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Volume 70, 1940-41
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The Collembolan Fauna of New Zealand, including a Discussion of Its Distribution and Affinities.

[Read before the Wellington Branch, September 25, 1940; received by the Editor, September 27, 1940; issued separately, March, 1941.]

Introduction.

The first published record of any New Zealand Collembola appeared in 1894; and from then on, until 1925, little work was done upon New Zealand forms of this interesting group of insects. During the past nine or ten years, however, several papers have appeared in various journals dealing with the Collembolan Fauna of New Zealand, but these, without exception, have treated of small collections from relatively restricted localities. The present paper is the first attempt to deal with the Collembolan Fauna of this country as a whole, incorporating material collected systematically over wide areas of the land and reviewing all species previously described from New Zealand. During the past nine years I have collected these insects from as many of the Dominion's rapidly-diminishing areas of native forest and grassland as it has been possible to visit, with the object of discovering as nearly as possible the extent of the indigenous Collembolan Fauna. As a result this paper adds 101 new species and 15 new sub-species to our Collembolan Fauna and brings the total number of recorded Collembola from New Zealand up to two hundred and eleven, including the sub-species.

I do not suggest that this result is final, as there are many localities which, so far, I have been unable to visit, and which have not yet been explored for Collembola. Notably in this connection I would mention Stewart Island and the “heel” of the South Island from Milford Sound to Dusky Sound and east to Tuatapere. These regions and the higher alpine regions above 4000 ft. will, I am sure, be found to contain many more interesting species of these insects.

In this work I have from time to time received collections of material from workers in allied fields. Such collections are suitably acknowledged in the appropriate positions in the text; and I take this opportunity of expressing my thanks to these persons for their help. I have also to express my thanks to Dr. R. A. Falla, Director of the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand, for the loan of the late Dr. G. H. Carpenter's New Zealand material deposited there, and also to Mr. H. Womersley, of the South Australian Museum, Adelaide, for the loan of New Zealand material described and recorded by him. I desire, also, to express my thanks to the Director of the Dominion Museum, Dr. W. R. B. Oliver, for his assistance and advice during the preparation of the manuscript, and for helpful suggestions made from time to time.

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Several thousands of specimens have been examined in the course of this study, and from these an extensive reference collection of permanent mounts on microscope slides has been prepared and deposited in the Dominion Museum at Wellington.

As much of the specialist literature dealing with the Collembola is scattered through a multitude of scientific journals and other publications, some of which are difficult to trace, and, in this country, often difficult to obtain, and in order to make this paper of the utmost possible use to other workers in this field in New Zealand, I have included a key for the separation of all the known families, sub-families and tribes of the Collembola. In addition, with all genera, where more than one species is known from this country, I have prepared keys to assist in their separation. In all cases of species previously recorded or of new record of exotic species a full description is given so that the present work at the time of publication may be as complete a record as possible of the Collembolan Fauna of New Zealand. I have recorded synonyms in specific names only in so far as it concerns publications referring to New Zealand.

Collembola are small to minute insects often as short as 0·25 mm. and seldom reaching as much as 10 mm. in length. They are found in almost all damp situations such as in leaf mould under trees, or in the forest; under the bark of trees; in damp soil, moss or humus; under stones; among plant roots; on water; in the intertidal zone of the sea-shore, in crevices in the rocks, and sometimes on the damp sand. They are the only insects known in which the abdominal segments are reduced to six in number, and in which primitive abdominal appendages have been preserved and evolved into special organs other than tail cerci. Before proceeding to a detailed study of the forms enumerated in this paper it is necessary to be clear as to the meaning of the following terms. The Body means the body in its general sense, that is, including the head, thorax, and abdomen, but not necessarily the appendages. Measurements of length are given from the anterior tip of the head to the posterior tip of the abdomen. The flexed setae are long setae which usually occur on the dorsal surface and in which the apex is flattened and more or less bent over and ciliated. The ciliations may extend down the shaft of the seta.

Ciliated setae are setae covered with short, fine hairs.

Serrated setae are, as their name implies, setae with distinct teeth or serrations.

Plumose setae are setae in which the ciliations are long and thick, giving the appearance of a fine flue-brush or plume.

Bothriotrichia are long, fine, ciliated, wavy hairs, sensory in function.

Ant. II, Th. III, or Abd. IV are abbreviations used to denote the different segments of the antennae, thorax and abdomen.

The empodial appendage is the secondary claw sometimes referred to by other writers as the accessory claw, unguiculus, etc.

