Fuegian C. tenera; what has in part, at least, been re-identified as Craspedocarpus erosus.

South Shetlands, Fuegia, Falklands, Kerguelen.

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Callophyllis variegate (Bory) Kuetz. (1843), Phyc. Gen., p. 400, t. 69.

Tauranga, Davies; Paterson's Inlet, E. M. L.

New Zealand, Aucklands.

There are a large number of varieties, and it may be doubted whether all belong; to the same species. The type is from New-Guinea, v. Howe (1914), p. 119.

New Guinea, Peru, Chili, Fuegia, Falklands, Kerguelen, South Orkneys, Graham's Land.

Ectophora J. Ag.
An endemic genus.

I previously followed Schmitz in uniting this genus with Callophyllis (v. Lg., 1926, p. 152), but think now it should be kept separate.

Ectophora depressa J. Ag. (1876), p. 690.

Bay of Islands, Berggren, V. W. L. Endemic.

Ectophora dichotoma J. Ag. (1876), p. 691.

This should not be confused with Callophyllis dichotoma Kuetz. (1849), p. 746, which is a different plant from Campbell Is. The present species was described by J. Ag. from one specimen and some fragments (l.c.) which were sterile, and as it does not appear to have been collected since, it is an altogether doubtful species.

Bay of Islands, Berggren.

Dactylymenia J. Ag.
An endemic genus.

Dactylymenia berggreni J. Ag. (1899), p. 54; Kallymenia berggreni (J. Ag.), 1876, p. 221.

A doubtfully distinct species, requiring further investigation. Perhaps the same as Kallymenia harveyana, Fl. N.Z., 2, p. 251.

Bluff, Lyall's Bay, Bay of Islands, Berggren. Apparently not uncommon on the coasts.


Dactylymenia digitata J. Ag. (1899), p. 52.

J. Ag. gives no locality further than New Zealand for this species. I have one or two specimens from Wellington Harbour that I have placed here, but they are possibly insufficiently separated from the following species.

Dactylymenia laingii J. Ag. (1899), p. 54.

Akatore, Black Head, Dunedin, Karaka Bay, Muritai, R. M. L Endemic.

– 148 –

Rhizopogonia Kylin.
An endemic genus.

Rhizopogonia asperata (Hook. f. et Harv.) Kylin (1934), p. 6. (= Chrysymenia asperata (H. et H.) Cotton (1809), p. 241; = Chrysymenia (?) apiculifera J. Ag. (1876), p. 320.)

Akaroa, Lyttelton, R. M. L.; Lyall's Bay, Berggren; Port Nicholson, Lyall the type locality.

Order Gigartinales.
Family Nemastomaceae.

Nemastoma J. Ag.
Widely distributed.

Nemastoma intestinalis Hook. f. et Harv. (1855) 2, p. 255. Preservation Harbour, Lyall.

New Zealand, the Chathanis.

The species of this genus are badly in need of re-determination This has probably been confused with Grateloupia prolifera. Endemic.

Nemastoma laciniata J. Ag. (1876), p. 128; v. also Kylin (1932), p. 7, where he shows that J. Ag. re-described this species as Schizymenia stipitata.

Banks Peninsula, Berggren.

Common along the coast on exposed rocks near low tide, and occasionally in tidal pools. In some of its forms very close in appearance to the European Schizymenia dubyi.


*Nemastoma laingii Kylin (1932), p. 8.

In the absence of cystocarpic specimens the genus is somewhat uncertain.

Brighton, Otago, R. M. L. Endemic.

Nemastoma oligarthra (J. Ag.) Kylin (1934), p. 1. (= Catenella. oligarthra J. Ag.)

Coromandel Pen. to Bay of Islands (N.).

The genus is somewhat doubtful. Endemic.

Schizymenia J. Ag.
Widely distributed.

Schizymenia novae zelandiae J. Ag. (1876), p. 677.

Bay of Islands, Berggren.

Not uncommon from Otago northwards. Endemic.

[Footnote] * Species marked thus have not been included in preceding lists.

– 149 –

Family Sebdeniaceae.

Sebdenia Berth.

A genus widely distributed in the warmer seas of the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

Sebdenia (?) sp.

Toni et Forti (1923), p. 31, have identified a seaweed collected at Port Chalmers as S. (?) callymenioides. What it really is I don't know; but it is certainly not Halymenia callymenioides Harv., Trans, Irish Acad., vol. 22, p. 56, as suggested. The plant originally described by Harvey under this name was later confused by him with another species, and redescribed and figured as H. cliftoni. H. cliftoni is now Leptosomia cliftoni (Harv.) J. Ag., v. Kylin (1931), p. 19; but the original plant of Harvey was probably a true Halymenia (v. Kylin, loc. cit.).

