Go to National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa
Volume 69, 1940
This text is also available in PDF
(3 MB) Opens in new window
– 427 –

The Waitotaran Faunule at Kaawa Creek—Part 3.

[Read before the Auckland Institute, April 17, 1939; received by the Editor, May 26, 1939; issued separately, March, 1940.]


In December, 1937, Professor J. A. Bartrtun and the writer paid a visit to the beds at Kaawa Creek in the hope that, during the period since their previous one in 1934, further blocks out of the inaccessible fossiliferous bed in the cliff would have fallen on to the beach. There was evidence that several small pieces had been detached, but as these contained little of interest the time was devoted to obtaining matrix that seemed likely to yield minute molluscs.

The list given below shows the records that have now to be added to those given by the writer in his two earlier papers on The Waitotaran Faunule at Kaawa Creek (Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 66, pp. 38–59, 1937; and pp. 99–124, 1937). The 66 additional records in this list (amongst which there are 34 new species, of which 30 are described herein) bring the total for the faunule to 278. In addition to the new records described as new species in this paper, certain previously recorded but unnamed new species are now given names, as better material has been obtained.

Consideration of the list shows much the same association of Miocene and Recent forms, and of shallow and deep-water specias, as became apparent from study of the main lists given by the writer (op. cit., pp. 44, 99, 1937), and already commented on in the first of this series of papers. Once again there is evidence of relationship with the Miocene of Gisborne District, Pallium waikohuensis Marwick (recorded also from the Waitotaran beds at Hawera by Powell, Rec. Auck. Inst. Mus., vol. 1, no. 2, p. 93, 1931) being a species from the Taranakian of that district, and Turbonilla praegravata n.sp. being close to ngatapa Marwick, which occurs in the Hutchinsonian of Gisborne. Relationship to Miocene faunas in the South Island is shown by Salaputium n.sp., which comes close to the Ototaran S. animula (Marwick), Ataxocerithium pyramidale Finlay, and Cylichnina segnis n.sp., which approaches C. soror of the Awamoan. Zeradina (Naridista) cf. jocelynae has affinity with Couthouyia concinna Marshall (Awamoan, Target Gully) and jocelynae Laws, a species occurring in the beds at Pakaurangi Point (Hutchinsonian).

The following twelve species in the list occur also Recent:— Zemysia globus, Notolepton sanguineum, Arthritica bifurca, Melliteryx parva, Rochefortula reniformis, Lodderena formosa, Liotella polypleura, Dolicrossea vesca, Scalaronoba costata (deep water, S.W. Otago), Haurakia hamiltoni, Awanuia dilatata, Brookesena succincta.

Bartrumella kaawaensis n.gen. n.sp., previously recorded unnamed, has been found elsewhere in thin shelly streaks in a massive argillaceous sandstone, half a mile north-west of the railway station road, off the main Taupo road, Eskdale (N.Z.G.S. loc. 4332).

– 428 –

The genus Aupouria occurs Recent in deep water off Three Kings Islands, and also in mid- and late Pliocene faunas at Nukumaru and Castlecliff. The genus Alipta Finlay prior to this has been known by one species in the Recent fauna.

The writer is extremely grateful to Professor J. A. Bartrum for his readiness in assisting with photography; without the benefit of his experience it would have been quite impossible to illustrate this paper; also to Mr. Alma Baker for his hospitality and permission to use his property at Kaawa during collecting.

Unless otherwise stated, the holotypes of species described in this paper are located in the writer's collection.

New Records of Molluscs From Kaawa Creek.

  • Aupouria rotunda n.sp.

  • Aupouria elongata n.sp.

  • Perrierina n.sp.

  • Pallium (Mesopeplum) waikohuensis Marwick.

  • Cyclochlamys aff. transenna (Suter).

  • Salaputium n.sp.

  • Cuna ngatutura n.sp.

  • Pleuromeris waitotarana n.sp.

  • Condylocardia dupliora n.sp.

  • Kellya n.sp.

  • Zemysia (Zemysina) globus Finlay.

  • Notolepton sanguineum (Hutton).

  • Arthritica bifurca (Webster).

  • Arthritica dispar n.sp.

  • Melliteryx n.sp.

  • Melliteryx parva (Desh.).

  • Zemyllita praecursor n.sp.

  • Zemyllita bartrumi n.sp.

  • Rochefortula reniformis (Suter).

  • Dosinula ? crebra (Hutton).

  • Amphidesma sp.

  • Scissurella geoffreyi n.sp.

  • Schismope tertia n.sp.

  • Lodderena formosa Powell.

  • Liotella polypleura (Hedley).

  • Brookula sp.

  • Brookula (Aequispirella) kaawaensis n.sp.

  • Zalipais probenthicola n.sp.

  • Argalista sola n.sp.

  • Dolicrossea vesca Finlay.

  • Zeradina (Naridista) cf. jocelynae Laws.

  • Estea koruahina n.sp.

  • Estea semisulcata (Hutton).

  • Estea ngatutura n.sp.

  • Scalaronoba costata Powell.

  • Haurakia hamiltoni (Suter).

  • Awanuia dilatata Powell.

  • Linemera kaawaensis n.sp.

  • Linemera sp.

  • Notosetia sp.

  • Epigrus waitotarana n.sp.

  • Scruptus sinuatus n.sp.

  • Brookesena succincta (Suter).

  • Rissoina ngatutura n.sp.

  • Rissoina koruahina n.sp.

  • Nozeba plana n.sp.

  • Zebittium tenuicordatum n.sp.

  • Socienna cf. maoria Finlay.

  • Alipta n.sp.

  • Notoseila sp.

  • Ataxocerithium pyramidale Finlay.

  • Zeacolpus cf. vittatus (Hutton).

  • Stiracolpus aff. symmetricus (Hutton).

  • Proxiuber cf. australis (Hutton).

  • Sinum sp.

  • Korovina dupliangulata n.sp.

  • Turbonilla asperedolata n.sp.

  • Turbonilla praegravata n.sp.

  • Chemnitzia cf. mitis Laws.

  • Planpyrgiscus disparilis n.sp.

  • Finlayola rodata n.sp.

  • Eulimella kaawaensis n.sp.

  • Eulimella sp.

  • Terelimella kaawa n.sp.

  • Bartrumella kaawaensis n.gen. n.sp.

  • Balcis sp.

  • Philine constricta Murdoch and Suter.

  • Cylichnina segnis n.sp.

  • Dentalium n.sp.

– 429 –


Pronucula ngatutura (Laws).

This species was founded on a single right valve. Five additional valves have since been collected, one of them a left valve.

Aupouria rotunda n.sp. (Fig. 12).

Close to parvula Powell, but to be distinguished by smaller size, heavier build, and greater inflation. The prodissoconch is a good deal less in diameter and stands up very much more prominently above dorsal margin. There is a constricted zone below it, and this causes a distinct concavity at the dorsal portion of the posterior end of the valve. Otherwise the shape of the two species is similar. They agree closely in hinge characters. Surface sculptured by concentric corrugations.