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Key to the Sub-Orders, Families, Sub-Families and Tribes of the Order Collembola.
1. Body elongate, segmentation distinct, abdominal segments generally all separated, fusion, if present, being evident only on posterior segments of abdomen. Sub-order Arthropleona Börner 2
Body globular, thoracic and first four abdominal segments completely fused, Abd. V and Abd. VI generally distinctly demarcated from anterior portion of body.
Sub-order Symphypleona Börner 18
2. All segments essentially similar. Prothorax distinct and never hidden below mesotergum, and dorsally with setae. Scales absent. Antennae short and four segmented. Cuticle generally granulate or tuberculate. Anal spines and pseudocelli often present. Post-antennal organ generally present.
Super-family Poduroidea Womersley 3
Body segments usually dissimilar. Prothorax without setae dorsally and usually reduced and hidden under mesotergum. Antennae long and from four to six segmented. Cuticle smooth. Scales present or absent. Postantennal organ present in Isotominae absent in other sub-families.
Super-family Entomobryoidea Womersley 8
3. Body without pseudocelli. Ocelli present or absent. Postantennal organ usually present and well developed. Sensory organ of Ant. III with sense rods but without sense clubs or outer papillae. Ant. IV always with retractile sensory knob. 4
Body with pseudocelli. Ocelli absent. Postantennal organ present and well developed. Sensory organ of Ant. III with sense rods, sense clubs, and, generally, papillae and protective setae. Ant. IV seldom with sensory knob, but often with sub-apical pit. Anal spines usually present.
Family Onychiuridae Lubbock 7
4. Head hypognathus. Ocelli on hind part of head. Dentes bowed horizontally, annulated distally, and reaching forward beyond ventral tube.
Family Poduridae Börner (not found in N.Z.).
Head obliquely prognathus. Ocelli present or absent. If present, then situated on front part of head. Dentes not annulated, straight, and seldom reaching forward to ventral tube.
Family Achorutidae nov. 5
5. Mouth parts for chewing, the mandibles with well-developed molar plate. Ocelli and postantennal organ present or absent. Furcula generally present, but sometimes reduced, never reaching forward to ventral tube. Empodial appendage present or absent. Pseudo-celli absent.
Sub-family Achorutinae Börner.
Mouth parts for sucking, usually projecting forward beneath head, cone-like in shape. Mandibles, if present, without any molar area. Empodial appendage generally absent. Postantennal organ and furcula present or absent.
Sub-family Neanurinae Börner 6
6. Sixth abdominal segment small and rounded, never bilobed. Body generally without any large segmental tubercles.
Tribe Pseudachorutini Börner.
Sixth abdominal segment large and bilobed. Body with large segmental tubercles.
Tribe Neanurini Börner.
7. Sensory organ of Ant. III with the two sense clubs curved towards each other, often with an accessory lateral club. Body long and narrow. Postantennal organ with numerous tubercles. Empodiai appendage present and with or without terminal bristle. Furcula absent.
Sub-family Tullberginae Bagnall.
Sensory organ of Ant. III with the two sense clubs not curved towards each other. Postantennal organ with few or many tubercles. Body broad and relatively more robust. Empodial appendage well developed. Furcula generally absent, but if present, then rudimentary.
Sub-family Onychiurinae Bagnall.
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8. Hind coxae with a small specialized area of fine hairs (trochanteral organ). Inner edge of claw generally with basal groove. Abd. IV generally longer than Abd. III. Furcula present. Scales and setae often ciliated. Family Entomobryidae Schaeffer 15
Hind coxae without trochanteral organ and inner edge of claw without basal groove. 9
9. Abd. III and Abd. IV approximately equal in length; Abd. IV sometimes a little longer. Scales present or absent; if present, then entirely without longitudinal striae. Bothriotrichia present or absent. Family Isotomidae Schaeffer 10
Abd. III much longer than Abd. IV. Scales present or absent, but if present, then with longitudinal striae. Postantennal organ absent. Furcula present. Family Tomoceridae Schaeffer 13
10. Head more or less hypognathus. Antennae arising from middle of head. Furcal segment with two stout ridges.
Sub-family Actaletinae Börner.
(Not found in New Zealand.)
Head prognathus. Antennae arising from front half of head. Furcal segment without ridges. Furcula and postantennal organ generally present. 11
11. Scales present. Postantennal organ present, circular and rosette-like. Mucro long with numerous teeth, but without any setae.
