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Volume 69, 1940
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Heads blue-green.
 Vesicles clavate. A. clavatus 1
 Vesicles flask-shaped.
  Sterigmata in 1 series. A. fumigatus 2
  Sterigmata in 2 series A. nidulans 3
Heads green.
 Heads columnar. A. caesiellus 4
 Head radiate.
  Sterigmata in 1 series. A. glaucus1 5
  Sterigmata in 2 series. A. versicolor2 6
Heads yellow-green. A. flavus 7
Heads yellow to brown.
 Stalks smooth.
  Heads hemispherical to columnar. (A. ustus)3 8
  Heads globose.
   Conidia rough, over 4 μ. A. wentii 9
   Conidia smooth, 3 μ. (A. alliaceus) 10
 Stalks rough.
  Conidia pyriform to globose.
   Stalks yellow. (A. ochraceus) 11
   Stalks colourless. (A. tamarii) 12
  Conidia lemon-shaped. (A. citrisporus) 13
Heads flesh-coloured.
 Heads columnar A. terreus 14
 Heads radiate. A. cervinus 15
Heads white.
 Stalks yellow. (A. flavipes) 16
 Stalks colourless. A. candidus 17
Heads black. A. niger 18

[Footnote] 1 Cultures of A. glaucus often exhibit yellow and red shades due to colour of the vegetative hyphae and perithecia.

[Footnote] 2 Some strains of A. versicolor exhibit variations in colour ranging from blue-green green, green, yellow-green to buff.

[Footnote] 3 Brackets indicate species not yet found in New Zealand.

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1. A. clavatus Desmazières, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Ser. II, vol. 2, p. 71, 1834.

A. clavellus Peck, New York St. Mus. Nat. Hist. Rept. 34, p. 49, 1881.

A. giganteus Wehmer, Centralb. Bakt., II, vol. 18, p. 385, 1907.

Heads at first blue-green, becoming dark green in age, clavate, with pseudo-columnar appearance when young, with jagged outline due to irregular massing of conidial chains in age. Stalks smooth, hyaline, 0.6-3 mm. × 15–40 μ, walls 0.5-1.5 μ thick. Vesicles clavate, fertile over an area up to 150 μ long by 20–40 μ diameter. Sterigmata 1 series, closely set, with axis approximately perpendicular to vesicle, 7–12 μ × 2.5-4 μ, narrowing abruptly to short apical tube. Conidia smooth, elliptical, 4–4.5 μ × 3–3.5 μ. No perithecia or sclerotia observed.

Czapek colony vigorous, floccose, soon covered with close-set blue-green heads. Reverse tinged yellow to brown.

Habitat: Malt, oatmeal, “Puffed Wheat,” soil. (5 isolants.)

2. A. fumigatus Fresenius, Beitr. z. Mykol., p. 81, 1853.

A. malignus Lindt., Arch. Exp. Path. Phar., vol. 25, p. 257, 1889.

A. aviarius Peck, New York St. Mus. Rept. (1890), 44, p. 120, 1892.

A. penicilloides Speg., Rev. Agrar. Vet. La Plata, p. 246, 1896.

A. bronchialis Blumentr., Ber. Deut. Bot. Ges., vol. 19, p. 442, 1901.

A. syncephalis Gueguen, Champ. Parasit. Hom. Anim., p. 165, 1904.

S. pseudo-nidulans Vuill., Arch. Parasit., vol. 8, p. 540, 1904.

A. lignieresi Cost, and Lucet, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., IX, vol. 2, p. 137, 1905.

A. virido-griseus Cost. and Lucet, l.c., p. 140, 1905.

A. fumigatus var. tumescens Blumentr., Ber. Deut. Bot. Ges., vol. 23, p. 419, 1905.

A. fischeri Wehmer, Centralb. Bakt., II, vol. 18, p. 390, 1907.

A. fumigatus var. alpha Sion and Alex., Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol., vol. 64, p. 288, 1908.

A. fumigatoides Bain. and Sart., Bul. Soc. Myc. France, vol. 25, p. 112, 1909.

A. fumigatus var. minimus Sart., Bul. Acad. Med., Ser. III, vol. 82, p. 304, 1919.

A. cellulosae Hopffe, Centralb. Bakt., I, vol. 83, p. 531, 1919.

Heads bright blue-green, later darkening to dull brownish-green, compactly or loosely columnar, 100 μ—300 μ × 30—70 μ. Stalks smooth, usually tinged green towards apex, 100—300 μ × 4—8 μ enlarging upwards. Vesicles flask-shaped 20—30 μ × 15—20 μ, fertile on apical half only or on nearly the whole surface. Sterigmata 1 series, closely set, apices mostly directed upwards, 5—8 μ × 2.5-3 μ, narrowing abruptly to short apical tube. Conidia smooth or roughened, globose or slightly elliptical, 2.3-3.3 μ in longest diameter. Perithecia formed by one strain, flesh coloured, more or less globose, 180—240 μ in diameter. Asci globose 11–12 μ. Ascospores 5 μ wide, 4 μ deep, with groove and double membrane 1 μ wide. Sclerotia not observed, but isolated groups of Hülle cells present in two strains.

Czapek colony spreading, at first floccose, later velutinous with isolated tufts of aerial hyphae, at first blue-green, later dull brownish-green. Reverse tinged greenish-yellow.

Habitat: Sclerotium of Claviceps purpurea, daffodil bulb, shoe leather, scrapings from ear of hospital patient. (5 isolants.)