Height, 1.0 mm.; length, 1.0 mm.

Type valves and two paratypes were collected.

This form occurs also in the Nukumaruan (Nukumaru).

Aupouria elongata n.sp. (Figs. 4, 13).

This species is distinguishable at sight from rotunda and parvulla by its more elongate form, the anterior end being more drawn out. The prodissoconch does not rise above dorsal margin as prominently as that of rotunda, but is more like that of parvula. Hinge as for parvula except that teeth are developed at both extremities of the vertically striated ligamental area. In the right valve there is one strong anterior tooth with a pit on either side of it; the left valve has correspondingly a deep pit which is bordered on opposite sides by teeth to engage in the pits of the right valve. The right valve has two posterior teeth and the left valve one posterior tooth.

Height, 1.0 mm.; length, 1.3 mm.

Type and many paratypes collected.

This species is the form recorded from Kaawa Creek by the writer (Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 66, p. 46, 1937) as “n.gen n.sp. of Limopsidae.”

Hochstetteria tela Laws.

Known originally from two right valves. Fourteen additional valves have been obtained.

Hochstetteria kaawa Laws.

Originally known from a single right valve. Five further valves have since been collected.

Hochstetteria pinctagrina Laws.

Known originally from a pair of odd valves. Two further valves are now to hand.

Cosa separabilis n.sp. (Fig. 2).

A near relative of filholi (Bernard), but sufficiently distinct in certain characters to warrant a separate name. The hinge characters are closely similar in both species. On the whole, filholi is more roundly quadrate in shape than separabilis. The latter has markedly fewer ribs (10 as against 14 in filholi), and this difference is constant. The concentrics between the radials are on the whole coarser in

– 430 –

filholi, and the prodissoconch is wider and not so elevated. The antero-dorsal margin of filholi is more nearly horizontal than that of separabilis. The lunular area carries two radials in the latter species and four in filholi, and is flatter and more sunken in the fossil. Specimens of filholi from off Otago Heads have been used in making the above comparisons.

Height. 2.1 mm.; length, 2.0 mm.

This is the form identified by the writer (Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 66, p. 48, 1937) as “Cosa cf. filholi (Bernard).” Better and more abundant material has made it necessary to recognise the Kaawa shells as distinct.

Perrierina n.sp.

This is a very much smaller species than P. sola, which also is found in the Kaawa faunule, and differs considerably in shape. It comes nearest to P. insulana, a Recent form from the Chatham Islands, although there are considerable differences. It is notably smaller than insulana, and has the prodissoconch at about the middle of the dorsal margin. The outline of valve is symmetrical with respect to a line drawn vertically through the prodissoconch, and this separates the species at a glance from all other Neozelanic Perrierina. Dentition not well shown owing to wear, but there are two cardinal teeth just in front of prodissoconch of left valve, and only traces of lamellae behind prodissoconch. The right valve shows traces of two small cardinals and a larger one anterior to them. Prodissoconch and bounding rim not rising prominently from surface of valve. Outer surface of valve practically smooth.

Height, 1.0 mm.; length, 1.0 mm.

Odd right and left valves collected. Also three further specimens of P. sola have been collected.

Dacrydium simulator Laws.

Known previously from a single left valve. Five additional valves have since been collected.

Pallium (Mesopeplum) waikohuensis Marwick.

1931. N.Z. Geological Surv. Pal. Bull., no. 13, p. 97.

This record is based on a single well-preserved right valve, which agrees closely with Marwick's figure and description. The type is found in beds of the Ormond Series (Taranakian) of Gisborne District. This constitutes a record new to the locality. It has been-recorded from Hawera by Powell (Rec. Auck. Inst. Mus., vol. i, no. 2, p. 87, 1931).

Cyclochlamys aff. transenna (Suter).

Several valves, right and left, were collected, but after preliminary examination the tube containing them was mis-laid, and cannot yet be traced.

Lima cf. colorata Hutton.

A dozen or so small specimens recently to hand agree almost exactly with juveniles of colorata from South Island Awamoan beds.

– 431 –

Crassostrea ingens (Zittel).

This species has been recorded by Powell (Rec. Auck. Inst. Mus., vol. 1, no. 2, p. 87, 1931) as occurring at both Waihi Beach, Hawera, and at Waipipi. This is a new record for the Kaawa beds.

Salaputium n.sp.

A pair of valves, the left one very badly worn, and neither of them mature, represent this new species. The anterior end is more broadly rounded and not quite so produced as that of S. animula (Marwick), and the cardinal tooth, which descends almost vertically in animula, is very much more oblique to postero-dorsal margin. Also the concentric sculpture is much coarser, consisting of broad, even nodulations, many fewer in number than those of animula. On posterior portion of valve behind the umbonal fold, which is not pronounced, the sculpture weakens almost to obsolescence. This is the first record of the genus in post-Oamaruian deposits. S. animula (Marwick) is a fossil from the Ototaran of Chatton, and S. finlayi Laws has recently been recorded from the Pakaurangi Point beds (Hutchinsonian). Reference has already been made both by Powell (Rec. Auck. Inst. Mus., vol. 1, no. 2, p. 90, 1931) and by the writer (Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 66, p. 38, 1937) to persistence of certain Oamaruian genera and species into early Pliocene (Waitotaran) deposits in New Zealand.

Cuna ngatutura n.sp. (Figs. 7, 25).

This species comes near to both laqueus Finlay and waikukuensis Powell. Its shape is like that of laqueus, but it lacks the distinct radials of that species. Its beak is less prominent than that of waikukuensis, and the escutcheon and lunule are better developed. Other features separating it from waikukuensis are its more triangular outline; straighter dorsal margins, with the angle between them more acute; more oblique outline, the valve notably drawn down posteriorly (as in laqueus). The crenulations of ventral edge, weak ribbing and dentition are closely similar to those of waikukuensis.

Height, 1.8 mm.; width, 1.5 mm.

Not uncommon in the sievings obtained in 1937.

Pleuromeris waitotarana n.sp. (Figs. 11, 15).

This species is closest to kapuaensis Marwick from the Ormond Series (Taranakian) of Gisborne District. Kapuaensis has the beak narrow, and not full and rising prominently above dorsal margin of valve as in waitotarana; in fact, the whole upper portion of the valve is fuller than that of the Gisborne species. The beak is not so far forward as that of kapuaensis, but not central as in prolutea. The lunule is more sunken and the anterior dorsal margin more excavated. Waitotarana has 17 or 18 radials as against 20 in kapuaensis, and has the tubercles elongated transversely and even more densely packed together. The last few (posterior) radials of the Gisborne shell are distinctly weaker than all preceding ones. This is not so in waitotarana, where there is a gradual diminishing in strength towards both posterior and anterior ends. Waitotarana has the interstices not so narrow relative to width of ribs.

Height, 6.0 mm.; length, 6.0 mm.; inflation, 2.4 mm.

– 432 –

This is the species occurring in previous lists of the Kaawa faunule as Pleuromeris aff. lutea (Hutton). The much better material recently obtained has made it possible to discriminate more closely.