Sub-family Oncopodurinae Börner.
(Not found in New Zealand.)
Scales absent. Postantennal organ generally present, and when present, simple. Anal spines sometimes present.
Sub-family Isotominae Schaeffer 12
12. Anus not terminal, being obliquely behind or ventral. Anal spines and empodial appendage present or absent. Furcula sometimes absent.
Tribe Anurophorini Börner.
Anus terminal. Anal spines present or absent. Empodial appendage and furcula present and well developed.
Tribe Isotomini Börner.
13. Dentes at least indistinctly annulated and corrugated, but not segmented. Mucro small and without setae. Ant. III not very much longer than Ant. IV.
Sub-family Lepidophorellinae Börner 14
Dentes not or only slightly annulated and corrugated, but segmented and spined. Mucro long with setae. Ant. III as a rule much longer than Ant. IV.
Sub-family Tomocerinae Börner 15
14. Scales present and distinctly ribbed, though sometimes tending to hyaline. Mucro falciform. Dentes spined and generally with spine-like scales. Empodial appendage simple. Antennae four-segmented.
Tribe Lepidophorellini Womersley.
Scales absent. Mucro toothed. Ant. III and IV and distal part of Ant. II annulated. Dentes without spines.
Tribe Neophorellini Womersley.
(Not found in New Zealand.)
15. Ocelli present, six on each side. Ant. III much longer than Ant. IV.
Tribe Tomocerini nov.
Ocelli present, eight to each side. Ant. III shorter than Ant. IV. Dentes slightly annulated and corrugated.
Tribe Neocerini nov.
16. Dentes long and slender, prominently annulated and corrugated. Mucro small. With or without scales or ocelli.
Sub-family Entomobryinae Börner 17
Dentes not annulated or corrugated., long, but not or only slightly tapering. 18
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17. Antennae with four segments.
Tribe Entomobryini Börner.
Antennae with five or six segments, sometimes with segments I and II subdivided. Mucro bidentate with basal spine.
Tribe Orchesellini Börner.
18. Dentes without ciliated or fringed scales and setae dorsally. Dentes with or without spines. Empodial appendage with four-winged edge. Mucro plump and generally indistinctly separated from dens. Body with or without scales. Ocelli present.
Sub-family Paronellinae Börner.
Dentes dorsally with ciliated or fringed scales and setae or spines. Empodial appendage with three-winged edge or reduced. Scales present. Ocelli absent.
Sub-family Cyphoderinae Börner.
(Not so far discovered in New Zealand, but they should occur.)
19. Antennae arising from, or in front of, middle of head, four-segemnted, and always very much shorter than head. Head without elevated vertex. Coxae of legs elongated and on outer side longer than trochanter. Ocelli and postantennal organ absent. Body with or without papillae. Tenaculum without bristles. Furcula present. Bothriotrichia absent. Very small species seldom more than 0.25 mm. long.
Family Neelidae Folsom.
Antennae inserted behind middle of head, four-segmented, sometimes with subdivided segments, and generally much longer than head. Head with distinctly elevated vertex over neck. Coxae not elongated; on outer side much shorter than trochanter. Tenaculum usually with bristles. Bothriotrichia present.
Family Sminthuridae Lubbock 20
20. Vesicles of ventral tube with smooth walls. Cuticle of body granular. Tenaculum with lateral appendages at base of rami. Traces of thoracic segmentation present.
Sub-family Sminthuridinae Börner 21
Vesicles of ventral tube with tuberculate or “warted” walls. Traces of thoracic segmentation absent. 22
21. Anal and genital segments fused with two sensory setae on each side.
Tribe Sminthuridini Börner.
Anal and genital segments separated, sometimes the latter fused with the furcal segment. Genital segment with one sensory seta only to each side.
Tribe Katiannini Börner.
22. Antennae bent between segments III and IV. Ant. IV longer than Ant. III and never subdivided. Tenaculum without lateral appendages. Furcal segment without dorsal papilla.
Sub-family Sminthurinae Börner 23
Antennae bent between segments II and III. Ant. IV shorter than Ant. III and both segments III and IV or only III sometimes sub-divided. Furcal segment with large dorsal papilla and three pairs of sensory setae. Tenaculum with basal appendages.
Sub-family Dicyrtominae Börner.
23. Clavate tenent hairs present, 2–3 appressed. Empodial appendage present or absent.
Tribe Bourlettiellini Börner.
Clavate tenent hairs generally absent; if present, then separated and outstanding. Claw sometimes with tunica or sheath. Empodial appendage always present.
Tribe Sminthurini Börner.

