[Received by Editor, December 22, 1938; issued separately, December, 1939.]
The Carposinidae, to which Carposina adreptella belongs, are regarded either as a family in the super-family Tortricoidea with Tineoid affinities or as a family related to the Orneodidae and Copromorphidæ. The family and also the genus Carposina are most strongly represented in Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, though species of Carposina occur in most zoogeographical regions. There are 15 species of Carposina in New Zealand, and the generic diagnosis is as follows:—
Antennae in ♂ moderate or long ciliations (1.4). Palpi rather long or very long, longer in female, porrected, second joint with projecting scales above and beneath, terminal joint more or less concealed. Forewings with 8 separate. Hindwings with cubital pecten, seldom in ♂ developed into a large expansible tuft of hairs; 3 and 5 stalked, 6 absent.
C. adreptella, the larvae of which are destructive to the buds and fruit of raspberry and blackberry, was described by Walker (12) in 1864 as Gelechia adreptella. It was subsequently placed by Mey-rick in the genus Paramorpha, then in Heterocrossa, and finally (7) in Carposina. Confirmation of the identity of the species under study was secured by comparison with a series of specimens in the Cawthron Institute collections. The male genitalia were compared with the figures and descriptions given by Philpott (10) and with his original mounted preparations.
Description OF Stages.
The moth has been described by Hudson (4) and by Meyrick (6), whose description is reproduced here.
“Male, female; 14–17 mm. Head and thorax grey, more or less irrorated with whitish; palpi in male moderate in female very long, lower half dark fuscous; antennae in male whitish-ochreous. Forewings very narrow, costa moderately arched, slightly bent before middle, hindmargin straight, very oblique; greyish-ochreous or grey, sometimes mixed with whitish, especially towards base of costa, and more or less densely irrorated with blackish-grey; costa with about seven small suffused blackish-grey spots; a suffused blackish-grey spot in disc at ⅔ from base; between this and base are about eight black dots in upper half of wing, irregularly arranged, tending to be followed by raised scales; a large raised tuft on the discal spot, and another on submedian fold at ⅓ from base; an angulated transverse row of blackish dots from ¾ of costa to anal angle; a hindmarginal row of similar dots; cilia dark grey, with whitish points. Hindwings whitish, apex sometimes greyish; cilia whitish.”
C. adreptella is a very variable moth, some individuals being very light in colour, others very dark, darkish-brown, or dark grey. Again some appear to be more or less uniform in colour; this is usually the case with the darker forms, while on the lighter ones darker spots are usually shown. One variety has a pair of dark converging lines (fig. 1), as mentioned by Philpott (9). The dark grey specimens are difficult to distinguish from pinned specimens of C. iophaea. The forewings have two conspicuous raised tufts of scales, one lying anteriorly, and a larger one posteriorly with a small tuft between the two; the hindwings are cream-coloured with long hairs posteriorly. When in natural position the left wing slightly overlaps the right, and the antennae are hidden beneath the body (fig. 2). The male can usually be distinguished from the female by the long hairs on the end of the abdomen. On the male antennae are minute hairs, which are absent in the female. The moths vary in size, usually from 6 mm. to 10 mm. in length.
The male genitalia were described by Philpott (10). The following are the characteristics of the female genitalia. On the dorsal inside surface of the ductus bursa (fig. 3b) where it opens to the exterior is a long tube-like process slightly swollen at its end and arising between two flaps. The ventral surface of the ductus bursa has a smooth plate roughly serrated at its end. The duct is dorsoventrally flattened and has small scale-like thickenings over it. It narrows into a thinner-walled tube and opens into a thin-walled sac which has no markings. In the bursa copulatrix (fig. 3a), distending it, there is frequently found a coiled thick-walled tube, at one end of which is a thinner-walled bulb-like enlargement, the other end being twisted and broken off. This structure is probably a sperm sac left by the male after copulation. It was found in 58 females out of 112, but was not found in two females known to be virgins. It was not found in 104 males dissected, but this was probably because the males had either mated or the sac was formed by a secretion from the male or female or from both (13). In one case there were three sperm sacs in a single bursa, and in four other females two sacs were removed from each bursa. This probably indicates that the one female was mated three times and the other four twice.