Verticipronus stirps Laws.

Known previously from a single left valve. Eighteen further valves are now to hand.

Condylocardia dupliora n.sp. (Fig. 9).

Closely similar to C. concentrica Bernard, but to be distinguished by the heavier hinge and dentition; two instead of one heavy rim around the prodissoconch; and fewer, heavier, more widely spaced concentric ridges, rather flattened on top. Basal margin crenate.

Height, 1.1 mm.; length, 1.4 mm.

Localities: Nukumaru (Nukumaruan), 4 specimens (type); Kaawa Creek, a left valve (Waitotaran).

This record adds a further genus to the faunule at Kaawa Creek.

Zemysia (Zemysina) globus Finlay.

This record constitutes a new one for the Kaawa faunule. The shells agree almost exactly with topotypes.

Notolepton sanguineum (Hutton).

The Kaawa shells identified as this species match very well indeed undoubted sanguineum from off Otago Heads. They agree with the Recent shells in shape and hinge, but are of somewhat lighter build. This is a new record for the beds.

Arthritica dispar n.sp. (Figs. 16, 17).

Shell small, elongate, inequilateral, the beaks situated at posterior third, so that anterior end is considerably longer than the posterior. Anterior end more sharply convex than posterior one. Left valve with a small cardinal tooth with a short lateral on either side. Right valve with a cardinal tooth just anterior to beak, and a small swelling behind it just under umbo; laterals well developed, the anterior one flexed downwards and then straightening out anteriorly. Punctate sculpture finer than that of elongata.

Height, 2.1 mm.; length, 3.0 mm.

Type valves and a paratype collected.

Melliteryx parva (Desh.).

A single valve agreeing closely with shells from 40 to 50 fathoms off Otago Heads. New record.

Melliteryx n.sp. (Fig. 1).

Shell small, elongate, of moderately heavy build. Dentition closely similar to that of parva (Desh.). Like mirificus Powell and Bartrum it has the beaks central, and in this respect differs from parva. Mirificus, however, has a different outline, and the height is greater in relation to length; distinguished from parva by reason of the centrally placed beaks, which are directed more inwards; the posterior dorsal margin is not as elevated as that of parva, and descends much more slowly; basal margin long, faintly convex, not straight like that of parva; parva has the anterior end more sharply rounded than the posterior, whereas the Kaawa Shell

– 433 –

has the convexity similar at each extremity; the punctate sculpture of parva is rather coarser than that of the fossil. Parva is higher in relation to length.

Height, 2.2 mm.; length, 2.9 mm.

Two left valves were collected.

Semeloidea donaciformis Bartrum and Powell.

This species, along with S. miocenica Laws, seems to be congeneric with Kellya (Pythina) eocaenica (de Rainc.), from the Eocene of the Paris Basin.

Zemyllita praecursor n.sp. (Fig. 10).

There is a single well-preserved right valve. This species is undoubtedly directly ancestral to stowei. It has a less convex valve; it is more quadrate in shape, since the posterior dorsal edge descends less rapidly and the basal margin is practically straight, not convex; the beak is distinctly less full and not so prominently rising above dorsal margin; dentition as for stowei; ribs more numerous, thinner and sharper than those of stowei, 11 in number as against 7 or 8 in the Recent species.

Height, 4.8 mm.; length, 7.2 mm.

This is the “Zemyllita n.sp.” of the list given by the writer in part 1 of this series of papers (Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 66, p 54, 1937).

Zemyllita bartrumi n.sp. (Figs. 3, 5).

Shell very small, radially ribbed at ends, concentrically ridged over rest of valve. Hinge of right valve not showing cardinals veil; anterior and posterior laterals much as in Z. stowei (Hutton), the anterior ones relatively longer, however. The sculpture is very distinctive. Towards each end of valve there are six to eight coarse radial ribs, several of which diverge distally. The entire intervening-surface is ornamented with close regular concentric ridges which end abruptly against the inner radial at each end, but indicate their presence nearer each end of valve by faint nodulation of radials. The concentric grooves are crossed by radial threads, much finer than the concentric ridges. Margins smooth.

Height, 1.8 mm.; length, 2.5 mm.; inflation (one valve), 0.6 mm.

Type in collection of the Auckland University College. A single right valve, collected by Professor Bartrum.

Virmysella tellinula (Odhner).

A larger series of better preserved shells shows that the Virmysella from Kaawa Creek cannot be dissociated from tellinula. In The Waitotaran Faunule at Kaawa Creek, Part 1 (Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 66, p. 55, 1936) the writer compared certain small specimens with V. hounselli Powell. These, probably referable to tellinula, are now in the Auckland Museum, and the writer has not inspected them again.

Rochefortula reniformis (Suter).

This is the second Rochefortula to be found in the beds at Kaawa, R. haawaensis having been described by Bartrum and Powell in 1928. The record of renifomris is based on two small left valves agreeing

– 434 –

entirely with similar valves of Recent specimens. Of the two species kaawaensis is very much more common than reniformis. This is a new record for the beds.

Dosinula marwicki Laws.

At the time of description only a single left valve was available. A right valve has since been collected, but the hinge is badly damaged.

Dosinula crebra (Hutton).

A small shell measuring about 22 mm. in length was submitted to Dr. Marwick, to whom the writer is indebted for his opinion that it is doubtfully separable from D. crebra. The shell has been a little broken at an early stage and has not thereafter grown normally.

Amphidesma sp.

A fragmentary left valve, collected by Mr. C. A. Fleming, has the hinge and form of Amphidesma. The shell appears to be unicarinate posteriorly, but the surface is rubbed and secondary carination, if originally present, may have been obliterated. The dentition does not exactly agree with that of any described Neozelanic species.

New record. Specimen in Mr. Fleming's collection.

Scissurella geoffreyi n.sp. (Fig. 28).

S. apudornata, a fossil from Target Gully, is larger and has no spirals on the shoulder. Bountyensis and fairchildi, Recent species from Bounty Islands, lack fenestrated sculpture on the shoulders, which is typical of the new species. Geoffreyi is closest to prendreveillei, a Recent form from Chatham Islands, but prendrevillei has a distinct umbilicus, heavier axials and only 3 as against 6 or 7 spirals on shoulder, as well as other divergent characters. The fine, regular, even sculpture is reminiscent of that on base of apudornata. The axial threads are numerous, strongly antecurrent to suture, and of about same strength as spirals. There is slight nodulation at intersection of axials and spirals. Sculpture on base and periphery same as on shoulder. A heavy cord borders umbilicus, which is narrow, though distinctly open. Fasciole not strongly sunken, its bordering ridges scarcely noticeable, crossed by curved axials. Body-whorl evenly convex; spire low, but distinct. Aperture spreading outwards and downwards; basal lip long, descending obliquely to right.

Height, 1.0 mm.; width, 1.0 mm.

Four specimens collected.

Schismope tertia n.sp. (Fig. 29).