The Port Chalmers plant, whatever it may be, is, therefore, not entitled to the specific name callymenioides, as it is evidently not a Halymenia.

Family Gracilariaceae.

Curdiaea Harv.
In Australasian Seas.

Curdiaea coriacea (Harv. f. et Harv.) J. Ag. (1876), p. 401.

Comparatively common along the East Coast from Stewart Island, as far north as Lyall's Bay, usually in the D'Urvillea belt.


Curdiaea crateriformis (J. Ag.) Kylin (1932), p. 61. (= Sarcocladia (?) crateriformis J. Ag. (1876), p. 697.)

Hokianga and Bay of Islands, Berggren; O'Neil's Point, L. M. C.; Bay of Islands, V. W. L. (N.).

Probably endemic.

Curdiaea engelhartii J.Ag. (1901), p. 105.

East coast of both islands, as far north as the Bay of Islands; not common.

Akatore is the type locality.


Curdiaea laciniata Harv. (1856), Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 2, vol. 15, p. 333.

Bay of Islands, Cook Strait, Lyall; Otago, Lindsay.

I have seen no N.Z. specimens, and doubt the occurrence of this in N.Z. Quite possibly one of the other species of the genus may have been confused with it. Apparently it was not collected by Berggren.

Australia, Tasmania.

– 150 –

Gracilaria Grev.
Almost cosmopolitan.

(The New Zealand species of this genus require redetermination.)

Gracilaria confervoides (L.) Grev. (1830), Alg. Brit., p. 123.

Common along the east coast, the Kermadecs.

Almost cosmopolitan.

*Gracilaria disticha J. Ag. (1837), Alg. Rüpp., p. 172; Epicr. 1876),p. 416; (1901), p. 79.

I insert this for the sake of completeness. I collected some specimens at Moeraki which Agardh thus identified; but I am not at all well satisfied that they do not belong to the somewhat polymorphus G. flagellifera (q.v.) or to G. secundata J. Ag.

Red Sea, Indian Ocean.

Gracilaria dura (C. Ag.) J. Ag. (1852), p. 589; J. Ag. (1901), p. 61.

Bluff, Berggren; Kuri Bush, R. M. L.

Doubtfully the same as the European species, but without sets of specimens from different areas the identity or otherwise can scarcely be determined. Agardh had only one specimen from New Zealand.

Europe Mediterranean, India, West Indies, American Atlantic coast, etc.

Gracilaria flagellifera J. Ag. (1876), p. 412.

Chatham, Mueller.

This appears first as a nomen nudum, T.N.Z.I., vol. 6, p. 209.

Apparently a common species on the east coast of Otago (S.); but v. J. Ag. (1901), p. 67.


Gracilaria harveyana (?) J. Ag. (1885), p. 59; J. Ag. (1901), p. 65.

Chathams, Dr. Schauinsland.

Some specimens collected by me at Gore Bay are doubtfully placed here by Prof. W. A. Setchell.

S. and W. Australia.

Gracilaria lichenoides (L.) Harv. (1844), p. 445; J. Ag. (1901), p. 52.

This is reported from New Zealand by Agardh (loc. cit.), but no collector s name or locality is given.

New Guinea, Australia, Tasmania, Indo-China.

*Gracilaria paradoxa (?) (Harv.) J. Ag. (1901), p. 67.

Doubtfully thus identified for me by W. A. S., but is quite likely lo be a new species.

Bluff, W. A. S.; mud flats, Governor's Bay (Lyttelton), Heath-cote Estuary, R. M. L.

S. and W. Australia.

[Footnote] * Species marked thus have not been included in preceding lists.

– 151 –

Gracilaria polycarpa (Harv.?) J. Ag. (1901), p. 89. (= G. multi-partita (Clem.) J. Ag., var. polycarpa Grev.)

East Coast, New Zealand, von Mueller; Blind Bay, Lyall.

Another very doubtful species. Yendo (Notes on Algae New to Japan, VI, p. 83) thinks that this, on re-examination, may turn out to be only a form of the variable Sarcodia montganeana.


Gracilaria ramulosa J.Ag. (1876), p. 417: J. Ag. (1901), p. 70. New Zealand, Prof. Parker.

This species was identified for N.Z. by Prof. R. J. Harvey Gibson (1893), p. 2, and requires re-identification.