Sub-order Arthropleona Börner.

Super-family Poduroidea Womersley.

Family Achorutidae nov.

This new family is proposed here in place of the Hypogastruridae of Börner, which latter no longer is tenable on account of the genus Hypogastrura being invalid.

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Folsom, in 1916, pointed out that Hypogastrura is a homonym and that the type of Hypogastrura is Podura aquatica Linnaeus. Bagnall (1940) again points this out, and reverts to the use of Achorutes Templeton, the genotype of which must be Achorutes dubius Templeton, 1835.

Sub-family Achorutinae Börner, 1906.

Genus Xenylla Tullberg, 1869.

Ocelli present, four or five on each side. Postantennal organ absent. Empodial appendage absent. Furcula present but generally reduced. Anal spines present, generally two, and very small.

Two species belonging to this genus occur in New Zealand. One of these is endemic and the other exotic.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Xenylla.
1. Claw without any teeth and with only one clavate tenent hair X. maritima Tullberg.
2. Claw with one inner tooth and two clavate tenent hairs X. nova-zealandia sp. nov.

Xenylla maritima Tullberg, 1869. Plate 40, figs. 14–18.

Colour: Bluish-grey.

Clothing: Lightly clothed with short curved plain setae.

Body: Length 1–1·5 mm. Antennae shorter than head. Ant. IV with apical knob and four sensory setae. Sensory organ on Ant. III consisting of two sense clubs behind an integumental fold. Ocelli five to each side, all large, and on dark pigment patches. Anal spines small and on very broad papillae.

Legs: Claw without any teeth. Generally one well developed clavate tenent hair to each foot, sometimes increased to two on middle and hind feet.

Furcula: Dens and mucro indistinctly separated. Dens with two strong setae. Mucro with upturned terminal tooth and narrow inner lamella.

Locality: Kumara, collected by Mr Campbell and sent to me for inclusion in this paper by Mr Womersley, of the South Australian Museum. Not necessarily a maritime species though called “maritima.”

Xenylla nova-zealandia sp. nov. Plate 39, figs. 8–12.

Colour: In life a deep blue-black. Mounted, a deep violet-blue on the body and all the appendages.

Body: Length up to 1 mm. Sparsely clothed on body, legs, and antennae, with short setae which are most numerous around tip of abdomen. Head related to thorax as 15:25. Antennae shorter than head, four-segmented, segments related as 14:13:14:25. First two segments broader than long. Sensory pit at tip of Ant. IV. No sign of sense organ on Ant. III. Antennae lightly clothed with short, stout setae. Ocelli five to each side on dark pigment patches. Ventral tube very short and dome-like. Abd. IV to Abd. III as 8:6. There are two very small spines on minute papillae on dorsal extremity of Abd. VI.

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Legs: Claw long, slightly curved and sharply pointed, with single very small inner tooth at about two-thirds. No outer teeth. Empodial appendage absent. Two long, finely-clavate tenent hairs longer than claw to each foot.

Furcula: Very small, not reaching to ventral tube. Dens and mucro indistinctly separated; mucro elongate and tapering, slightly upturned apically and truncated. A very narrow dorsal lamella, and a row of circular wart-like marks extends along side of mucro. Dens finely crenulated dorsally. No ventral setae but a long curved dorsal seta arises near commencement of mucro. Manubrium stout, dens and mucro slender. Manubrium to dens to mucro as 34:16:8.

Localities: Lake Monowai, under the bark of manuka trees on the river bank. Mount Manganui, Tauranga, in grass.

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Type: Slide 3/245 Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Triacanthella Schaeffer, 1899.

Small, generally light-coloured forms with strongly-granulate cuticle and three large anal spines. Empodial appendage rudimentary. Ocelli and postantennal organ present.

Three species are known from New Zealand proper, and a fourth, T. alba, was described by Carpenter from the Auckland and Campbell Islands.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Triacanthella.
1. Ocelli eight on each side, of which none are rudimentary. 2
Ocelli eight on each side, of which two are rudimentary. 3
2. Claw with two inner teeth and two outer lateral teeth. T. rubra sp. nov.
Claw without any teeth, clothing of strongly-serrated setae. T. setacea sp. nov.
3. Empodial appendage absent; postantennal organ with four lobes. T. rosea Wahlgren
Empodial appendage present but rudimentary. 4
4. Claw without any inner teeth, but with a single distinctly clavate tenent hair to each foot; mucro with apical lobe and dens with apical scale-like plate. T. alba Carpenter

Triacanthella rosea Wahlgren, 1906.

This species was first recorded in New Zealand by Womersley, from Kumara, under stones. It has not been recorded again since. The insect is pinkish in colour when alive, but fades quickly in spirit. It can be distinguished as in the preceding key.

Triacanthella alba Carpenter, 1909. Plate 39, fig. 13.

So far, this species has not been discovered on the mainland of New Zealand. It can be distinguished as in the preceding key. The insect is white in life and in spirit. Two ocelli are rudimentary; and the post-antennal organ has four lobes.

Triacanthella rubra sp. nov. Plate 39, figs. 4–7.

Colour: In life specimens vary from a bright pink to a bright brick-red. In spirit the colour quickly fades to a pale pink or pinkish-white.

Clothing: Of simple setae moderate to long and not very dense.

Body: Length 1·3 mm. Antennae shorter than the head. Retractile organ at tip of Ant. IV. Ocelli eight to each side, all large

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and equal, themselves black pigmented, but with no pigment around them. Post-antennal organ four-lobed and situated well forward of the ocelli. Three large, curved, well-developed anal spines on stout papillae; papillae equal in length to spines themselves, and the three arranged with two together above the third. Cuticle very coarsely granulated.