Distinctly axially costate on shoulder, thus easily distinguished from lyallensis, laqueus and iota, all of Finlay. Also separable at a glance from ngatutura and koruahina from the same beds by absence of spiral concavity below fasciole. Further separable from ngatutura by presence of distinct, well-developed axials. Koruahina has the axials much coarser and heavier. The axials of tertia are thin, sharply elevated, distant and antecurrent upwards, both on shoulder and on base. The fasciole is bordered by heavy cords and the interval between them is spanned axially by curved, spaced threads of about same strength as the axials, concave to, outer lip. Both shoulder and

– 435 –

base with spiral threads, weaker than axials, through which they pass; three such threads on shoulder of body-whorl. Spiral threads on periphery numerous, spaced, much finer than those on shoulder. Spirals in proximity to umbilicus become stronger, that bordering umbilical depression very coarse; there is a weaker spiral within the depression in some individuals.

Height, 1.0 mm.: width, 1.0 mm.

Five specimens collected.

Lodderena formosa Powell.

Seven very nicely preserved shells show all the features of formosa, hitherto known only in the Recent fauna from shallow water in northern localities. This is anew record for the Kaawa beds.

Liotella polypleura (Hedley).

A single specimen in the collection of Auckland University. A new record for the beds.

Brookula sp.

This consists of the body-whorl only, so that specific identification cannot be made. A new record.

Brookula (Aequispirella) kaawaensis n.sp. (Fig. 26).

Shell small, height of spire about 1 ½ times that of aperture, conic, whorls strongly rounded, sutures distinct. Embryo small, loosely coiled. Aperture circular; umbilicus small but distinct. Body-whorl strongly convex. Sculpture of thin, sharply elevated, distant axial ribs (12 on last whorl), spaced four or five times their own width apart, converging over base into umbilicus.

Height, 1.3 mm.; width, 0.85 mm

Three specimens collected. This species has the build of finlayi, but can be distinguished by its many fewer and heavier axials.

Zalipais probenthicola n.sp. (Fig. 8).

Shell very small, similar to Z. benthicola Powell. The spire rises only very slightly above the body; much of spire, however, is broken off. Axial sculpture is limited to growth-corrugations, which are crowded and more strongly developed towards end of body-whorl, as in benthicola. The basal lip descends from body vertically and is not so concave as that of benthicola. The readiest means of separation, however, lies in the presence of spiral sculpture on the fossil. Spiral grooves are very weakly developed on body-whorl above periphery; they are rather better seen on the base; encircling and finally entering the umbilicus there are two spirals threads.

Diameters: greatest, 1.2 mm.; least, 1.0 mm.

The type is unique.

This is the first fossil species of the genus to be described from New Zealand. Benthicola, which it closely resembles, is a deep-water species from 170 fathoms off south-west Otago. Scalaronoba costata Powell, commented on later in this paper, is also a deep-water species from the same locality.

Crosseola munditia Laws.

The type turns out to be a very juvenile shell. There are now three much larger and better specimens. The spiral keels on the

– 436 –

body become in the adult very pronounced and widely spaced, though the axials still remain small and close together. The holotype has 8 spirals on the body; a shell nearer the fully adult stage has 6; whereas fully-grown specimens have only 5.

Argalista promicans Laws.

A further 12 specimens are now to hand, several of which still retain the colour-pattern. The species was originally described as having the surface smooth. It is now possible to state that there are weak spiral grooves on the body-whorl.

Argalista sola n.sp. (Fig. 6).

Shell very small, unsculptured, spire low, aperture circular. Umbilicus narrow but distinct, bounded by a low fold which is faintly microscopically crenulated below. A. promicans from the same beds is more depressed and has a widely open umbilicus. A. micans Powell also is a smooth form, but differs in features of umbilicus and in the character of its sutures.

Height, 1.0 mm.; width, 1.0 mm.

Zeradina (Naridista) cf. jocelynae Laws.

Closely resembles jocelynae in form, but has the spire rather taller. It seems to have weaker and not lamellar axials with coarser spirals on the body, but the shells are rubbed. Until better material is forthcoming the Kaawa shells are identified as above.

New record.

Estea koruahina n.sp. (Fig. 37).

Shell small, outline convex, whorls practically flat, sutures very inconspicuous. Sculpture apparently lacking on earlier adult whorls, but distinct axials are present on last few; axials oblique, persisting from posterior suture and ending below at a depression encircling whorl at about its anterior third; a heavy cord margins suture below depression; on the crest of this cord there runs a shallow spiral depression (seen only on well-preserved specimens). The axials are spaced at about their own width apart.

Height, 3.0 mm.; width, 1.5 mm.

Four specimens collected. Rugosa Hutton has spiral sculpture more generally developed over whorls; verticostata Powell and Bartrum has sculpture present on all adult whorls, and further lacks the heavy cord margining anterior suture.

Estea ngatutura n.sp. (Fig. 44).

Shell very small, unsculptured, with flat whorls, indistinct suture; aperture circular; height of spire about 1 ¾ times that of aperture. Insulana Marwick, a fossil from Chatham Islands, is larger and has more whorls, which are not so flat. The aperture of insulana is more laterally situated and not so Pupa-like as that of the new species. Minutula Powell is smaller and has the whorls convex; also the aperture is not placed so much under the shell. Gracilispira Powell is also smaller and has the whorls not flat and the aperture more to the side; also the upper portion of the inner lip is more nearly horizontal in ngatutura. Morioria Powell, a Recent form from Chatham Islands, is larger, has more whorls, and has the spire higher

– 437 –

relative to height of aperture; further, morioria has light spiral sculpture present. Rekohuana is larger and heavier and has different proportions. Ngatutura seems to come nearer to subrufa Powell than to any other recorded species. Subrufa, however, is broader in relation to height, the spire-angle being greater and the body more bulging. The ratio, spire-height: aperture-height, is much the same in both these species.

Height, 1.7 mm.; width, 0.8 mm.

Two specimens. New record.

Scalaronoba costata Powell.

This tiny shell from the Kaawa Creek beds is inseparable from costata, agreeing exactly with it in both features of embryo and adult volutions. Scalaronoba is represented by a single species, the only other specimens known being two shells from 170 fathoms off south-west Otago. New record.

Haurakia hamiltoni (Suter).

There are three shells that match well specimens of hamiltoni from Takapuna. New record.

Merelina kaawaensis Laws.

At the time of description only two or three poorly preserved shells were available. Another 21 shells have since been obtained, several of them in a remarkably good state of preservation. Inspection of these shows certain features that were not clear previously. The protoconch is spirally striated; the axials on the body-whorl end abruptly at a nodule on the second spiral cord from posterior suture; the base is seen to be sculptured by 5 thin, but well-raided spirals, not 3 as stated in the original description.

Awanuia tenuis Laws.

Originally described from one shell. Seven further specimens are now to hand, several of them very much better preserved and larger than the type.

Awanuia dilatata Powell.

This is the first record of the species as a fossil. The writer's description (Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 66, p. 107, 1937) of Awanuia tenuis from these beds marked the first record of the genus as a fossil.