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3. A. nidulans (Eidam) Winter, Rabh. Krypt. Fl., vol. 2, p. 65, 1887.

S. nidulans Eidam, Cohn's Beitr. Biol. Pflan., vol. 3, p. 392, 1883.

S. nidulans var. nicollei Pinoy, Arch. Parasit., vol. 10, p. 437, 1906.

S. nidulans forme cesarii Pinoy, Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., vol. 8, p. 11, 1915.

Diplostephanus nidulans (Eidam) Langeron, Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol., vol. 87, p. 343, 1922.

A. amoenus Roberg, Hedwigia, vol. 70, p. 138, 1930.

Heads blue-green, becoming glaucus-green, semi-radiate when young, becoming loosely or compactly columnar in age, 90—150 μ long by up to 60 μ in diameter. Stalks smooth, generally flexuous, enlarging upwards, tinted brown, 40—80 μ. × 4—5 μ. Vesicles flask-shaped, 10—15 μ diameter, fertile on upper surface only. Sterigmata in 2 series, primary 4—6 μ × 3 μ, secondary 6—9 μ × 2—2.5 μ, with, blunt apex and short very narrow apical tube, up to 5 per primary, axes of lower series bent upwards. Conidia globose, coarsely verrucose, 2.5—3.3 μ diam. in one strain, delicately roughened 3—3.5 μ in another. Perithecia embedded in weft of interlacing hyphae that terminate in globose thick-walled Hülle cells about 20 μ diameter, subglobose, to 300 μ diameter. Asci globose 9—10 μ diameter, ephemeral, containing 8 spores. Ascospores purple, smooth, in one strain 4.5 μ × 3.8 μ with double equatorial membrane 1.25 μ wide, in the other strain 4.5 μ × 3.5 μ. with double equatorial membrane 0.5 μ wide. In this latter strain the membranes are very close together, appearing as a single thick membrane unless clearly defined. Asci ripen only after several weeks in culture.

CzapeK colony vigorous floccose soon becoming velutinous, blue-green finally dark green. Reverse tinged pink to deep maroon, staining media.

Habitat: Macaroni, crushed maize. (2 isolants.)

4. A. caesiellus Saito, Jour. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo, vol. 18, art. 5, p. 49, 1904.

A. gracilis Bain., Bul. Soc. Myc. France, vol. 23, p. 92, 1907.

A. cinerescens Bain. and Sart., Bul. Soc. Myc. France, vol. 27, p. 98, 1911.

A. conicus Blwz. ex Dale, Ann. Myc., vol. 12, p. 38, 1914.

A. restrictus Smith, Jour. Text. Inst., vol. 22, p. T 115, 1931.

A. restrictus var. B. Smith, l.c.

Heads dark green, columnar, to 300 μ × 40 μ, showing basal half of vesicle. Stalks smooth, hyaline, often sinuous, 50—100 μ. × 5—6 μ, walls 0.5 μ thick, arising from submerged and aerial hyphae and hyphal ropes. Vesicles globose to flask-shaped, 10—15 μ diameter, fertile only on apical dome. Sterigmata 1 series, closely packed, axes parallel with stalk, 9–10 μ × 3.5 μ, narrowing abruptly to short apical tube. Conidia very rough, elliptical, 6—9 μ. × 3.5—4 μ, forming a solid cylindrical column. The young conidia are slow to abstrict in the chain, remaining attached in mounts, and, when detached, appearing barrel-shaped with flattened ends. No perithecia or sclerotia observed.

Czapek colony restricted, with greyish floccose aerial hyphae, dull green to deep green, darkening in age. Reverse dark green to black.

Habitat: Air in hospital, rolled oats, oatmeal. (3 isolants.)

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The “slime” condition described for “A. conicus” by Dale and by Thom and Church (The Asperg., p. 125, 1926) was present an the colony which developed on an air-exposed plate of “Difco” prune agar. Subcultures direct to Czapek and potato-dextrose agars were also slimy. A similar condition had been noted in old stock cultures of A. glaucus. No bacteria could be found in direct examination or in dilution cultures on various media, nor could the condition be produced in non-slimy colonies by direct inoculation. It was found, however, that transfers of mass inoculum to “Difco” prune agar plus 40% cane sugar produced colonies apparently healthy and free from slime.

The “slime” condition is associated with other evidences of degeneration—contorted hyphae, lack of vigour, irregularity in fruiting, darkening of colour in the submerged hyphae and in the media, etc. The conidia remain normal. The two strains isolated from oats did not show the “slime” condition. It appears therefore, that the condition is of physiological origin and is not a constant species character—an opinion also held by Blochwitz (Ann. Myc., vol. 23, p. 206, 1929).