Legs: Claw with two extremely fine inner teeth close together at about one-quarter and one-third, and a pair of lateral outer teeth at about the centre of the outer edge. Empodial appendage rudimentary. No tenent hairs.

Furcula: Short. Manubrium and mucrodens approximately equal in length. The mucro plump with strongly recurved apical tooth or hook and a large pre-apical tooth. In addition, arising from apex of dens, a very large, more or less circular, scale-like plate. Dens with at least four prominent ventral setae. Dens two and a-half times as long as mucro.

Localities: Lake Brunner, in old logs. Lake Mapourika, under kahikatea bark. Weheka, in leaf debris in the bush. Mount Messenger, among leaf mould and stones in bush. Whangarei Falls, among stones. Island Bay, Wellington, amongst rocks on the coast. Breaker Bay, Wellington. (Collected by Dr. W. R. B. Oliver.)

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Type: Slide 3/259 and Figured Paratype: slide 3/260, Dominion Museum Collection.

Triacanthella setacea sp. nov. Plate 39, figs. 1–3.

Colour: In life, yellowish-orange. Mounted, pale yellowish-brown.

Clothing: Of numerous, long, strongly-serrated setae, serrated only on one side. These are particularly prominent along dorsal surface and around tip of abdomen where some of them are as long as depth of insect's body.

Body: Length 0·5 mm. Antennae shorter than the head; four-segmented. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 10: 10: 10: 16. Retractile sense organ at apex of Ant. IV. Ocelli eight to each side, all large and equal on clear fields but each ocellus black-pigmented. Post-antennal organ smaller than an ocellus with four peripheral lobes, and situated close to anterior margin of ocellar field. Cuticle finely-tuberculate. At tip of abdomen, dorsally, two very large strongly-curved anal spines mounted on prominent papillae. Below these on terminal face of Abd. VI a smaller, straight, very sharply-pointed anal spine mounted on a papilla about half as long as spine; spine without papilla half as long as mucro. Similarly, dorsal spine three times as long as mucro.

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Legs: Claw with no teeth. Empodial appendage absent, a single non-clavate tenent hair to each foot. Furcula almost reaching to ventral tube. Dens 2 1/5 times length of mucro and with one very long ventral seta and several smaller ones. Mucro and scale-like lobe as in preceding species.

Locality: Haast Pass, west side, under moss on a tree trunk, in the forest.

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Type: Slide 3/273, Dominion Museum Collection.

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Genus Achorutes Templeton, 1835.

Small dark-coloured forms with ocelli and a post-antennal organ with 4–7 peripheral lobes. Furcula and anal spines present. Mandibles with well-developed molar plates.

Represented in New Zealand by eight species of which four are endemic and four are cosmopolitan in distribution. The following key will assist in their separation:—

1. With a large exertile sac at junction of third and fourth antennal segments; post-antennal organ with four lobes; anal spines present or absent; mucro rounded apically and with a large lamella. A. armatus Nicolet
Without large exertile sac. 2
2. With very long anal spines as long as or longer than claw. A. longispinus Tullberg
Anal spines shorter than claw. 3
3. Body marked with large oval dark-coloured spots. A. morbillatus sp. nov.
Body not so. 4
4. With only one clavate tenent hair to each foot. 8
Species with three clavate tenent hairs to each foot. 5
5. The three clavate tenent hairs in line. A. viaticus Tullberg.
The three clavate tenent hairs not in line. 6
6. Anal spines simple, untoothed. 7
Anal spines with blunt outer ridge or tooth. A. campbelli Womersley.
7. Mucro long and tapering, with inner lamella. A. pseudopurpurascens Wom.
Mucro plump with apical hook and pre-apical tooth. A. omnigrus sp. nov.
8. Black species with no outer teeth to claw. A. rossi sp. nov.
Brownish species with outer basal teeth to claw. A. manubrialis Tullberg.

Achorutes armatus Nicolet, 1841. Plate 41, figs. 35–38.

1895. Acherutes armatus Nic.: Smith.

1925. Achorutes longispinus Carpenter.

Colour: Mottled brownish to almost black.

Clothing: Of long straight serrated setae and shorter curved setae.

Body: Length up to 2 mm. Antennae shorter than the head and with a large sac-like organ between segments three and four. Ant. IV also with seven thick sensory hairs around the apex. Ocelli eight to each side. Post-antennal organ with four peripheral lobes around a central circle.

Legs: Claw with a single inner tooth just past centre and a small lateral outer tooth. Empodial appendage needle-like with a broad inner lamella for about half its length. A single non-clavate tenent hair to each foot.