Linemera kaawaensis n.sp. (Fig. 20).

Shell small, solidly constructed. Protoconch smooth. Whorls flattish, slightly overhanging suture, which is only moderately distinct. Axials heavy, spaced about own width apart, rounded, vertical, about 12 on last whorl, terminated at periphery. Spirals poorly developed, much weaker than axials, broad, low; three on each of spire-whorls, one bordering each suture and the third around middle of whorl; four on the body-whorl. Base lightly concave. Periphery low down, subangled. Umbilical chink present in some shells.

Height, 1.4 mm.; width, 0.85 mm.

Five shells. The flattish whorls separate it from maclurgi Powell, which has somewhat similar heavy axials and few spirals. Gradata (Hutton) has flattish whorls, but is much larger, has the sutures strongly cut in, and heavy spirals on periphery and base.

– 438 –

Linemera sp.

One small shell, the aperture considerably broken back, and probably not adult. New record.

Epigrus waitotarana n.sp. (Fig. 31).

Three specimens have been taken in sievings, one of them complete though not quite adult. This species is more nearly related to the Awamoan E. fossilis Finlay than to the Recent E. striatus. There is no sculpture other than growth-striae. The aperture is separated from the body by a narrow but distinct groove. The protoconch is smooth, depressed, slightly overhanging next whorl, flattened on top. The flattened top shows about 1 ½ minute coils. Outer lip strongly variced externally.

Height, 1.5 mm.; width, 0.6 mm.

Differs from fossilis in having the aperture more oblique to axis of shell, the basal lip being more broadly rounded. The sutures are strongly impressed, not channelled as are those of fossilis, and the body does not narrow behind to the same extent that it does in the Awamoan fossil. The peculiar protoconch does not seem to be that of Epigrus. Fossilis, with which this shell is undoubtedly congeneric, is known only from an incomplete specimen lacking the apex. Waitotarana bears a striking resemblance to Chevalleria cylindroides Cossm. from the Paris Eocene.

Dardanula n.sp.

Shell small, outlines straight, apex broad over summit, whorls quite flat, suture very indistinct, indicated merely by a faint linear groove. Whorls sharply angled at periphery; body-whorl not sharply, but distinctly, angulated. Base flatly convex. A faint narrow umbilical depression present. Outer lip broken back. Nearest to D. rivertonensis Finlay, from which it can be distinguished by its perfectly flat whorls, less distinct suture, and blunter, heavier spire. Nor is it unlike D. praecursor Laws, a fossil recently described from Pakaurangi Point. Praecursor, though angulated around periphery, is smaller, has whorls lightly convex, and is not of such heavy build. In the Kaawa shells the spire-angle is wider than that of rivertonensis and praecursor.

This is the “Dardanula n.sp.” of the former Kaawa list (Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 66, p. 106, 1937), and although a large number of additional specimens has been obtained, yet a shell that would make a good type has not so far been collected.

Scrupus sinuatus n.sp. (Fig. 24).

Shell very small, height of spire a little greater than that of aperture, whorls very convex, strongly shouldered; sutures very distinct. This species shows well all the features of aperture and of protoconch typical of the genus. The sutural sinus is very pronounced, but the notch on basal lip is much less marked than that of S. hyalinus, the genotype. In umbilical characters sinuatus closely resembles hyalinus. There is a crowding together of growth-lines towards outer lip (which is sinuous), causing the formation of a light varix. The subplication on columella, found in hyalinus, seems not to be present in the new species. On the body-whorl there are visible here and there low, weak spiral threads.

– 439 –

Height, 1.3 mm.; width, 0.8 mm.

Two specimens. Nearer to hyalinus (Odhner) than to uniliratus Powell. Differs from hyalinus in being a good deal smaller, not so expanded across body, and in having sutural sinus narrower and deeper. This is the first fossil species of the genus to be described.

Brookesena succincta (Suter).

Two shells, one of them well preserved. Spirals on the base, however, if present, are obscure. This is a new record. A Miocene species of Brookesena has recently been described by the writer from the Pakanrangi Point beds.

Rissoina ngatutura n.sp. (Fig. 27).

Of the Neozelanic species of Rissoina so far described only the following four species bear sufficient resemblance to make comparisons necessary—anguina Finlay, chathamensis (Hutton), powelli Finlay, rufolactea (Suter). Ngatutura differs from anguina in having the spire higher relative to height of aperture, and in possessing fewer axials per whorl (14 to 15 against 24 in anguina); chathamensis is larger, of heavier build and not so slender in proportions, the spire being less tapering; the Kaawa species somewhat resembles powelli in outline, but is very much smaller, with relatively heavier, more widely spaced and fewer axials; rufolactea is smaller and has not the spiral striae of ngatutura; also the aperture is higher in proportion to height of shell than that of ngatutura; the axials number about the same in both these species.

Height, 5.1 mm.; width, 2.1 mm.

Two specimens. New record.

Rissoina koruahina n.sp. (Fig. 32).

Shell very small, in fact the smallest Neozelanic species of the genus. Surface worn, but faint axials are present on upper whorls of spire. Whorls lightly convex, suture moderately distinct, below periphery, margined by a slight thickening around posterior of whorl. Summit of shell flattened and spread laterally, the apical whorl being low and flattish on top. Peristome thickened; outer lip straight above, when viewed laterally, and broadly convex anteriorly; basal lip heavy and broadly rounded; parietal wall lightly callused.

Height, 2.0 mm.; width, 0.9 mm.

Nozeba plana n.sp. (Fig. 35).

This species lacks spiral ornamentation over the whorls, and in this respect, as well as in form, differs from emarginata. N. coulthardi is described as having no spirals on whorls, but some of Webster's paratypes show distinct spiral grooves when inspected microscopically. The spirals of emarginata are visible under the hand-lens. Mica Finlay is a smaller species than plana, and has faint microscopic spirals on periphery. Plana is entirely unsculptured except for 5 or 6 grooves at anterior end of base; it is less tapering than either emarginata or coulthardi, has the aperture higher relative to height of shell, and the body-whorl broadly rounded in one even sweep from suture to base (no suggestion of angulation as in the other two species). The parietal wall is not heavily padded with callus, and there is no umbilical chink present.

– 440 –

Height, 2.3 mm.; width, 1.4 mm.

Two specimens. The holotype is a beautifully preserved shelly perfect in every respect.

Zebittium tenuicordatum n.sp. (Fig. 42).

Shell small, tapering, outlines lightly convex. Protoconch of 1 ½ volutions, smooth, convex. Whorls 8 ½, flat to very faintly convex; sutures not distinct. First post-nuclear whorl with three well-marked spirals, becoming progressively stronger, towards anterior. On third whorl a fourth weak spiral thread appears between the two anterior ones. Fourth whorl with four well-marked spirals, the anterior three of equal strength, the posterior one weaker. On the sixth whorl a weak spiral thread appears between the two posterior cords, and develops on the next whorl into a primary cord, a new spiral thread now appearing between the second and third from the anterior suture. On the body-whorl there are 8 primary cords, becoming progressively stronger in order from the suture. These are followed by two weak spiral threads on base, and then a pair of heavy cords, after which there is another indistinct one. Periphery low down, bulging. Base excavated. Inner lip thickly callused from suture to anterior end of pillar. Outer and basal lips broken away. Not far back from outer lip there is a broad, low swelling suggesting a varix, and another, much weaker, near the posterior angle of aperture. There are fine axial growth-striae seen in the spiral grooves, and faint indication of axials can be seen on later whorls in favourable light.