5. A. glaucus Link, Mag. Ges. Nat. Fr. Berlin, vol. 3, p. 16, 1809.

A. glaucus var. repens Corda, Icon. Fung., vol. 5, p. 53, 1842.

A. glaucus var. olivascens Sacc, Michelia, vol. 2, p. 543, 1878.

A. repens (Corda) Sacc., Syll. Fung., vol. 4, p. 64, 1886.

A. herbariorum (Wigg.) Wint., Rabh. Krypt. Fl., vol. 2, p. 59, 1887.

A. brunneus Delacr., Bul. Soc. Myc., vol. 9, p. 185, 1893.

A. medius Meissn., Bot. Ztg., II, vol. 55, p. 337, 1897.

A. tokelau Wehmer, Centralb. Bakt., I, vol. 35, p. 140, 1903.

A. fontoynonti Gueguen, Arch. Parasit., vol. 14, p. 177, 1910.

A. glaucus var. minimus Hanzawa, Jour. Coll. Agr. Imp. Univ. Sapporo, vol. 4, p. 220, 1911.

A. disjunctus Bain, and Sart., Bull. Soc. Myc. France, vol. 27, p. 346, 1911.

A. sejunctus Bain, and Sart., l.c., p. 346, 1911.

A. mollis Bain, and Sart., l.c., p. 453, 1911.

A. mutabilis Bain, and Sart., l.c., p. 458, 1911.

A. repandus Bain, and Sart., l.c., p. 463, 1911.

A. scheelei Bain. and Sart., ibid., vol. 28, p. 257, 1912.

A. umbrosus Bain, and Sart., l.c., p. 267, 1912.

A. maydis Quevedo, De Agronomia, vol. 8, 1912.

A. sartoryi Syd., Ann. Myc., vol. 11, p. 156, 1913.

A. glaucus var. subolivaceus Ferraris, Fl. Ital. Crypt. Pars., I, Fas. 13, p. 911, 1914.

A. brunneo-fuscus See, Malad. Pap. Piqué, p. 29, 1919.

A. mencieri Sart. and Flam., Champ. Parasit. Hom. Anim., p. 578, 1922.

A. herbariorum ser. major var. violaceus (Mangin) Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 102, 1926.

A. echinulatus (Delacr.) Th. and Ch., l.c., p. 107, 1926.

A. chevalieri (Mangin) Th. and Ch., l.c., p. 111, 1926.

A. ruber (Sp. and Br.) Th. and Ch. l.c., p. 112, 1926.

A. amstelodami (Mangin) Th. and Ch., l.c., p. 113, 1926.

A. pseudoglaucus Blwz., Ann. Myc., vol. 27. p. 207.

A. aureoglaucus Roberg, Hedwigia, vol. 70, p. 137, 1930.

A. itaconicus Kinoshita, ex Okunuki, Bot. Mag. Tokyo, vol. 45, p. 60, 1931.

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Heads dark green, later dull green to grey-brown, radiate, irregular in outline, mop-like rather than spherical, 75—150 μ diam., 40–60 μ deep. Stalks smooth, hyaline or tinted yellowish-green in upper part, 0.5-3 mm. × 8–15 μ, walls 0.5-1 μ, thick. Vesicles globose to flask-shaped, 15–30 μ diam., fertile over upper three-quarters of surface. Sterigmata in 1 series, not crowded, 6–12 μ × 3.5-5 μ, vase-shaped, tapering only slightly to apex and closely resembling the first conidium. Conidia at first smooth, highly elliptical, later generally coarsely verrucose or wrinkled, occasionally remaining smooth, elliptical, pyriform, or almost globose, very variable, 4–12 μ × 4–8 μ, in separate, loose, radiate chains. Perithecia bright yellow, darkening somewhat in age, subglobose, 75–120 μ diameter, not enclosed in hyphal weft. Asci globose, about 11 μ. diameter. Ascospores lens-shaped, circular in plan, 4.5-5.5 μ diameter, elliptical in elevation, 3.5-4.5 μ. deep, with median groove either bounded by projecting membranes 0.5-1 μ wide, or without membranes, or again showing clear elliptical outline with no sign of groove, or at most a slight flattening of the ends.

Czapek colony restricted, more or less floccose, varying in appearance with the strain and conditions of culture, some becoming quickly ascosporic with suppression of conidial formation and consequent predominance of yellow colouration, others spreading widely, with little or no formation of perithecia, appearing dark green, browning with age, or tinged in zones dark yellow or rust colour due to coloured inclusions within, or accretions upon the vegetative hyphae. Reverse various shades of greenish-yellow to rusty-brown. Some staining the media, others not.

Habitat: Silk and cotton fabrics, diseased bee-larvae, tobacco, dried fruit, soil, dead plant parts in glasshouse, sawn timber, jams and preserves, hessian meat wraps, grass seed, air-exposed plates in milking sheds, dairy factories, workrooms and hospital wards, cheddar cheese, leather, sheep-skins, beef dripping, rolled oats and oatmeal, mouldy wheat, barley, peas and bread. (49 isolants.)

The writer has followed Wehmer and Lindau in adopting the specific name glaucus Link as covering the range of forms, here listed as synonyms, included in the “A. glaucus” group of Thorn and Church. Divisions in general rest upon the relative morphology of the ascospores and show a graduated range making the delimitation of any particular form very difficult. Smith (1931), discussing the 42 strains of the “A. glaucus” group examined by him, divides these into 4 species, A. repens, A. ruber, A. amstelodami and A. chevalieri, mainly on ascosporic, secondarily on cultural characters. Among the 49 strains collected in New Zealand, though the majority agree with his delimitation of A. repens, there is a range of ascosporic character covering all four “species,” but the writer has not been able to correlate them with the associated secondary cultural characters of Smith. Failing a clear line of demarcation in the conidial stage, differences in the ascosporic stage should not be used to separate species of the “imperfect” genus Aspergillus however valid they may be in the classification of the “perfect” genus Eurotium.

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6. A. versicolor (Vuillemin) Tiraboschi, Ann. Bot. Rome, vol. 7, p. 9, 1908.

S. versicolor Vuill., ex Mirsky, Thése Med. Nancy, no. 27, p. 15, 1903.

*S. ambari Beaurgd.,Ann. Microgr., vol. 10, p. 255, 1898.