Furcula: Short, the dens twice as long as the mucro, which is rounded apically with a prominent lamella. Anal spines generally present, long and slender, on papillae usually touching at their bases.

Localities: First recorded in New Zealand by W. W. Smith in 1895, associating with ants; later from Clevedon and Manurewa, Auckland, by Womersley in 1936. This cosmopolitan species can

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now be recorded from the following further localities in New Zealand: North Island—Mount Maunganui Beach, in grass; Lake Rotomahana, in warm swamp; Lake Taupo, under stones at edge of lake; Makara and Palliser Bay, under the roots of rushes on the coast. South Island—Maruia Valley, in leaf mould deep in the native forest; Buller Gorge near Westport, in old logs on the edge of the bush; Lake Brunner, under the bark of kahikatea trees; Lake Mapourika, under the bark of kahikatea trees; Arthur's Pass, under stones and moss, 3000 ft.; Hays Bush, Banks Peninsula, from old stumps (collected by Mr. E. W. Moore); Mount Cargill, Dunedin, in leaf mould; Fish River Gorge, Haast Pass, under the bark of rimu trees; Hollyford Valley, in old logs in beech forest at 3000 ft.

Achorutes longispinus Tullberg, 1876. Plate 40, figs. 19–20.

This species was reported by Carpenter under the name of Achorutes longispinus in 1925, from Lincoln College farm, feeding on mushrooms. I have examined the material and find that it is all Achorutes armatus. The species also has been reported in New Zealand from Royal Oak, Auckland, by Womersley, 1936. So far, I have not come across it again. It is stated to differ from A. armatus in the absence of the exertile sac between antennal segments III and IV, in the presence of very long anal spines and a tuberculate mucro.

Achorutes pseudopurpurascens (Womersley, 1928). Plate 41, figs. 44–45.

Colour: Brownish, generally mottled, sometimes with a tendency to bluish-green, and often more or less pock-marked.

Clothing: Of moderately long setae.

Body: Length, the New Zealand species sometimes reach a length of 2 mm. but about 1·6 mm. is the usual. Ocelli and post-antennal organ as in preceding species. Antennae shorter than head; Ant. IV with 6–7 sensory rods and sub-apical pit with sensory knob. Two small anal spines not more than one-quarter length of hind claw.

Legs: Claw with strong inner tooth at two-thirds from base. No outer teeth. Empodial appendage needle-like with broad inner lamella for about half its length and reaching to tooth of claw. Three clavate tenent hairs to each foot, the lateral ones as a pair situated further from claw base than median one.

Furcula: Short. Dens three times as long as mucro. Mucro with apical hook and prominent inner lamella.

Localities: This cosmopolitan species is exceedingly common in New Zealand, and I have taken it at the following localities:—North Island—Awahuri; Palmerston North, under the bark of kowhai trees. South Island—Lake Rotoroa, in leaf debris; Fish River Gorge, Haast Pass, under bark of totara, beech and rimu trees; Haast Pass, under the bark of beech trees and in old logs in the forest; Kidds Bush, Lake Hawea, in bush debris; Lake Brunner, under the bark of the kahikatea trees; Lake Pukaki, under stones on the edge of the lake near inflowing streams; Lake Mapourika, under the bark of kahikatea trees; Lindis Pass, under stones on the bank of a stream; Hollyford Valley, in old logs in beech forest at 3000 ft.; Mount Cargill, Dunedin, among dead leaves.

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Achorutes viaticus Tullberg, 1872. Plate 41, figs. 42–43.

First described from the New Zealand region by Carpenter, who recorded it from Macquarie Island, this species later was recorded by the author from amongst rushes on the coast around Wellington. A further locality is from the surface of an unused well at Papanui, Christchurch, from whence it was collected by Mr. E. W. Moore and kindly sent to me.

This species is entirely a deep blue-black in colour, with a clothing of short, curved setae, some of which generally are serrated. Antennae shorter than head and apically with 4–5 sensory setae. Ocelli and post-antennal organ as in preceding species, but the latter is smaller than an ocellus. Anal spines small and on papillae, spines alone one-quarter length of hind claw.

Legs: With very small inner tooth at two-thirds, no outer teeth. Empodial appendage as in preceding species and reaching beyond tooth. Three long clavate tenent hairs to each foot arranged in one line across tibiotarsus.

Furcula: Short; dens three times as long as mucro. Mucro with apical hook and broad lamella terminating before apex.

Achorutes campbelli (Womersley, 1930). Plate 40, figs. 25–28.

Colour: Entirely bluish-brown, somewhat lighter ventrally, and often with distinct oval pock-marks.

Clothing: Of moderately-long serrated setae, more numerous around posterior portion of abdomen.