The egg (fig. 4), which is about 0.5 mm. in length and sub-spherical is thin-walled, with the surface raised into small, rounded areas. At the cephalic or micropyle end, three circles of forked spines arise, each spine being placed at the intersection of ridges dividing the surface at this end into triangular areas (fig. 5). At the centre there is a circle of about 5 small pits surrounded by a smooth area divided into 7, 8 or 9 different parts.
The egg is yellowish-green in colour to begin -with, but changes during development to a yellowish-gold, the area under the spines becoming orange, which, as development continues, spreads till more than hall the egg is coloured.
The first instar larva is about 1 mm. in length. The head and dorsal portion of the prothorax are dark in colour, the rest
of the body is whitish cream. The surface of the body appears to be granulated.
The number of instars has not been ascertained, but appears to be either 4 or 5. The head width of the first instar is 0.195 mm., that of the final instar varies from 0.78 to 0.89 mm.
The final instar larva is about 10 mm. in length. The under surface is yellowish-green, depending on the amount of food in the alimentary tract. The head dorsally is a light shining brown with the mouth parts giving it a reddish-brown to black colour anteriorly. The dorsal surface of the prothorax is sclerotized and pigmented. The markings and chaetotaxy can be seen from the figures 6 and 7.
The colour of the darker patches on the dorsal surface varies in different individuals. The darker parts are usually different shades of brown, a blackish to a reddish-brown, the lighter portions vary from brown through pinkish-brown to red. The general appearance is mottled with the dorsal darkness broken medially by a longitudinal light stripe. The longitudinal light band between the dorsal and lateral darker portions is emphasised by contrast with the darkest portion on the dorsal surface. The colour of the larva probably depends on the nature of its food and the position in which it has been living.
The ocelli are distinct, light in colour and arranged in a half-circle about a darker area. Their arrangement can be seen in figure 7. Between the frons and the epicranium (fig. 8) are a pair of narrow adfrontals which are separated from the epicranium by an unpigmented suture, while the strongly developed epicranial suture is very dark. A pair of pits and three pairs of setae are carried on the frons, while on each adfrontal is a very small seta, a small seta, and a pit. On each of the epicranial halves on the dorsal surface are 4 pits and 3 very small setae posteriorly, while the other 6 setae are larger, 3 being medium in size and 3 long. On the ventral surface posteriorly there is one short seta and a pit. One seta is enclosed by the half-circle of ocelli, one long seta is postero-ventral to them and one medium-sized seta is ventral; the latter has two pits, one on either side, one more ventral and the other posterior. On the anteroventral corner is a medium seta, and a long seta lies posterior to it with a short one mid-ventral.
The antennae (fig. 9) have three joints. The basal joint carries no setae, the basal membrane is well developed. The middle joint is the longest of the three and carries on its outer side towards the distal end a very long seta with a short one slightly below and more dorsal. Over halfway down a pit is present below the long seta on the outside edge. Two cones, one more dorsal and one ventral with a small spine between the ventral cone and the long seta, are carried on the distal end of the middle segment. At the end of the terminal segment a short spine is carried ventrally with a very small spine beside it on the inner side, as well as a cone more dorsally and a seta in a socket on the outer dorsal corner.
The labrum (fig. 10) is two-lobed. On the dorsal surface there are four setae on each lobe. There are two on the outside edge, the longer being slightly more towards the tip, the other two are more
median, she one slightly nearer the base and not so near the mid-line between the lobes being the longer of the two. On the ventral surface there are two setae on each lobe towards the tip and in the middle of the lobe. On each lobe, just below the surface, are three triangular areas, each of which opens into the floor of the mouth by a median pit. Slightly in from the margin the surface is pitted. Behind the middle triangular area there is another pitted area. Towards the median line a single seta is found with much smaller setae lying in the area between the lobes. Further back these merge into more spine-like reclinate processes which cover a wider area.