S. polychroma Ferraris. Fl. Ital. Crypt. Hyph., p. 640, 1906.

A. flavo-viridescens Hanzawa., Jour. Coll. Agr. Imp. Univ. Sapporo. vol. 4, p. 232, 1911.

A. globosus Jensen, Cornell. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bul., 315, p. 482, 1912.

S. sydowi Bain, and Sart., Ann. Mycol., vol. 11, p. 25, 1913.

S. tunetana Langeron, Bul. Soc. Path. Exot., vol. 17, p. 345, 1924.

A. sydowi (Bain, and Sart.) Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 147, 1926.

S. cameleo Sart., Sart. and Meyer, Ann. Myc., vol. 28, p. 360, 1930.

A. humicola Chaudhuri and Sachar, Ann. Myc., vol. 32, p. 97, 1934.

Heads variable in colour, with green shades dominant while colony is in vigorous growth, usually merging into zones in which the heads are yellowish-orange or cinnamon, radiate, hemispherical when young, remaining so or becoming somewhat columnar in age, 40–150 μ diameter. Stalks smooth, generally colourless, sometimes somewhat brownish towards apex, 200–500 μ × 3.5-8 μ, walls 1–1.5 μ thick. Vesicles generally flask-shaped, sometimes almost globose, fertile on apical two-thirds or on nearly the whole surface, 10–25 μ diameter. Sterigmata in 2 series, primary 4–7 μ × 3 μ, secondary 6–9 μ × 2–2.5 μ, usually 5 per primary, vase-shaped with well-marked apical tube, with axis more or less perpendicular to surface of vesicle. Conidia globose, coarsely or finely asperulate or almost smooth, 3–3.5 μ, exceptionally 2.5 or 4 μ, usually in loose radiating chains. Perithecia not observed. Sclerotia reddish-yellow, present in some strains, when fully developed egg-shaped, 200 × 140 μ, generally represented by irregular groups of “Hülle” cells.

Czapek colony generally strong-growing, floccose, becoming mealy or velutinous in age, coloured various shades of green, generally emerald green, but sometimes blue-green, sometimes merging into bands of yellow, orange, or cinnamon towards periphery. Margin wide, white generally tinged pink. Reverse yellow to orange and finally deep maroon, often prominently zoned. Media coloured pink to claret.

Habitat: Air-exposed plates in library and citrus packing shed, butter, cheese and cheese “starter” culture, timber, tobacco, borax lemon-washing solution, cork of hair-oil bottle, cork composition washers, annatto seed, mouldy peas and beans, tank-water, and wheat. (32 isolants.)

7. A. flavus Link, Obs. Ord. Plant. Nat., vol. 1, p. 16, 1809.

A. oryzae (Ahlburg) Cohn, Jahresb. Schles. Gesell. Vaterl. Cultur, vol. 61, p. 226, 1884.

A. variabilis Gasper., Atti. Soc. Tosc. Nat. Sci., Mem. 8, p. 326, 1887.

A. wehmeri Cost, and Lucet, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Ser. IX, vol. 2, p. 162, 1905.

A. pseudoflavus Saito, Centralb. Bakt., II, vol. 18, p. 34, 1907.

A. effusus Tiraboschi, Ann. di Bot., vol. 7, p. 16, 1908.

[Footnote] * In conformity with general usage versicolor has been retained as the specific name for this group of strains, although ambari has apparent priority.

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A. gymnosardae Yukawa, Jour. Coll. Agr. Imp. Univ. Tokyo, vol. 1, p. 362, 1911.

A. parasiticus Speare, Haw. Sug. Pl. Exp. Sta., Path. and Phya. Scr., Bul. 12, p. 38, 1912.

S. pseudo-flava (Saito) Sacc., Syll. Fung., vol. 22, p. 1260, 1913.

A. flavus f. maydis Ciferri, Bul. Soc. Bot. Italy, No. 7, p. 75, 1921. A.

A. archaeoflavus Blwz., Ann. Myc., vol. 31, p. 77, 1933.

Heads light greenish-yellow, dark yellow-green to umber in age, variable, at first radiate, becoming loosely columnar in age, 75–150 μ diameter. Stalks rough from accretions that wash off in mounting fluid leaving scars or pits on the colourless walls, 300–800 μ × 7–12 μ, walls 1.5-2 μ thick. Vesicles globose or nearly so, 20–50 μ diameter, fertile on upper three-quarters of surface. Sterigmata 1 or 2 series, primary 6–8 μ × 4 μ, secondary 7–10 μ × 2.5-3 μ, often 1, seldom more than 2 per primary, tapering abruptly to apex without defined apical tube. Conidia globose, pyriform or broadly elliptical, smooth or more or less wrinkled, 3–5 μ in long axis. Perithecia not observed. Sclerotia produced by some strains, at first as white weft of fine aerial hyphae, later becoming globose, black, to 700 μ diameter, frequently aggregated into masses.

Czapek colony spreading, thin, mealy, light greenish-yellow, darkening to dull yellowish-green in age. Reverse tinted yellow darkening to yellow-brown in age.

Habitat: Pelts, oatmeal, wheat, air-exposed plate in workshop, lucerne stem, canvas, decaying board. (16 isolants.)

