N.Z. Foraminifera: Key Species in Stratigraphy—No. 3.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 1939; received by the Editor, May 30, 1939; issued separately, December, 1939.]
The present number is concerned with validating a large number of specific and generic names which have been in manuscript use here for new forms. Owing to the exigencies of space, the descriptions are necessarily brief and formal and usually omit details visible from figures; discussions of affinities and ranges are reserved for elsewhere. To save further space, the contraction “CCL, 8, 4,” is used for such a reference as Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory, vol. 8, pt. 4; localities mentioned more than once are referred to in the text by numbers with explanatory list at the end; and size is given solely by the largest dimension, the others being mostly computable from the figures.
Spiroplectammina steinekei n.sp. (Plate 24, figs. 1, 2.)
Fan-shaped, wide, with much cement. A basally jutting coil of 3–4 chambers; then about 10 pairs, slightly curved down at sides, much longer than high. Sutures limbate, depressions between flat, later concave; sides sharply keeled with a few irregular downward spines at chamber ends. Aperture small. Micro form wider with stronger sculpture, chambers of more regular height, small initial coil. Size, 1.2 mm.
Type from 5301. Index of Lower Rakauroa and Whangai.
Spiroplectammina piripaua n.sp. (Plate 24, figs. 3, 4, 6.)
Smooth, somewhat shining, mostly cement. Shape a keeled cone, width increasing at about 50°, thickness 45°. A prominent coil of 3–4 chambers; then about 5 pairs, 4 times long as high, sloping at 30°. Keel acute to last chamber. Sutures darker, not limbate. Aperture long, narrow. Micro form with sharp apex and about 8 pairs chambers. Size 1.0 mm.
Type from 5664. Index of Piripauan. Differs in sculpture, texture, end-shape, and aperture from steinekei.
Vulvulina jablonskii n.sp. (Plate 24, figs. 7, 8, 13.)
Like pennatula and italica as figured by Cushman (CCL, 8, 4, pl. 10; 1932); with wide, low uniserial chambers and deep grooves between as in italica, but even narrower in both micro and macro form; with a spine at ends of chambers like pacifica. The boomerang-shaped terminal chambers, with strong angle and tiny aperture resemble only the Recent arenacea (Bagg), topotypes of which show blunt keel and no spines and are certainly not Ammospirata as Cushman suggested (CCL, 9, 2, p. 32; 1933). Size, 3 mm.
Type from 1193, Poverty Bay (Patutahi S.D., Mangatoetoe Stream); basal Tutamoe. Index of this and part of Ihungia (i.e. Middle Miocene). Differs in aperture and end-shape from all our other species.
A somewhat related form, Vulvulina büningi n.sp. (Plate 24, figs. 9, 10), from the Whangai of Hawke's Bay, is of interest as being the only Cretaceous Vulvulina known here (or elsewhere?). It differs from jablonskii in practically smooth surface (coarse, close grains in much cement), feeble spines, much greater thickness (end face flatly convex) and sub-horizontal anterior outline, without angle at middle, but with small, oval aperture; size 1.4 mm.
Siphotextularia acutangula n.sp. (Plate 24, figs. 14, 16.)
Test of fine cement, mo visible grains; six pairs of chambers, flatly convex, rapidly increasing in height and thickness. Lower half with sharply keeled sides; later chambers increasingly flatly rounded on top. Sutures shallow, but well marked anteriorly. Aperture central, elongate, curved, oval, above base of chamber and with a lip all round. Differs from other New Zealand species in sharp early carina. Size, 1.7 mm.
Type from 5459, Dannevirke area (Mangaotoro S.D., 178 chs, at 74° From Trig U). Index of Upper Bortonian, Wanstead facies.
Siphotextularia wanganuia n.sp.
Differs from S. wairoana Finlay, 1939 (Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 68, pt. 4, p. 511, pl. 68, figs. 2 a, b) only in larger and longer test with more chambers (about 8 pairs) and less rhomboid habit, front flattish instead of deeply hollowed, sides slightly convex instead of flat. Size, 0.9 mm.
Type from 5216, Mid-Castlecliff beds, Wanganui. Apparently limited to this Upper Pliocene horizon.
Haeuslerella hectori n.sp. (Plate 24, figs. 11, 12, 20.)
As large as or larger than pukeuriensis Parr, 1935 (Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 65, pt. 2, p. 83, pl. 19, figs. 7 a, b), but never reaching a uniserial or even staggered stage. In this it is like “Bulimina” textulariformis Stache and arcuata Stache (which are synonyms) from the Mid-Oligocene Whaingaroan (Novara Pal., vol. 1, pp. 268- 269, pl. 24, figs. 17–18; 1864), but is almost twice as large, somewhat stouter, and has deeper sutures. It has same tendency to incorporate elongate grains in a particular direction (lost in later species) and would be regarded as a sub-species were it not a convenient marker for beds of “Lower Hutchinsonian” age, before pukeuriensis develops in true Hutchinsonian and Awamoan. Size, 2.7 mm.
Type from 5385, All Day Bay (greensands with Pachymagas, above basal conglomerate, below Waiparia zone).
Pliocene end point of lineage is reached with Haeuslerella parri n.sp. (pl. 24, fig. 5); more compressed than any of the others, with sides mere strongly angled (over most of length), still large, with biserial stage occupying three-quarters or more of length, and a few staggered uniserial chambers, sutures weak. Type from 4337, Hawke's Bay (Eskdale, Tutira, 2 m. from Makomako turn-off); size 1.4 mm. Range Opoitian-Nukumaruan; in lower part with Bigenerina pliocenica, which differs in rougher texture, proportion of biserial part and non-staggered chambers.
Bigenerina pliocenica n.sp. (Plate 24, fig. 15.)
Coarsely arenaceous, little cement, very rough. Biserial part roundly compressed with blunt-angled keel and 5–6 chamber pairs. Uniserial chambers sudden, cylindrical, 3 to 4. Aperture small, central, with ragged edges. Sutures obscure on early half, deepening later. Size, 1.3 mm.
Type from 2058, Poverty Bay (Opoiti S.D., Makaretu River, 30 chs. E. Trig. R4), where more and better specimens were found after the paratype (G.S. 706, Clyde; Waitotaran) had been figured. Index of Opoitian and Waitotaran. Related to B. speciosa Yabe and Asano, 1937 (Sci. Rep. Tohoku Imp. Univ., Ser. 2, vol. 19, no. 1, p. 97) from West Javan Miocene, but half as large, less compressed, feebler sutures. Common in Westland Upper “Blue Bottom” (5711).
Gaudryina whangaia n.sp. (Plate 25, figs. 29–31.)
Small, elongate, slender, whitish, of fine sandgrains in excess cement, surface smoothed. Triserial part a third or more of length, sides a little concave, angles at first sharp, rapidly blunted by globose chambers (5 distinct); biserial part twisted, chambers 4–5 pairs (last flatly globose), little increasing, sutures subhorizontal, shallow but distinct, end face at about 40° with very small round aperture at base. Size, 1.2 mm.
Type from 5374. Index of this horizon, probably Upper Piripauan. Common in Whangai and mid-Rakauroa; always present in two forms, smaller (megalo) only half size or less, with fewer triserial chambers and blunter apex, otherwise same as larger.
Gaudryina healyi n.sp. (Plate 25, figs. 34, 35.)
Coarsely arenaceous, much cement, but rough surface. Triserial part about one-third of length, sides faintly concave, angles a little blunted. Biserial chambers about 3 pairs, convex, with posterior blunt angle, anteriorly flatly rounded and smoother, sutures furrowed but not distinct. Terminal face sloping at 45°, the basal elongateoval aperture one third as wide and half as high, with surrounding blunt angulation. Size, 1.4 mm.
Type from 5664, Piripauan. Common here and in equivalent Lower Rakauroa of Poverty Bay (3249, 3270, 3242, etc.). Doubtfully present in Hawke's Bay, or in Whangai and Upper Piripauan anywhere. Differs from European rugosa d'Orb. in deep sutures and subangled chambers.
Gaudryina reliqua n.sp. (Plate 25, figs. 32, 33.)
Same general type as healyi, but smaller, much more quadrate, with flatter sides, shallow sutures, and shorter chambers, much flattened anteriorly; terminal face much shorter, at angle of 30°; aperture short, narrow. Size, 1 mm.