Height, 6.5 mm.; width (estimated), 2.0 mm.

There is the type and many fragmentary and juvenile paratypes. Z. laevicordatum also lacks axials, but has the spirals much less developed. Z. exile has the spirals nodulated and vitreum is reticulated.

Socienna cf. maoria Finlay.

Apical whorls plus protoconch of two shells very close indeed to S. maoria in both embryonic and shell features. New record.

Alipta n.sp.

There is one specimen with the protoconch and 3 ½ post-nuclear-whorls remaining. It has the same peculiar embryo as A., crenistria (Suter), but differs in the sculpture of the adult whorls. Though the specimen is obviously distinct from crenistria the provision of a name is left in the meantime in the hope that a fully mature shell may be obtained. New record.

Zaclys spiculum n.sp. (Fig. 21).

This is the “Zaclys n.sp.” recorded by the writer from the Kaawa beds in a previous paper (Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 66, p. 107, 1936). A good adult specimen and many immature ones have since been collected. The outline is convex and the protoconch typical. The suture is not margined as in Z. sarissa, nor is it so oblique; sarissa has the axials somewhat oblique; the spirals of sarissa are evenly spaced and the two lowest ones have their gemmules stronger than those ore the upper one. In spiculum the upper two spirals are close together, and all three spirals are of equal strength. There is no spiral ridge

– 441 –

on base running up to columella, as in sarissa. Z. paradoxa is a more stumpy type of shell with only two rows of gemmules. Z. subantarctica is larger, has a taller and relatively narrower embryo and straighter outline.

Height, 3.0 mm.; width, 1.0 mm.

There is the type along with many small paratypes.

Notoseila sp.

Three apical fragments, protoconch intact. New record.

Ataxocerithium pyramidale Finlay.

There are two fragmentary specimens having the build, sculpture and suture entirely in accord with that of pyramidale. New record.

Notosinister kaawaensis n.sp. (Fig. 30).

Very much better material now to hand has shown that this form, identified as N. infelix (Webster) in the writer's previous paper (Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 66, p. 108, 1936), is distinct from that species. Actually it is nearer to N. aupouria Powell, a shell from 260 m. off Three Kings Islands, which was described subsequently to the 1936 record of infelix. The protoconch is broader in relation to height than is that of aupouria. The second embryonic volution has two faint spiral threads anteriorly; on the third these become cords of equal strength set on the periphery; on the last embryonic whorl the posterior cord becomes weaker, the anterior one becoming a pronounced keel at about anterior third. Upper whorls of spire have two equal gemmate spirals; on the last few whorls a third intermediate one appears first as a fine thread, which ultimately on body-whorl attains the strength of those above and below it. The gemmules are round in shape and not elongate from side to side as are those of aupouria. Like aupouria it has the canal almost closed and tubular; the outer lip, however, does not spread laterally, but continues the outline of the spire downwards.

Height, 3.9 mm.; width, 1.2 mm.

Type and many paratypes.

Lilax spp.

About 30 protoconchs of Lilax have been collected. They show a good deal of variation in embryonic ornamentation. Four individuals have the same granulate sculpture as L. nucleogranosum, but their coiling is looser and they are larger; three others have the sculpture of heavy, rounded granules, many fewer than those of nucleogranosum and not closely packed together; the remainder are all consistently alike and intermediate between the former two types. It is possible that a bigger range of specimens would show intergrading, but the extremes are a long way apart. The last type referred to above is the “Lilax n.sp.” listed by the writer in a previous paper (Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 66, p. 108, 1936).

Zeacolpus cf. vittatus (Hutton).

There is a single specimen with the apical whorls decollated. The four keels are present, the lower two of equal strength, but more prominent than the upper two, of which the posterior is the weaker.

– 442 –

There is a wide intervening zone between the two pairs of keels, and this has a very faint interstitial riblet. It is very close indeed to an undescribed form occurring in the Awamoan beds at Pukeuri. New record.

Stiracolpus aff. symmetricus (Hutton).

There are the apical whorls of two shells, distinct from apices of S. kaawaensis, that resemble closely those of Recent and Castle-cliffian symmetricus. They are, however, rather more slender in outline, and have the cords not so heavy. New record.

Pareora striolata (Hutton).

This record was based on a single shell. Another specimen has been obtained. The genus is thus rare in the Kaawa faunule, though abundant at many Awamoan horizons. These Waitotaran individuals are no doubt stragglers from the Miocene, the genus here being well on its way to extinction, for it seems not to occur in post-Waitotaran deposits.

Cheilea postera Laws.

A third specimen has been found, and of better preservation than the type. The embryo is preserved and is seen to be laterally coiled in a loose helicoid spiral.

Sinum sp.

There is a small individual that has the appearance of an immature marwicki Laws. It may possibly be the same as that recorded as Sinum cf. marwicki by Powell from the Waitotaran beds at Hawera (Rec. Auck. Inst. Mus., vol. 1, p. 98, 1931). New record.

Korovina dupliangulata n.sp. (Figs. 14, 36, 38).

Shell small, flat, body very wide-spreading, spire insignificant but rising sharply, ornamented by numerous close, curved axials, hairlike under hand-lens. Aperture very wide; columella long. straight; junction of basal and outer lips angulated; umbilicus wide, conspicuous, bordered by an angulated fold; growth-lines coarse and heavy entering umbilicus. Suture of last whorl deeply sunken. The body is strongly angulated by a pronounced ridge which emerges just below suture and sweeps around concentric with the umbilical fold to end at the junction of basal and outer lips. The umbilical fold ends at base of columella, which becomes expanded at this point. Outer lip somewhat sinuated behind by a broad, shallow depression which develops not far below suture towards close of last whorl. Protoconch unsculptured.

Height, 1.1 mm.; width, 1.95 mm.

Six specimens.

Turbonilla koruahina Laws.

The type was the only specimen available at the time of description. Two further specimens agreeing exactly with it are now to hand.

Turbonilla asperedolata n.sp. (Fig. 23).

Shell small, elongate-conic, of 5 ½ post-nuclear whorls. Whorls flat, lightly constricted at upper third; sutures indistinct on periphery; outlines of spire straight. Protoconch heterostrophe, convex over

– 443 –

summit, planorbid, considerably tilted, nucleus considerably immersed. Axial ribs (12 on penultimate whorl) broad, heavy, roughly hewn, slightly oblique (retrocurrent above), dying out at periphery (above suture on spire-whorls); intercostal spaces somewhat narrower than ribs, fairly deeply excavated. Body-whorl flat above, strongly convex over periphery, lightly convex on base. Aperture pyriform, angled behind, moderately wide in front. Columella short, thickish, slightly arcuate, set vertically; a small, fairly distinct fold just below insertion of columella. Parieto-columellar junction obtusely angulated.