8. A. ustus (Bain.) Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 152, 1926.

S. usta Bain., Bul. Soc. Bot. France, vol. 28, p. 78, 1881.

A. luteo-virescens Blwz., Ann. Myc., vol. 31, p. 80, 1933.

Heads from white through shades of grey, olive-grey, yellow, yellow-brown towards fuscous, with often a greenish east, but no true green colour, in old cultures purplish vinaceous at times, hemispherical to almost columnar. Stalks smooth, sinuous, few septate, usually partly coloured some shade of brown, to 1 mm. from submerged hyphae, up to 0.5 mm. when arising from aerial hyphae, by 5–10 μ, walls rather thin. Vesicle 10–20 μ diameter. Sterigmata colourless, semi-radiate, loosely arranged into 2 series, primary 5–8 μ × 3 μ, secondary 7–9 μ × 2–2.5 μ. Conidia globose, spinulose or with fine faint bars of rosy, reddish-yellow or vinaceous colour, about 3.6 μ (3.5-4 μ), with chains forming fairly compact columns in old cultures. Some strains show sterile clusters of thick-walled helicoid cells, comparable to the “Hülle” cells of A. nidulans, but perithecia have not been found. Colonies more or less felted, floccose, with fine hyphae. Reverse through shades of yellow, orange and brown.

Habitat: “Widely separated sources.”

Description from Thorn and Church (l.c.)

Blochwitz (Ann. Myc., vol. 27, p. 223, 1929) gives colour of heads from substratum as copper-red, of those from aerial hyphae, clear-red-brown, fawn, grey-brown, grey-green, green.

(Not as yet found in New Zealand.)

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9. A. wentii Wehmer, Centralb. Bakt., II, vol. 2, p. 149, 1896.

Heads at first yellow, soon darkening to chocolate-brown, radiate, globose, 150–300 μ diameter. Stalk smooth, colourless, up to 3 mm. × 10–15 μ, walls 1.5-3 μ thick. Vesicle globose, 25–75 μ diameter, thick-walled, fertile over whole surface. Sterigmata in 1 series, to 35 μ × 4 μ, or 2 series, primary 7–12 μ × 3–4 μ, secondary 6–14 μ × 2.5-3 μ, sometimes growing out up to 50 μ as penicilliate branch, tapering abruptly to blunt apex without defined apical tube. Conidia broadly elliptical to globose, brownish, wrinkled, 4–5 μ diameter, outer wrinkled wall persistent, holding conidial chains together in mounts. Perithecia or sclerotia not observed.

Czapek colony generally deeply floccose, slowly turning yellow then chocolate with the developing heads. Reverse yellow, dark reddish-brown in age. Media lightly stained reddish-yellow.

Habitat: Annatto seed, anemone bulbs, hessian meat wrap, soil, cork insulators, macaroni, bread, shoe leather. (10 isolants.)

10. A. alliaceus Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 163, 1926.

A. sachari Chandhari and Sachar, Ann. Myc., vol. 32, p. 95, 1934.

Heads yellow or becoming ochre to brown in age, up to 200 μ diameter. Stalks smooth, colourless, up to 1.5 mm. × up to 15 μ, walls 1.5 μ thick, breaking with rough or ragged edges. Vesicles up to 50 μ diameter, with wall 1.8-2 μ thick, showing prominent pores at bases of sterigmata. Sterigmata in 2 series, primary 7–12 μ × 2–4 μ, secondary 7–8 μ × 2 μ, colourless. Conidia (smooth?) faintly yellowish, elliptical to globose 3 μ × 2.5 μ to 3 μ diameter.

Sclerotia soon abundant, at first white, later becoming black without yellow or orange colours, ovate to elliptical up to 500 μ- 700 μ in horizontal diameter, up to 1 mm. or more in vertical axis, with a depression or pore at apex. Perithecia not found.

Czapek colony with white floccose mycelium spreading rapidly over the surface of the medium and quickly producing abundant sclerotia. Conidial heads few and scattered.

Habitat: Reported by Walker and Lindgren as pathogenic on onions and by Taubenhaus and Alstatt as pathogenic on cacti. Thom and Church isolated it from a dead “blister-beetle.”

Description from Thom and Church, The Asperg., p. 163, 1926. See note to A. quercinus (Bain.) Th. and Ch., p. 255, below. (Not as yet found in New Zealand.)

11. A. ochraceus Wilhelm, Beitr. z. Kenntn. d. Pilzgatt. Asperg., p. 66, 1877.

A. elegans Gasp., Atti Soc. Tosc. Set. Nat. Pisa, Mem. 8. p. 328, 1887.

S. ochracea Delacr., Bul. Soc. Myc., vol. 7, p. 109, 1891.

S. delacroixii Sacc, Syll. Fung., vol. 10, p. 527, 1892.

A. ostianus Wehmer, Bot. Ccntralb., vol. 80, p. 449, 1899.

S. auricoma Guegueu, Bul. Soc. Myc., vol. 15, p. 171, 1899.

A. ochraceus var. microspora Tiraboschi, Ann. di Bot., vol. 7, p. 14, 1908.

A. melleus Yukawa, Jour. Coll. Agr. Imp. Univ. Tokyo, vol. 1, no. 3, p. 366, 1911.

S. ochroleuca Speg., An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, Ser. III. t. 13, 1911.

A. spadix Amons, Arch. Suiker. Nederl.-Ind., vol. 29, p. 12, 1921.

A. delacroixii (Sacc.) Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 190, 1926.

A. hennebergi Blwz., Ann. Myc., vol. 33, p. 238, 1935.

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Heads yellow to ochraceous, radiate, globose. Stalks thickly set with yellow-brown warts, leaving pits when mounted, yellow, several mm. × up to 15 μ, walls 3 μ thick. “Vesicles globose 60–70 μ diameter, fertile over whole surface. Sterigmata 2 series, primary often septate and up to 70 μ long, secondary 10–12 μ × 1.5-2.5 μ. Conidia globose or elliptical, smooth or delicately roughened, 5 μ × 3.5 μ or 3.5-4.5 μ diameter. Some strains with abundant sclerotia, yellowish brown, 400–700 μ diameter.