S.—E. Australia.

Gracilaria secundata (?) Harv. (1863), Phyc. Austral. Syn., No. 432; J. Ag. (1901), p. 72.

I have forms thus identified by Major Reinbold from Otago Harbour, Moeraki, and Taylor's Mistake (Sumner), but they are quite distinct from the Australian species as identified by Lucas.

S.E. Australia.

Melanthalia Mont.
In Australasian seas.

(There are undoubtedly two species of this genus in New Zealand, M. abscissa in the north and M. jaubertiana chiefly in the south, both common on the coast in tidal pools about low water mark. For some reason M. jaubertiana recorded in Fl. N. Zel., II, p. 242, was reduced by J. Ag. (1876), p, 404, to a synonym of M. abscissa. I do not know whether our form of this species is the same as the Australian.)

Melanthalia abscissa (Turn.) Hook. f. et Harv. (1845), p. 548. From Mangonui southwards to Wellington (N.). Tasmania.

Melanthalia jaubertiana Mont. (1837), Pl. Cell. Exot., p. 136.

Coast of Otago to as far north as Cape Turnagain. I have seen no specimens from further north.


Tylotus J. Ag.
In Australian seas.

Tylotus proliferus (Harv.) Kylin (1932), p. 60. (= Calliblepharis (?) prolifera (H. et H.) J. Ag.)

From Lyttelton north to the Bay of Islands, usually in the drift; not common.


– 152 –

Family Rhodophyllidaceae.

Craspedocarpus Schmitz.
Endemic genus.

Craspedocarpus erosus (Harv.) Sehmitz (1897), Engler und Prantl's Pflanzenfamilien, Teil 1, Abteilung 2, p. 375.

Foveaux Strait, Lyttelton, Lyall; as Calophyllis erosa.

Bluff to Bay of Islands, Berggren.

Common in drift from Foveaux Straits to Bay of Islands.

Rhodophyllis Kuetz.
In most temperate seas.

The New Zealand species were last revised by Dr Cotton (1907), and his results are given here. It cannot, however, yet be said that the species are successfully discriminated. R. membranacea is a complex of forms, and R. lacerata is very imperfectly known. R. (?) angustifrons is quite possibly a form of R. lacerata.

Rhodophyllis acanthocarpa (Hook. f. et Harv.) J. Ag. (1876), p. 364.

East coast and Port Cooper, Lyttelton, Lyall as Calophyllis acanthocarpa.

Apparently not uncommon as far north as the Bay of Islands. St. Paul, New Amsterdam.

Rhodophyllis (?) angustifrons Hook. f. et Harv. (1855), 2, p. 247.

Bluff and Wellington, Lyall.

I have specimens from Governor's Bay (Lyttelton) that may belong to this species or possibly even to R. lacerata, but have not so far examined them minutely.

Kerguelen, Australia.

(Rhodophyllis chathamensis Cotton (1907), is Craspedocarpus erosus.)

Rhodophyllis gunnii Harv. (1845), p. 540.

Chalky Bay and Preservation Harbour, Lyall; The Nuggets, Gore Bay, R. M. L.

I have only a few specimens.

Rhodophyllis lacerata Hook. f. et Harv. (1855), 2, p. 247.

Port William, Lyall.

I have a number of specimens from Otago Harbour, Akaroa, and Governor's Bay (Lyttelton) corresponding with a form thus identified by Cotton.

Rhodophyllis laingii Cotton (1908), Kew Bull. Misc. Inform., 3.

This was described from a solitary specimen. I have a number collected at the same time and place as the type, and doubt if it is distinct from R. acanthocarpa.

– 153 –

Rhodophyllis membranacea Harv. (1845), p. 448.

East Coast, Colenso; Cook's Straits, Lyall; Foveaux Straits, Wellington, R. M. L.

Southern Australia, Tasmania.

Family Hypneaceae.

Hypnea Lmx.
In most warmer seas.

Hypnea musciformis (Wulf) Lmx., 1813, p. 43; Hooker (1867), p. 689.

A species of Hypnea exists in New Zealand which has usually been termed H. musciformis, but so many different forms have been included under this species that I hesitate to identify it definitely. This is undoubtedly similar to the European forms I have seen. The type locality is the Mediterranean.

Tauranga, Berggren; Bay of Islands, V. W. L.

Widely distributed.

Family Plocamiaceae.

Plocamium (Lmx.) Lyngbye.
On all coasts.

It is hopeless trying to get order into this genus without type specimens and a large series of local examples. Some of the forms pass into each other.