Type from 5338; lowest Bortonian (as in mid-Waipara section— 5671, 5672; below Lower Bortonian of Hampden section). Only seen here, from lowest Te Hua marls of Whangara, and from base of Amuri limestone at Kaikoura Peninsula. Blunter angles than the related Cuban Eocene G. rutteni Cush. and Berm., 1936 (CCL, 12, 3, p. 56, pl. 10, figs. 15, 16) which Cushman (CCL, Special Pub. No. 7, p. 90; 1937) puts in Pseudogaudryina; they seem less like atlantica Bailey than rugosa d'Orb.
Pseudogaudryina anachrons n.sp. (Plate 25, figs. 36, 37.)
Very similar to reussi Stache, differing only in rougher surface (sandpaper texture instead of smoothed off) and prominent angles, more pinched into ridges and especially continued over whole shell; reussi his last 2–3 chambers globose and rounded and normally Gaudryine; anachrons has bi-angled terminal chamber and a Verneuiline shape; size, 2.5 mm.
Type from 5683, Weka Pass stone, mid-Waipara; Duntroonian. This is the form I recorded as reussi (Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 69, pt. 1, p. 93; 1939) from the basal “Grey Marls.” G. reussi ends with Whaingaroan, this marks the Duntroonian (though absent in Waitaki area) and basal zone of overlying “Grey Marls” (Weka Pass, Lower Motunau and East Grey). Also in lowest “Blue Bottom,” just above Cobden limestone (5713). Triangular form recalls Bortonian proreussi Finlay, which has much sharper angles, fine texture, longer lower aperture.
Migros n.gen. (Fam. Verneulinidae).
Genotype: Gaudryina medwayeneis Parr (as here figured and interpreted).
Identical with Gaudryina in all respects, except that aperture has entirely migrated into terminal face, but remains connected with base of last chamber by narrow groove-like channel, formed by incomplete closing in of sides. This is already evident in quite young shells, which even in triserial stage show a small, high, rounded aperture unlike true Gaudryina. A uniserial stage is approached, but never quite attained. This is to Gaudryina what Haeuslerella (especially the spcies hectori) is to Textularia.
Migros medwayensis (Parr). (Plate 25, figs. 38–40.)
1935. Gaudryina medwayensis Parr; Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 65, pt. 2, p. 83, pl. 20, figs. 2 a—c.
Parr described this from the South Island Medway River as an Awamoan form closely related to reussi Stache. But Bolivinita and Massilina subaequalis (Parr) demonstrate a Taranakian age (probably Tongaporutuan), while the reussi line disappeared in the Oligocene and is not related. Parr's poorly preserved type shows (more than does his figure) this apertural migration, the opening and groove being filled with matrix. Better specimens are here figured from G.S. 1342, where it is common; size 1.8 mm. It has not yet occurred below this Tutamoe horizon, but ranges up to Lower Taranakian (3140, etc.). Identification with Parr's species is practically certain but if any future discrepancy should occur the genotype of Migros is to be taken as the Poverty Bay form here figured. The Recent flintii Cush. (see Cushman, CCL, Special Pub. No. 7, pl. 10, f. 18–20) is congeneric and probably also tenuis Cush.
Eggerella decepta n.sp. (Plate 25, figs. 24, 25.)
Coarse grained with little cement, surface rough, chambers globular, flattened at 45° on top, rapidly increasing, 4 on each bluntly rounded angle, apex flatly rounded, early chambers obscure, all appearing triserial, sutures well marked only on last coil, strongly marked on end face, aperture at their intersection, small, rounded. Size, 0.8 mm.
Type from 5338; Lowest Bortonian. Seems an index species of this age, but common only at type locality; when crushed easily mistaken for distorted Haplophragmoides. No evidence observed for more than triserial chambering; referred to Eggerella simply because unlike any described Verneuilina and differing only in more detached chambers from such Eocene forms as Eggerella cushmani (W. and A.) and especially palmerae (Cole).
Dorothia biformis n.sp. (Plate 25, figs. 26–28.)
Fine sand grains, rather distantly set in much cement; surface quite smooth. Micro form large, conic, tapering to point; chambers obscure (sutures faint), 3 biserial pairs forming three-quarters of length, last chamber very wide, with narrow, curved, terminal face carrying long linear aperture at base. Megalo form sub-cylindrical, much less tapering, with blunt apex and better denned, fewer chambers, aperture much shorter. Size, 1.7 mm. (megalo), 1 mm. (micro).
Type from 5664. Common in Piripauan and Lower Rakauroa; presence in Whangai uncertain. Somewhat like Oligocene eurystoma variety of karreri (Stache) (which is indistinguishable in practice from the Hutchinsonian-Awamoan minima Karrer), but not near any species figured by Cushman (CCL, Special Pub. No. 8, 1937).
Dorothia agrestis n.sp. (Plate 25, figs. 41, 42.)
Coarsely irregular grains with little cement; surface very rough. Triserial chambers obscure, about a third of length, then about 4 biserial. Sutures merely indicated; terminal face at angle of 45°, with large rounded aperture at base. Size, 1.2 mm.
Type from 5540, Lower Bortonian; also at Waihao Downs (G.S. 1988). Index of this horizon; similar rough forms in Upper Bortonian being always Plectina or Arenodosaria.
Plectina quennelli n.sp. (Plate 24, figs. 17–19.)
Fine sand grains, closely set in much cement, surface smooth; a little tapering; greatest width at second last chamber. Triserial part half length (sutures weak), two biserial and a final globose chamber with small, round latero-terminal aperture (sutures barely distinct). Size, 1.1 mm.
Type from 5339, Dannevirke area (Porangahau S.D., 202 chs. at 80° from Trig. U). Index of Upper Bortonian, Wanstead facies. Near P. torrei Cush. and Berm., 1936 (CCL, 12, 3, p. 57, pl. 10, figs. 12–14), but larger, with early chambers less swollen and weaker sutures. In the Upper Bortonian (5179B, Hampden; 1014, Poverty Bay) is Plectina agrestior n.sp., a form with rough surface, little cement, wide shell, few and inflated chambers, deep sutures and small circular aperture (type from 5606, Chalk Marl, Mount Highfield). Size, 1.3 mm.); it is a replica of Dorothia agrestis Finlay, except for aperture.
Genus Matanzia Palmer, 1936.
This seems available for forms externally like Dorothia, internally with partitions like Textulariella. Cushman (CCL, Special Pub. No. 8, p. 102; 1937) mentions only the Cuban Oligocene genotype, bermudezi Palmer, but two of the species he refers to Textulariella,
miocenica Cush. (l.c., p. 63) and magdalidiformis (Sehwag.) (l.c., p. 66) seem referable here—compare Cushman's figures pl. 7, f. 10, and pl. 14, F. 17. These stand out from the concave topped Textulariella group from which Matanzia is separable exactly as Dorothia is from Marssonella. Whether the partitions reach the centre of the test is probably variable; in the acompanying Cubanina some of them do.
Matanzia simulans n.sp. (Plate 25, figs. 21–23.)
Externally very like Dorothia biformis Finlay, same duality of shape, though micro form less elongate. Sutures deeper and much clearer. Chambers shorter, more globose, flattened on top and with dorso-lateral bevelling. Aperture smaller. Interior structure usually distinct, especially on moistening. Size, 1.3 mm. (micro), 1 mm. (megalo).
Type from 5374. Rather common in Whangai beds; also in mid-Rakauroa (3250A) of Poverty Bay, but not seen, in Tapuwaeroa or Piripauan. Undoubtedly congeneric with miocenica Cush., but has fewer chambers and deeper sutures. This is the first Cretaceous species, and may be derived from Hagenowella. Another species is Matanzia mahoenuia n.sp. (type from 5710, Lower Mahoenui, 2 m. from Aria.); quite close to the genotype, but much smaller (max. size 1.1 mm. instead of 1.8 mm.), stouter, with sloping terminal face and very narrow vertically compressed aperture; much resembling Dorothia hayi (Karrer) in general habit.
Robulus dorothiae n.sp. (Plate 27, figs. 107, 108.)
Small, flattened, with sharp carina and small flange, about 12 chambers per coil, those of last flatly bevelled at about 30°, those of previous coil flat, early coils obscured by shallow umbonal pit surrounded by faint thickening. Sutures slightly limbate, directed back at 30°. Aperture normal with strongly projecting small lips. Size, 0.8 mm.
Type from 5390, Poverty Bay (Rotokautuku Creek); Middle Ihungian, i.e. true Hutchinsonian. Not uncommon in equivalent beds of the Mahoenui and South Island “Blue Bottom.” One of our most characteristic species of Robulus in its central hollowed flattening and lateral bevel.
Genera Palmula, Frondicularia and “Vaginulina.”
