The Mould Fungi of New Zealand.
II.The Genus Aspergillus
[Read before the Manawatu Branch, September 21, 1938; received by the Editor, December 22, 1938; issued separately, September, 1939.]
Fungi belonging to the genus Aspergillus constitute, with the closely related genus Penicillium, the common spoilage moulds of foodstuffs, textiles and leather the world over. Several of them are pathogenic to plants and animals, including man. Others are used in industry—notably in the manufacture of citric acid and in the preparation of fermented food and drink. Of the multitude of articles published by botanists, pathologists, and chemists touching the Aspergilli, comparatively few deal with the botanical classification of the genus. The monograph by Thom and Church (The Aspergilli, 1926) is the only comprehensive work of this character published within recent years. In it the authors review the world's literature on the genus, supplemented by personal examination of a wide range of specimens and of type cultures. They define, in general terms, groups composed of related species, but rarely lay down definite lines of demarcation between the species comprising each group. While the inquirer can, with reasonable precision, place his specimen within a group he is left in some doubt as to the choice of a specific name.
In attempting to record the New Zealand Aspergilli it has been found necessary to lay down clear boundary lines between species, based on definite morphological characters. This has entailed a review of the systematics of the whole genus and the relegation to synonymy of all but 18 of the 66 specific names accepted by Thom and Church out of the 400 or so in existence.
The strains recorded here have been isolated in the course of industrial and soil mycological work over the past four years. They do not purport to form a complete list of the Aspergilli present in New Zealand.
Genus Aspergillus Micheli, emend. Corda
Icon. Fung., II, p. 18, 1838.
Sterigmatocystis Cramer, Viert. Nat. Gesell., vol. 4, p. 325, 1859.
Aspergillopsis Spegazzini, An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, Ser. III vol. 13, p. 434, 1911.
Diplostephanus Langeron, Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol., France, vol. 87, p. 343, 1922.
Sterile hyphae creeping, septate, hyaline, sometimes in age tinged yellow or brown. Fertile hyphae (stalk) erect, normally unbranched, thick walled, budding from side-wall of a hyphal cell which often becomes thick walled, swollen and distorted (foot-cell), very sparsely septate, with apex swollen to form a globose, flask-shaped, or more or less clavate vesicle. Sterigmata arising as buds from the vesicle wall, either bearing conidia directly (1 series), or budding at apex 1 to 5 secondary sterigmata which bear the conidia (2 series). Conidial sterigmata cylindrical or vase-shaped, narrowing more or less abruptly at apex to form an apical tube within which the conidia arise in succession. Conidia continuous, elliptical or globose, hyaline or with outer wall coloured green, yellow, or brown, in unbranched chains
radiating so form a mop-like or globose head, or more or less compacted to form stellate masses or cylindrical columns, not enveloped in slime.
Perithecia, when present, globose or oval, cleistocarpic, thin-walled. Asci globose, containing 8 spores. Ascospores more or less lens-shaped, with or without median groove and projecting membranes.
Sclerotia, when present, more or less spherical, composed of compacted masses of globose cells with lumen nearly filled with horny material.
There appears to be no clear line of division between the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. P. spinulosum might well pass for a small columnar Aspergillus, its numerous sterigmata being borne on an apical vesicle more than twice the diameter of the stalk. The swollen and contorted “foot cell” at the base of the stalk, though prominent in the larger forms, is less easily observed in degenerate cultures or in small stalked species such as A. fumigatus, nor is it present at the foot of stalks that arise from aerial hyphae. Certain Penicillia also exhibit definite footcells. Pure cultures of Aspergilli, when becoming degenerate through age, staling, unsuitable media, or bacterial contamination, often produce typically penicillate fructifications. The general morphology of the essential organs of propagation, sterigmata and conidia, varies more between the species of each genus than between the two genera as a whole.
However, the generally accepted conception of the two genera is sufficiently distinct to obviate the necessity for altering such well-established names.
Border-line species can well be placed in one or the other.
The Species Of Aspergillus
In attempting to key and define the species of the genus it is imperative that characters are used that are constant, within specified limits, under all conditions of growth, and that are precisely definable in words. To be of value such a key must allow a worker unfamiliar with the group to name a specimen in hand rapidly and with confidence, independent of the medium on which it occurs. It is, of course, not possible to lay down rigid boundary lines between such variable and closely related organisms, but the key characters should be so chosen that border-line strains may be placed with the least doubt. Defined thus the species name must inevitably cover a number of strains variable in other than the key characters.
Discussion Of Key Characters
This is taken to apply to the conidial heads in mass. The exact shade is too variable a character for use in the separation of closely-related species, but, in the generalized form of blue-green, green, yellow-green, yellow-brown, flesh-colour, white or black, constitutes a convenient and immediately apparent character for separation of the species into major groups. It has been so used by most workers on the genus.
The organs available for morphological comparison are the vegetative mycelium, stalk, foot-cell, vesicle, sterigmata, conidia, sclerotia, and perithecia.
Vegetation mycelium. Careful observations have failed to find any constant distinguishing character in either the submerged or aerial mycelium of different species. The various coloured inclusions and accretions, and the swellings and abnormalities of the submerged hyphae, that are sometimes present, as well as the relative abundance of aerial hyphae, to some extent characteristic of certain strains and species, are, in general, variables associated with age and vigour.
Stalk. Measurements of length, diameter, and thickness of wall provide useful descriptive data, but are not suitable for use as key characters. Smoothness of outer wall as contrasted with walls bearing wart-like accretions, usually washed off in mounting, but leaving scars or pits, forms a readily observed and useful key character. Stalk colour is apparently a constant character for some species and for them constitutes a key character.
Foot-cell. Shape and dimensions of the foot-cell vary greatly between individual stalks in any one colony and therefore have no diagnostic value as between species.
Vesicle. The shape of the vesicle is of value in separating A. clavatus from other Aspergilli, but otherwise variations cannot be defined with sufficient precision. The manner in which the sterigmata are borne upon the vesicle is of indirect value in that it indicates whether the heads are normally columnar or radiate—a key character usually observed directly on the growing colony.
Sterigmata. Whether the sterigmata are unbranched (1 series) or branched (2 series) constitutes a key character that must be used with discretion. Age and conditions of culture may influence the branching of the sterigmata and some species may have both branched and unbranched sterigmata in the same colony. Other species, however, are constant in producing their sterigmata in either 1 or 2 series and with these the distinction is valid.
The relative morphology of the sterigmata is of some diagnostic value, but the distinctions are difficult to define succinctly.
Conidia. Conidial morphology has been used in the present key as a character for separation of certain species only. The conidia of some species vary in shape and size, and in markings of the epispore, between strain and strain and even under different conditions of culture. All three characters, however, are valuable confirmatory aids to diagnosis and are detailed in each species description. Colour in the mass and the manner in which the conidial chains are borne on the undisturbed head, whether radiate or compacted into solid columns, are characters of the utmost value for key divisions.
Sclerotia. Formation of “Hiille” cells * and of sclerotia, though apparently a property of certain species only, is governed largely by environmental conditions and therefore cannot be considered a key character.
[Footnote] * “Hülle cells” are special cells, usually terminal to aerial vegetative hyphae, in which the walls are so thickened as nearly to obliterate the lumen. They are particularly well observed in the hyphal weft surrounding the perithecia of A. nidulans.
Perithecia are at present known for only a very few species of Aspergilli. Strictly such species should be classed under the ascomycetous genus Eurotium, but, in agreement with most workers, they are here retained under Aspergillus.
These vary so widely between strain and strain, and under varying conditions, that they have little or no value for key purposes. As aids to diagnosis they have at times some value and as such are given for each species grown on a standardized medium, Czapek's solution agar ex Thom and Church:—NaNO 3 2 grms., K2HPO4 1 grm., MgSO4 0.5 grm., KCl 0.5 grm., FeSO4 trace, Sucrose 30 grms., water 1 litre, Agar 15 grms. The addition of 10 grms. of “Marmite” to the above formula greatly improves colony vigour without affecting other characters.
Key To Species.
|Vesicles clavate.||A. clavatus||1|
|Sterigmata in 1 series.||A. fumigatus||2|
|Sterigmata in 2 series||A. nidulans||3|
|Heads columnar.||A. caesiellus||4|
|Sterigmata in 1 series.||A. glaucus1||5|
|Sterigmata in 2 series.||A. versicolor2||6|
|Heads yellow-green.||A. flavus||7|
|Heads yellow to brown.|
|Heads hemispherical to columnar.||(A. ustus)3||8|
|Conidia rough, over 4 μ.||A. wentii||9|
|Conidia smooth, 3 μ.||(A. alliaceus)||10|
|Conidia pyriform to globose.|
|Stalks yellow.||(A. ochraceus)||11|
|Stalks colourless.||(A. tamarii)||12|
|Conidia lemon-shaped.||(A. citrisporus)||13|
|Heads columnar||A. terreus||14|
|Heads radiate.||A. cervinus||15|
|Stalks yellow.||(A. flavipes)||16|
|Stalks colourless.||A. candidus||17|
|Heads black.||A. niger||18|
[Footnote] 1 Cultures of A. glaucus often exhibit yellow and red shades due to colour of the vegetative hyphae and perithecia.
[Footnote] 2 Some strains of A. versicolor exhibit variations in colour ranging from blue-green green, green, yellow-green to buff.
[Footnote] 3 Brackets indicate species not yet found in New Zealand.
1. A. clavatus Desmazières, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Ser. II, vol. 2, p. 71, 1834.
A. clavellus Peck, New York St. Mus. Nat. Hist. Rept. 34, p. 49, 1881.
A. giganteus Wehmer, Centralb. Bakt., II, vol. 18, p. 385, 1907.
Heads at first blue-green, becoming dark green in age, clavate, with pseudo-columnar appearance when young, with jagged outline due to irregular massing of conidial chains in age. Stalks smooth, hyaline, 0.6-3 mm. × 15–40 μ, walls 0.5-1.5 μ thick. Vesicles clavate, fertile over an area up to 150 μ long by 20–40 μ diameter. Sterigmata 1 series, closely set, with axis approximately perpendicular to vesicle, 7–12 μ × 2.5-4 μ, narrowing abruptly to short apical tube. Conidia smooth, elliptical, 4–4.5 μ × 3–3.5 μ. No perithecia or sclerotia observed.
Czapek colony vigorous, floccose, soon covered with close-set blue-green heads. Reverse tinged yellow to brown.
Habitat: Malt, oatmeal, “Puffed Wheat,” soil. (5 isolants.)
2. A. fumigatus Fresenius, Beitr. z. Mykol., p. 81, 1853.
A. malignus Lindt., Arch. Exp. Path. Phar., vol. 25, p. 257, 1889.
A. aviarius Peck, New York St. Mus. Rept. (1890), 44, p. 120, 1892.
A. penicilloides Speg., Rev. Agrar. Vet. La Plata, p. 246, 1896.
A. bronchialis Blumentr., Ber. Deut. Bot. Ges., vol. 19, p. 442, 1901.
A. syncephalis Gueguen, Champ. Parasit. Hom. Anim., p. 165, 1904.
S. pseudo-nidulans Vuill., Arch. Parasit., vol. 8, p. 540, 1904.
A. lignieresi Cost, and Lucet, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., IX, vol. 2, p. 137, 1905.
A. virido-griseus Cost. and Lucet, l.c., p. 140, 1905.
A. fumigatus var. tumescens Blumentr., Ber. Deut. Bot. Ges., vol. 23, p. 419, 1905.
A. fischeri Wehmer, Centralb. Bakt., II, vol. 18, p. 390, 1907.
A. fumigatus var. alpha Sion and Alex., Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol., vol. 64, p. 288, 1908.
A. fumigatoides Bain. and Sart., Bul. Soc. Myc. France, vol. 25, p. 112, 1909.
A. fumigatus var. minimus Sart., Bul. Acad. Med., Ser. III, vol. 82, p. 304, 1919.
A. cellulosae Hopffe, Centralb. Bakt., I, vol. 83, p. 531, 1919.
Heads bright blue-green, later darkening to dull brownish-green, compactly or loosely columnar, 100 μ—300 μ × 30—70 μ. Stalks smooth, usually tinged green towards apex, 100—300 μ × 4—8 μ enlarging upwards. Vesicles flask-shaped 20—30 μ × 15—20 μ, fertile on apical half only or on nearly the whole surface. Sterigmata 1 series, closely set, apices mostly directed upwards, 5—8 μ × 2.5-3 μ, narrowing abruptly to short apical tube. Conidia smooth or roughened, globose or slightly elliptical, 2.3-3.3 μ in longest diameter. Perithecia formed by one strain, flesh coloured, more or less globose, 180—240 μ in diameter. Asci globose 11–12 μ. Ascospores 5 μ wide, 4 μ deep, with groove and double membrane 1 μ wide. Sclerotia not observed, but isolated groups of Hülle cells present in two strains.