Plocamium abnorme (Harv.) 1845, p. 543.

Probably quite a good species. This is one that Yendo wishes to include in P. telfairiae (v. under P. brachiocarpum). I have a Japanese specimen collected by Higashi and labelled P. abnorme, but it is quite distinct from the P. abnorme of N.Z. P. abnorme is a densely tufted low-growing species, distinct in habit from the other N.Z. species.

Kaikoura, R. M. L.; Lyall's Bay, Berggren; Bay of Islands, Cunningham.

Probably not uncommon, but easily overlooked.

New Zealand, Chathams. Probably endemic.

Plocamium angustum J. Ag. (1841), p. 10; (1876), p. 343.

(v. under P. brachiocarpum for comment by Yendo. This, however, appears to me to be our most abundant and a very distinct species.)

Common along the coasts.

N.Z., Chathams, Tasmania and Southern Australia.

– 154 –

Plocamium brachiocarpum Kutz. (1849), p. 1885.

Yendo (Notes on Algae New to Japan (1915), III, p. 111), after a study of the types, proposes to reduce P. brachiocarpum, P. abnorme, P. angustum, P. recurvatum to the one species P. telfairiae. I quite admit that it is probably true as he states, “All the gradations to link these species may be met with in our material”; but it seems to me that it has yet to be proved that the different forms are merely epharmones (sensu, Cockayne). So far as I have seen in N.Z. the different types do not intermingle in their habitats. I, at least, prefer to keep them as separate species for the present.

Apparently common.

N.Z., (Campbell Is., Aucklands, The Kermadecs.

Endemic (?).

var. attenuatum (?) J. Ag. (1877), p. 21.

J. Ag. thinks this variety may be in part the P. angustum of various authors, or even P. dispermum Harv.

Bay of Islands, Berggren.

Plocamium coccineum Lyngb. (1819), tab. 9, var. flexuosum Harv. (= P. leptophyllum Kuetz., var. flexuosum J. Ag. (1876). p. 339.)

Harvey recognised P. coccineum as a N.Z. species. J. Ag. replaced it by P. brachiocarpum and P. leptophyllum. I do not know enough about the type of P. coccineum to give any opinion and follow Yendo (l.c., p. 114) in recognising only the variety for N.Z.

N.Z., Campbell Is., Aucklands, Chathams.

Most temperate seas.

Plocamium costatum J. Ag. (1841), p. 10.

Possibly a composite species. Common on the coasts.

N.Z., the Chathams.

Australia, Tasmania, Japan.

Plocamium cruciferum Hook. f. et Harv. (1855) 2, p. 246; J. Ag. (1876), p. 345.

I doubt very much whether the plant of J. Ag. is the same as that of Harv. J. Ag. admits that he did not see a specimen of Harvey's plant, and his description of the species disagrees with Harvey's. P. cruciferum Harv. may only be a well-developed P. angustum. I must leave it at that for the present.

Bluff to Banks Pen., Berggren.

N.Z., Chathams, Aucklands, in one sense or another.


Plocamium dilatatum J. Ag. (1876), p. 347.

Dusky Bay, Forster; Dunedin, Berggren.

I have seen no specimens that I can definitely assign to this species.

N.Z., Tasmania.

– 155 –

Plocamium dispermum Hook. f. et Harv. (1855), 2, p. 246.

Foveaux St. northwards to Hawke's Bay.

Not common.


* Plocamium hookeri Harv. (1845), p. 257; J. Ag. (1876), p. 337.

Macquarie Is. (identified by Reinbold) (S.), Kerguelen Land and other sub-antarctic islands. The type is from Kerguelen Land.

Plocamium leptophyllum Kuetz. (1849), p. 885.

A common species from the South to Wellington. The type is from Tasmania. Lucas (Algae of Commonwealth Bay, p. 14) considers this as only a form of P. coccineum.

Australia, Tasmania, Antarctic.

var. recurvatum J. Ag. (1876) p. 339.

Kaikoura, R. M. L.

N.Z., Tasmania (according to J. Ag.).

(Yendo, l.c., p. 114, states, “P. leptophyllum in J. Ag.'s sense has often the definite branches curved downward. P. hamatum J. Ag. is nothing but such form which has this sort of branch markedly pronounced.” P. hamatum is a species of Norfolk Is., also identified by A. H. S. Lucas from Lord Howe Is. I have a specimen from each island. Both are quite distinct from P. leptophyllum f. recurvatum.)

Plocamium procerum J. Ag. (1841), p. 10; Hook. f. et Harv. (1855), p. 695.