Czapek colony varying with presence or absence of sclerotia, ochraceous or in shades of orange to vinaceous or in purple tones. Submerged mycelium colourless to yellow, orange, or purplish shades.

Habitat: Bread, decaying plants, gelatine, dried fish.

Description from Thorn and Church, The Asperg., p. 184, 1926.

(Not as yet found in New Zealand.)

12. A. tamarii Kita, Centralb. Bakt., II, vol. 37, p. 433, 1913.

Heads brown, becoming darker with age, radiate, hemispherical or globose, 70–120 μ diameter. Stalks usually smooth, colourless; 0.2-1.2 mm. × 4–10 μ, showing septa in age. Vesicles globose or flask-shaped, upright or drooping on the stalk, from 15–17 μ to 22 × 24 μ, walls colourless or faintly yellow, fertile over whole surface or only on the upper portion. Sterigmata clavate, in 1 series, 9 × 4 μ to 10 × 5 μ. Conidia brownish-yellow or green-brown, globose, heavily warted, 3–6 μ.

Habit: Manufacture of soya sauce in Japan.

Description from Kita, l.c.

Thorn and Church, The Asperg., p. 194, 1926, describe their strains as follows:—

Heads at first colourless, then passing through orange-yellow shades to brown in old colonies, not showing true green, variable in size, from more or less columnar to almost but not quite globose, up to 350 μ diameter, with radiating chains and columns of conidia. Stalks arising from submerged hyphae 1 to several mm. × 10–12 μ, walls thick 1–2 μ, becoming abruptly thinner at base of vesicle, pitted more prominently in upper than lower half (often appearing as rough or echinulate with low magnifications) and frequently showing irregular thickenings within. Vesicles 25–50 μ. diameter. Sterigmata 1 series in small heads, 2 series in large heads, primary commonly 7–10 μ × 3–4 μ, becoming 20–25 μ long in gigantic heads, secondary 7–10 μ × 3 μ. Conidia more or less pyriform toward globose, tuberculate especially at the distal end in the chain, 5, 6, occasionally up to 8 μ in diameter, rough from prominent masses and bars of orange-yellow colouring matter deposited under the loose outer wall upon the firm inner wall. Sclerotia occasionally produced, usually purple or reddish-purple, globose to pyriform with apex white.

(Not as yet found in New Zealand.)

13. A. citrisporus von Hohnel, Sitzungsber. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien. Math-Naturw., Kl. III, 1 Abt., p. 987, 1902.

Heads yellow, then golden, finally fulvous, radiate, up to 500 μ diameter. Stalks obscurely pitted (colourless?), 1–2 mm. × 20–25 μ, thin (1 μ or less mostly). Vesicles nearly globose, 30–50 μ

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diameter, fertile over nearly the entire surface. Sterigmata 1 series, 8–12 μ. × 3–4 μ. Conidia yellow or golden, then brown, lemon-shaped, 5–9 μ × 5–6 μ, rough from irregularly branching ridges of yellow to brown colouring matter between the inner and outer wall. Sclerotia occasionally found.

Habitat: Excrement of insect larvae.

Description from Thorn and Church, The Asperg., p. 192, 1926.

(Not as yet found in New Zealand.)

14. A. terreus Th. and Ch., Amer. Jour. Bot., vol. 5, p. 85, 1918.

A. fuscus Amons, Arch. Suiker. Ned.-Ind., vol. 29, p. 8, 1921.

S. hortai Langeron, Bul. Soc. Path. Exot., 15, p. 383, 1922.

A. galeritus Blwz., Ann. Myc., vol. 27, p. 205, 1929.

A. carneus Blwz., ibid., vol. 31, p. 81, 1933.

A. boedijni Blwz., ibid., vol. 32, p. 83, 1934.

Heads flesh coloured, darkening in age to cinnamon, columnar, 120–300 μ × 50–70 μ. Stalk smooth, colourless, 100–180 μ × 5–7 μ, walls up to 1 μ thick. Vesicle sub-globose to flask-shaped, 15–22 μ diameter, fertile over nearly the whole surface. Sterigmata 2 series, primary 6–8 μ × 2–5 μ, secondary 6–8 μ × 1.5-2 μ, tapering abruptly to apex without defined apical tube, with axes more or less parallel to axis of stalk, 1, 2 or 3 per primary. Conidia globose, smooth, 2.3-3 μ diameter, in long parallel chains adherent into solid columns. Perithecia or sclerotia not observed.

Czapek colony spreading, thin, velutinous, densely covered with flesh to cinnamon coloured heads. Reverse yellowish-green.

Habitat: Rolled oats and oatmeal, wheat. (4 isolants.)

15. A. cervinus Massee, Kew Misc. Bul., 4, p. 158, 1914.

A. gratioti Sart., Compt. Mend. Acad. Sci., vol. 170, p. 523, 1920.

Heads flesh coloured, darkening to cinnamon in age, radiate, nearly globose, loose, to 150 μ diameter. Stalk smooth, colourless, 150–250 μ × 6–8 μ, walls about 1 μ thick. Vesicle globose, 15–20 μ diameter, fertile over whole surface. Sterigmata 1 series, 4–6 μ × 2.3 μ, vase shaped with well-marked apical tube, with axis perpendicular to surface of vesicle. Conidia globose, smooth, coloured reddish-yellow, 3–3.5 μ diameter, often showing remains of connective as small papillae at each end. Perithecia or sclerotia not observed.