Body: Length up to 1·7 mm. Antennae a little longer than head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 8: 9: 10: 12. Ant. IV apically with sensory pit and knob, and seven sense rods. On Ant. III, two small sense rods protected by a cuticular fold. Ocelli eight to each side, equal. Post-antennal organ with four peripheral lobes. Two strong, distinctly curved and characteristic anal spines, each with an outer tooth or ledge. Each spine about one-third as long as hind claw and mounted on a large papilla, the two papillae touching basally.

Legs: Claw with a strong inner tooth at two-thirds. No outer teeth. Empodial appendage needle-like, reaching to tooth of claw and with a broad inner lamella for two-thirds of its length. Three clavate tenent hairs longer than claw, to each foot, lateral hairs farther from claw than central one.

Furcula: Dens about two and a-half times as long as mucro, and with one very long ventral seta and five smaller ones. Mucro long and tapering, with a narrow inner lamella.

Localities: Originally described from Kumara, where it was probably taken under rimu bark; also from Hays Bush, Banks Peninsula, amongst leaf mould (coll. by E. W. Moore) and from Lake Mapourika, under the bark of kahikatea trees, and Lake Rotoroa, South Island, in leaf mould.

Achorutes morbillatus sp. nov. Plate 41, figs. 29–34.

Colour: Body, legs and antennae all light to dark brown, coarsely mottled with large, very dark brown oval spots giving a somewhat “measly” appearance; sometimes a tendency to greenish colour.

– 293 –

Body: Length 1·5–2·1 mm. Sparsely clothed with short setae. Cuticle very finely granulate. Head about three-quarters as long as thorax. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 10: 12: 14: 17. A complex sensory organ occurs at apex of each antenna and numerous (up to 20) long sensory hairs on Ant. IV, with, generally, 9–11 olfactory hairs in association with sense organ at tip. (Fig. 18.) Ocelli eight to each side, equal, on dark pigment patches. Post-antennal organ very obscure but with four peripheral lobes. Two anal spines about half as long as claw, raised on papillae which are about half length of spine.

Legs: Clothed with short, curved setae. Claw with one inner tooth a little past half-way down from claw base. Empodial appendage needle-like, reaching beyond tooth of claw, and with a very broad inner lamella for less than half of its length. Three long tenent hairs, slightly knobbed at their tips, to each foot, the lateral two further from the claw than the central one.

Furcula: Short, the ratio of manubrium, dens and mucro as 2: 3: 1. Mucro long and pointed, slightly recurved at the tip, and with a narrow inner lamella. Dens and manubrium with several long setae.

Remarks: This species is closely allied to H. pseudopurpurascens Wom., from which it is readily distinguished by its extraordinarily-marked cuticle, the slightly different and longer empodial appendage, the larger number of sensory hairs on Ant. IV and the peculiar sensory organs at the tip of the antennae.

Localities: Lake Mapourika, under bark of kahikatea trees; Lake Rotoroa, in leaf mould; Kidd's Bush, Lake Hawea, in debris of forest floor.

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Type: Slide 3/236, Dominion Museum Collection.

Achorutes rossi sp. nov. Plate 41, figs. 39–41.

Colour: Black all over.

Clothing: On antennae and dorsally and dorsolaterally on body with short curved coarsely-serrated setae. Ventrally on body and on legs, somewhat longer, straighter, plain setae. Cuticle is distinctly granular.

Body: Length up to 1·1 mm. Antennae shorter than the head; Ant. I: II: III: IV as 10: 14: 17: 23. Ant. IV with apical sensory pit and exertile organ; 5–6 curved sensory rods and several long plain setae. On some specimens Ant. IV has two large exertile sacs on the side, one at about one-third from base and the other at two-thirds. Ocelli eight to each side, all large and equal. Post-antennal organ very large and indistinct but with central boss and five peripheral lobes. Abd. VI with two small sharply-pointed spines each on wide basal papillae. Head long, approximately equalling first two thoracic segments in length.

Legs: Claw with one prominent inner tooth at centre or just past centre. No outer teeth. Empodial appendage spine-like and varying from one-quarter to three-quarters length of claw, and with no lamellae. A single clavate tenent hair much longer than claw to each foot.

– 294 –

Furcula: Short. Dens about three and a-half times as long as the mucro and with one long and 4–5 shorter ventral setae. Strongly crenulate ventrally. Mucro tapering to fine blunt point, with pre-apical blunt tooth and strong inner basal lamella.

Localities: Kelburn, Wellington, in a lawn. Collected by Mr. D. K. Ross, after whom I have much pleasure in naming it. Also taken by myself on newly-dug ground at Karori.

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Type: Slide 3/907 and Figured Paratype; Slide 3/908, Dominion Museum Collection.

This species is closely related to H. manubrialis Tullb., from which it differs principally in colour, the strong inner tooth to the claw, and the clavate tenent hair.