Foveaux Str., R. M. L.

N.Z., Lyall.

The type is from Australia, and I doubt whether the N.Z. form is the same as it, but I have only seen one or two specimens from N.Z., and these are not very certain.

Family Sphaerococcaceae.

Phacelocarpus Endl. et Diesing.
South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand.

Phacelocarpus alatus Harv. (1855), Trans. Ir. Acad., vol. 22, p. 549.

Southern Otago, R. M. L.; Bay of Islands, V. W. L.

Not common.

S. Australia.

Phacelocarpus labillardieri (Mert.) J. Ag. (1852), p. 648. Sub-littoral, common along all the coasts.

N.Z., Australia, Tasmania.

[Footnote] * Species marked thus have not been included in preceding lists.

– 156 –

Apophlaea Harv.

A curious endemic genus, of quite uncertain position; possibly should be placed in the Gelidiales.

Apophlaea lyallii Hook. f. et Harv. (1855), 2, p. 24

Sporadically common along the coasts, near high water mark.

The Chathams, N.Z.


Apophlaea sinclairii Harv. (1855), 2, p. 244.

In similar positions to the preceding, but less common.

Campbell Is., Stewart Is., Snares, N.Z.


Gelidiopsis Schmitz.

Widely distributed in temperate and sub-tropic seas.

Gelidiopsis rigida (Vahl) Weber v. Bosse (1914), p. 9. Rhodo-phyc. Percy Sladen Expedition.

This has been recorded from N.Z. by Gruenow, Novara Exped., p. 80, but requires microscopic investigation for re-identification.

Family Solieriaceae.

Tnocladia Endlicher.

Thysanocladia laxa Sond. (1852), Linnaea, vol. 25, p. 689.

The type is from S. Australia (Rivoli Bay).

The species was identified for N.Z. by Reinbold from specimens collected by me at Foveaux Straits, but more material is wanted for fuller identification.

N.Z., Southern Australia.

Sarcodiotheca Kylin.
N.Z., N.-W. America (Pacific Coast).

Sarcodiotheca colensoi (Hook. f. et Harv.) Kylin (1932), p. 16; Prionitis colensoi H. et H.; Vidalia colensoi (H. et H.) J. Ag.

Cape Turnagain, Colenso; Anawhata, L. M. C.; Bay of Islands, V. W. L.; Hokianga, Berggren (N.).

Endemic. (? Japan, Yendo.)

Family Sarcodiaceae.

Carpococcus J. Ag.
Canaries, Red Sea, Indian Coasts, and N.Z.

Carpococcus (?) linearis J. Ag. (1876), p. 586.

The specimens are sterile, and the species of very questionable position; v. Kylin (1932), p. 57.

The Chathams, Travers.


– 157 –

Sarcodia J. Ag.
Indian and Australasian seas.

Sarcodia montagneana J. Ag. (1852), p. 623.

Wellington Heads to Mangonui (N.).

Low tide rocks and pools.

N.Z., Chathams.

S. Georgia, Australia, Japan.

Trematocarpus Kuetz.
S. America, N.Z.

Trematocarpus (Dicranoma) aciculare J. Ag.; Kylin (1932), p. 54.

Warrington, type-locality. As N.Z. workers are still in some other identity of this species, though it is, perhaps, common, other localities are not here given.


Family Mychodeaceae.

Mychodea Harv.
In Australasian Seas.

Mychodea foliosa (Harv.) J. Ag. (1876), p. 573; De Toni et Forti (1923), p. 18.

Port Chalmers, Capra.

I have seen no specimen.

N.Z., Australia S.

Family Rhabdoniaceae.

Areschougia Harv.
In Australasian Seas.

Areschougia laurencia Hook. f. et Harv. (1847), p. 409.

Lyall Bay, R. M. L.; Bay of Islands, V. W. L.

Identified for N.Z. by Reinbold, but I am not sure that it is the same as the Australian species.

N.Z., Australia S. and W.

Catenella Grev.
An almost cosmopolitan genus.

Catenella fusiformis (J. Ag.) Skottsb. (1923), p. 13; v. also Post, Rev. Algol. (1936), Tome 9, 36, pp. 1–84.

Occasionally found on rocks, on piles of wharves, but particularly on the pneumatophores of mangroves.

Puketeraki to the Bay of Islands.

N.Z., Fuegia to Chili.

– 158 –

* Catenella nipae Zan. v. Post, l.c., p. 68.

In previous lists this wrongly appears as C. opuntia (Good. et Wood.) Grev.