Czapek colony spreading, at first floccose, later velutinous with isolated tufts of aerial hyphae, at first blue-green, later dull brownish-green. Reverse tinged greenish-yellow.
Habitat: Sclerotium of Claviceps purpurea, daffodil bulb, shoe leather, scrapings from ear of hospital patient. (5 isolants.)
3. A. nidulans (Eidam) Winter, Rabh. Krypt. Fl., vol. 2, p. 65, 1887.
S. nidulans Eidam, Cohn's Beitr. Biol. Pflan., vol. 3, p. 392, 1883.
S. nidulans var. nicollei Pinoy, Arch. Parasit., vol. 10, p. 437, 1906.
S. nidulans forme cesarii Pinoy, Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., vol. 8, p. 11, 1915.
Diplostephanus nidulans (Eidam) Langeron, Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol., vol. 87, p. 343, 1922.
A. amoenus Roberg, Hedwigia, vol. 70, p. 138, 1930.
Heads blue-green, becoming glaucus-green, semi-radiate when young, becoming loosely or compactly columnar in age, 90—150 μ long by up to 60 μ in diameter. Stalks smooth, generally flexuous, enlarging upwards, tinted brown, 40—80 μ. × 4—5 μ. Vesicles flask-shaped, 10—15 μ diameter, fertile on upper surface only. Sterigmata in 2 series, primary 4—6 μ × 3 μ, secondary 6—9 μ × 2—2.5 μ, with, blunt apex and short very narrow apical tube, up to 5 per primary, axes of lower series bent upwards. Conidia globose, coarsely verrucose, 2.5—3.3 μ diam. in one strain, delicately roughened 3—3.5 μ in another. Perithecia embedded in weft of interlacing hyphae that terminate in globose thick-walled Hülle cells about 20 μ diameter, subglobose, to 300 μ diameter. Asci globose 9—10 μ diameter, ephemeral, containing 8 spores. Ascospores purple, smooth, in one strain 4.5 μ × 3.8 μ with double equatorial membrane 1.25 μ wide, in the other strain 4.5 μ × 3.5 μ. with double equatorial membrane 0.5 μ wide. In this latter strain the membranes are very close together, appearing as a single thick membrane unless clearly defined. Asci ripen only after several weeks in culture.
CzapeK colony vigorous floccose soon becoming velutinous, blue-green finally dark green. Reverse tinged pink to deep maroon, staining media.
Habitat: Macaroni, crushed maize. (2 isolants.)
4. A. caesiellus Saito, Jour. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo, vol. 18, art. 5, p. 49, 1904.
A. gracilis Bain., Bul. Soc. Myc. France, vol. 23, p. 92, 1907.
A. cinerescens Bain. and Sart., Bul. Soc. Myc. France, vol. 27, p. 98, 1911.
A. conicus Blwz. ex Dale, Ann. Myc., vol. 12, p. 38, 1914.
A. restrictus Smith, Jour. Text. Inst., vol. 22, p. T 115, 1931.
A. restrictus var. B. Smith, l.c.
Heads dark green, columnar, to 300 μ × 40 μ, showing basal half of vesicle. Stalks smooth, hyaline, often sinuous, 50—100 μ. × 5—6 μ, walls 0.5 μ thick, arising from submerged and aerial hyphae and hyphal ropes. Vesicles globose to flask-shaped, 10—15 μ diameter, fertile only on apical dome. Sterigmata 1 series, closely packed, axes parallel with stalk, 9–10 μ × 3.5 μ, narrowing abruptly to short apical tube. Conidia very rough, elliptical, 6—9 μ. × 3.5—4 μ, forming a solid cylindrical column. The young conidia are slow to abstrict in the chain, remaining attached in mounts, and, when detached, appearing barrel-shaped with flattened ends. No perithecia or sclerotia observed.
Czapek colony restricted, with greyish floccose aerial hyphae, dull green to deep green, darkening in age. Reverse dark green to black.
Habitat: Air in hospital, rolled oats, oatmeal. (3 isolants.)
The “slime” condition described for “A. conicus” by Dale and by Thom and Church (The Asperg., p. 125, 1926) was present an the colony which developed on an air-exposed plate of “Difco” prune agar. Subcultures direct to Czapek and potato-dextrose agars were also slimy. A similar condition had been noted in old stock cultures of A. glaucus. No bacteria could be found in direct examination or in dilution cultures on various media, nor could the condition be produced in non-slimy colonies by direct inoculation. It was found, however, that transfers of mass inoculum to “Difco” prune agar plus 40% cane sugar produced colonies apparently healthy and free from slime.
The “slime” condition is associated with other evidences of degeneration—contorted hyphae, lack of vigour, irregularity in fruiting, darkening of colour in the submerged hyphae and in the media, etc. The conidia remain normal. The two strains isolated from oats did not show the “slime” condition. It appears therefore, that the condition is of physiological origin and is not a constant species character—an opinion also held by Blochwitz (Ann. Myc., vol. 23, p. 206, 1929).
5. A. glaucus Link, Mag. Ges. Nat. Fr. Berlin, vol. 3, p. 16, 1809.
A. glaucus var. repens Corda, Icon. Fung., vol. 5, p. 53, 1842.
A. glaucus var. olivascens Sacc, Michelia, vol. 2, p. 543, 1878.
A. repens (Corda) Sacc., Syll. Fung., vol. 4, p. 64, 1886.
A. herbariorum (Wigg.) Wint., Rabh. Krypt. Fl., vol. 2, p. 59, 1887.
A. brunneus Delacr., Bul. Soc. Myc., vol. 9, p. 185, 1893.
A. medius Meissn., Bot. Ztg., II, vol. 55, p. 337, 1897.
A. tokelau Wehmer, Centralb. Bakt., I, vol. 35, p. 140, 1903.
A. fontoynonti Gueguen, Arch. Parasit., vol. 14, p. 177, 1910.
A. glaucus var. minimus Hanzawa, Jour. Coll. Agr. Imp. Univ. Sapporo, vol. 4, p. 220, 1911.
A. disjunctus Bain, and Sart., Bull. Soc. Myc. France, vol. 27, p. 346, 1911.
A. sejunctus Bain, and Sart., l.c., p. 346, 1911.
A. mollis Bain, and Sart., l.c., p. 453, 1911.
A. mutabilis Bain, and Sart., l.c., p. 458, 1911.
A. repandus Bain, and Sart., l.c., p. 463, 1911.
A. scheelei Bain. and Sart., ibid., vol. 28, p. 257, 1912.
A. umbrosus Bain, and Sart., l.c., p. 267, 1912.
A. maydis Quevedo, De Agronomia, vol. 8, 1912.
A. sartoryi Syd., Ann. Myc., vol. 11, p. 156, 1913.
A. glaucus var. subolivaceus Ferraris, Fl. Ital. Crypt. Pars., I, Fas. 13, p. 911, 1914.
A. brunneo-fuscus See, Malad. Pap. Piqué, p. 29, 1919.
A. mencieri Sart. and Flam., Champ. Parasit. Hom. Anim., p. 578, 1922.
A. herbariorum ser. major var. violaceus (Mangin) Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 102, 1926.
A. echinulatus (Delacr.) Th. and Ch., l.c., p. 107, 1926.
A. chevalieri (Mangin) Th. and Ch., l.c., p. 111, 1926.
A. ruber (Sp. and Br.) Th. and Ch. l.c., p. 112, 1926.
A. amstelodami (Mangin) Th. and Ch., l.c., p. 113, 1926.
A. pseudoglaucus Blwz., Ann. Myc., vol. 27. p. 207.
A. aureoglaucus Roberg, Hedwigia, vol. 70, p. 137, 1930.
A. itaconicus Kinoshita, ex Okunuki, Bot. Mag. Tokyo, vol. 45, p. 60, 1931.
Heads dark green, later dull green to grey-brown, radiate, irregular in outline, mop-like rather than spherical, 75—150 μ diam., 40–60 μ deep. Stalks smooth, hyaline or tinted yellowish-green in upper part, 0.5-3 mm. × 8–15 μ, walls 0.5-1 μ, thick. Vesicles globose to flask-shaped, 15–30 μ diam., fertile over upper three-quarters of surface. Sterigmata in 1 series, not crowded, 6–12 μ × 3.5-5 μ, vase-shaped, tapering only slightly to apex and closely resembling the first conidium. Conidia at first smooth, highly elliptical, later generally coarsely verrucose or wrinkled, occasionally remaining smooth, elliptical, pyriform, or almost globose, very variable, 4–12 μ × 4–8 μ, in separate, loose, radiate chains. Perithecia bright yellow, darkening somewhat in age, subglobose, 75–120 μ diameter, not enclosed in hyphal weft. Asci globose, about 11 μ. diameter. Ascospores lens-shaped, circular in plan, 4.5-5.5 μ diameter, elliptical in elevation, 3.5-4.5 μ. deep, with median groove either bounded by projecting membranes 0.5-1 μ wide, or without membranes, or again showing clear elliptical outline with no sign of groove, or at most a slight flattening of the ends.
Czapek colony restricted, more or less floccose, varying in appearance with the strain and conditions of culture, some becoming quickly ascosporic with suppression of conidial formation and consequent predominance of yellow colouration, others spreading widely, with little or no formation of perithecia, appearing dark green, browning with age, or tinged in zones dark yellow or rust colour due to coloured inclusions within, or accretions upon the vegetative hyphae. Reverse various shades of greenish-yellow to rusty-brown. Some staining the media, others not.
Habitat: Silk and cotton fabrics, diseased bee-larvae, tobacco, dried fruit, soil, dead plant parts in glasshouse, sawn timber, jams and preserves, hessian meat wraps, grass seed, air-exposed plates in milking sheds, dairy factories, workrooms and hospital wards, cheddar cheese, leather, sheep-skins, beef dripping, rolled oats and oatmeal, mouldy wheat, barley, peas and bread. (49 isolants.)
The writer has followed Wehmer and Lindau in adopting the specific name glaucus Link as covering the range of forms, here listed as synonyms, included in the “A. glaucus” group of Thorn and Church. Divisions in general rest upon the relative morphology of the ascospores and show a graduated range making the delimitation of any particular form very difficult. Smith (1931), discussing the 42 strains of the “A. glaucus” group examined by him, divides these into 4 species, A. repens, A. ruber, A. amstelodami and A. chevalieri, mainly on ascosporic, secondarily on cultural characters. Among the 49 strains collected in New Zealand, though the majority agree with his delimitation of A. repens, there is a range of ascosporic character covering all four “species,” but the writer has not been able to correlate them with the associated secondary cultural characters of Smith. Failing a clear line of demarcation in the conidial stage, differences in the ascosporic stage should not be used to separate species of the “imperfect” genus Aspergillus however valid they may be in the classification of the “perfect” genus Eurotium.
6. A. versicolor (Vuillemin) Tiraboschi, Ann. Bot. Rome, vol. 7, p. 9, 1908.
S. versicolor Vuill., ex Mirsky, Thése Med. Nancy, no. 27, p. 15, 1903.
*S. ambari Beaurgd.,Ann. Microgr., vol. 10, p. 255, 1898.