The Cretaceous Lagenidae here described so much resemble well-known species that to save space they are described by comparison. In spite of the many European names given to like forms, these species have short ranges in New Zealand and disagree with the clear figures given by Cushman, so are best treated as distinct.
Palmula rakauroana n.sp. (Plate 26, figs. 51, 52.)
New Zealand representative of the European Uppermost Cretaceous and American Navarro reticulata Reuss, but narrowly rhombic in form (consistent in all specimens seen), base not spreading and chambers not extending back. Initial Flabelline part much reduced, hardly visible; proloculum relatively enormous with 5–7 heavy ribs; this simulates Frondicularia, but ornament and chambering identical with Palmula reticulata; a microspheric specimen would probably show initial coiling better. Size, 3.0 mm.
Type from 3270, Poverty Bay; also in 3242 and 3249, similar beds nearby. Also in 5664, type Piripauan, indicating, with many other species, correlation of these horizons.
Palmula thalmanni n.sp. (Plate 26, figs. 53, 54.)
Apparently quite close to the Trinidad Upper Cretaceous semi-reticulata Cush. and Jarv., 1928 (CCL, 4, 4, p. 98, pl. 13, fig. 4). Same reticulate network, less regular than in reticulata, but nothing like the strong pits and raised ridges of the Trinidad form; only the Flabelline part has strong, irregular, anastomosing ridges; rest of surface has a rather finely honeycombed effect, the tiny elongate (oblong or polygonal) chamberlets separated by hairlike ridging, hardly raised above surface. At apices of successive chambers is a conspicuous formation of multiple loops, as in the Trinidad jarvisi Cush., which is otherwise quite different. Size, 1 mm.
Type from 5301, probably Whangai. Several examples found here; seen elsewhere only in equivalent beds from Whangara uplift, Poverty Bay.
Palmula rugosa (d'Orb.). (Plate 26, fig. 57.)
Illustrated specimen is from 3249, Poverty Bay, an Upper Piripauan (Campanian?) horizon; a single example is also known from 5300A, Dannevirke area. All specimens fragmentary with intrasutural spaces obscured by matrix, but the characteristic raised papillae seem definitely visible.
Palmula bivium n.sp. (Plate 26, fig. 59.)
1926. Cristellaria cassis F. and M. sp. Flabelline variety. Chapman, N.Z. G.S. Pal. Bull. 11, p. 59, pl. 12, f. 9; non F. and M.
Chapman thus figured from G.S. 595, Moeraki Peninsula (i.e., Upper part of Hampden section) an index Upper Bortonian form; it occurs often in this area, while P. marshalli (Chap.) (l.c., p. 66, pl. 13, figs. 6, 7) seems limited to a narrow zone in the Hampden Upper Bortonian. P. bivium has very prominent coiled stage with about 6 chambers and heavily noduled raised sutures, 6–7 high-arched uniserial chambers also with limbate but less nodular sutures, sides sharply carinate (except truncate end faces) with broad jagged flange round coil; size 2.8 mm. A Tahuian descendant, Palmula bensoni n.sp. (type from 5068, Burnside Marl) differs only in thick shell with sides truncate, much feebler coil with only small flange and more acutely angled later chambers; size, 2.8 mm. P. marshalli is a large spreading shell of about 12 uniserial chambers and a small globular coiled part, without sculpture except obsolete ribs (8-9) on first few chambers, stronger on swollen proloculum, sides rounded, coil with a sharp medial narrow keel. It, too, has a descendant, Palmula taranakia n.sp. (type from 1242, Awakino R.; Whaingaroan), which is thinner and much smaller, the 12 chambers consequently narrower, more arched, sides a little carinate with often some irregular basal spines, sculpture quite obsolete except for a few wrinkles on the strongly spiked proloculum; size, 3 mm.; not common, but fragments in both Whaingaroa and Mahoenui beds, also South Island “Blue Bottom.”
Frondicularia teuria n.sp. (Plate 26, figs. 60, 61.)
New Zealand representative of such types as dimidia Bagg, arkadelphiana Cush., and especially frankei Cush. Differs from all these in having ribs irregularly continuous over whole surface, overriding obscure chambers and sutures. Chambers high as in dimidia; proloculum with about 6 heavy costae continuing into finer adult ribbing; ribs diverging and running out towards sides throughout shell, new ones intercalated by bifurcation; sides almost parallel, angle very slight. Size, 1.7 mm.
Type from 5301; also from several localities in the Te Uri Cretaceous section, and two fragments from the Poverty Bay mid-Rakauroa, 3250A—these are all Whangai.
Frondicularia steinekei n.sp. (Plate 26, fig. 62.)
Differs from teuria only in larger and thicker shell, with distinct medial blunt subangulation instead of flat surface, and with ribs running evenly over whole surface without bifurcating and directed slightly inwards towards centre, instead of out to sides. It is also from an older horizon. Size, 2.5 mm.
Type from 3270, Poverty Bay. Not yet seen elsewhere.
Frondicularia mucronata Reuss. (Plate 26, fig. 58.)
The specimen here figured is from 3250A, Poverty Bay mid-Rakauroa; a few other broken examples have been found (3249, 5301) all at about this horizon. The shell is fairly thick, with truncate sides and slightly raised sutures. From the little material available there seems no way of separation from mucronata as figured by Cushman, 1936 (CCL, 12, 1, p. 15, pl. 3, figs. 16, 17), but better specimens may show differences, for the American material is all from the much lower Austin and Taylor.
Genus Planularia Defrance, 1824.
The monotype of this genus, Nautilus auris Fichtel and Moll, has been discussed by Cushman; his figure and description (CCL, 7, 3, p. 71, pl. 9, fig. 16; 1931) are of a shell quite unlike the conventional interpretation of Planularia—for such spreading Lenticuline forms as advena C. and J. figured as example by Cushman (Illustrated Key, pl. 20, fig. 7)—but it is quite like such a Recent form as Vaginulina patens Brady and many Cretaceous forms conventionally referred to Vaginulina (see, for example, such forms as intumescens Reuss, etc., figured by Cushman and Alexander, 1930; CCL, 6, 1, pls. 1 and 2). These are not in the least like Nautilus legumen L., the Recent type of Vaginulina; this lineage does, however, extend back to the Cretaceous in such forms as taylorana Cushman (l.c., 14, 2, pl. 5, fig. 19), whose generic separation from such other forms as “Marginulina” silicula (Plummer) (l.c., 13, 4, pl. 14, figs. 19–22) seems artificial. I would prefer to break up these artificial groupings and associate the Cretaceous kochii-simondsi group with Planularia auris. Marie has recently (Bull. Soc. Geol. de France, ser. 5, vol. 8, nos. 1–2, p. 93; 1938) discussed and figured a number of French Cretaceous species of this group, using the genus name Citharina d'Orb., typified by Vaginulina striatula Roemer. This is undoubtedly
a correct usage of d'Orbigny's name, which, however, did not appear till 1839, and I incline to agree with Galloway (Manual, p. 240; 1933) in merging it with the earlier Planularia.
Planularia whangaia n.sp. (Plate 26, figs. 63–65.)
New Zealand representative of the American Navarro simondsi Carsey, but differing considerably in shape, tapering much less posteriorly; chambers much more numerous and very narrow, suture lines more raised above surface than transverse ribbing, which is very fine, dense and regular, with no sign of the basal stronger costae of simondsi or peripheral tricarination. There is considerably more resemblance to a form from the Californian Moreno Shale, figured as cf. simondsi by Cushman and Campbell (CCL, 11, 3, pl. 11, fig. 7), but an actual specimen shows different outline and striation. Size, 1.2 mm.
Type from 5665, Mid-Waipara, Upper Piripauan; also from East Grey (5329), Dannevirke area (5301), Hawke's Bay (Te Uri section), and Poverty Bay (3249, 3250A). Typical of Whangai, but probably extends lower.
Planularia rakauroana n.sp. (Plate 26, figs. 66, 67.)
Similar in general style to whangaia, but sheath-shaped; larger and much more elongate, with subparallel sides over most of shell, which is thickened medially and has convex instead of flat surface; sutures thicker, wider than chambers instead of narrower as in whangaia. In general details very similar to suturalis Cush., 1937 (CCL, 13, 4, p. 102, pl. 15, figs. 5–7) of Upper Taylor; costae similarly developed only on sutures, but even more parallel sides and narrower, more numerous chambers. Size (restored), 2.3 mm.
Type from 3250A, mid-Rakauroa. Also from equivalent Waipara greensands (5666) and Lower Rakauroa of Poverty Bay (3242, 3249, 3270).