Very often on the pneumatophores of mangroves, associated with Bostrychia sp. and Caloglossa.

Nelson to Hokianga and Bay of Islands.

N.Z., Australia, New Guinea, and through the Malay Archipelago to Burmah.

Family Dicranemaceae.

Dicranema Sond.
In Australasian Seas.

Dicranema grevillei Sond. (1845), Bot. Zeit., p. 56.

Foveaux St., Kaikoura (drift), R. M. L.

This species rests on few specimens of questionable identity; so named by Reinbold.

S. and E. Australia.

Family Phyllophoraceae.

Ahnfeltia Fries.

A genus of somewhat uncertain position, widely distributed in temperate and colder seas.

Ahnfaltia furcata (Hook. f. et Harv.) J. Ag. (1876), p. 208.

Not uncommon along the coasts, from Riverton to the Bay of Islands.


Ahnfaltia torulosa (Hook. f. et Harv.) J. Ag. (1876), p. 207. Gymnogongrus furcellatus Harv. partim.

Bay of Islands, Berggren.

If I have rightly identified it, to be found along the coasts, from the extreme south to Wellington.

N.Z., Snares, Campbell Island (S.). Endemic.

Family Gigartinaceae.

Gigartina (Stackhouse) J. Ag.
Widely distributed.

The genus has been revised for New Zealand by Laing and Gourlay, Trans. N.Z.I. (1929), pp. 102–135; (1931) pp. 134–155.

These papers should be consulted for further information.

Gigartina alveata J. Ag. (1851), p. 271.

N.Z. (N.).

A purely northern species. I have seen no specimens from further south than Raglan on the W. Coast and the Great Barrier on the East.


[Footnote] * Species marked thus have not been included in preceding lists.

– 159 –

Gigartina ancistroclada Mont. (1845), Voy. Pole Sud, t. 7, fig. 4. Akaroa D'Urville.

This species does not appear to have been found since its discovery, nearly a century ago. The plant described by Lg. and Gy. (1929), p. 129, is distinct, and, perhaps, a new species. This has been definitely determined by subsequent comparison with a fragment of one of Montague's specimens. The Australian plant which goes under the name G. ancistroclada is also different from the original and distinct from any N.Z. form I have seen. Lyall is said by H. et H. to have collected the species in Otago, but this is at least questionable.

Probably endemic.

Gigartina angulata J. Ag. (1876), p. 197.

N.Z., Stewart Is., Chathams (S.).

This is a common South Island species, and occurs as far north as Lyall Bay.


Gigartina apoda J. Ag. (1899), p. 31.

Stewart Island to Wellington Heads.

N.Z., Chathams (S.).


Gigartina atropurpurea (J. Ag.) 1885, p. 31.

Banks Peninsula to Bay of Islands; not uncommon on low-tide rocks.


Gigartina chapmanii (Hook. f. et Harv.) 1855, p. 251, T. ii9B.

Maketu, Chapman; Banks Pen., R. M. L.; Tauranga, Berggren (?).

Apparently a rare sub-littoral species. There are several allied forms not yet well identified.

Gigartina circumcincta J. Ag. (1876), p. 202.

This includes some of the forms previously identified as G. radula J. Ag.

Common along the East Coast on open, rocky shores.

Endemic (?).

Gigartina clavifera J. Ag. (1876), p. 194.

A common species in one form or another, but becoming rarer towards the North. However, I have seen specimens from as far N. as Waikato Heads.


– 160 –

* Gigartina cranwellae sp. ined.

This replaces G. chauvinii J. Ag., Fl. N.Z, vol. 2, p. 252. G. chauvinii is a species of the West Coast of South America which does not, I am satisfied, occur in New Zealand.

G. cranwellae occurs in many forms in the northern part of the N. Island, but becomes less common as one goes south.

N.Z. (N.).


Gigartina decipiens Hook. f. et Harv. (1855), p. 547. On open rocky coasts, as far N. as Wellington. N.Z., Chathams (S.).


Gigartina divaricata Hook. f. et Harv. (1845), p. 75.

Snares, Auckland, Campbell Is. (S.).

J. Ag, gives G. divaricata as found by Berggren at the Bay of Islands, possibly confusing some other species with it.

(Gigartina flabellata J. Ag. sp. exclud. I have seen a set of Tasmanian forms of this species. They do not correspond with any N.Z. forms that I have seen, and I consider the species should be removed from our lists.)

Gigartina grandifida J. Ag. (1876), p. 199.