Each maxilla (fig. 11) consists of a three-jointed palp and a lobe. On the under or dorsal surface of the lobe there are three short, stout setae which are in sockets. On the tip or anterior end of the lobe are two segments with a small joint on top of each of them. Between these two there is a small spine, while on the ventral surface of the tip of the lobe a couple of small spines are found, one medially and the other towards the outer edge. On the tip of the terminal joint of the palp are seven small spines. On the middle segment of the palp there is a pit on the outer edge and a seta on the basal segment on the inner ventral anterior end of the joint. The palpifer has a long seta on the anterior edge ventrally. The stipes have two long setae ventrally, one on the anterior margin of the sclerite, the other medially on the posterior margin. On the inner surface the stipes is elongated into an “L”-shaped process, one end of which reaches up just beyond the ventral end of the palpifer, the heel of the “L” pointing inwards towards the mid-line of the head, the foot of the “L” lying below the membranous base of the stipes. The cardo is small find is found posterior to this portion of the stipes.
The labium (fig. 12) consists of a spinneret and two palps, as well as a submentum and a lightly chitinised mentum which has two long setae. The palps have a comparatively long basal joint with a small terminal joint at its end. A short seta is found on the inner ventral surface of the distal end of the first segment, and a long seta arises from the end of the second. The spinneret is rounded apically with a median swelling. At the base of the spinneret are two short setae.
The mandibles (fig. 13) are stout. Each is nearly square in outline, while its basal area is triangular, the longest side forming the inner basal edge, and the other two sides the outer basal edge. The outer surface is slightly convex and carries two hairs towards the base ventrally. Up the inner surface, which is more markedly concave, there run four ridges to the four teeth of the apical edge, the two median teeth being better developed than the outer teeth.
The setal number and arrangement as compared with Carposina fernaldana (3) is similar in the thoracic segments, but varies slightly in the abdominal ones. The first abdominal segments are similar; the second abdominal segment of C. adreptella has one less seta of group vii Among the larvae of adreptella itself there is a variation in the number of setae on the ventral surface of segments 3 to 6. Usually there is a group of four setae (vii) on the latero-ventral area of the segment, but in some eases only three setae are present on
one or more of the segments, often on one side only. In fernaldana there are three setae only, not the usual four of adreptella. The rest of the setae are the same in these segments. Segments seven and eight are similar in both caterpillars. In adreptella, on segment nine, there is an extra small seta dorsally. Segment ten is not depicted for fernaldana, but in adreptella there is a total of 13 setae, 4 dorsally, the remainder ventral, terminal or lateral. On each proleg there is a single circle of crochets; a uniordinal, uniserial arrangement.
There is no definite anal comb, but there are a number of spines developed on both the ventral and dorsal surfaces, slightly smaller and more scattered on the ventral surface.
The pupa shows certain characters which are found in the Tineidae—it has many similarities with the Heliodinidae, which family, from its pupal characters, according to Mosher (8), appears to be related to the Tortricids.
The pupa is about 6 to 7 mm. in length and is at first a greenish-cream, but later it darkens, due to the development of the adult pigmentation. Ventrally the appendages nearly completely obscure the abdominal segments when these are lying in their retracted position. In the drawing of the pupa (fig. 14) the segments are expanded to show the position of the setae and are not in their more normal retracted position. In both male and female segments 4 to 7 are moveable, the last three segments (8-10) being incapable of independent movement. A ridge or crest is developed dorsally on the frons (fig. 16), the margins of which ventrally are raised into ridges continuous with the crest. The vertex is raised into ridges anteriorly and medially on either side of the epicranial suture. The pronotum is short, the mesonotum has a median ridge with a smaller ridge on either side and its caudal margin is produced into a long lobe (Heloidinidae). The metanotum is consequently lessened in the median line and is not one fourth the mesal length of the mesonotum (Hel.). Laterally the surface of the abdomen is rugose and the small sub-circular spiracles lie between the ridges. The setal arrangement can be seen in fig. 14, there being but a single row of setae in each segment. Ventrally there are no setae on the last three segments or dorsally on the last two, but the tenth segment carries on either side of its posterior end two short spines which are directed outwards.