S. polychroma Ferraris. Fl. Ital. Crypt. Hyph., p. 640, 1906.
A. flavo-viridescens Hanzawa., Jour. Coll. Agr. Imp. Univ. Sapporo. vol. 4, p. 232, 1911.
A. globosus Jensen, Cornell. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bul., 315, p. 482, 1912.
S. sydowi Bain, and Sart., Ann. Mycol., vol. 11, p. 25, 1913.
S. tunetana Langeron, Bul. Soc. Path. Exot., vol. 17, p. 345, 1924.
A. sydowi (Bain, and Sart.) Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 147, 1926.
S. cameleo Sart., Sart. and Meyer, Ann. Myc., vol. 28, p. 360, 1930.
A. humicola Chaudhuri and Sachar, Ann. Myc., vol. 32, p. 97, 1934.
Heads variable in colour, with green shades dominant while colony is in vigorous growth, usually merging into zones in which the heads are yellowish-orange or cinnamon, radiate, hemispherical when young, remaining so or becoming somewhat columnar in age, 40–150 μ diameter. Stalks smooth, generally colourless, sometimes somewhat brownish towards apex, 200–500 μ × 3.5-8 μ, walls 1–1.5 μ thick. Vesicles generally flask-shaped, sometimes almost globose, fertile on apical two-thirds or on nearly the whole surface, 10–25 μ diameter. Sterigmata in 2 series, primary 4–7 μ × 3 μ, secondary 6–9 μ × 2–2.5 μ, usually 5 per primary, vase-shaped with well-marked apical tube, with axis more or less perpendicular to surface of vesicle. Conidia globose, coarsely or finely asperulate or almost smooth, 3–3.5 μ, exceptionally 2.5 or 4 μ, usually in loose radiating chains. Perithecia not observed. Sclerotia reddish-yellow, present in some strains, when fully developed egg-shaped, 200 × 140 μ, generally represented by irregular groups of “Hülle” cells.
Czapek colony generally strong-growing, floccose, becoming mealy or velutinous in age, coloured various shades of green, generally emerald green, but sometimes blue-green, sometimes merging into bands of yellow, orange, or cinnamon towards periphery. Margin wide, white generally tinged pink. Reverse yellow to orange and finally deep maroon, often prominently zoned. Media coloured pink to claret.
Habitat: Air-exposed plates in library and citrus packing shed, butter, cheese and cheese “starter” culture, timber, tobacco, borax lemon-washing solution, cork of hair-oil bottle, cork composition washers, annatto seed, mouldy peas and beans, tank-water, and wheat. (32 isolants.)
7. A. flavus Link, Obs. Ord. Plant. Nat., vol. 1, p. 16, 1809.
A. oryzae (Ahlburg) Cohn, Jahresb. Schles. Gesell. Vaterl. Cultur, vol. 61, p. 226, 1884.
A. variabilis Gasper., Atti. Soc. Tosc. Nat. Sci., Mem. 8, p. 326, 1887.
A. wehmeri Cost, and Lucet, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Ser. IX, vol. 2, p. 162, 1905.
A. pseudoflavus Saito, Centralb. Bakt., II, vol. 18, p. 34, 1907.
A. effusus Tiraboschi, Ann. di Bot., vol. 7, p. 16, 1908.
[Footnote] * In conformity with general usage versicolor has been retained as the specific name for this group of strains, although ambari has apparent priority.
A. gymnosardae Yukawa, Jour. Coll. Agr. Imp. Univ. Tokyo, vol. 1, p. 362, 1911.
A. parasiticus Speare, Haw. Sug. Pl. Exp. Sta., Path. and Phya. Scr., Bul. 12, p. 38, 1912.
S. pseudo-flava (Saito) Sacc., Syll. Fung., vol. 22, p. 1260, 1913.
A. flavus f. maydis Ciferri, Bul. Soc. Bot. Italy, No. 7, p. 75, 1921. A.
A. archaeoflavus Blwz., Ann. Myc., vol. 31, p. 77, 1933.
Heads light greenish-yellow, dark yellow-green to umber in age, variable, at first radiate, becoming loosely columnar in age, 75–150 μ diameter. Stalks rough from accretions that wash off in mounting fluid leaving scars or pits on the colourless walls, 300–800 μ × 7–12 μ, walls 1.5-2 μ thick. Vesicles globose or nearly so, 20–50 μ diameter, fertile on upper three-quarters of surface. Sterigmata 1 or 2 series, primary 6–8 μ × 4 μ, secondary 7–10 μ × 2.5-3 μ, often 1, seldom more than 2 per primary, tapering abruptly to apex without defined apical tube. Conidia globose, pyriform or broadly elliptical, smooth or more or less wrinkled, 3–5 μ in long axis. Perithecia not observed. Sclerotia produced by some strains, at first as white weft of fine aerial hyphae, later becoming globose, black, to 700 μ diameter, frequently aggregated into masses.
Czapek colony spreading, thin, mealy, light greenish-yellow, darkening to dull yellowish-green in age. Reverse tinted yellow darkening to yellow-brown in age.
Habitat: Pelts, oatmeal, wheat, air-exposed plate in workshop, lucerne stem, canvas, decaying board. (16 isolants.)
8. A. ustus (Bain.) Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 152, 1926.
S. usta Bain., Bul. Soc. Bot. France, vol. 28, p. 78, 1881.
A. luteo-virescens Blwz., Ann. Myc., vol. 31, p. 80, 1933.
Heads from white through shades of grey, olive-grey, yellow, yellow-brown towards fuscous, with often a greenish east, but no true green colour, in old cultures purplish vinaceous at times, hemispherical to almost columnar. Stalks smooth, sinuous, few septate, usually partly coloured some shade of brown, to 1 mm. from submerged hyphae, up to 0.5 mm. when arising from aerial hyphae, by 5–10 μ, walls rather thin. Vesicle 10–20 μ diameter. Sterigmata colourless, semi-radiate, loosely arranged into 2 series, primary 5–8 μ × 3 μ, secondary 7–9 μ × 2–2.5 μ. Conidia globose, spinulose or with fine faint bars of rosy, reddish-yellow or vinaceous colour, about 3.6 μ (3.5-4 μ), with chains forming fairly compact columns in old cultures. Some strains show sterile clusters of thick-walled helicoid cells, comparable to the “Hülle” cells of A. nidulans, but perithecia have not been found. Colonies more or less felted, floccose, with fine hyphae. Reverse through shades of yellow, orange and brown.
Habitat: “Widely separated sources.”
Description from Thorn and Church (l.c.)
Blochwitz (Ann. Myc., vol. 27, p. 223, 1929) gives colour of heads from substratum as copper-red, of those from aerial hyphae, clear-red-brown, fawn, grey-brown, grey-green, green.
(Not as yet found in New Zealand.)
9. A. wentii Wehmer, Centralb. Bakt., II, vol. 2, p. 149, 1896.
Heads at first yellow, soon darkening to chocolate-brown, radiate, globose, 150–300 μ diameter. Stalk smooth, colourless, up to 3 mm. × 10–15 μ, walls 1.5-3 μ thick. Vesicle globose, 25–75 μ diameter, thick-walled, fertile over whole surface. Sterigmata in 1 series, to 35 μ × 4 μ, or 2 series, primary 7–12 μ × 3–4 μ, secondary 6–14 μ × 2.5-3 μ, sometimes growing out up to 50 μ as penicilliate branch, tapering abruptly to blunt apex without defined apical tube. Conidia broadly elliptical to globose, brownish, wrinkled, 4–5 μ diameter, outer wrinkled wall persistent, holding conidial chains together in mounts. Perithecia or sclerotia not observed.
Czapek colony generally deeply floccose, slowly turning yellow then chocolate with the developing heads. Reverse yellow, dark reddish-brown in age. Media lightly stained reddish-yellow.
Habitat: Annatto seed, anemone bulbs, hessian meat wrap, soil, cork insulators, macaroni, bread, shoe leather. (10 isolants.)
10. A. alliaceus Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 163, 1926.
A. sachari Chandhari and Sachar, Ann. Myc., vol. 32, p. 95, 1934.
Heads yellow or becoming ochre to brown in age, up to 200 μ diameter. Stalks smooth, colourless, up to 1.5 mm. × up to 15 μ, walls 1.5 μ thick, breaking with rough or ragged edges. Vesicles up to 50 μ diameter, with wall 1.8-2 μ thick, showing prominent pores at bases of sterigmata. Sterigmata in 2 series, primary 7–12 μ × 2–4 μ, secondary 7–8 μ × 2 μ, colourless. Conidia (smooth?) faintly yellowish, elliptical to globose 3 μ × 2.5 μ to 3 μ diameter.
Sclerotia soon abundant, at first white, later becoming black without yellow or orange colours, ovate to elliptical up to 500 μ- 700 μ in horizontal diameter, up to 1 mm. or more in vertical axis, with a depression or pore at apex. Perithecia not found.
Czapek colony with white floccose mycelium spreading rapidly over the surface of the medium and quickly producing abundant sclerotia. Conidial heads few and scattered.
Habitat: Reported by Walker and Lindgren as pathogenic on onions and by Taubenhaus and Alstatt as pathogenic on cacti. Thom and Church isolated it from a dead “blister-beetle.”
Description from Thom and Church, The Asperg., p. 163, 1926. See note to A. quercinus (Bain.) Th. and Ch., p. 255, below. (Not as yet found in New Zealand.)
11. A. ochraceus Wilhelm, Beitr. z. Kenntn. d. Pilzgatt. Asperg., p. 66, 1877.
A. elegans Gasp., Atti Soc. Tosc. Set. Nat. Pisa, Mem. 8. p. 328, 1887.
S. ochracea Delacr., Bul. Soc. Myc., vol. 7, p. 109, 1891.
S. delacroixii Sacc, Syll. Fung., vol. 10, p. 527, 1892.
A. ostianus Wehmer, Bot. Ccntralb., vol. 80, p. 449, 1899.
S. auricoma Guegueu, Bul. Soc. Myc., vol. 15, p. 171, 1899.
A. ochraceus var. microspora Tiraboschi, Ann. di Bot., vol. 7, p. 14, 1908.
A. melleus Yukawa, Jour. Coll. Agr. Imp. Univ. Tokyo, vol. 1, no. 3, p. 366, 1911.
S. ochroleuca Speg., An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, Ser. III. t. 13, 1911.
A. spadix Amons, Arch. Suiker. Nederl.-Ind., vol. 29, p. 12, 1921.
A. delacroixii (Sacc.) Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 190, 1926.
A. hennebergi Blwz., Ann. Myc., vol. 33, p. 238, 1935.
Heads yellow to ochraceous, radiate, globose. Stalks thickly set with yellow-brown warts, leaving pits when mounted, yellow, several mm. × up to 15 μ, walls 3 μ thick. “Vesicles globose 60–70 μ diameter, fertile over whole surface. Sterigmata 2 series, primary often septate and up to 70 μ long, secondary 10–12 μ × 1.5-2.5 μ. Conidia globose or elliptical, smooth or delicately roughened, 5 μ × 3.5 μ or 3.5-4.5 μ diameter. Some strains with abundant sclerotia, yellowish brown, 400–700 μ diameter.
Czapek colony varying with presence or absence of sclerotia, ochraceous or in shades of orange to vinaceous or in purple tones. Submerged mycelium colourless to yellow, orange, or purplish shades.
Habitat: Bread, decaying plants, gelatine, dried fish.
Description from Thorn and Church, The Asperg., p. 184, 1926.
(Not as yet found in New Zealand.)
12. A. tamarii Kita, Centralb. Bakt., II, vol. 37, p. 433, 1913.
Heads brown, becoming darker with age, radiate, hemispherical or globose, 70–120 μ diameter. Stalks usually smooth, colourless; 0.2-1.2 mm. × 4–10 μ, showing septa in age. Vesicles globose or flask-shaped, upright or drooping on the stalk, from 15–17 μ to 22 × 24 μ, walls colourless or faintly yellow, fertile over whole surface or only on the upper portion. Sterigmata clavate, in 1 series, 9 × 4 μ to 10 × 5 μ. Conidia brownish-yellow or green-brown, globose, heavily warted, 3–6 μ.