Czapek colony spreading, thin, velutinous to mealy, flesh coloured, darkening to cinnamon with age. Reverse café-au-lait. Strong musty odour.

Habitat: Soil, North Auckland. (1 isolant.)

Massee describes his strain from soil near Khartoum as follows:—

Colonies forming an effused fawn-coloured stratum on culture media. Stalks sparse, 80–35 μ × 8–10 μ. Sterigmata in 1 series 7–8 μ × 3 μ. Conidia globose, smooth, 2 μ.

Thorn and Church (The Asperg., p. 150, 1926) note having examined a strain from Porto Rico soil close to this form.

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16. A. flavipes (Bain, and Sart.) Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 156, 1926.

S. flavipes Bain, and Sart., Bul. Soc. Myc. France, vol. 27, p. 90, 1911.

A. niveus Blwz., Ann. Myc., vol. 27, p. 205, 1929.

A. archiflavipes Blwz., Ann. Myc., vol. 32, p. 84, 1934.

Heads white, persistently so or with some strains in pale to deep avellaneous shades, mostly columnar. Stalks smooth, occasionally with disk-like accretions, yellow under the microscope, in mass some shade of buff to vinaceous buff, with colour mostly localised in outer layers of cell wall, 300–500 μ × 4–5 μ or up to 2–3 mm. × 8–10 μ. Vesicles sub-globose to elliptical, up to 20 μ × 30 μ in the largest forms, usually twice diameter of stalk in the smaller forms, fertile on apical surface in smaller forms, covering the vesicle in larger forms. Sterigmata in 2 series, primary 4–8 μ × 2–3 μ, secondary 5–8 μ × 1.5-2 μ. Conidia sub-globose, smooth, colourless or nearly so in mounts, 2–3 μ diameter, in chains aggregated to form columns. Sclerotia as submerged or protruding dark brown to black masses and aggregations of Hülle cells. Perithecia not reported.

Czapek colony varying from almost velvety with abundant development of even-sized white heads to floccose aerial mycelium, grey, buff to vinaceous buff, with sparse development of long stalked white calyptrate heads or more closely felted forms with brown sclerotia or brown crusts upon or just above the substratum, and to colonies with more or less numerous yellow aggregations of sigmoid Hülle cells. Submerged mycelium from persistently colourless to yellow, orange or yellow-brown.

Description from Thorn and Church (The Asperg., p. 155, 1926).

(Not as yet found in New Zealand.)

17. A. candidus Link, Obs. Ord. Plant. Nat., vol. 1, p. 16, 1809.

A. albus Wilhelm, Beitr. Kennt. Pilzg. Asper., p. 69, 1877.

S. Candida Sacc, Mich., vol. 1, p. 91, 1877.

S. candidula Bain., Sacc. Syll. Fung., vol. 4, p. 73, 1886.

A. fimetarius Peck, New York St. Mus. Bot. Rept., 42, p. 128, 1889.

A. dubiosus Lind., Rabh. Krypt. Fl., vol. 8, p. 151, 1907.

A. niveocandidus Lind., l.c., p. 151, 1907.

A. okazakii Okazaki, Centralb. Bakt., II, vol. 19, p. 481, 1907.

S. alba (Wilhelm) Sacc., Syll. Fung., vol. 22, p. 1260, 1913.

S. szurakiana Moesz. G., Bot. Kozlem., vol. 19, p. 59, 1921.

Heads white, persistently so or turning cream-coloured in age, radiate, globose, 100–250 μ. diameter. Stalks smooth, colourless, 0.5-2 mm × 8–12 μ, walls 1.5-2 μ thick. Vesicles globose, 25–50 μ diameter, fertile over whole surface. Sterigmata in 2 series, primary 15–25 μ × 3.5-4 μ., secondary 8–10 μ × 2.5 μ, usually 5 per primary, tapering directly to apex without marked apical tube. Conidia at first elliptical, later globose, smooth, colourless, 2.8-3.5 μ, normally 3 μ. diameter Perithecia or sclerotia not observed.

Czapek colony spreading thin velutinous-mealy, pure white or with tinge of yellow in age. Reverse uncoloured or cream.

Habitat Macaroni, split peas, wheat. (3 isolants.)

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18. A. niger Van Tieghem Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., V, vol. 8, p. 240, 1867.

Ustilago phoenicis Corda, Icon. Fung., IV, p. 9, 1840.

A. phaeocephalus Dur. and Mont., Fl. Alg., p. 342, 1849.

A. nanus Mont., Syll. Gen. Spec. Crypt., p. 300, 1856.

S. antacustica Cramer, Vrtljschr. Naturf. Gesell., vol. 4, p. 325, 1859.

A. fuliginosus Peck, Bul. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., vol. 1, p. 69, 1874.

S.nigra van Tieg., Bul. Soc. Bot. France, vol. 24, p. 102, 1877.