Marginulinopsis marshalli n.sp. (Plate 26, figs. 47, 48.)
Initial coiled part obscure, of about 4 lightly convex chambers with linear sutures hardly raised; about 6 later chambers separated by heavily limbate sutures much thicker on medial half of surface; no other ornament; all sides except terminal face sharp with narrow flange all round hardly interrupted by coiled portion. Size, 1.2 mm.
Type from 5540. Index of Lower Bortonian. Replaced by noduled forms in higher beds (hochstetteri) and in still lower beds (waiparaensis). Present in part of Poverty Bay Te Hua beds (4005, Waitangi Stream), and in East Grey Stream (5328, mudstone under Upper Bortonian sands below Amuri limestone).
Marginulinopsis waiparaensis n.sp. (Plate 26, figs. 45, 46.)
Similar to marshalli in size and convexity, but with nodular sculpture; coil more prominent and projecting, heavily ribbed in megalo form; chambers up to 9, with narrower sutural ridges, not thickened medially, broken up into 6–7 nodules, a second carina on each side of peripheral one, the narrow flanges irregularly serrate. Size, 1.8 mm.
Type from 5672, lower part of sandy marl below Amuri chalk marl, mid-Waipara; index of lowest Bortonian, replaced in upper part of same sandy marl (5673, 5675) by marshalli, and in uppermost
part (5675) by hochstetteri. Also from Dannevirke area (5338) with Gaudryina reliqua and in identical fauna from base of Amuri limestone at Kaikoura. M. hochstetteri, here illustrated from Hampden Upper Bortonian (5179B) (Plate C, figs. 49, 50), is a much larger, more spinous and compressed form with far more chambers; size over 3 mm.; originally described from the Whaingaroan, its upper limit.
Similar forms are widespread in Middle and Lower Eocene; compare asperuliformis Nuttall from Mexico and French Morocco, and the forms of fragaria Gumbel (e.g. texasensis C. and A., etc., from Californian Capay).
Marginulina allani n.sp. (Plate 26, figs. 55, 56.)
Stout cylindrical, hardly tapering initially, blunt, about 3 slightly curved chambers (microspheric initially carinate), followed by 5 rectilinear, little increasing, sutures at first flush, gradually deepening whole surface covered by vertical low ribs, own width or less apart 16–20 each side, continuous across sutures in a slightly sloping direction, terminal face becoming smooth, with large circular spout aperture (typically serrate) a little to one side. Size, 2 mm.
Type from 5655; Waitakian. Belongs to the group of costatus Batsch, but is not at all like Cushman's figures of topotypes (CCL, 7, 3, pl. 8, figs. 4, 5); this line seems to begin here in the Whaingaroan.
Sigmoidella bortonica n.sp. (Plate 25, figs. 43, 44.)
Close to the Recent elegantissima (P. and J.), but outline more heart-shaped. Instead of “almost circular excepting the slightly acute apertural end” (as Cushman and Ozawa state for elegantissima), it is more convex in lower half of outline, upper half having sides flat or faintly concave, producing a sharp projecting apex. Basal margin distinctly hollow medially; outer chambers flatly hollowed each side, margins sharp; same number of chambers visible but differently disposed. Size, 1.1 mm.
Type from 5540. Though never common it occurs at several Lower Bortonian localities, and seems to be an index species; the genus is apparently absent in higher beds, until the Hutchinsonian of Clifden, whence elegantissima and kagaensis have been reported by Parr and Collins, 1937 (Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. 50, N.S., pt. 1, p. 206). The genus is not known from the Cretaceous, but appears in the Midway.
Genus Aragonia n.gen. (Fam. Heterohelicidae).
Genotype: A., zelandica, n.sp.
Resembles Bolivinoides in the tendency to thicken anteriorly, but with sharp carina at least on early half, and feebler ornament of quite different type; habit resembling Textularia rather than Bolivina. Aperture small, horizontal, rounded, without tooth.
I suggest the following as congeneric: Textularia aragonensis Nuttall, 1930 (Journ. Pal., vol. 4, no. 3, p. 280, pl. 23, fig. 6—Mexican Lower Eocene), Bolivina capdevilensis C. and B., 1937 (CCL, 13, 1, p. 14, pl. 1, figs. 49, 50—Cuban Eocene), Bolivina monilifera G. and M., 1931 (Journ. Pal., vol. 5, no. 4, p. 349, pl. 40, fig. 3—Mexican late Cretaceous ?), Textularia velascoensis Cushman, 1935 (CCL, 1, 1,
p. 18, pl. 3, fig. 1—Mexican Upper Cretaceous), and Bolivinoides trinitatensis C. and J., 1928 (CCL, 4, 4, p. 99, pl. 14, fig. 10—Trinidad Upper Cretaceous).
Aragonia zelandica n.sp. (Plate 27, figs. 68, 69.)
Closest to aragonensis Nuttall, with similar shape and encircling sharp keel (but also with narrow flange); same narrow sutural ridges but no fine raised projections between, aperture a narrow, raised slit along base as in velascoensis, prohibiting reference to Bolivina or Bolivinoides. Size, 0.3 mm. Type from 5319, Dannevirke area (Mangaotoro S.D., 111 chs. at 118° from Trig. U); index of Upper Bortonian, Wanstead facies.
Bolivinita pohana n.sp. (Plate 27, figs. 99, 100.)
Shell differing from quadrilatera Schwager in considerably greater compression and obliquity (compressed rhomboid in section, instead of squarish), blunter and unflanged keels, simple proloculum, presence of a few ridges at sutures on sides and much smaller aperture, occupying half of terminal face instead of nearly all. Size, 1.5 mm.
Type from 3137, Poverty Bay (Kaiti Beach section, 100 ft. above Ammodiscus bed); horizon Lower Poha, i.e., Tongaporutuan.
This quadrilatera lineage is the index marker for inception of Taranakian in New Zealand; the present species is commonest and longest ranging, coming in suddenly in abundance at base of Poha and lasting into Opoitian. The side ridges are too marked in the figure; they are feeble and mostly obsolete, the micro form especially being without sculpture. Characteristic of the Pliocene is Bolivinita pliozea n.sp., differing from pohana in having hardly any obliquity and very convex sides, with 3–5 sharp linear equidistant ridges between the main keels, which are much closer together and enclose a deeply hollowed medial smooth area. Type from 5214, Castlecliff beds; common throughout almost all Pliocene, but rare in Opoitian, where dominant form is still pohana, which lasts into Nukumaruan.
A related species in somewhat higher beds is Bolivinita compressa n.sp. (plate D, figs. 101, 102), type from 5018 (near top of type Poha section, Hangaroa Stream); it differs in wide extremely compressed shell (one side angle running almost up middle of front), absence of sculpture on sides, and slightly flanged keels; size, 1.4 mm.
Plectofrondicularia awamoana Finlay. (Plate 27, fig. 109.)
1939. P. awamoana Finlay, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 69, pt. 1, p. 100.
The All Day Bay holotype is here figured. Another multi-ribbed species is Plectofrondicularia fyfei n.sp. (plate 27, fig. 110), close to the Pliocene pellucida Finlay (l.c., p. 99, pl. 2, fig. 7), but larger and thicker, sharply carinate, with ribs raised and much coarser, angle of sutures much wider (over 90° instead of about 70°); size, 1 mm.; type from 5557A (Cheviot Grey Marl, 30 chs. S.W. of Trig. Sub Y; Tongaporutuan); probably an index of Taranakian age.
Zeauvigerina parri n.sp. (Plate 27, figs. 70, 71.)
Differs from Upper Bortonian zelandica Finlay, 1939 (Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 68, p. 541, pl. 69, fig. 4) only in primitive character; conspicuous tube aperture practically absent, only a short unrimmed neck appearing, surface but slightly roughened, dense pustules of zelandica being absent. Appears by itself in Lower Bortonian and remains present with zelandica in the Upper, the smooth and pustuled shells being easily separable. They were originally thought to be micro and megalo forms, but the constant finding of parri alone at many Lower Bortonian localities prohibits this; size, 0.27 mm.
Type from 5280, Dannevirke area (Motuotaraia S.D., 225 chs. at 273° from Trig. 21), with abundant Globorotalia crater Finlay.
Bolivina anastomosa n.sp. (Plate 27, figs. 75–77, 103, 111.)
Small, wide, at first thick and blunt, later compressed to sharp edge, chambers numerous, hidden by sculpture on first half, about 3 on each side visible on latter half, sutures limbate in patches which mark bast of previous apertures, early half with heavy sculpture of anastomosing ribs, a medial and 1–2 side ribs stronger, latter half without this sculpture, aperture tiny. Size, 0.5 mm.