Habit: Manufacture of soya sauce in Japan.
Description from Kita, l.c.
Thorn and Church, The Asperg., p. 194, 1926, describe their strains as follows:—
Heads at first colourless, then passing through orange-yellow shades to brown in old colonies, not showing true green, variable in size, from more or less columnar to almost but not quite globose, up to 350 μ diameter, with radiating chains and columns of conidia. Stalks arising from submerged hyphae 1 to several mm. × 10–12 μ, walls thick 1–2 μ, becoming abruptly thinner at base of vesicle, pitted more prominently in upper than lower half (often appearing as rough or echinulate with low magnifications) and frequently showing irregular thickenings within. Vesicles 25–50 μ. diameter. Sterigmata 1 series in small heads, 2 series in large heads, primary commonly 7–10 μ × 3–4 μ, becoming 20–25 μ long in gigantic heads, secondary 7–10 μ × 3 μ. Conidia more or less pyriform toward globose, tuberculate especially at the distal end in the chain, 5, 6, occasionally up to 8 μ in diameter, rough from prominent masses and bars of orange-yellow colouring matter deposited under the loose outer wall upon the firm inner wall. Sclerotia occasionally produced, usually purple or reddish-purple, globose to pyriform with apex white.
(Not as yet found in New Zealand.)
13. A. citrisporus von Hohnel, Sitzungsber. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien. Math-Naturw., Kl. III, 1 Abt., p. 987, 1902.
Heads yellow, then golden, finally fulvous, radiate, up to 500 μ diameter. Stalks obscurely pitted (colourless?), 1–2 mm. × 20–25 μ, thin (1 μ or less mostly). Vesicles nearly globose, 30–50 μ
diameter, fertile over nearly the entire surface. Sterigmata 1 series, 8–12 μ. × 3–4 μ. Conidia yellow or golden, then brown, lemon-shaped, 5–9 μ × 5–6 μ, rough from irregularly branching ridges of yellow to brown colouring matter between the inner and outer wall. Sclerotia occasionally found.
Habitat: Excrement of insect larvae.
Description from Thorn and Church, The Asperg., p. 192, 1926.
(Not as yet found in New Zealand.)
14. A. terreus Th. and Ch., Amer. Jour. Bot., vol. 5, p. 85, 1918.
A. fuscus Amons, Arch. Suiker. Ned.-Ind., vol. 29, p. 8, 1921.
S. hortai Langeron, Bul. Soc. Path. Exot., 15, p. 383, 1922.
A. galeritus Blwz., Ann. Myc., vol. 27, p. 205, 1929.
A. carneus Blwz., ibid., vol. 31, p. 81, 1933.
A. boedijni Blwz., ibid., vol. 32, p. 83, 1934.
Heads flesh coloured, darkening in age to cinnamon, columnar, 120–300 μ × 50–70 μ. Stalk smooth, colourless, 100–180 μ × 5–7 μ, walls up to 1 μ thick. Vesicle sub-globose to flask-shaped, 15–22 μ diameter, fertile over nearly the whole surface. Sterigmata 2 series, primary 6–8 μ × 2–5 μ, secondary 6–8 μ × 1.5-2 μ, tapering abruptly to apex without defined apical tube, with axes more or less parallel to axis of stalk, 1, 2 or 3 per primary. Conidia globose, smooth, 2.3-3 μ diameter, in long parallel chains adherent into solid columns. Perithecia or sclerotia not observed.
Czapek colony spreading, thin, velutinous, densely covered with flesh to cinnamon coloured heads. Reverse yellowish-green.
Habitat: Rolled oats and oatmeal, wheat. (4 isolants.)
15. A. cervinus Massee, Kew Misc. Bul., 4, p. 158, 1914.
A. gratioti Sart., Compt. Mend. Acad. Sci., vol. 170, p. 523, 1920.
Heads flesh coloured, darkening to cinnamon in age, radiate, nearly globose, loose, to 150 μ diameter. Stalk smooth, colourless, 150–250 μ × 6–8 μ, walls about 1 μ thick. Vesicle globose, 15–20 μ diameter, fertile over whole surface. Sterigmata 1 series, 4–6 μ × 2.3 μ, vase shaped with well-marked apical tube, with axis perpendicular to surface of vesicle. Conidia globose, smooth, coloured reddish-yellow, 3–3.5 μ diameter, often showing remains of connective as small papillae at each end. Perithecia or sclerotia not observed.
Czapek colony spreading, thin, velutinous to mealy, flesh coloured, darkening to cinnamon with age. Reverse café-au-lait. Strong musty odour.
Habitat: Soil, North Auckland. (1 isolant.)
Massee describes his strain from soil near Khartoum as follows:—
Colonies forming an effused fawn-coloured stratum on culture media. Stalks sparse, 80–35 μ × 8–10 μ. Sterigmata in 1 series 7–8 μ × 3 μ. Conidia globose, smooth, 2 μ.
Thorn and Church (The Asperg., p. 150, 1926) note having examined a strain from Porto Rico soil close to this form.
16. A. flavipes (Bain, and Sart.) Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 156, 1926.
S. flavipes Bain, and Sart., Bul. Soc. Myc. France, vol. 27, p. 90, 1911.
A. niveus Blwz., Ann. Myc., vol. 27, p. 205, 1929.
A. archiflavipes Blwz., Ann. Myc., vol. 32, p. 84, 1934.
Heads white, persistently so or with some strains in pale to deep avellaneous shades, mostly columnar. Stalks smooth, occasionally with disk-like accretions, yellow under the microscope, in mass some shade of buff to vinaceous buff, with colour mostly localised in outer layers of cell wall, 300–500 μ × 4–5 μ or up to 2–3 mm. × 8–10 μ. Vesicles sub-globose to elliptical, up to 20 μ × 30 μ in the largest forms, usually twice diameter of stalk in the smaller forms, fertile on apical surface in smaller forms, covering the vesicle in larger forms. Sterigmata in 2 series, primary 4–8 μ × 2–3 μ, secondary 5–8 μ × 1.5-2 μ. Conidia sub-globose, smooth, colourless or nearly so in mounts, 2–3 μ diameter, in chains aggregated to form columns. Sclerotia as submerged or protruding dark brown to black masses and aggregations of Hülle cells. Perithecia not reported.
Czapek colony varying from almost velvety with abundant development of even-sized white heads to floccose aerial mycelium, grey, buff to vinaceous buff, with sparse development of long stalked white calyptrate heads or more closely felted forms with brown sclerotia or brown crusts upon or just above the substratum, and to colonies with more or less numerous yellow aggregations of sigmoid Hülle cells. Submerged mycelium from persistently colourless to yellow, orange or yellow-brown.
Description from Thorn and Church (The Asperg., p. 155, 1926).
(Not as yet found in New Zealand.)
17. A. candidus Link, Obs. Ord. Plant. Nat., vol. 1, p. 16, 1809.
A. albus Wilhelm, Beitr. Kennt. Pilzg. Asper., p. 69, 1877.
S. Candida Sacc, Mich., vol. 1, p. 91, 1877.
S. candidula Bain., Sacc. Syll. Fung., vol. 4, p. 73, 1886.
A. fimetarius Peck, New York St. Mus. Bot. Rept., 42, p. 128, 1889.
A. dubiosus Lind., Rabh. Krypt. Fl., vol. 8, p. 151, 1907.
A. niveocandidus Lind., l.c., p. 151, 1907.
A. okazakii Okazaki, Centralb. Bakt., II, vol. 19, p. 481, 1907.
S. alba (Wilhelm) Sacc., Syll. Fung., vol. 22, p. 1260, 1913.
S. szurakiana Moesz. G., Bot. Kozlem., vol. 19, p. 59, 1921.
Heads white, persistently so or turning cream-coloured in age, radiate, globose, 100–250 μ. diameter. Stalks smooth, colourless, 0.5-2 mm × 8–12 μ, walls 1.5-2 μ thick. Vesicles globose, 25–50 μ diameter, fertile over whole surface. Sterigmata in 2 series, primary 15–25 μ × 3.5-4 μ., secondary 8–10 μ × 2.5 μ, usually 5 per primary, tapering directly to apex without marked apical tube. Conidia at first elliptical, later globose, smooth, colourless, 2.8-3.5 μ, normally 3 μ. diameter Perithecia or sclerotia not observed.
Czapek colony spreading thin velutinous-mealy, pure white or with tinge of yellow in age. Reverse uncoloured or cream.
Habitat Macaroni, split peas, wheat. (3 isolants.)
18. A. niger Van Tieghem Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., V, vol. 8, p. 240, 1867.
Ustilago phoenicis Corda, Icon. Fung., IV, p. 9, 1840.
A. phaeocephalus Dur. and Mont., Fl. Alg., p. 342, 1849.
A. nanus Mont., Syll. Gen. Spec. Crypt., p. 300, 1856.
S. antacustica Cramer, Vrtljschr. Naturf. Gesell., vol. 4, p. 325, 1859.
A. fuliginosus Peck, Bul. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., vol. 1, p. 69, 1874.
S.nigra van Tieg., Bul. Soc. Bot. France, vol. 24, p. 102, 1877.
S. carbonaria Bain., ibid., vol. 27, p. 27, 1880.
A. subfuscus Johan-Olsen, Meddel. Naturh. Kristiania, 1885.
A. violaceo-fuscus Gasp., Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat. Pisa, Mem. 8, fasc. 2, p. 326, 1887.
A. ustilago Beck, Itin. Princip. S. Coburgi., vol. 2, p. 148, 1888.
S. phoenicis (Corda) Pat. and Delacr., Bul. Soc. Myc. France, vol. 7, p. 119, 1891.
A. ficuum (Reich.) Henn., Hedwigia, vol. 34, p. 86, 1895.
S. pulverulenta McAlp., Agr. Gaz. N.S. Wales, vol 7, p. 302, 1897.
S. castanea Pattsn., Bul. Torr. Bot. Club, vol. 27, p. 284, 1900.
A. luchuensis Inui, Jour. Col. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo, vol. 15, p. 409, 1901.
A. perniciostus Inui, l.c., p. 473, 1901.
S. pseudonigra Cost, and Lucet, Bul. Soc. Myc. France, vol. 19, p. 33, 1903.
A. stryehni Liandau, Hedwigia, vol. 43, p. 306, 1904.
A. japonicus Saito, Bot. Mag. Tokyo, vol. 20, p. 61, 1906.
S. luteo-nigra Lutz, Bul. Soc. Bot. France, vol. 53, p. L, 1906.
A. batatae Saito, Centralb. Bakt., II, Vol. 18, p. 34, 1907.
A. welwitschiae (Bres.) Henn., ex Welmer, Centralb. Bakt., II, vol. 18, p. 394, 1907.
S. insueta Bain., Bul. Soc. Myc. France, vol. 24, p. 85, 1908.
S. dipus Ferd. and Winge, Bot. Tids., vol. 30, p. 220, 1910.
Aspergillopsis nigra (Van Tieg.) Speg., An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, III, vol. 13, p. 435, 1911.
Aspergillopsis pulchella Speg., l.c., p. 436, 1911.