This species was excluded by Lg. et Gy. (1931), p. 143, but may have to be restored and redescribed. The original description was based on two specimens from the Chathams. There is, however, a species abundant on many parts of the E. coast of N.Z. which, on the whole, agrees with J. Ag.'s description, but that description is too narrow and, in places, not satisfactory. Until, however, the whole series of forms is re-investigated, the species had better be left to stand.

The Chathams, Travers.

Gigartina insidiosa J. Ag. (1899), p. 22.

No locality is given by Agardh for this species, but as he previously referred it to G. pinnata (G. livida), it must belong to either N.Z. or Australia, or to both. This species has not yet been re-identified.

Gigartina kroneana Rabenh. (1878), Flora der Auckland Inseln, Hedwigia, 17, p. 70.

Aucklands, Campbell Is. (S.).


Gigartina laciniata J. Ag. (1876), p. 197.

Chathams (J. Ag.)

I have seen no specimens.


[Footnote] * Species marked thus have not been included in preceding lists.

– 161 –

* Gigartina laingii sp. ined.

Bay of Islands, V. W. L., and elsewhere in N. Auckland.


Gigartina lanceata J. Ag. (1899), p. 29.

From Otago Pen. to Kaikoura (S.).

N.Z., Australia. (I have seen no Australian specimens.)

Gigartina livida (Turn.) J. Ag. (1851), p. 270; G. pinnata Harv., Phyc. Austr., pl. 68.

An imperfectly identified species in N.Z., but, perhaps, widely distributed; not common.

Riverton, Wycliffe Bay, R. M. L.; Paroa, Otago, and Jackson's Bay, Lyall; Portobello (Otago Harb.), W. A. Scarfe.

Tasmania, S. Australia.

Gigartina longifolia J. Ag. (1899), p. 36.

Otago Peninsula to Kaikoura, R. M. L.


Gigartina macrocarpa J. Ag. (1876), p. 683.

Wellington to Bay of Islands, in many forms; but much more common in the north (N.).

Gigartina marginifera J. Ag. (1876), p. 122, v. Lg. et Gy. (1929), p. 122.

Foveaux Straits to Bay of Islands.

A puzzling plant, only occasionally found, and possibly a hybrid.


Gigartina polyglotta J. Ag. (1885), p. 29.

Lg. et Gy., T.N.Z.I. (1929), p. 123, state: “We have seen no specimens which we can definitely assign to this species.” I have since collected it at Makara and at other places in Cook Strait. The three lower figures in Fig. 42, G. decipiens (loc. cit.) tsp., probably belong to this species.


Gigartina protea J. Ag. (1885), p. 29.

G. protea, G. decipiens, and G. polyglotta might readily be described as variants of one species, though in extreme forms they are clearly distinct, yet they pass into each other by many intermediates. They may quite well be local habitat forms.

G. protea is chiefly known from Lyttelton to Wellington, and is usually a dominant species on the Gladstone Pier, Lyttelton.


[Footnote] * Species marked thus have not been included in preceding lists.

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Gigartina tuberculosa Hook. f. et Harv. (1847), p. 188.

Auckland Islands, the type locality (S.).

Reported also from Peru, Chili, and Fuegia, but the S. American plant is doubtfully identical. Somewhat similar forms may be found at Stewart Island and Dunedin; but the species requires fuller description and better identification from a larger series of specimens.

Gymnogongrus Mart.

Gymnogongrus nodiferus (Hook. f. et Harv.) J. Ag. (1876), p. 210, note to G. furcellatus.

Bluff to Bay of Islands; common on the coasts.


I have several other forms, apparently belonging to this genus, but hesitate to introduce them without further examination and description. Amongst them is what may be G. vermicularis (Turn.) J. Ag.; but as I doubt the identity of Agardh's plant with Turner's, I leave it at present amongst our species inquirendae. However, specimens collected by L. M. C. at Anawhata (Auckland) correspond closely to some collected at Sea Point, Cape of Good Hope.

Stenogramma Harv.

Stenogramma interrupta (C Ag.) Mont. (1846) in Duchartre's Rev. Bot., p. 483.

According to Colenso, common along all the coasts. It seems to me rather sporadic, though I have seen specimens from points as far apart as Dusky Sound and the Bay of Islands.

A very widely distributed species in temperate and warmer seas.

Iridophycus Setchell and Gardner.
In most temperate seas.