Height, 2.4 mm.; width, 0.8 mm.

Eight specimens collected. The quite flat whorls and ride, oblique axials distinguish this species from its associates in Turbonilla Group B (i.e. Turbonillas with planorboid embryo. See Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 66, p. 418, 1937).

Turbonilla praegravata n.sp. (Fig. 34).

There is one moderate-sized shell somewhat similar to T. ngatapa Marwick, a fossil from Gisborne District. The whorls are flat but with a sulcus around the summit of upper ones, the sulcus shifting further forward and becoming about median on later ones. The plait is not strongly developed. Whorls staged or telescoped. The most outstanding feature of the species is the tremendous protoconch with closely coiled, projecting lateral nucleus, the embryo being out of all proportion to the size of the early post-nuclear whorls. Axials are represented as close, weak, oblique folds, hardly visible (the specimen is rubbed) and apparently restricted to the posterior and anterior thirds of whorls (not developed in sulcus).

This new species is obviously close to the rather peculiar Gisbocne Turbonillas. The Gisborne Pyramidellidae on the whole have a facies all their own; the present shell and Waikura from the Kaawa beds show distinct alliance with certain of Marwick's species from Gisborne. New record.

Height, 3.0 mm.; width, 1.0 mm.

Chemnitzia quadruplator n.sp. (Fig. 39).

Shell small, elongate-conic, of 5 ½ to 6 post-nuclear whorls; oat-lines of spire straight. Whorls flatly convex; suture not strongly marked, very little cut in. Protoconch decollated in all specimens. Axials (about 13 on penultimate whorl) coarse, rounded, a little oblique, straight; interspaces of rather less width than ribs, well excavated, stopped abruptly at periphery. Body-whorl flatly convex above, its periphery sub-angled, base lightly convex. Aperture sub-quadrate; columella heavy, short, faintly arcuate, set vertically; basal lip moderately broadly rounded; outer lip straight; parieto-columellar junction obtusely angled.

Height, 2.9 mm.; width, 0.8 mm.

Seventeen specimens collected. C. waitemata Laws has convex whorls with sutures more cut in, and finer axials; C. jactura has the sculpture somewhat similar to that of quadruplator, but has convex whorls and more distinct suture; C. barrierensis has wider intercostal spaces and more convex whorls.

– 444 –

Chemnitzia ngatutura n.sp. (Figs. 19, 43).

Shell of moderate size, elongate-conic; whorls flat, much broader than high, cut in close to suture. Axials (about 18 to 20 on penultimate whorl) not high, broad, flattish, vertical, straight; interspaces very narrow and not deep. Protoconch distinctive, large, heavy, bulbous, coiled in a high helicoid spiral, the lateral nucleus considerably overhanging first post-embryonic whorl. Body-whorl flattish above, strongly convex at periphery, lightly convex on base. Aperture subquadrate, basal lip widely rounded. Columella arcuate, set verically, a light fold high up.

Height (estimated), 4.0 mm.; width, 1.3 mm. Larger individuals occur.

This species comes between C. dunedinensis and C. errdbunda. The heavy, high helicoid embryo distinguishes it.

Chemnitzia cf. mitis Laws.

There is one small shell of rather needle-like habit that approaches C. mitis very closely. The whorls, however, are not quite so convex. New record.

Chemnitzia sp.

There are about ten fragmentary shells, none of them with the protoconch intact.

Planpyrgiscus disparilis n.sp. (Fig. 22).

Shell small, of about 4 whorls, height of spire three times that of aperture or a little over, outlines straight. Protoconch depressed, no lateral nucleus visible, broad over summit. First post-nuclear whorl much wider than embryo, giving a blunt effect to the top of the shell. Whorls evenly convex, widest at middle, narrowly shouldered above; suture channelled. Axial ribs (about 18 on penultimate whorl) moderately strong, broad; width of interstices a little less than that of ribs. Spiral sculpture of numerous raised threads in interstices of all adult whorls; not seen on base, which is rubbed. Height of body-whorl one-half that of shell; body convex above, greatest bulge over periphery, lightly convex on base. Aperture rather broadly ovate, wider in front. Posterior of outer lip turned in at right angles to suture. Columella strongly arcuate, set vertically, short; parietal wall lightly callused; a low fold present well within aperture; small umbilical chink present.

Height, 2.0 mm.; width, 0.8 mm.

One specimen. Though referred to Planpyrgiscus it has not the attenuate habit of Turbonillids. One rather hesitates to associate it with extenuata, the genotype, but there is no option at present, for it conforms with Planpyrgiscus in coiling of embryo, sculpture, and practical absence of plait.

Finlayola rodata n.sp. (Fig. 40).

The apex is missing, but on account of similarity of habit with such forms as F. finlayi and F. lurida, this shell is placed in Finlayola rather than in Syrnola. It is at once separable on account of the long body-whorl, whose length is over one-third that of the shell. The columella-fold is unusually pronounced, thus distinguishing it further

Picture icon

Fig. 1. —Melliteryx n sp. × 11 Fig. 2.—Cosa separabilis n.sp.; holotype, × 19. Figs. 3, 5.—Zemyllita bartrumi n.sp.; holotype, × 18. Figs. 4, 13.—Aupouria elongata n.sp.; holotype, × 20. Fig. 6.—Argalista sola n.sp.; holotype, × 20. Fig.7—Cuna ngatutura n.sp.; holotype, × 19. Fig. 8.—Zalipais probenthicola n.sp.; holotype, × 20. Fig.9—Condylicardia dupliora n.sp.; holotype, × 19. Fig. 10.—Zemyllita praecursor n.sp.; holotype, × 3.3. Figs. 11, 15.—Pleuromeris waitotarana n.sp.; holotype. × 3.5 Fig. 12.—Aupouria rotunda n.sp.: holotype, × 20. Fig. 14.—Korovina dupliangulata n.sp.; paratype, × 12.6. Figs. 16, 17.—Arthritica dispar n.sp.; holotype, × 18.

Picture icon

Fig. 18.—Eulimella kaauaensis n.sp.; holotype, × 21. Fig. 19.—Chemnitzia ngatutura n.sp.; holotype, × 18. Fig. 20.—Linemera kaawaensis n.sp.; holotype, × 20. Fig. 21.—Zaclys spiculum n.sp.; holotype, × 22. Fig. 22.—Planpyrgiscus disparilis n.sp., holotype; × 21. Fig. 23.—Turhonilla aspcredolata n.sp.; holotype, × 20 Fig. 24.— Scrupus sinuatus n.sp.; holotype, × 20. Fig. 25.—Cuna ngatutura n.sp.; holotype, × 19. Fig. 26.—Brookula (Aequispirella) kaawaensis n.sp.; holotype, × 20. Fig. 27—Rissoina ngatutura n.sp.; holotype. × 9.8. Fig. 28.—Scissurella geoffreyi n.sp.; holotype, × 20. Fig. 29.—Schismope tertia n.sp.; holotype, × 20. Fig. 30.—Notosinister kaawaensis n.sp.; holotype, × 19. Fig. 31.—Epigrus waitotarana n.sp.; holotype, × 22. Fig. 32.—Rissoina koruahina n.sp.; holotype, × 20. Fig. 33.— Terelimella kaawa n.sp.; holotype, × 21. Fig. 34.—Turbonilla praegravata n.sp.; holotype, × 21.