A. atropurpureus A. Zimm., Centralb. Bakt., II, vol. 8, p. 218, 1912.
A. fuscus Schiem., Ztschr. Ind. Abst. Vererb., vol. 8, p. 1, 1912.
A. cinnamomeus Schiem., l.c., p. 1, 1912.
A. awamori Usami, Myk. Zbl., vol. 4, p. 194, 1914.
A. pulverulentus (McAlp.) Thom, Jour. Agr. Res., vol. 7, p. 10, 1916.
A. phoenicis (Corda) Thom, l.c., p. 11, 1916.
A. carbonarius (Bain.) Thorn, l.c., p. 12, 1916.
A. schiemanni (Schiem.) Thom, l.c., p. 13, 1916.
A. fumaricus Wehmer, Ber. Deut. Chem, Ges., vol. 51, p. 1663, 1918.
A. insuetus (Bain.) Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 153, 1926.
A. luteo-niger (Lutz) Th. and Ch., l.c., p. 166, 1926.
A. pulchellus (Speg.) Th. and Ch., l.c., p. 181, 1926.
A. minutus Abbot, Iowa, St. Coll. Jour. Sci., vol. 1, 1927.
Heads black, sometimes with brown or purple shade, radiate, globose, compact or with conidial chains adhering in sections, showing cruciform or stellate outline viewed from above, 150–750 μ. diameter. Stalks smooth, colourless or tinted brown towards apex, very variable in size, from 200 μ to several mm. × 10–30 μ, with walls 1.5-3 μ thick, often showing irregular inner outline. Vesicles globose, generally tinted brown, thick walled, 30–70 μ. diameter, fertile over whole surface. Sterigmata usually coloured brown, normally in 2 series, exceptionally in 1 series, primary usually 15–24 μ × 4–4.5 μ, or up to 45 μ × 5 μ, exceptionally, especially in heads showing 1 series, 7–10 μ × 3 μ, secondary 6–8 μ × 2.5-3 μ, usually 5 per primary, tapering to short apical tube. Conidia dark, rough, exceptionally almost or quite smooth, sometimes spinulose or verrucose, but usually showing tubercles of brown colouring matter arranged more or less in patterns on outer wall or between outer
and inner wall, in the great majority of strains regularly globose, 3.5-4 μ diameter, exceptionally somewhat elliptical up to 6 μ in long axis. Sclerotia present in some strains, globose, 500–600 μ diameter, at first white, later pale yellow. Perithecia not observed.
Czapek colony usually very vigorous, spreading, more or less floccose, at first white, soon becoming covered with concentric rings of dark-brown, black, or dark purple fruiting heads which finally coalesce into an almost solid crust, aerial hyphae often tinged canary-yellow. Reverse colourless to bright yellow, greenish-yellow or brown.
Habitat: Annatto seed, tent calico, bulbs, germinating seeds, soils, pelts, stored onions, macaroni, rolled oats, oatmeal, malt, wheat-meal, rice, exposed plates in library, workrooms, clothing stores, and hospital. (23 isolants.)
A. nanus Mont., A. luchuensis Inui, A. perniciosus Inui and A. japonicus Saito have here been listed as synonyms of A. niger van. Tieg., since, in agreement with Thorn and Church (The Asperg., p. 171, 1920), the writer does not consider the absence of secondary sterigmata alone as a sufficiently constant character to warrant separation. Several New Zealand strains of A. niger show heads with either 1 or 2 series of sterigmata in the same culture, and one strain, otherwise indistinguishable from type, has sterigmata persistently in a single series. To quote Thorn and Church (l.c.) “we appear to be dealing with a cosmopolitan, almost omnivorous group of races or species which show great variability with probably many natural or induced variations.”
In general recorded only once, not as yet identified in New Zealand.
|Vesicle clavate, sterigmata in 2 series.||A. pseudoclavatus|
|Vesicle globose or flask-shaped.|
|Sterigmata in 1 series.|
|Conidia 2 μ||A. minimus|
|Conidia 3–4 μ||A. varians|
|Sterigmata 1 or 2 series.||A. jeanselmei|
|Conidia 1 μ||A. pusillus|
|Heads yellow to brown.|
|Sterigmata in 1 series.||A. gigantosulphureus|
|Sterigmata. in 2 series.|
|Conidia 2.5-3 μ||A. rehmii|
|Conidia 5.2 μ||S. butyracea|
|Stalks colourless.||A. qucrcinus|
|Sterigmata in 1 series.||A. terricola|
|Sterigmata in 2 series.|
|Conidia smooth 2–3 μ||A. sclerotiorum|
|Conidia rough 8 μ × 6 μ||A. erythrocephalus|
|Heads rose colour.|
|Sterigmata in 1 series.||A. halophilus|
|Sterigmata in 2 series.|
|Primary sterigmata septate.||S. basidiosepta|
|Primary sterigmata not septate.||S. albo-rosea|
|Heads cream colour.|
|Sterigmata in 1 series.||A. koningi|
Sterigmatocystis albo-rosea Sart., Sart. and Meyer, Ann. Myc., vol. 28, p. 358, 1930.
Heads rose-colour, radiate, stalks smooth, non-septate, hyaline, becoming rose-colour, 125–150 μ × 4.5-5 μ, vesicles clavate, 19–32 μ × 9–17 μ, fertile over whole surface. Sterigmata in 2 series, primary 6 μ × 3 μ, secondary to 9 μ long, 3 to 5 per primary. Conidia globose, smooth, rose-colour, 2.5-3 μ diameter.
Habitat: Skin of decomposing banana.
Description from Sart., Sart. and Meyer (l.c.).
S. basidiosepta Sart., Sart. and Meyer, Ann. Myc., vol. 27, p. 317, 1929.
Heads rose-colour, darkening to cafe-au-lait in age, radiate. Stalk hyaline, smooth, 0.8-1 mm. × 12–14 μ. Vesicle globose, 50–55 μ, fertile over whole surface. Sterigmata in 2 series, primary claviform, becoming up to 4 septate under optimum conditions of growth, 28–30 μ long, secondary 12–14 μ long. Conidia globose, smooth, 2.5-3 μ. Sclerotia or perithecia not observed.
Habitat: In crystallizator.
Description from Sart., Sart. and Meyer (l.c.).
S. butyracea Bainier, Bul. Soc. Bot. France, vol. 27, p. 29, 1880.
Colonies butter yellow, including stalks, heads and conidia. Stalks yellow, pitted, 13–16 μ diameter. Sterigmata in 2 series, primary up to 25 μ, secondary 10–12 μ long. Conidia smooth, 5.2 μ.
Description from Th. and Ch. (The Asperg., p. 191, 1926).
(Possibly a strain of A. ochraceus Wilhelm.)
Aspergillus erythrocephalus Berk, and Curt., Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot., vol. 10, p. 362, 1869.
Head radiate. (Colour?) Stalks rough or pitted, up to 2 mm. × 45–70 μ, walls 5–12 μ thick. Vesicle nearly globose, 100 μ diameter, fertile all over. Sterigmata 2 series, primary 8–10 μ, secondary 8–9 μ long. Conidia 8 μ × 6 μ 8–12 μ × 5–9 μ, finely pitted or roughened with rather thin walls.
Description from Th. and Ch. (The. Asperg., p. 197, 1926).
A. gigantosulphureus Saito, Jour. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo, vol. 18, art. 5, p. 48, 1904.
Heads yellow, becoming yellow brown. Stalk smooth, colourless, over 1 mm. × 6–16 μ, sometimes branched, in age septate. Vesicle flask-shaped 28–32 μ diameter, fertile on upper surface only. Sterigmata single, 24–28 μ × 7 μ. Conidia globose, smooth or rough 8–12 μ diameter. Perithecia not known.
Description from Saito (l.c.).
(Saito suggests affinities with A. osteanus Wehmer, Thom & Church with A. glaucus or A. oryzae.
A. halophilus Sart., Sart. and Meyer, Ann. Myc., vol. 28, p. 362, 1930.
Head rose-colour, radiate. Stalks smooth, at first hyaline, later rose-coloar 5–7 μ diameter. Vesicles globose, fertile over whole surface. Sterigmata single, 25 μ × 6–7 μ. Conidia globose, rose colour, most coarsely echinulate, variable in size, 5–9 μ. Sclerotia or perithecia not observed.
Habitat: Cocoa which had been submerged in sea water.
Description from Sart., Sart. and Meyer (l.c.).
A. koningi Oudemans, Arch. Neerl., vol. 7, ser. 2, p. 248, 1902.
Heads radiate (cream colour?). Stalks hyaline, up to 350 μ. long. Vesicles hyaline, 16–20 μ diameter. Sterigmata 1 series, 8–10 μ × 2.5 μ. Conidia globose, smooth, cream colour, 3 μ.
Description from Th. and Ch. (The Asperg., p. 127, 1926).
A. jeaneselmei Ota, Ann. Parasitologie, vol. 1, p. 137, 1923.
Stalks smooth, somewhat dark coloured, from 80 or, more commonly, 100–400 μ long, 4–5 μ diameter at base to 8 μ at vesicle, which is 16–29 μ diameter. Sterigmata in 1 or 2 series, 4–10 μ × 2–3 μ. Conidia globose or ovoid, 3.5-6.5 μ diameter, mostly 5 μ. or less, smooth or in very old cultures somewhat verrucose, greenish becoming reddish-brown in several months.
Description from Th. and Ch. (The Asperg., p. 140) who suggest that this is a variant of A. nidulans.
A. minimus Wehmer, Bot. Centralb., vol. 80, p. 454, 1899.
Colonies green to grey-green, to dark green or dirty grey. Reverse not coloured or greyish. Heads radiate. Stalk smooth, colourless 0.3-1 mm. × 6 μ. Sterigmata 1 series, 5–7 μ × 3 μ, radiate, deciduous in age. Conidia oval, smooth, colourless, about 2 μ diameter.
Description from Th. and Ch. (The Asperg., p. 127, 1926).
A. pseudo-clavatus Purjewitch, Schrift. Naturforch. Gesell. Kiev, 16, 2, p. 309, 1900.
Conidial areas white to intensely green, later grey-green. Stalks 3–5 mm. in length, 25–35 μ diam. at base, increasing to the vesicle, which is 260–270 μ × 60–70 μ. Sterigmata closely packed in 2 series, primary 8–9 μ, secondary delicate, 2–5 μ in length. Conidia oval, greyish-green, 3.5-4 μ × 2.5-3 μ. Perithecia develop only under special conditions, 60–70 μ diameter, asci 6–7 (?) in the perithecium, 7–8 μ. Ascospores colourless oval.
Description from Th. and Ch. (The Asperg., p. 100, 1926).
A. pusillus Massee, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf., 4, p. 158, 1914.
Colony grey, effuse. Stalks hyaline, non-septate, 50–75 μ. × 3–4 μ. Vesicle 10–12 μ diameter. Sterigmata cylindrical, 3 μ × 1 μ Conidia globose, smooth, almost hyaline, 1 μ diameter.
Description from Th. and Ch. (The Asperg., p. 127, 1926).
A. quercinus (Bain.) Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 186, 1926.
S. queroina, Bainier, Bul. Soc. Bot. France, vol. 28, p. 78, 1881.
Colonies colour of clear oak wood, naples yellow, not ochraceus. Stalks smooth, colourless, up to 10 mm. × 21 μ. Heads (?) given as 88.3 μ. Sterigmata in 2 series, equal in length, 10.5 μ. Conidia globose, smooth, 4–4.2 μ. Sclerotia very abundant, especially on carrot, up to 0.5 mm., yellow.
Description from Th. and Ch. (The Asperg., p. 187, 1926).
It would appear that A. quercinus, A. alliaceus, A. sachari, and A. sclerotiorum are a series of closely related forms differing chiefly in colour of the abundant selerotia they all form in culture.
A. rehmii Zukal, Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr., vol. 43, p. 160, 1893.
Mycelium closely woven, yellow to ochre-yellow. Stalks smooth yellow, 400–500 μ × 5 μ. Vesicle elliptical oval, 30 μ × 20 μ. Sterigmata 2 series, primary 6 μ × 2–3 μ, secondary 4 μ × 1.5 μ. Conidia roundish “polyhedral,” smooth, yellowish, 2.5-3 μ. Perithecia black, 100–200 μ. diameter, surrounded by yellow weft, bearing Hülle cells. Asci 6–7 μ × 4–5 μ. Ascospores elliptical, smooth, translucent grey, about 5 μ × 3.5 μ.
Description from Th. and Ch. (The Asperg., p. 137, 1926).