Type from 5273. The species is ubiquitous and extremely abundant throughout our Middle Tertiary, appearing suddenly in the Kaiatan. It corresponds to the American byramensis Cushman and especially the European reticulata Hantken and Egyptian retiformis Cushman, but differs in sculpture details. In the basal Kaiatan of Bridge Point (5244, Green tuffs below Oamaru limestone) is Bolivina pontis n.sp., the first appearance of this line, differing from anastomosa in much more open network with no intermediate sculpture, the vertical lines mostly not reaching upper suture.
Anastomosa has not been seen above Awamoan; very similar forms common in Taranakian and Lower Pliocene are initially compressed, with a small sharp flange all round and small proloculum, thus lacking the blunt, swollen appearance. These are related to robusta Brady (which is swollen and has a spine), and may be called Bolivina affiliate n.sp., the type being from 5703, Upper Blue Bottom, Westland, a Taranakian horizon. The two species occur together in the Awamoan Middle Blue Bottom (5707).
Rectobolivina maoria n.sp. (Plate 27, figs. 82–84.)
A species with few uniserial chambers and a heavy surface ornament slightly recalling the Recent Indo-Pacific Siphogenerina dimorpha, but much more like the Australian Janjukian victoriensis Cush., 1936 (CCL, Special Pub. No. 6, p. 53, pl. 7, figs. 18 a, b); surface densely punctate, with translucent appearance, heavily wrinkled by sutural lobation; a medial sutural tongue more pronounced, with one on each side; chambers about 3 biserial pairs in first half, about 3 uniserial in last half, which tends to become cylindrical, sides bluntly rounded; apertural terminal without lip. Size, 0.53 mm.
Type from G.S. 1342. Common throughout our Miocene, entering suddenly in Hutchinsonian. The Australian form is less medially depressed more coarsely punctate, and lacks uniserial chambers.
A related form is Rectobolivina maoriella n.sp. (plate 27, figs. 78–81); this differs only in smaller size, much more slender form with later chambers staggered rather than regularly uniserial, with posterior surface more wrinkled by fine ridging, and with sutural lobation feeble. Frequently occurs with maoria, but is not the megalo form; more common in the South Island; apparently extends lower in Hutchinsonian, and doubtfully as high as Taranakian. Type from 5273; size, 0.4 mm. The end point of maoria is Opoitian (rare).
Virgulopsis n.gen. (Fam. Bulminidae).
Genotype: V. pustulata n.sp.
Test small, calcareous, finely perforate, strongly built and compact, compressed-cylindrical, biserial for nearly whole shell, but with small initial triserial part and blunt apex, heavily sculptured by irregular plicae and pustules, aperture large, Loxostomid. Microspheric form shows triserial character strongly and is theoretically like the Cretaceous Neobulimina—a Bulimina become biserial. The heavy ornament, wide aperture and type of growth are unlike Virgulina; perhaps nearest Sagrina, but this is much more compressed with extensive slit aperture and vertical linear sculpture.
Virgulopsis pustulata n.sp. (Plate 27, figs. 72–74, 104–106.)
Initial triserial part and lower three-quarters obscured by heavy surface sculpture of irregular elongate pustules and fine papillae, about 6 biserial chambers visible (last 2 much smoother), convex with deep sutures, sides faintly convex, thickness little less than width, aperture at angle of 45°, elongate, oval, widely open, slightly rimmed. Size, 0.37 mm.
Type from 5273; restricted to Lower Awamoan and Upper Hutchinsonian; in latter seen so far only from Takaka (5056) and Waiheke Island (5041). A related form with stronger triserial part has been observed in the Burdigalian of Le Coquillat.
Buliminella sauria n.sp. (Plate 27, figs. 87, 97, 98.)
Quite close to the American Cretaceous carseyi Plummer, as figured by Cushman and Parker, 1936 (CCL, 12, 1, p. 8, pl. 2, fig. 6); spire lower but acute, chambers bulging near spiral suture, giving an irregularly humped appearance. The 4 chambers per whorl are often reduced to 3 in last coil. Size, 0.26 mm.
Type from 5664; index of Piripauan.
Buliminella browni n.sp. (Plate 27, figs. 85, 86.)
Small, globose, with blunt apex and 4 chambers to a coil, sutures faint, chambers not inflated, aperture characteristic, an elongate linear slit, parallel to and just inside base of last chamber, with rest of face appearing like a very thick surrounding lip. Size, 0.34 mm.
Type from 5540; index of Lower Bortonian.
Elongobula n.gen. (Fam. Buliminidae).
Genotype: E. chattonensis n.sp.
Intermediate between Buliminella and Buliminoides, more elongate, but with much lower chambers than Buliminella, the loosely wound spiral but little embracing, apertural face not pyriform but suboval and subterminal, small in area, central aperture chink with few radiations—this is like Buliminoides, but no heavy ornament or true uniserial character.
Buliminella westraliensis Parr, 1938 (Journ. Roy. Soc. W.A., vol. 24, p. 80, pl. 2, figs. 3, 4) from the West Australian Upper Eocene belongs here, having the characteristic twisting, irregular chambers and aperture; other Australian species occur in the Janjukian of Table Cape.
Elongobula creta n.sp. (Plate 27, figs. 88–91.)
Subcylindrical, about 4 loosely and irregularly wound coils, with 3–5 chambers of varying size, appearance very uneven and distorted; any part may suddenly become more swollen; apex very blunt; sutures faint, last chamber reduced, narrowing to small apertural face set almost in plane of length, with tiny central opening in a hollow. Size, 0.55 mm.
Type from 5665, abundant; index of Upper Piripauan, also present in Poverty Bay mid-Rakauroa (3250A), and Motunau Chalk Marl (5716) above sulphur sands.
Elongobula chattonensis n.sp. (Plate 27, figs. 92–96.)
Like creta in irregular loose twist, with bulges in odd places, but much more elongate, strongly compressed in upper half, which narrows suddenly to sharply spined apex; sutures even, less marked and surface smoother, size and junctions of chambers extremely irregular, last chamber hardly contracted, apertural face a sudden oblique truncation with a larger more central opening than creta. Size, 0.52 mm.
Type from 5368, Chatton S.D. (55 chs. S.E. of Trig. F); Duntroonian. A close relative is Elongobula lawsi n.sp. from 5636 (Te Kauri Stream, near Hauturu, shell-marls of basal Te Kuiti above coal outcrop); this differs only in larger size and pronounced taper (being acicular instead of subcylindrical), absence of compression, and but little twisting. They seem to be northern and southern representatives in beds of the same age.
Ehrenbergina marwicki n.sp. (Plate 28, figs. 112–118.)
Very close to mestayeri Cushman, 1922 (see Cushman, 1927, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 70, art. 16, p. 4, pl. 1, fig. 9), but differing in less ridged ventral surface; in Recent species a sharp angle runs from each spine along chamber, in Miocene form chambers are almost flat and terminal face distinctly convex; aperture larger, spines weaker. Size, 1 mm.
Type from 5273; Lower Hutchinsonian to Awamoan. Mestayeri occurs down to Opoitian (2058, etc.); another poorly preserved distinct form is in Jedburgh Taranakian.
Ehrenbergina osbornei n.sp. (Plate 28, figs. 120, 123, 124.)
Wider than marwicki, with terminal face but little convex; ventral side with subobsolete medial ridge, smoothed away each side instead of excavate; chambers obscure and flatly convex; dorsally overlapping at third instead of quarter of width; spines few, distant, but strong spikes instead of minute points. Size, 0.6 mm.
Type from G.S. 1342; not present below Tutamoe. Also in Mokau (5197), Cheviot Grey Marl (5557), and Lower Poha (3079) (Tongaporutuan.
Figs. 1, 2.—Spin oplectammina steinekei n.sp. (2, young). × 30. Figs. 3, 4, 6.— Spiroplectammina puipaua n.sp. (4, type; 6, young). × 30. Fig. 5.—Haeuslerella parri n.sp. × 30. Fig. 7, 8. 13.—Vulvulina jablonskii n.sp. (7, 8, micro type; 13, megalo). × 15. Figs. 9, 10.—Vulvulina buningi n.sp. × 30. Figs. 11, 12, 20.— Haeuslerella hectori n.sp. (12, type). × 30. Figs. 14, 16.—Siphotextularia acutangula n.sp. × 30. Fig. 15.—Bigenerina pliocenica n.sp. Paratype. × 30. Figs. 17–19.—Plectina quennelli n.sp. (18, type). × 30.