Picture icon

Fig. 35.—Nozeba plana n.sp.; holotype, × 22. Figs. 36, 38.—Korovina dupliangulata n.sp.; holotype, × 20. Fig. 37.—Estea koruahina n.sp.; holotype, × 18. Fig. 39.— Chemnitzia quadruplator n.sp.; holotype, × 19. Fig. 40.—Finlayola rodata n.sp.; holotype, × 20. Fig. 41.—Cylichnina segnis n.sp.: holotype, × 20. Fig. 42.—Zebittium tenuicordatum n.sp.; holotype, × 9.5—Fig. 43.—Chemnitzia ngatutura n.sp.; paratype. Fig. 44.—Estea ngatutura n.sp.; holotype, × 20. Fig. 45.—Bartrumella kaawaensis n.gen. n.sp.; holotype, × 22.

– 445 –

from finlayi and lurida. The strongly excavated pillar is also reminiscent of these two forms, hut the columella is more excavated still in rodata.

Height, 3.0 mm.; width, 1.0 mm.

The type is the only specimen.

Eulimella kaawaensis n.sp. (Fig. 18).

Shell very small, elongate-conic, outlines straight. Post-nuclear whorls high in relation to width, flat; sutures moderately distinct. Protoconch heterostrophe, exsert, its nucleus coiled in a distinct helicoid spiral, the lower edge of nucleus clear of suture of first post-embryonic volution. Whorls unsculptured. Body-whorl flat above, rounded evenly over periphery, base lightly convex; aperture subquadrate; columella set vertically, faintly arcuate. There is no plait.

Height, 2.5 mm.; width, 0.8 mm.

Seven specimens. E. coxi has the protoconch blunter, less exsert, with its nucleus less elevated; and the adult whorls broader relative to height. Deplexa and media are stouter and have the whorls convex.

Eulimella sp.

There is one specimen of a fairly stout Eulimella, the protoconch missing, that it is not easy to match with any described form, nor yet can one be sure of its distinctness. Further material is necessary. New record.

Terelimella kaawa n.sp. (Fig. 33).

Closely related to T. larochei, but to be distinguished by its heavier and broader embryo, less attenuate apical whorls and different suture. Larochei has the suture impressed; that of the present species is tangential, each whorl more or less clasping its predecessor. The columella is arcuate and not straight as in larochei. The whorls are not evenly convex, but more bulging below.

Height, 1.4 mm.; width, 0.5 mm.

Localities: Kaawa Creek (type); shelly streaks in massive argillaceous sandstone, half mile north-west of rail-way station read, off main Taupo road, Eskdale (N.Z.G.S. loc. 4332).

Several specimens.

Genus Bartrumella n.gen.
Type: Bartrumella kaawaensis n.sp.

This is a Pyrgulinid genus of elevated habit, with strong pillar-plait, axial costae, and spiral sculpture (much finer than the axials) developed as fine, raised, intercostal threads. Spirals are present throughout the whole length of the intercostal spaces on all whorls and on base. The posterior spiral (on shoulder) is coarse and nodulates the summits of the axials. The axial ribs evanesce gradually on the base. The protoconch is planorboid. The spirals are not sufficiently strong to cause reticulation of sculpture (as in Trabecula Monterosato), and are just visible under the hand-lens in the type-species.

The writer has very much pleasure in naming this genus in honour of Professor and Mrs. J. A. Bartrum, of Takapuna, Auckland.

– 446 –

Bartrumella kaawaensis n.sp. (Fig. 45).

Shell very small, high conic, Turbonilla-like in form and gross sculpture, height of spire about 3 ½ times that of aperture, outlines slightly convex. Post-nuclear whorls convex, almost tabulated above, strongly contracted to suture below; suture very distinct and well cut in. Embryo planorboid, paucispiral. Axial ribs (about 15 on penultimate whorl) strong, rounded, vertical, straight, extending across entire whorl, evanescing gradually low down on base; spiral sculpture of raised threads in interstices and on base, about 8 of these on penultimate whorl. Body-whorl strongly shouldered above, lightly convex over centre; periphery low, convex; base short; aperture broadly sub-ovate, angled behind, rounded in front; columella short, set vertically, its plait distinct, situated at insertion; basal lip moderately widely rounded; outer lip broken.

Height, 2.3 mm.; width, 0.6 mm.

Localities: Kaawa Creek (type); shelly streaks in massive-argillaceous sandstone, half mile north-west of railway station road, off main Taupo road, Eskdale (N.Z.G.S. loc. 4332).

About 30 specimens collected. At first sight kaawaensis suggests. Turbonilla, but the character of the spiral sculpture and the presence-of a plait indicates a Pyrgulinid group.

This is one of the forms included under “N.gen. aff. Pyrgulina” in the writer's list of Kaawa Creek Pyramidellids (Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol. 66, p. 112, 1937). Very much better material has since-been obtained.

Neothais (Dicathais) cf. scalaris (Menke).

This is the form recorded previously from two very fragmentary-specimens as Lepsia cf. haustrum (Martyn). Mr. C. A. Fleming has-obtained a very much more complete shell, undoubtedly a Neothais, having the form of scalaris. There is, however, some doubt concerning the spiral ribbing, for the fossil seems to have the spirals more numerous and not so coarse; but its surface is considerably worn.

Specimen in Mr. Fleming's collection.

Cylichnina segnis n.sp. (Fig. 41).

Shell small, solid, barrel-shaped, spiral sculpture not evident. Its relationship seems to be with C. soror (Suter) and C. enucleata Powell and Bartrum. It is broader across the summit than soror and has a wider perforation than either of them. It is not so short and stumpy as enucleata. It has the same heavy plait as soror, but the groove behind this is better defined. Below the plait and at the-base of the columella there is a denticle which is somewhat elongated obliquely across pillar, and resembles a second and weaker plait. This is not present in soror.

Height, 2.8 mm.; width, 1.4 mm.

Two specimens collected.

Philine constricta Murdoch and Suter.

This may be distinct from constricta, but in the absence of specimens of Recent shells, it is left under Murdoch and Suter's name. Two specimens.

– 447 –

Dentalium n.sp.

This record is based on a single small specimen. It is akin to a new species allied to D. nanum Hutton occurring in Awamoan beds at Target Gully and at Ardgowan. The ribs are eight in number (nine in the South Island form), thin, sharply elevated and widely separated one from the other by flattish grooves. New record.