A. sclerotiorum Huber, Phytopath., vol. 23, p. 306, 1933.
Heads sulphur-yellow, hemispherical to columnar, up to 140 μ diameter. Stalks light yellow, pitted, to 1.2 mm. × 6–12 μ. Vesicle globose to flask-shaped, up to 40 μ diameter. Sterigmata 2 series, approximately equal in length, up to 8.5 μ. Conidia globose, smooth, 2–3 μ diameter, walls slightly tinged yellow. Perithecia not found. Sclerotia abundant, first appearing in cultures 3 days old, globose or sub-globose, white at first, soon becoming light cream and then flesh pink. Pathogenic to apples.
Description from Huber (l.c.).
(See note to A. quercinus above.)
A. sulphureus (Fresen.) Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 185, 1926.
S. sulphurea Fresenius, Beitr. Z. Mykol., vol. 3, p. 83, 1886.
This species is known only from the imperfect description of Fresenius, and from dried herbarium material, in the interpretation of which Wehmer, Thom and Church and Blochwitz differ.
Thorn and Church would apply the name to strains of A. ochraceus producing bright yellow heads and not producing sclerotia.
The name should be dropped.
A. terricola Marchal, Rev. Mycologique, vol. 15, p. 101, 1893.
Colonies “terre d'ombre,” umbrinus. Stalks hyaline 0.6-1 mm. × 7–10 μ. Vesicle sub-globose, hyaline 30–50 μ, radiately covered with sterigmata. Sterigmata 12–15 μ × 4–7 μ. Conidia umber (Sacc.), ovate or elliptical then globose, rough, with colourless connective.
Description from Th. and Ch. (The Asperg., p. 192, 1926).
A. terricola var. Americana Marchal, ex. Th. and Ch., Am. Jour. Bot., vol. 8, p. 125, 1921.
Heads yellow ochre becoming mummy-brown, radiate. Stalks pitted 0.3-0.6 mm. × 6–8 μ. Vesicles up to 20 μ diameter. Sterigmata 1 series, 7–10 μ × 2.4 μ. Conidia ovate or nearly globose, tuberculate from colour bars between inner and outer walls. 5 μ. × 3 μ up to 7 μ × 5 μ occasionally 5–8 μ diameter.
Description from Th. and Ch. (l.c.).
(Possibly synonymous with A. tamarii Kita, and, if so, should have priority.)
A. varians Wehmer, Bot. Centralb., vol. 80, p. 460, 1899.
Colonies a beautiful green, becoming darker and even brown in age. Heads radiate. Stalks smooth, colourless, 1–2 mm. × 10–14 μ, not crowded on most media. Vesicles globose or oval, with rough wall and yellow-green contents, 25–30 μ. diameter, fertile over whole surface. Sterigmata in 1 series, 16–25 μ × 3–4 μ. Conidia globose, smooth or finely granular, 3–4 μ, diameter. Perithecia and sclerotia not found.
Description from Th. and Ch. (The Asperg., p. 127, 1926).
Species Insufficiently Described or Belonging to Other Genera.
To be Discarded.