Figs. 21–23.—Matanzia simulans n.sp. (21. megalo type: 22, micro; 23. cross section). × 30. Figs. 24, 25—
Eggerella decepta n.sp. (24, type). × 30. Figs. 26–28—
Dorothia biformis n.sp. (26. megalo; 27, micro type). × 30. Figs. 29–31.—
Gaudryina whangaia n.sp. (30, micro type; 31. megalo). × 30 Figs. 32, 33.—
Gaudryina reliqua n.sp. (33, type). × 30 Figs. 34. 35.—
Gaudryina healyi n.sp. (34, type). × 30. Figs 36, 37.—
Pseudogaudiyina anachions n.sp. (36, type). × 15. Figs. 38–40.—Migros medwayensis (Parr). Waikura Stream. × 30. Figs. 41, 42.—Dorothia agrestis n.sp. (42. type) × 30. Figs. 43, 44.—Sigmoidella bortomea n.sp. (43. type; 44, end view). × 30.
Figs. 45, 46.—Marginulinopsis uaiparaensis n sp. (45, type). × 30. Figs. 47, 48.— Marginulinopsis marshath n sp (48. type). × 30 Figs 49, 50.— Marginulinopsis hochstetteri (Stache) Hampden. × 15. Figs 51, 52—Palmula rakauroana n.sp. (51, type, × 15; 52, young, × 30). Figs. 53, 54 —Palmula thalmanni n.sp. (54, type. × 30. Figs. 55, 56—Marginulina allani n.sp. (56, type). × 15. Fig. 57.— Palmula rugosa (d'O [ unclear: ] ib). Poverty Bay. × 30. Fig. 58.—Frondicularia mucronata (Reuss). Poverty Bay. × 30. Fig. 59.—Palmula bivium n.sp. × 15. Figs. 60, 61.—Frondicularia teu [ unclear: ] ria n.sp. (60, young; 61, type). × 30. Fig. 62.—Frondicularia steinekei n.sp. (30. Figs. 63–65.—Planularia whangaia n.sp. (65, type). × 30. Figs. 66, 67.— Planularia rakauroana n.sp. (66, type). × 30.
Figs. 68, 69.—Aragonia zelandica n gen. n sp. (68 type). × 45. Figs. 70, 71.— Zeauvigerina. Parri n.sp (71. type). × 45. Figs 72–74—Virgulopsis pustulata n.gen. n.sp. (72, type). × 45. Figs. 75–77.—Bolivina anastomosa n.sp. (75, type; 77, side view). × 45 Figs. 78–81.—Rectobolivina maoriella n.sp. (78, side view, 80, type). × 45. Figs. 82–84.— Rectobolivina maoria n sp. (83, type. 84, side view). × 45. Figs. 85, 86.—Buliminella browni n.sp. (86, type). × 45. Figs. 87, 97, 98.—Buliminella sauria n.sp. (98, type). × 45. Figs. 88–91.—Elongobula creta n.gen. n.sp. (88, type). × 45. Figs. 92–96.-Elongobula chattonensis n.gen. n.sp. (93, type). × 45. Figs. 99, 100.—Bolivinita pohana n.sp. (100, type). × 30. Figs. 101, 102.—Bolivinita compressa n.sp. (101, micro type; 102, megalo). × 30. Figs. 103, 111.—Bolivina anastomosa n.sp. (Pakaurangi Point). × 120. Figs. 104–106.—Virgulopsis pustulata n.gen. n.sp. (104, Oneroa; 105, 106, Ardgowan) × 90. Figs. 107, 108.—Robulus dorothiae n.sp. (107, type). × 30. Fig. 109.-Plectofrondicularia awamoana Finlay (type). × 30. Fig. 110.—Plectofrondicularia fyfei n.sp. × 60.
Figs. 112–118.—Ehrenbergina maricic [ unclear: ] n.sp. (112, type, 117, 118, side views). × 30. Figs. 119. 121. 122.—Ehrenbergina fyfet n.sp (122, type) × 30. Figs. 120, 123, 124.—Ehrenbergina osbornei n.sp. (124, type). × 30. Figs. 125–127.— Pateillina piripaua n.sp. (125, type: others young). × 30. Figs. 128, 129.—Quadri-morphina allomorphinoides (Reuss). (Mangaotoio S.D.). × 30. Figs. 130–133.— Rotamorphina cushmam n.gen. n.sp. (133, type). × 30. Figs. 134–136.—Gyroidina allani n.sp. (136, type). × 30. Fig. 137.—Gyroidina scrobiculata n.sp. × 30. Figs. 138–140.—Gyroidina zelandica n.sp. (140, type). × 30. Figs. 141–143.— Anomalina piripaua n.sp. (143, type). × 30.
Figs. 144, 145.—Asteri [ unclear: ] qerina [ unclear: ] aiareka n.sp. (144, type). × 30. Figs. 146, 147.— Asterigerina lor [ unclear: ] nensis n sp. (146. type). × 30. FIG; 148–151. 158.—Vagoc [ unclear: ] ibicides maoria n.gen. n.sp. (150, young; 151. type). × 30. Figs. 132. 153.—Notor [ unclear: ] otaha serrata n.sp. (152. type). × 30. Figs. 154–156.—Planulina [ unclear: ] akau [ unclear: ] oana n.sp. (154, type). × 30. Figs. 157, 102, 163.—Globo [ unclear: ] otalia crater Finlay (Mid-Waipara). × 30. Figs. 159–161.—Globo [ unclear: ] otalia miozea n.sp. (159, type). × 30. Figs, 164. 165,—Globrotalia collactea n.sp. (164, type). × 45.
Ehrenbergina fyfei n.sp. (Plate 28, figs. 119, 121, 122.)
Dorsal surface very convex, ventral flat, no medial ridge; last 2 chambers more than half ventral surface, inflated, anterior outline very convex, spines few, tiny, downward pointing. Size, 0.7 mm.
Type from 5569, Conway River, Hundalee, grey marl; Tongaporutuan. Also in 3114, Poverty Bay (Waimata, Upper Poha).
Patellina piripaua n.sp. (Plate 28, figs. 125–127.)
A high, rounded central cone spreading out laterally to thin disc in adults, base flat or little concave, with wide marginal ring finely divided into chamberlets and a central space with 2–4 aperture impressions dorsally smooth, opaque, disc showing several chambered rings. Size, 1.1 mm.
Type from 5329, East Grey Stream; also 5664, Mid-Waipara. Index of Piripauan. Like Parr and Collins, I cannot separate British specimens of the Recent corrugata Wm. from New Zealand examples—Pliocene of Castlecliff (5215) and also the Oligocene Ototaran (5182, etc.), where it is common.
Notorotalia serrata n.sp. (Plate 29, figs. 152, 153.)
Close to spinosa Chapman, 1926 (see Finlay, 1939, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 68, p. 517), more compressed, with subequal dorsal and ventral convexity, more numerous strong spines with spreading bases, giving a serrate appearance; spinosa has only a few very irregular tiny needle-shaped spikes not lobating periphery. Size, 1.4 mm.
Type from 5650, East Grey Stream, marls 90 ft. above Weka Pass Stone; also in Pachymagas beds, All Day Bay. Index of Lower Hutchinsonian.
N. spinosa is common in true Hutchinsonian and Awamoan; another Hutchinsonian form may be separated as Notorotalia powelli n.sp., differing in unspined hardly lobate angled periphery, very slight convexity above or below, and especially in having 12–14 chambers as against 9–10; size, 0.8 mm.
Type from Oneroa, Waiheke Island (5041), dominant there; also at Pakaurangi Point and Takaka.
Gyroidina allani n.sp. (Plate 28, figs. 134–136.)
Shell large for lineage, compressed, dorsally about 3 coils visible, about 11 chambers in last; sutures progressively more marked by grooves, medial area faintly convex; peripheral angle bluntly rounded, ventrally with wide umbilicus overhung by rim of little sharp plates projecting back from blunt bases of chambers Size, 1.3 mm.