In 1937 Setchell and Gardner, University of California Publications in Botany, vol. 19, no. 6, discarded the genus Iridaea, placing its species in the new genus Iridophycus or in other genera. They further state that in the “Australio-New Zealand region” there appear to be about 2 species of Iridophycus and 6 of Rhodoglossum (I.c., p. 198). The genus Iridaea as it stood was too vague and ill-defined to be identifiable, but until a thorough investigation of the New Zealand forms is made a purely tentative list can only be drawn out.

Iridophycus laminarioides Setch. et Gard. (l.c.)

The type locality is on the island of Chiloé, off the coast of Chili, where it was collected by Dumont D'Urville, and S. et G. (l.c., p. 208) consider this the only certain locality. However, a plant also collected by D'Urville at Lord Aucklands Group has

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been referred by subsequent observers to this species. Its identity with the S. American plant is very questionable. Another species of Iridophycus which has been recorded in New Zealand is Iridaea cordata. This again has been confused with I. micans. Setchell (l.c.) states the “combined nomenclature is so much confused that it seems undesirable to attempt to unravel it,” and considers that for the present, at any rate, it would be wise to retain the specific name cordatus for the boreal species of Iridophycus, to which it was originally attached by Turner in his Fucus cordatus. (v. also Skottsberg (1923), Rhodophyceae der Schwedischen Expedit. nach Patagonien, p. 6.)

(What Iridaea lanceolata Harv. (1855), p. 252, really is no one knows. J. Ag. (1876), p. 201, associated it with Gigartina fissa. The type is, I think, at Kew. It was originally collected by Lyall in Otago, and until a wide range of specimens is collected and compared with the type the species must be left in abeyance.)

Rhodoglossum J. Ag.

Rhodoglossum latissium (Hook. f. et Harv.) J. Ag. (1876), p. 187.

Timaru, Akaroa, Lyall Bay, R. M. L.

N.Z., Aucklands, Campbell Is., Australia, and N.W. America.

I have seen no American specimens, and therefore do not know whether they are the same as ours. Harvey Fl. Ant., t. 73, f. 1, described it as Halymenia latissima, and the types are from the Auckland and Campbell Islands. Gruen (1870), Alg. Novara, p. 69, t. IX, figs. 3a-d, placed it in the genus Iridaea.

Additional Citations.

The bulk of the literature dealing with the New Zealand seaweeds will be found listed in Laing (1926), A Reference List of New Zealand Marine Algae, which should be consulted in conjunction with this paper. These references, for the sake of brevity, are not repeated here. Only additional citations are now recorded. In a few cases such additions will be found in the text alone, when the reference is used only once, and consequently is more conveniently placed there.

Agardh. J. G., 1841. In historiam Algarum Symbolae, Linnaea XV, pp. 443–487.

Batters E., 1902. A catalogue of the British Marino Algae, issued as a supplement to the Journal of Botany.

Gardner, N. L. 1936. A New Red Alga from New Zealand, Nat. Acad. of Sciences, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 340–345.

Hamel, G., 1928. Floridées de France, V, pp. 99–210, Revue Algologique, tome 3, nos. 1–4.

Harve Y, W. H. 1844. Hooker's London Journal of Botany, III.

—– 1845. Hooker's London Journal of Botany, IV.

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Harvey, W. H., 1855. Trans. Ir. Academy, vol. 22.

Kylin, H., 1931. Die Florideenordnung, Rhodymeniales. (C. W. K. Gleerup, Lund.)

—– 1932. Die Florideenordnung, Gigartinales. (C. W. K. Gleerup, Lund.)

—– 1934. Bemerkungen ueber einige Florideen aus Neu Seeland, Fysiogr. Sällsk. Forhandl., Band. 4.

—– 1937. Anatomie der Rhodophyceen, Gebrueder Borntrager. Berlin.

Laing, R. M., 1920. A Reference List of the New Zealand Marine Algae, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 57, pp. 126–182.

—– 1928. New Zealand Bangiales, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 59, pp. 33–59.

Laing, R. M., and Gourlay, H. W., 1929. The New Zealand Species of Gigartina, Part I, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 60, pp. 120–135.

—– 1931. The New Zealand Species of Gigartina, Part II, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 62, pp. 134–155.

Lamouroux, J. V., 1813. Essai sur les genres de la famille des Thalassophytes non articulées, Annal. Mus.

Lyngbye, H. C., 1819. Tentamen Hydrophytologiae Danicae.

Montagne, C., 1842. Prodromus generum specierumque Phycearum novarum ad polum antarcticum ab illustri Dumont D'Urville peracto collectarum.

Setchell, W. A., 1914. The Scinaia Assemblage, Univ. of California publications in Botany, vol. 6, pp. 79–152.