[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]
The ventral aspect of the pupa can be seen in fig. 15. The wings come to a point terminally but do not reach as far caudally as the antennae or the metathoracic legs (which reach beyond the antennae). The mesothoracic legs do not reach the end of the wings but further than the maxillae. The prothoracic legs reach nearly three-quarters of the way down the maxillae, which are 15/17ths the length of the wings. Between the proximal portions of the maxillae the labial palps can be seen. The seven or eight terminal segments of the antennae are distinct, but further back this separation is lost and the segmentation is only shown by swellings on their ventral surface.
The appendages are closely joined together and are quite distinct but are not easily separable. They are attached to the body wall as far as the fourth segment. From the fifth segment caudally the abdomen is separated from them. A spine is carried on the ventral surface at the end of each of the metathoracic legs. On the inner surface, against the abdomen, each of the metathoracic legs carries three spines towards its outer edge, the first a little more than halfway down the free portion of the leg and the other two spaced evenly between this and the distal end. On the ventral surface of the sixth abdominal segment there is a pigmented, hardened area raised in small ridges (figs. 17 and 18), which is possibly a stridulating organ.
The anal opening is in a hollow in the centre of a raised area on the tenth segment. The male genital (fig. 17) aperture is a small slit, slightly bifurcated posteriorly on a small raised area on the ninth segment. The female genital (fig. 18) aperture is a longitudinal slit in both the eighth and ninth segments.
1. Cockayne, A. H., 1912. N.Z. Jour, of Dept. Agric., vol. 5, p. 372.
2. Anon., 1913. N.Z. Jour, of Dept. Agric., vol. 6, p. 259.
3. Forbes, W. T. M., 1923. Lepidoptera of New York and Neighbouring States. Cornell Univ. Agric. Expt. Sta. Memoir 68.
4. Hudson, G. V., 1028. The Butterflies and Moths of New Zealand, p. 216.
5. Hyde, W. C., 1931. N.Z. Jour. of Dept. Agric., vol. 43, p. 144.
6. Meyrick, E., 1882. On N.Z. Micro-Lepidoptera, T.N.Z.I., vol. 15, p. 66.
7. Meyrick, E., 1910. A Revision of the Classification of N.Z. Tortricina, T N.Z.I., vol. 43, p. 79.
8. Mosher, Edna, 1916. A Classification of the Lepidoptera based on Characters of the Pupa, Bull. Illinois State Lab. of Nat. Hist., vol. 12, article 2.
9. Philpott, A., 1917. List of the Lepidoptera of Otago, T.N.Z.I., vol. 49, p. 224.
10. Philpott, A., 1928. The Male Genitalia of the N.Z. Carposinidae, T.N.Z.I., vol. 59, p. 476.
11. Tillyard, R. J., 1926. Insects of Australia and New Zealand, p. 428.
12. Walker, 1864. List of Lept. Het. Brit. Mus., vol. 29, p. 654.
13. Williams, 1938. The Mating of Ephestia kuehniella Zellr. and its results, Ent. News, vol. 49, no. 5, p. 121.
Fig. 10.—Labrum of larva, outside and inside surfaces. Fig. 11.—Left maxilla of larva, ventro-lateral view. Fig. 12.—Labium of larva. Fig. 13.—Right mandible of larva, ventral surface. Fig. 14.—Dorsal view of pupa (segments expanded). Fig. 15.—Ventral view of pupa (segments retracted). Fig. 16.— Lateral view, head of pupa. Fig. 17.—Ventral view segments 6–10, ♂ pupa. Fig. 18.—Ventral view segments 6–10, ♀ pupa. Figs. 17 and 18 expanded to show relative sizes of segments.