Type from 5655. Index of Duntroonian-Waitakian (very abundant). The common Miocene form of this lineage is Gyroidina zelandica n.sp. (plate 28, figs. 138–140) (type from G.S. 1240, Island Creek, Ihungian), which is smaller than allani, flat above, conic below, with similar smoothed appearance dorsally, smaller umbilicus with angular rim of chamber bases and 8 chambers per coil (never more than 9); size, 0.9 mm. Whaingaroan and probably Kaiatan forms seem inseparable, and the species appears to reach Opoiti. The
Mahoenui form is identical, but the common Taranakian species is small, with much more open umbilicus (due to its greater width and the much smaller basal pads) with a rim of less knobbed chamber ends; it may be named Gyroidina stineari n.sp., the type being from 5638, Tongaporutu beds of Whangamomona region; it begins with the Mokau and reaches Waitotaran. A similar non-compressed form from the Eocene is Gyroidina scrobiculata n.sp. (plate 28, fig. 137) (type from 5068, Burnside Marl, Tahuian); like zelandica in all respects except for strong dorsal excavation of chambers and coil separation, both continued far back; known only from Tahuian and Upper Bortonian. All these forms are evidently less related to soldanii (rare here) than to altiformis R. E. and K. C. Stewart, but that Californian species has an open umbilicus with weak pads, and more chambers, quite differently hollowed on top. A quite different lineage, not so easily divisible into stratigraphic spcies, is that of G. neosoldani Brotzen and its allies, which is even more common throughout the Tertiary.
Asterigerina waiareka n.sp. (Plate 29, figs. 144, 145.)
Large, disc-like, very compressed; dorsal surface obscure, but at least 3 coils with 22–24 chambers, sutures oblique to spiral at 45°, straight; ventrally with sinuous complicated sutures, points of chambers recurved near outer edge. Size, 1.7 mm.
Type from 5064, Lorne; common here and in basal Kaiata beds, rare in higher part of Lower Ototaran. Index of Kaiatan, especially basal part. Somewhat like choctawensis C. and McG., 1938 (U.S.G.S. Prof. Paper 189D, p. 111, pl. 28, fig. 2), of Alabama Oligocene, but much larger, more compressed, with more chambers and coils.
Asterigerina lornensis n.sp. (Plate 29, figs. 146, 147.)
Much smaller and thicker than waiareka, with few chambers, subequally biconvex, surface obscure, about 2 dorsal coils with about 7 chambers, sutures very oblique, lightly convex; ventral pattern of chambers star-shaped, about 7 broad arms, the points almost at periphery. Surface somewhat undulating, irrespective of chambers. Size, 0.7 mm.
Type from 5064, Lorne. Not seen elsewhere.
Cushman (Manual, p. 258) has noted the development of multi-chambered forms such as Pullenia from the biserial Chilostomella and has included a subfamily Allomorphinidae for triserial trochoid types. In the Cretaceous commonly occur shells extremely similar in general habit to Allomorphina, but with 4 or more chambers per whorl; these have so far been referred to Valvulineria. Such forms as allomorphinoides, however, seem to have developed normally from Allomorphina and have only isomorphic relationship with the typical Californian Miocene Valvulineria. Both types can occur together in the Cretaceous (see Cushman, 1931; Tennessee Depart. Educ. Geol. Bull. 41, pl. 9—where umbilicatula d'Orb. seems a true Valvulineria, while the aperture and habit of allomorphinoides corresponds far more with Bulimina (?) trochoides on pl. 7). Numerous American Tertiary species agree with Cushman's original diagnosis of Valvulineria.
which has a Gyroidine aperture and pad-like umbilical flap, while the other group has a more Discorbine opening with a thin free Chilostomelline lip. It seems that evolution proceeded not only in an embracing Pullenia-direction, but also in a rotaloid one from Allomorphina to Quadrimorphina and finally to Rotamorphina.
Quadrimorphina n.gen. (Fam. Chilostomellidae).
Genotype: Valvulina allomorphinoides Reuse, 1860 (Austrian Miocene) (as figured and described by Cushman, 1931; l.c., p. 53, pl. 9, figs. 6 a-c. from the American Navarro).
Test flatly trochoid, with 4 chambers to a coil, otherwise exactly like Allomorphina Reuss.
The genotype occurs commonly in New Zealand in the Eocene and rarely in the Upper Cretaceous. (Piripauan) (e.g., 5301; pl. 28, figs. 128, 129), where the transition from Chilostomella through several species of Allomorphina to this and finally the following genus is rather easily followed. The species of Allomorphina figured by Cushman, 1936 (CCL, 12, 4, pl. 13) are all represented here by allied or identical forms. The species trochoides (Reuss) has oscillated between Valvulina, Allomorphina and Eggerella, but its aperture and development are unlike the latter genus and entirely relate it to Allomorphina; it is common here in Cretaceous and Eocene.
Rotamorphina n.gen. (Fam. Chilostomellidae.)
Genotype: Rotamorphina cushmani n.sp.
Test depressed rotaloid, with more than 4 chambers in a coil (6-7 in type species); development and type of aperture as in Quadrimorphina.
Rotamorphina cushmani n.sp. (Plate 28, figs. 130–133.)
1932. Valvulineria allomorphinoides Cush., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 80, p. 46, pl. 14, figs. 2 a-c, non Reuss.
Calcareous, smooth, thin-walled, with flat evolute dorsal surface, rounded periphery and deeply umbilicate base; 6–7 chambers per coil, sutures distinct, narrow; umbilicus overhung by thin plate-like continuation of last chamber, masking entirely ventral aperture. Size, 0.7 mm.
Type from 5301. Index of Piripauan, common in Whangai. The Trinidad Upper Cretaceous form figured by Cushman seems almost certainly the same, and is a further link between our Whangai and this fauna. The Mexican Oligocene Globorotalia palmarealensis Nuttall, 1932 (Journ. Pal., vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 30, pl. 7, figs. 1–3) at first sight looks very similar, but seems to belong to a different line derived from Discorbis; it is probably congeneric with what Brady has figured as saulcii d'Orb. (Chall. Rep., vol. 9, pl. 41, fig. 6). Both these forms are represented in our Hutchinsonian; they are strongly perforate, while Rotamorphina has the smooth texture and shell structure of the Chilostomellidae.
Anomalina piripaua n.sp. (Plate 28, figs. 141–143.)
One and a-half dorsal coils with 12–13 chambers; sutures lightly curved, not limbate, faint; whole surface strongly punctate with fine wrinkling round peripheral area, umbilicus serrated by chamber ends. Periphery very bluntly sub-angled; the linear aperture extending over whole of its contact with last chamber. Size, 1 mm.
Type from 5664. Index form of Piripauan; found also at many Hawke's Bay and Poverty Bay localities; superficially resembling Nonion, which has not yet been found in our Cretaceous.
Planulina rakauroana n.sp. (Plate 29, figs. 154–156.)
Sub-discoidal, dorsally lightly convex with about 3 coils; about 8 chambers in each, very elongate and curved, swollen medially, sutures not limbate, faint, spiralling far backwards. Ventrally more convex, with narrow deep umbilicus overhung by little flaps from ends of swollen chambers, sutures deep, very rounded. Aperture not clear, mostly ventral, but sometimes also round periphery. Size, 1 mm.
Type from 5664. Index form of Piripauan, especially lower. More involute base than taylorensis (Carsey), much more curved dorsal sutures.
Genus Vagocibicides n.gen. (Fam. Cibicididae). Genotype: V. maoria n.sp. (Miocene, N.Z.).
Attached by flattish or concave dorsal surface, a few early chambers coiled as Cibicides, then several biserial chambers, which become staggered and finally uniserial; ventral surface very convex, chambers usually subglobular; aperture even in coiled stage in centre of terminal face, with slight raised rim, not connected with periphery or dorsal surface; in later stage migrating still further from periphery (even approaching previous ventral suture) and set in a crater-like depression. Walls thick, smooth, shining and of subporcellanous appearance; perforations so extremely fine and dense that still invisible under magnification of 36.
Vagocibicides maoria n.sp. (Plate 29, figs. 148–151, 158.)
The generic details also stand for the species. Shape quite variable, mostly tends towards subcylindrical elongation, occasionally spreading; a translucent rim marks periphery; sutures conspicuous, at first flush, later narrowly sunken. Size, 1.4 mm.
Type from 5651, East Grey River, marls 100 ft. above Weka Pass Stone. Lower Hutchinsonian to Opoitian, and one Recent occurrence (50 f., off Otago Heads).
At first sight very like Stichocibicides cubensis Cush. and Berm., 1936 (CCL, 12, 2, p. 33, pl. 5, figs. 19–21) in its smooth appearance, but differs generically in biserial character and aperture. Nearest to Dyocibicides Cush. and Val., which has a larger coiled part much less absorbed in shell, a different apertural position, and is coarsely perforate. The smooth glossiness of Vagocibicides is its most apparent feature.
Globorotalia miozea n.sp. (Plate 29, figs. 159–161.)