S. area Bain., Bul. Soc. Bot. France, vol. 28, p. 78, 1881.
S. alba Bain., ibid., vol. 27, p. 30, 1880.
S. alba v. Tiegh., ibid., vol. 24, p. 103, 1877.
S. albo-lutea Bain., ibid., vol. 27, p. 31, 1880.
A. alutaceus Berk, and Curt., Grev., vol. 3, p. 108, 1875.
A. argentinus Speg., Rev. Fac. Agron. Vet. La Plata, vol. 2, p. 245, 1896.
A. atrovirens Karsten, Symb. Myc. Fenn., 26, p. 28, 1881.
S. aurea Greco, Orig. Tum. Myc. Argent., p. 671, 1916.
A. auriculaire Moq. Tand., El. Bot. Med., 2 ed., p. 466, 1866.
A. barbae Castell., ex Sartory, Champ. Par. L'Hom. Anim., p. 595, 1922.
A. belfanti Carbone, Atti. 1st. Bot. Univ. Pavia, II, vol. 14, p. 321, 1914.
A. bicolor J Ray, Variat. Champ., p. 53 (?), 1897.
A. bouffardi Brumpt, Arch. Parasit., vol. 10, p. 532, 1906.
A. brunneo-virens Delacr., Bul. Soc. Myc. France, vol. 13, p. 120, 1897.
A. byssoides Sprengel, Syst. Veg., ed. 16, IV, p. 541, 1827.
A. calyptratus Oud., Arch. Neerl., II, vol. 7, p. 283, 1902.
A. calyptratus Oud. var. italicus Ferraris, Ann. Myc., vol. 10, p. 294, 1912.
S. carnea Van Tiegh., Bul. Soc. Bot. France, vol. 24, p. 103, 1877.
A. carneolus Sacc., Michelia, vol. 1, p. 77, 1877.
S. chlorina Cke. and Mass., Grev., vol. 18, p. 7, 1889.
A. cimmerius Berk, and Curt., Grev., vol. 3, p. 108, 1875.
A. cinereus Speg., An. Soc. Cient. Argent., vol. 10, p. 162, 1880.
A. condylomatae Greco, Orig. Tum. Mycos. Argent., p. 502, 1916.
A. conoideus Sprengel, Sys. Veg., ed. 16, vol. 4, p. 541, 1827.
A. cookei (Cke.) Sacc, Syll. Fung., vol. 4, p. 71, 1886.
S. corolligena Mass., Kew Bul., 1, p. 5, 1910.
S. coronata Van Tiegh., Bul. Soc. Bot. France, vol. 24, p. 103, 1877.
S. coronella Cost., Muced. Simples, p. 34, 1888.
S. dasytricha Ell. and Ev., Jour. Myc., p. 104, 1886.
A. delacroixii Sacc. and Sydow, Syll. Fung., vol. 14, p. 1044, 1899.
S. dubia (Berk, and Broome) Sacc, Syll. Fung., vol. 4, p. 72, 1886.
A. dubius Corda, Icon. Fung., II, taf. XI, fig. 77, 1837.
A. echinosporus Sorok., Abs. Zeit-Pflanzenkr., vol. 3, p. 155, 1893.
S. ferruginea Cooke, Jour. Quekett Micr. Club, Ser. II, vol. 2, p. 139, 1885.
A. ferrugineus Link, Sp. Plant., Ed. 4, vol. 6, p. 68, 1824.
A. ferrugineus Fries, Sys. Myc., vol. 3, p. 387, 1829.
A. ferrugineus Fuekel, Jahrb. Nass. Ver. Nat., vols. 23 and 24, p. 358, 1870.
A. fimeti Sacc, Michelia, vol. 2, p. 543, 1888.
A. flavescens Wreden, St. P. Med. Zeitsch., vol. 13, p. 133, 1867.
A. flavidus Berk, and Br., Jour. Linn. Soc., Bot., vol. 14, p. 101, 1875.
S. fuliginosa Bain., Bul. Soc. Bot. France, vol. 28, p. 79, 1881.
S. fulva Sacc, Syll. Fung., vol. 4, p. 74, 1886.
A. fulvus Mont., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., III, vol. 12, p. 298, 1849.
A. fungoides Greco, Orig. Tumm. et Myc. Argent., p. 509, 1916.
A. fuscus Bonorden, Bot. Ztg., vol. 19, p. 202, 1861.
A. gigas Speg., An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, Ser. III, t. 13, 1911.
S. glauca Bain., Bul. Soc. Bot. France, vol. 27, p. 29, 1880.
A. glaucoides Spring, Bul. Acad. Sci. Belg., vol. 19, p. 560, 1852.
A. glaucus var. albida Speg. An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, vol. 6, p. 332, 1899.
A. glaucus var. clavatus Chevallier, Fl. d. env. d. Paris, I, p. 63, 1826.
A. glaucus oblongisporus Ell. and Ev., Field Mus. Bot., I, p. 88, 1896.
A. godfrini Sart. and Roed., Assn. Fr. l'Avan. Sc., session 42, p. 601, 1914.
A. griseus Link, Sp. Plant., Ed. 4, vol. 6, p. 69, 1824.
A. hageni Hallier, Catt. Mico. Corp. Um., p. 123, 1892.
S. helva Bain., Bul. Soc. Bot. France, vol. 28, p. 78, 1881.
A. heterocephalus Spring, Bul. Acad. Roy. Belg. Sci., vol. 19, p. 568, 1852.
A. hispidulus Spreng., Sys. Veg., Ed. 16, vol. 4, p. 541, 1827.
A. incrassatus Spring, Bul. Acad. Roy. Belg. Sci., vol. 19, p. 559, 1852.
S. italica Sacc, Syll. Fung., vol. 4, p. 72, 1886.
A. keratitis Ball, Amer. Med., vol. 2, p. 31, 1901.
A. laneus Link, Obs. Ord. Plant. Nat., p. 16, 1809.
A. lepedophyton Wehmer, Centralb. Bakt., I, vol. 35, p. 140, 1903.
S. lutea Bain., Bul. Soc. Bot. France, vol. 27, p. 27, 1880.
S. lutea Van Tiegh., Bul. Soc. Bot. France, vol. 24, p. 103, 1877.
A. macrosporus Bonorden, Handb. Allg. Myk., fig. 193, 1851.
A. maximus Link, Obs. Ord. Plant. Nat., p. 16, 1809.
A. michelii Preuss, Linnaea, vol. 25, p. 76, 1852.
A. microsporus Boke, Monatsschr. f. Ohrenheilkunde, III, p. 58, 1869.
S. minor Bain., Bul. Soc. Bot. France, vol. 27, p. 30, 1880.
A. mollis Berk., English Flora, V, pt. 2, p. 340, 1836.
A. mucoroides Corda, Icon. Fung., II, p. 18, 1837.
A. mucoroideus Cke., Grev., vol. 12, p. 61, 1883.
A. mulleri Berk., Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot., vol. 13, p. 175, 1873.
A. mycobanche Link, Sp. Plant., Ed. 4, vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 65, 1824.
A. nanus Oud., Ned. Kr. Arch., Deel 2, Ser. 3, p. 1121, 1904.
A. nigracens Robin, Hist. Nat. Veg. Paras., p. 518, 1853.
A. nigricans Wreden, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci., vol. 65, p. 368, 1867.
A. nigriceps Berk, and Curt., Grev., vol. 17, p. 21, 1888.
A. niveus Micheli, Nov. Gen., p. 213, 1729.
A. nolting Hallier, Zeitschr. f. Parasit., 1869.
A. oblongisporus Ell. and Ev., W. Va. Geol. Survey, vol. 5 (A), p. 32, 1913.
S. ochracea Bain., Bul. Soc. Bot. France, vol. 28, p. 78, 1881.
A. ochraceo-ruber Sacc., Mich., 1, p. 77, 1877.
A. olivacea Van. Tiegh., Bul. Soc. Bot. France, vol. 24, p. 103, 1877.
A. olivaceus Delacr., Bul. Soc. Myc. France, vol. 13, p. 118, 1897.
A. olivaceus Preuss, Linnaea, vol. 25, p. 77, 1852.
A. oosporus Wallr., Compend. Fl. Germ., vol. 4, p. 296, 1833.
A. ovalispermus Link, Obs. Ord. Plant. Nat., II, p. 37, 1816.
A. penicillatus Grev., Greville Sc. Fl., 1, p. 32, 1823.
A. penicillatus Link, Sp. Plant., Ed. 4, vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 69, 1824.
A. penicillopsis (Henn.) Racib., Paras. Alg. u Pilz. Javas, II, p. 7, 1900.
A. periconioides Sacc., Ann. Myc., vol. 11, p. 320, 1913.
A. pictor R. Blanchard, Traite Path. Gen., II, p. 919, 1896.
A. polychromus De Mello, Jour. Indian Bot., vol. 1, p. 158, 1920.
A. polymorphus Moq.-Tand., El. Botan-Med., Ed. 2, p. 469, 1866.
A. pouchetii Mont., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Ser. IV, vol. 12, p. 182, 1859.
S. prasina Bain., Bul. Soc. Bot. France, vol. 27, p. 31, 1880.
S. pulchella Speg., Soc. Cient. Arg. An., vol. 10, p. 163, 1880.
S. purpurea Van Tiegh., Bul. Soc. Bot. France, vol. 24, p. 101, 1877.
A. purpureo-fuscus Fries, Syst. Mycol., vol. 3, p. 388, 1829.
A. purpureo-fuscus Schwein, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc., N.S., vol. 4, p. 282, 1834.
A. purpureus Haller, Tomus 1, 1768.
A. pulmonum-hominis Weleker. Kuchenmeisters Parisiten, II, p. 144.
A. quadrifidus Link, Obs. Ord. Plant. Nat., II, p. 36, 1816.
A. quininae Heim, Bul. Soc. Myc. France, vol. 9, p. 239, 1893.
A. racemosa Pers., Neues Mag. Bot., 1, p. 121, 1794.
A. ramosissimus Haller, Tomus 1, 1768.
A. ramosus Hallier, Zeitschr. Parasit., vol. 2, p. 266, 1870.
A. roseus Batsch, Elenchus Fung., no. 58, p. 183, 1783.
A. rubens Green, Bos. Soc. Med. Sci., 1868.
A. rufescens Berlese, Fungi Moric., Fasc. VII, no. 4, tav. 54, 1889.
A. siebenmanni Cost, and Lucet, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., IX, vol. 2, p. 162, 1905.
A. simplex Pers., Tent. Disp. Meth. Fung., p. 41, 1797.
A. spiralis Grove, Jour. Bot., vol. 23, p. 164, 1885.
S. spuria Schroeter, ex Cohn, Krypt. Fl. Schl., vol. 3, p. 218, 1893.
A. stercoreus Sacc, Michelia, I, p. 78, 1877.
A. sterigmatophorus Sacc, Atti Soc. Ven.-Trent. Sci. Nat., vol. 2, p. 232, 1873.
A. subgriseus Peck, Bul. Torr. Bot. Club, vol. 22, p. 210, 1895.
A. umbrinus Patterson, Bul. Torr. Bot. Club, vol. 27, p. 284, 1900.
S. unguis Emile-Weil and Gaudin, Arch. Med. Exp. et Anat. Path., vol. 28, no. 5, p. 463, 1919.
S. varia Bain., Bul. Soc. Bot. France, vol. 27, p. 30, 1880.
S. veneta Massalongo, Bul. Soc. Bot. Ital., no. 7–8, p. 159, 1900.
A. venetus (Massal.) Lindau, Rab. Krypt. Fl., vol. 8, p. 144, 1907.
A. virens Link, Obs. Ord. Plant. Nat., p. 16, 1809.
S. vitellina Ridley, Jour. Bot., vol. 34, p. 152, 1896.
A. westendorpii Sace. and March., Rev. Mycol., vol. 7, p. 149, 1885.
A. cacao (Bainier Collection) Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 196, 1926.
A. crocatus Berk, and Curt., Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 216, 1926.
A. cucurbitaceus Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 216, 1926.
A. curtisii Berk., Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 216, 1926.
A. fusco-cinereus Ellis and Morgan, Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 100, 1926.
A. lutescens (Bainier collection) Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 193, 1926.
A. novus Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 206, 1926.
S. pseudo-carbonaria Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 166, 1926.
A. pulvinatus Berk, and Curt., Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 218, 1926.
A. sphaerospermus Corda, Icon. Fung., II, p. 18, 1854.
A. spirius Amons, Arch. Suiker. Nederl.-Ind., vol. 29, D.1, p. 14, 1921.
A. viridis Schw., Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 214, 1926.
Blochwitz, A., 1929. Die Aspergillaceen, Ann. Myc., vol. 27, pp. 185–240.
—– 1930. Standorte und Geographische Verbreitung der Schimmelpilze, ibid., vol. 28, pp. 241–208.
—– 1933. Die Gattung Aspergillus, ibid., vol. 31, pp. 73–83.
—– 1934. Die Gattung Aspergillus, ibid., vol. 32, pp. 83–89.
—– 1935. Die Gattung Aspergillus, ibid., vol. 33, pp. 238–250.
Boedijn, K. B., 1928. Notes on some Aspergilli from Sumatra, Ann. Myc., vol. 26, pp. 69–84.
Chaudhuri, H. and Sachar, G. S., 1934. A study of the fungus flora of the Punjab soils, Ann. Myc., vol. 32, pp. 90–100.
Chona, B L., 1932. The effect of cultural conditions on the growth and sporulation of an organism belonging to the group species A. glaucus, Trans. Br. Myc. Soc., vol. 17, pp. 221–228.
Ciferri, R., 1922. Notae Mycologicae et Phytopathologicae, Ann. Myc., vol. 20, p 46.
Dale, E., 1912. On the Fungi of the Soil. I, Ann. Myc., vol. 10, pp. 452–477.
—– 1914. On the Fungi of the Soil, II, ibid., vol. 12, pp. 33–62.
Febraris, T., and Marsa, C., 1912. Micromiceti nuovi o rari per la Flora Micologica Italians, Ann. Myc, vol. 10, pp. 294–295.
Frazer, H. C. I., and Chambers, H. S., 1907. The morphology of Aspergillus herbariorum, Ann. Myc., vol. 5, pp. 419–431.
Greene, H. C., 1933. Variation in single spore cultures of Aspergillus fischeri, Mycologia, vol. 25, pp. 117–138.
Grijns, G., 1903. Die Ascusform des Aspergillus fumigatus, Centralb. Bakt., II, vol. 11, pp. 330–332.
Hauman, L., 1930. Les champignons Seminicoles des Forěts Tropicales, Bul. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique, vol. 19, pp. 90–129.
Huber, G. A., 1930. The Aspergilli and their relation to decay in apples, Jour. Agr. Res., vol. 41, pp. 801–817.
—– 1933. Aspergillus solerotiorum, n.sp., and its relation to decay in apples, Phytopath., vol. 23, pp. 306–308.
Kinoshita, K., 1931. Uber eine neue Aspergillus-Art, Asp. itaconicus nov. sp., Bot. Mag. Tokyo, vol. 45, no. 530, p. 60.
Kita, G., 1913. Einige japanische Sehimmelpilze, I, Centralb. Bakt., II, vol. 37, pp. 433–452.
—– 1914. Einige japanische Sehimmelpilze, II, ibid., vol. 41, pp. 351–363.
Koehler, B., 1938. Fungus growth in shelled corn as affected by moisture, Jour. Agr. Res., vol. 56, pp. 291–307.
Lindau, G., 1907. Rabenhorst'a Kryptogomen-Flora, vol. 8, pp. 125–152.
Massee, G., 1914. Fungi Exotici, XVIII, Kew Misc. Bul., 4, pp. 156–159.
Neill, J. C., 1937. The Mould Fungi of New Zealand, I. The Genus Penicillium. Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 67, pp. 101–112.
Okazaki, K., 1907. Eine neue Aspergillua-Art und ihre praktische Anwendung, Centralb. Bakt., II, vol. 19, pp. 481–484.
—– 1915. Beitrage Zur Affinitat eines neuen weissen Fadenpilzes, Centralb. Bakt., II, vol. 42, pp. 225–240.
Rehm, H., 1907. Ascomycetes exs. Fasc. 39, Ann. Myc., vol. 5, pp. 207–208.
Roberg, M., 1930. Zwei bischer unbekannte Aspergillen, Hedwigia, vol. 70, 1–2, pp. 137–139.
Tamiya, H., and Morita, S., 1929. Bibliographie Aspergillus, 1729 bis 1928, Bot. Mag. Tokyo, vol. 43, nos. 506–516.
Tamiya, H., and Morita, S. 1930. Bibliographie Aspergillus, 1729 bis 1928, ibid., vol. 44, nos. 517–524.
Taubenhaus, J. J., and Alstatt, G. E., 1937. A decay of ornamental cacti caused by A. alliaceus, Mycologia, vol. 29, pp. 681–685.
Thom, C., and Church, M. B., 1918. A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. terreus n.sp., and their allies, Amer. Jour. Bot., vol. 5, pp. 84–104.
—– 1921. Aspergillus flavus, A. oryzae and associated species, ibid., vol. 8, pp. 103–126.
—– 1926. The Aspergilli, pp. 1–272.
Thom, C., and Currie, J. N., 1916. The Aspergillus niger group, Jour. Agr. Res., vol. 7, pp. 1–15.
Thom, C., and Lefevre, E., 1921. Flora of corn meal, Jour. Agr. Res., vol. 22. pp. 179–188.
Saccardo, P. A., 1886. Sylloge Fungorum, vol. 4, pp. 64–76.
—– 1892. Ibid., vol. 10, pp. 524–527.
—– 1895. Ibid., vol. 11, pp. 591–593.
—– 1899. Ibid., vol. 14, pp. 1044–1047.
—– 1902. Ibid., vol. 16, pp. 1027–1029; p. 1156.
—– 1906. Ibid., vol. 18, pp. 513–517.
—– 1908. Ibid., vol. 22, pp. 1254–1262.
—– 1913. Notae Mycologicae, Ann. Myc., vol. 11, p. 320.
Saito, K., 1903–4. Untersuchungen uber die atmosphärischen Pilzkeime, Jour. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo, vol. 18, art. 5, pp. 1–58.
—– 1907. Mikrobiologische Studien über die Zubereitung des Batateu-branntweines auf der Insel Hachijo (Japan), Centralb. Bakt., vol. 18, pp. 30–37.
Sartory, A., 1920. Sur un champignon nouveau du genre Aspergillus isolé dans un cas d'onychomycose, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci., vol. 170, pp. 523–524.
Sartory, A., Sartory, R., and Meyer, J., 1929. Un champignon nouveau du genre Sterigmatocystis (Sterigmatocystis basidiosepta n.sp.) à basides cloisonnés, Ann. Myc., vol. 27, pp. 317–320.
—– 1930. Etude d'une nouvelle espèce de Sterigmatocystis: Sterigmatocyatis albo-rosea, Ibid., vol. 28, pp. 358–359.
—– 1930. Etude d'une nouvelle espèce de Sterigmatocystis: Sterigmatocystis cameleo, l.c., pp. 360–361.
—– 1930. Etude d'une nouvelle espèce de Sterigmatocystis: Sterigmatocyatis halophilus, l.c., pp. 362–363.
Sartory, A., and Sydow, H., 1913. Etude biologique et morphologique d'nn Aspergillus nouveau, Aspergillus sartoryi Syd. n.sp., Ann. Myc., vol. II, pp. 156–160.
Smith, G., 1928. The identification of fungi causing mildew in cotton good;: The genus Aspergillus I, Jour. Text. Inst., vol. 19, pp. T92-100.
—– 1931. The genus Aspergillus II, Ibid., vol. 22, pp. T110-116.
Walker, J. C., and Lindgren, C. C., 1925. Further studies on the relation of onion scale pigmentation to disease resistance, Jour. Agr. Res., vol. 29, pp. 507–514.
Walker, J. C., Lindgren, C. C., and Bachmann, F. M., 1925. Further studies on the toxicity of juice extracted from succulent onion scales, Jour. Agr. Res., vol. 30, pp. 175–187.
Wehmer, C., 1896. Aspergillus wentii, eine neue technische Pilzart Javas, Centralb. Bakt., II, vol. 2, pp. 140–150.
—– 1901. Die Pilzgattung Aspergillus, Mem. Soc. Phys. d'Hist. Nat. Geneve, vol. 33, II, no. 4, pp. 5–157.
—– 1907. Zur Kenntnis einiger Aspergillus-Arten, Centralb. Bakt., vol. 18, pp. 385–395.
Whelden, R. M., 1938. Changes observed in cultures of Aspergillus niger bombarded as spores with low voltage cathode rays, Mycologia, vol. 30, pp. 265–268.
Winter, G., 1887. Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora, vol. 2, pp. 58–64.