S. carbonaria Bain., ibid., vol. 27, p. 27, 1880.

A. subfuscus Johan-Olsen, Meddel. Naturh. Kristiania, 1885.

A. violaceo-fuscus Gasp., Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat. Pisa, Mem. 8, fasc. 2, p. 326, 1887.

A. ustilago Beck, Itin. Princip. S. Coburgi., vol. 2, p. 148, 1888.

S. phoenicis (Corda) Pat. and Delacr., Bul. Soc. Myc. France, vol. 7, p. 119, 1891.

A. ficuum (Reich.) Henn., Hedwigia, vol. 34, p. 86, 1895.

S. pulverulenta McAlp., Agr. Gaz. N.S. Wales, vol 7, p. 302, 1897.

S. castanea Pattsn., Bul. Torr. Bot. Club, vol. 27, p. 284, 1900.

A. luchuensis Inui, Jour. Col. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo, vol. 15, p. 409, 1901.

A. perniciostus Inui, l.c., p. 473, 1901.

S. pseudonigra Cost, and Lucet, Bul. Soc. Myc. France, vol. 19, p. 33, 1903.

A. stryehni Liandau, Hedwigia, vol. 43, p. 306, 1904.

A. japonicus Saito, Bot. Mag. Tokyo, vol. 20, p. 61, 1906.

S. luteo-nigra Lutz, Bul. Soc. Bot. France, vol. 53, p. L, 1906.

A. batatae Saito, Centralb. Bakt., II, Vol. 18, p. 34, 1907.

A. welwitschiae (Bres.) Henn., ex Welmer, Centralb. Bakt., II, vol. 18, p. 394, 1907.

S. insueta Bain., Bul. Soc. Myc. France, vol. 24, p. 85, 1908.

S. dipus Ferd. and Winge, Bot. Tids., vol. 30, p. 220, 1910.

Aspergillopsis nigra (Van Tieg.) Speg., An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, III, vol. 13, p. 435, 1911.

Aspergillopsis pulchella Speg., l.c., p. 436, 1911.

A. atropurpureus A. Zimm., Centralb. Bakt., II, vol. 8, p. 218, 1912.

A. fuscus Schiem., Ztschr. Ind. Abst. Vererb., vol. 8, p. 1, 1912.

A. cinnamomeus Schiem., l.c., p. 1, 1912.

A. awamori Usami, Myk. Zbl., vol. 4, p. 194, 1914.

A. pulverulentus (McAlp.) Thom, Jour. Agr. Res., vol. 7, p. 10, 1916.

A. phoenicis (Corda) Thom, l.c., p. 11, 1916.

A. carbonarius (Bain.) Thorn, l.c., p. 12, 1916.

A. schiemanni (Schiem.) Thom, l.c., p. 13, 1916.

A. fumaricus Wehmer, Ber. Deut. Chem, Ges., vol. 51, p. 1663, 1918.

A. insuetus (Bain.) Th. and Ch., The Asperg., p. 153, 1926.

A. luteo-niger (Lutz) Th. and Ch., l.c., p. 166, 1926.

A. pulchellus (Speg.) Th. and Ch., l.c., p. 181, 1926.

A. minutus Abbot, Iowa, St. Coll. Jour. Sci., vol. 1, 1927.

Heads black, sometimes with brown or purple shade, radiate, globose, compact or with conidial chains adhering in sections, showing cruciform or stellate outline viewed from above, 150–750 μ. diameter. Stalks smooth, colourless or tinted brown towards apex, very variable in size, from 200 μ to several mm. × 10–30 μ, with walls 1.5-3 μ thick, often showing irregular inner outline. Vesicles globose, generally tinted brown, thick walled, 30–70 μ. diameter, fertile over whole surface. Sterigmata usually coloured brown, normally in 2 series, exceptionally in 1 series, primary usually 15–24 μ × 4–4.5 μ, or up to 45 μ × 5 μ, exceptionally, especially in heads showing 1 series, 7–10 μ × 3 μ, secondary 6–8 μ × 2.5-3 μ, usually 5 per primary, tapering to short apical tube. Conidia dark, rough, exceptionally almost or quite smooth, sometimes spinulose or verrucose, but usually showing tubercles of brown colouring matter arranged more or less in patterns on outer wall or between outer

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and inner wall, in the great majority of strains regularly globose, 3.5-4 μ diameter, exceptionally somewhat elliptical up to 6 μ in long axis. Sclerotia present in some strains, globose, 500–600 μ diameter, at first white, later pale yellow. Perithecia not observed.

Czapek colony usually very vigorous, spreading, more or less floccose, at first white, soon becoming covered with concentric rings of dark-brown, black, or dark purple fruiting heads which finally coalesce into an almost solid crust, aerial hyphae often tinged canary-yellow. Reverse colourless to bright yellow, greenish-yellow or brown.

Habitat: Annatto seed, tent calico, bulbs, germinating seeds, soils, pelts, stored onions, macaroni, rolled oats, oatmeal, malt, wheat-meal, rice, exposed plates in library, workrooms, clothing stores, and hospital. (23 isolants.)

A. nanus Mont., A. luchuensis Inui, A. perniciosus Inui and A. japonicus Saito have here been listed as synonyms of A. niger van. Tieg., since, in agreement with Thorn and Church (The Asperg., p. 171, 1920), the writer does not consider the absence of secondary sterigmata alone as a sufficiently constant character to warrant separation. Several New Zealand strains of A. niger show heads with either 1 or 2 series of sterigmata in the same culture, and one strain, otherwise indistinguishable from type, has sterigmata persistently in a single series. To quote Thorn and Church (l.c.) “we appear to be dealing with a cosmopolitan, almost omnivorous group of races or species which show great variability with probably many natural or induced variations.”