Of the hirsuta d'Orb. type, variable in shape and thickness, both menardii and tumida forms occurring in all gradations; dorsally usually lightly convex, last chambers more flattened, about 2 coils with usually 5 chambers; sutures very convex; periphery increasingly lobulate with age, but not cordate; ventrally subconical at angle of about 140°, chamber bases narrowly swollen but not pointed, sometimes depressed; sutures deep, sinuous; no umbilicus, aperture sometimes narrow, usually fairly open with slight lip along outer side;
whole shell densely perforate; dorsally smooth; ventrally with dense tiny pustules clustering around lower part of chambers, decreasing in size with subsequent chambers, last 2 smooth; periphery sharp-angled to quite rounded. Size, 0.8 mm.
Type from 5089, Eason's Hill, Greymouth “Blue Bottom.” Rare in Lower Hutchinsonian, abundant after that and reaching Waitotaran. For comparison are figured (plate 29, figs. 157, 162, 163) specimens of G. crater Finlay (Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 69, pt. 1, p. 125) from the lowest Bortonian of mid-Waipara (5671). Another Bortonian species is Globorotalia collactea n.sp. (plate 29, figs. 164, 165), which differs from the Miocene scitula and allied forms in non-globular chambers, flattened at top and sides, covered with minute papillae, instead of punctate; open aperture and umbilicus; 5 chambers per coil (4 in young); size, 0.23 mm. (Type from 5540, but more common in Upper Bortonian.)
Explanation of Locality Numbers Referred to More Than Once.
G.S. 1342. Poverty Bay, Patutahi S.D., Waikura Stream, basal Tutamoe.
3249. Poverty Bay, Waipiro S.D., top of Lower Rakauroa.
3250A. Poverty Bay, Waipiro S.D., Tuparoa Stream, mid-Rakauroa cherts.
3270. Poverty Bay, Mangaoporo S.D., basal Rakauroa.
5064. North Otago, Lorne, type of Waiarekan tuffs; basal Kaiatan.
5273. North Otago, All Day Bay, Awamoan blue clays.
5301. Dannevirke area, Mangaotoro S.D., 125 chs. at 59° from Trig. U.
5329. North Canterbury, East Grey Stream, black clays above sulphur sands.
5338. Dannevirke area, Mangaotoro S.D., 175 chs. at 74° from Trig. U.
5374. Dannevirke area, Mangaotoro S.D., 148 chs. at 61° from Trig. U.
5540. North Otago, Hampden Beach section, 22 chs. at 162° from Trig. H.
5655. North Otago, Otiake, shell bed above limestone.
5664. North Canterbury, Mid-Waipara, top of Saurian beds.
5665. North Canterbury, Mid-Waipara, base of Waipara greensands.
List of New Names Proposed.
Migros n.gen. (Fam. Verneuilinidae). Genotype: Gaudryina med-wayensis Parr. (Middle Miocene-Recent.)
Aragonia n.gen. (Fam. Heterohelicidae). Genotype: A. zelandica n.sp. (Upper Cretaceous-Eocene.)
Virgulopsis n.gen. (Fam. Buliminidae). Genotype: V. pustulata n.sp. (Lower and Middle Miocene.)
Elongobula n.gen. (Fam. Buliminidae). Genotype: E. chattonensis n.sp. (Upper Cretaceous-Upper Oligocene.)
Quadrimorphina n.gen. (Fam. Chilostomellidae). Genotype: Valvulina allomorphinoides Reuss (Upper Cretaceous-Eocene.)
Rotamorphina n.gen. (Fam. Chilostomellidae.) Genotype: R. cushmani n.sp. (Upper Cretaceous, Campanian?.)
Vagocibicides n.gen. (Fam. Cibicididae). Genotype: V. maoria n.sp. (Lower Miocene-Recent).
- Spiroplectammina steinekei n.sp. (Santonian-Campanian).
- Spiroplectammina piripaua n.sp. (Santonian-Campanian).
- Vulvulin jablonskii n.sp. (Middle Miocene).
- Vulvulina büningi n.sp. (Campanian).
- Siphotextularia acutangula n.sp. (Upper Mid-Eocene).
- Siphotextularia wanganuia n.sp. (Uppermost Pliocene).
- Haeuslerella hectori n.sp. (Lower Miocene).
- Haeuslerella parri n.sp. (Lower to Middle Pliocene).
- Bigenerina pliocenica n.sp. (Lower Pliocene).
- Gaudryina whangaia n.sp. (Campanian).
- Gaudryina healyi n.sp. (Santonian).
- Gaudryina reliqua n.sp. (Lowest Mid-Eocene, perhaps Lower Eocene).
- Pseudogaudryina anachrons n.sp. (Upper Oligocene).
- Eggerella decepta n.sp. (Lowest Mid-Eocene, perhaps Lower Eocene).
- Dorothia biformis n.sp. (Santonian-Campanian?).
- Dorothia agrestis n.sp. (Lower Mid-Eocene).
- Plectina quennelli n.sp. (Upper Mid-Eocene).
- Plectina agrestior n.sp. (Upper Mid-Eocene).
- Matanzia simulans n.sp. (Campanian).
- Matanzia mahoenuia n.sp. (Lower Miocene).
- Robulus dorothiae n.sp. (Lower Miocene).
- Palmula rakauroana n.sp. (Santonian).
- Palmula thalmanni n.sp. (Campanian).
- Palmula bivium n.sp. (Upper Mid-Eocene).
- Palmula bensoni n.sp. (Upper Eocene).
- Palmula taranakia n.sp. (Middle Oligocene-Lower Miocene).
- Frondicularia teuria n.sp. (Campanian).
- Frondicularia steinekei n.sp. (Santonian).
- Planularia whangaia n.sp. (Campanian).
- Planularia rakauroana n.sp. (Santonian-Campanian).
- Marginulinopsis marshalli n.sp. (Lower Mid-Eocene).
- Marginulinopsis waiparaensis n.sp. (Lowest Mid-Eocene, perhaps Lower Eocene).
- Marginula allani n.sp. (Upper Oligocene).
- Sigmoidella bortonica n.sp. (Lower Mid-Eocene).
- Aragonia zelandica n.sp. (Upper Mid-Eocene).
- Bolivinita pohana n.sp. (Upper Miocene-Middle Pliocene).
- Bolivinita compressa n.sp. (Upper Miocene).
- Bolivinita pliozea n.sp. (Lower to Upper Pliocene).
- Plectofrondicularia fyfei n.sp. (Upper Miocene).
- Zeauvigerina parri n.sp. (Mid-Eocene).
- Bolivina anastomosa n.sp. (Lower Oligocene-Middle Miocene).
- Bolivina pontis n.sp. (Lowest Oligocene).
- Bolivina affiliata n.sp. (Middle Miocene-Middle Pliocene).
- Rectobolivina maoria n.sp (Lower Miocene to Lowest Pliocene).
- Rectobolivina maoriella n.sp. (Lower to Middle Miocene, perhaps Upper).
- Virgulopsis pustulata n.sp. (Middle Miocene).
- Buliminella sauria n.sp. (Santonian).
- Buliminella browni n.sp. (Lower Mid-Eocene).
- Elongobula creta n.sp. (Campanian).
- Elongobula chattonensis n.sp. (Upper Oligocene).
- Elongobula lawsi n.sp. (Upper Oligocene).
- Ehrenbergina marwicki n.sp. (Lower to Middle Miocene).
- Ehrenbergina osbornei n.sp. (Middle to Upper Miocene).
- Ehrenbergina fyfei n.sp. (Upper Miocene).
- Patellina piripaua n.sp. (Santonian).
- Notorotalia serrata n.sp. (Lower Miocene).
- Notorotalia powelli n.sp. (Lower Miocene).
- Gyroidina zelandica n.sp. (Lower Oligocene-Lowest Pliocene).
- Gyroidina stineari n.sp. (Upper Miocene-Lower Pliocene).
- Gyroidina scrobiculata n.sp. (Middle to Upper Eocene).
- Asterigerina waiareka n.sp. (Lower Oligocene).
- Asterigerina lornensis n.sp. (Lowest Oligocene).
- Rotamorphina cushmani n.sp. (Campanian).
- Anomalina piripaua n.sp. (Santonian-Campanian).
- Planulina rakauroana n.sp. (Santonian-Campanian).
- Vagocibicides maoria n.sp. (Lower Miocene-Lower Pliocene & Recent).
- Globorotalia miozea n.sp. (Lower Miocene to Lower Pliocene).
- Globorotalia collactea n.sp. (Middle Eocene).