Zikes, H., 1924. Eine Aspergillusart mit Penicilliumartigen Konidienträgern, Centralb. Bakt., II, vol. 61, pp. 247–248.
Index OF Species.
- S. aerea Bainier
- S. alba Bainier
- S. alba (Wilhelm) Saccardo
- S. alba Van Tieghem
- S. albo-lutea Bainier
- S. albo-rosea Sartory, Sartory and Meyer
- S. albus Wilhelm
- A. alliaceus Thorn and Church
- A. alutaceus Berkeley and Curtis
- S. ambari Beauregard
- A. amoenus Roberg
- A. amstelodami (Mangin) Thorn and Church
- S. antacustica Cramer
- A. archaeoflavus Blochwitz
- A. archiflavipes Blochwitz
- A. argentinus Spegazzini
- A. atropurpureus A. Zimmermann
- A. atrovirens Karsten
- S. aurea, Greco
- A. aureoglaucus Roberg
- S. auricoma Gueguen
- A. auriculaire Moquin-Tandon
- A. aviarius Peck
- A. awamori Usami
- A. barbae Castellani
- S. basidiosepta Sartory, Sartory and Meyer
- A. batatae Saito
- A. belfanti Carbone
- S. bicolor J. Ray
- A. boedijni Blochwitz
- A. bouffardi Brumpt
- A. bronohialis Blumentritt
- A. brunneo-fuscus See
- A. brunneo-virens Delacroix
- A. brunneus Delacroix
- S. butyracea Bainier
- A. byssoides Sprengel
- A. cacao
- A. caesiellus Saito
- A. calyptratus Oudemans
- A. calyptratus var. italicus Ferraris
- S. cameleo Sartory, Sartory and Meyer
- S. candida Saccardo
- S. candidula Bainier
- A. candidus Link
- S. carbonaria, Bainier
- A. carbonarius (Bainier) Thom
- S. carnea Van Tieghem
- A. carneus Blochwitz
- A. carneolus Saccardo
- S. castanea Patterson
- A. cellulosae Hopffe
- A. cervinus Massee
- A. chevalieri (Mangin) Thom and Church
- S. chlorina Cooke and Massee
- A. cimmerius Berkeley and Curtis
- A. cinerescens Bainier and Sartory
- A. cinereus Spegazzini
- A. cinnamomeus Sehiemann
- A. citrisporus Von Höhnel
- A. clavatus Desmazières
- A. clavellus Peck
- A. condylomatae Greco
- A. conicus Blochwitz
- A. conoideus Sprengel
- A. cookei (Cooke) Saccardo
- A. corolligena Massee
- S. coronata Van Tieghem
- S. coronella Costantin
- A. crocatus Berkeley and Curtis
- A. cucurbitaceus Berkeley and Curtis
- A. curtisii Berkeley
- S. dasytricha Ellis and Everhart
- A. delacroixii Saccardo and Sydow
- A. delacroixii (Saccardo) Thorn and Church
- S. dipus Ferdinandsen and Winge
- A. disjunctus Bainier and Sartory
- S. dubia (B. and Br.) Saccardo
- A. dubiosus Landau
- A. dubius Corda
- A. echinosporus Sorokine
- A. echinulatus (Delacroix) Thom and Church
- A. effusus Tiraboschi
- A. elegans Gasperini
- A. erythrocephalus Berkeley & Curtis
- A. ferruginea Cooke
- A. ferrugineus Fries
- A. ferrugineus Fuckel
- A. ferrugineus Link
- A. ficuum (Reich.) Hennings, P.
- A. fimetarius Peck
- A. fimeti Saccardo
- A. fischeri Wehmer
- A. flavescens Wreden
- A. flavidus Berkeley and Broome
- A. flavipes (Bainier and Sartory) Thom and Church
- S. flavipes Bainier and Sartory
- A. flavo-viridescens Hanzawa
- A. flavus Link
- A. flavus forma maydis Ciferri
- A. fontoynonti Gueguen
- S. fuliginosa Bainier
- A. fuliginosus Peck
- S. fulva (Mont.) Saccardo
- A. fulvus Montagne
- A. fumaricus Wehmer
- A. fumigatoides Bainier and Sartory
- A. fumigatus Fresenius
- A. fumigatus var. alpha Sion and Alexandrescu
- A. fumigatus var. minimus Sartory
- A. fumigatus var. tumescens Blumentritt
- A. fungoides Greco
- S. fusca Bainier
- A. fusco-cinereus Ellis and Morgan
- A. fuscus Amons
- A. fuscus Bonorden
- A. fuscus Schiemann
- A. galeritus Blochwitz
- A. giganteus Wehmer
- A. giganto-sulphureus Saito
- A. gigas Spegazzini
- S. glauca Bainier
- A. glaucoides Spring
- A. glaucus Link
- A. glaucus var. albida Spegazzini
- A. glaucus var. clavatus Chevallier
- A. glaucus var. minimus Hanzawa
- A. glaucus var. oblongisporus Ellis and Everhart
- A. glaucus var. oliva-scens Saccardo
- A. glaucus var. repens Corda
- A. glaucus var. subolivaceus Ferraris
- A. globosus Jensen
- A. globosus Link
- A. godfrini Sartory and Roederer
- A. gracilis Bainier
- A. gratioti Sartory
- A. griseus Link
- A. gymnosardae Yukawa
- A. hageni Hallier
- A. halophilus Sartory, Sartory and Meyer
- S. helva Bainier
- A. hennebergi Blochwitz
- A. herbariorum (Wiggers) Winter
- A. herbariorum ser. major var. violaceus (Mangin) Thom & Church
- A. heterocephalus Spring
- A. hispidulus Sprengel
- S. hortai Langeron
- A. humicola Chaudhari and Sachar
- A. incrassatus Spring
- S. insueta Bainier
- A. insuetus (Bainier) Thom & Church
- Aspergillopsis intermedia Spegazzini
- A. itaconicus Kinoshita
- S. italica Saccardo
- A. japonicus Saito
- A. jeanselmei Ota
- A. keratitis Ball
- A. koningi Oudemans
- A. laneus Link
- A. lepidophyton Wehmer
- A. lignieresi Costantin and Lucet
- A. luchuensis Inui
- S. lutea Bainier
- S. lutea Van Tieghem
- A. luteo-niger (Lutz) Thom and Church
- S. luteo-nigra Lutz
- A. luteo-virescens Blochwitz
- A. lutescens Bainier
- A. macrosporus Bonorden
- A. malignus Lindt
- A. maximus Link
- A. maydis Quevedo
- A. medius Meissner
- A. melleus Yukawa
- A. mencieri Sartory and Flament
- A. michelii Preuss
- A. microsporus Boke
- A. minimus Wehmer
- S. minor Bainier
- A. minutus Abbot
- A. mollis Bainier and Sartory
- A. mollis Berkeley
- A. mucoroides Corda
- A. mucoroideus Cooke
- A. mulleri Berkeley
- A. mutabilis Bainier and Sartory
- A. mycobanche Link
- A. nanus Montagne
- A. nanus Oudemans
- A. nidulans (Eidam) Winter
- S. nidulans Eidam
- Diplostephanus nidulans (Eidam) Langeron
- S. nidulans forme cesarii Pinoy
- S. nidulans var. nicollei Pinoy
- A. niger Van Tieghem
- Aspergillopsis nigra (Van Tieghem) Spegazzini
- S. nigra Van Tieghem
- A. nigrescens Robin
- A. nigricans Wreden
- A. nigriceps Berkeley and Curtis
- A. niveo-candidus Lindau
- A. niveus Blochwitz
- A. niveus Micheli
- A. nolting Hallier
- A. novus
- A. oblongisporus Ellis and Everhart
- S. ochracea Bainier
- S. ochracea Delacroix
- A. ochraceo-ruber Saccardo
- A. ochraceus Wilhelm
- A. ochraceus var. microspora Tiraboschi
- S. ochroleuca Spegazzini
- A. okazakii Okazaki
- S. olivacea Van Tieghem
- A. olivaceus Delacroix
- A. olivaceus Preuss
- A. oosporus Wallroth
- A. oryzae (Ahlburg) Cohn
- A. ostianus Wehmer
- A. ovalispermus Link
- A. parasiticus Speare
- A. penicillatus Greville
- A. penicillatus Link
- A. penicilloides Spegazzini
- A. penicillopsis (Hennings) Raciborski
- A. periconioides Saccardo
- A. perniciosus Inui
- A. phaeocephalus Durieu & Montagne
- A. phoenicis (Corda) Thom
- S. phoenicis Corda) Patouillard and Delacroix
- Ustilago phoenicis Corda
- A. pictor Blanchard
- S. polychroma Ferraris
- A. polyohromus DeMello
- A. polymorphus Moquin-Tandon
- A. pouchetii Montagne
- S. prasina Bainier
- S. pseuaocaroonaria Bainier
- A. pseudo-clavatus Purjewicz
- A. pseudo-flava (Saito) Saccardo
- A. pseudo-flavus Saito
- A. pseudo-glaucus Blochwitz
- S. pseudo-nidulans Vuillemin
- S. pseudo-nigra Costantin and Lucet
- S. pulchella Spegazzini
- Aspergillopsis pulchella Spegazzini
- A. pulchellus (Speg.) Thom and Church
- A. pulmonum hominis Welcker
- A. pulverulentus (McAlpine) Thom
- S. pulverulenta McAlpine
- A. pulvinatus Berkeley and Curtis
- S. purpurea Van Tieghem
- A. purpureo-fuscus Fries
- A. purpureo-fuscus Schweinitz
- A. purpureus Haller
- A. pusillus Massee
- A. quadrifidus Link
- S. quercina Bainier
- A. quercinus (Bainier) Thom and Church
- A. quininae Heim
- A. racemosa Persoon
- A. ramosissimus Haller
- A. ramosus Hallier
- A. rehmii Zukal
- A. repandus Bainier and Sartory
- A. repens (Corda) Saccardo
- A. reatrictus Smith
- A. restrictus var. B Smith
- A. roseus Batsch
- A. rubens Green
- A. ruber (Spieckermann and Bremer) Thom and Church
- A. rufescens Berlese
- A. sachari Chaudhari and Sachar
- A. sartoryi Sydow
- A. scheelei Bainier and Sartory
- A. schiemanni (Schiemann) Thom
- A. sclerotiorum Huber
- A. sejunctus Bainier and Sartory
- A. siebenmanni Costantin and Lucet
- A. simplex Persoon
- A. spadix Amons
- A. sphaerospermus Corda
- A. spiralis Grove
- A. spirius Amons
- S. spuria Schroter
- A. stercoreus Saccardo
- A. sterigmatophorus Saccardo
- A. strychni Lindau
- A. subfuscus Johan-Olsen
- A. subgriseus Peck
- S. sulphurea Fresenius
- A. sulphureus (Fresenius) Thom and Church
- A. sydowi (Bainier and Sartory) Thom and Church
- S. sydowi Bainier and Sartory
- A. syncephalis Gueguen
- S. szurakiana, Moesz
- A. tamarii Kita
- A. terreus Thom and Church
- A. terricola Marchal
- A. terricola var. americana Marchal
- A. tokelau Wehmer
- S. tunetana Langeron
- A. umbrinus Patterson
- A. umbrosus Bainier and Sartory
- S. unguis Emile-Weil and Gaudin
- S. usta Bainier
- A. ustilago Beck
- A. ustus (Bainier) Thom and Church
- S. varia Bainier
- A. varians Wehmer
- A. variabilis Gasperini
- S. veneta Massalongo
- A. venetus (Massal.) Lindau
- A. versicolor (Vuillemin) Tiraboschi
- S. versicolor Vuillemin
- A. violaceo-fuscus Gasperini
- A. virens Link
- A. viridis
- A. virido-griseus Costantin & Lucet
- S. vitellina Ridley
- S. welwitschiae (Bresadola) Hennings.
- A. wehmeri Costantin and Lucet
- A. wentii Wehmer
- A. westendorpii Saccardo & Marchal