Achorutes omnigrus sp. nov. Plate 42, figs. 46–49.

Colour: Black all over.

Clothing: Of moderately long, straight, coarsely-serrated setae and short, curved setae. Cuticle finely-granulate.

Body: Length up to 1·5 mm. Antennae about three-quarters as long as head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 10: 10: 15: 17. Ant. IV at apex with sensory pit, three exertile knobs and two short sensory rods. Ocelli eight to each side all large and equal. Post-antennal organ indistinct, smaller than an ocellus, and with four peripheral lobes. Two short, slightly curved anal spines on papillae, spines alone about one-quarter length of hind claw.

Legs: Claw without any teeth. Empodial appendage two-thirds as long as claw, needle-like and with inner lamella for half its length. Three clavate tenent hairs not in line, to each foot, one pair longer than claw and further from it than single one, which is also not so long.

Furcula: Short. Dens three times as long as mucro and with one very long and three smaller ventral setae. Mucro plump, half as deep as long, with strongly recurved apical hook and prominent pre-apical tooth one-third from apex.

Locality: Days Bay, Wellington.

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Type: Slide 3/914 and Figured Paratype; Slide 3/913, Dominion Museum Collection.

Remarks: This species superficially resembles A. viaticus, from which it differs in the form of the mucro and the arrangement of the tenent hairs.

Achorutes manubrialis Tullberg, 1869. Plate 40, figs. 21–24.

Colour: Mottled dark brown or greyish-brown.

Clothing: Moderately clothed with short curved setae.

Body: Length up to 1·5 mm. Antennae four-segmented slightly longer than head, Ant. IV with 7–8 sensory setae. Ocelli eight to each side, equal. Post-antennal organ with central boss and five peripheral lobes. Two small anal spines on papillae, each spine about equal in height to its papilla.

Legs: Claw with single inner tooth at three-quarters and two basal lateral external teeth. A single finely clavate tenent hair, about as long as the claw to each foot. Empodial appendage needle-like with narrow inner lamella.

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Furcula: Mucro: dens as 3:2. Mucro slightly upturned apically and with broad basal lamella. Dens finely tuberculate and with numerous ventral setae.

Locality: Christchurch; specimens collected by W. A. Cottier and sent to Mr. Womersley, of Adelaide, who kindly passed them on to me for recording.

Sub-genus Schöttella Schaeffer, 1896.

Species in which the empodial appendage is rudimentary or absent. Represented in New Zealand by one species.

Schöttella subcorta sp. nov. Plate 42, figs. 50–52.

Colour: Black, legs and antennae streaky.

Clothing: Of short, curved, plain setae and occasional long straight plain setae.

Body: Length 0·75 mm. Antennae equal to head in length, four-segmented. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 5: 6: 7: 12. Each antenna arises from a very prominent antennal base, which is almost as long as first segment. Ocelli eight to each side, all large equal. Post-antennal organ larger than on ocellus with four elliptical lobes and central boss. Very indistinctly defined. Ant. IV with two large apical sense knobs and five thick curved sense rods as well as a strong apical setae and 6–7 shorter sensory setae. Two small anal spines one-third as long as hind claw.

Legs: Claw without any teeth. Empodial appendage rudimentary and represented by small bristle. Two clavate tenent hairs longer than claw to each foot.

Furcula: Dens and mucro indistinctly separated, junction being marked by shallow dorsal nick. Muero tapering evenly to blunt tooth. No lamella; but slight “dishing” just before apex. Dens with one long ventral seta near mucro. Dens 2 ½ times as long as mucro.

Locality: Lake Te Anau, under the bark of rimu tree.

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Type: Slide 3/341, Dominion Museum Collection.

This species is very close to S. glasgowi Folsom, of North America, from which it differs principally in the colour, the claws, the number of setae on the dens, the sensory organ on Ant. IV and the larger anal spines.

Sub-family Neanurinae Börner, 1906.
Tribe Pseudachorutini Börner, 1906.

Genus Polyacanthella Schaeffer, 1897.

Generally small species with from four to seven anal spines arising directly from segment without papillae. Furcula present but sometimes reduced or absent.

Represented in New Zealand by two small species, one of which, P. parva, was described by Womersley in 1936, and I am indebted to Mr. Womersley for the loan of his material for examination.

Key to the new Zealand Species of Polyacanthella.
1. Body of normal form. Claw without any teeth. P. parva Womersley
2. Body of peculiar form, Abd. VI being reduced and almost enclosed by Abd. V. Claw with one inner tooth. P. proprieta sp. nov.
– 296 –

Polyacanthella parva Womersley, 1936. Plate 42, figs 58–60.

Colour: Deep blue-black.

Clothing: Thinly-clothed with fine short setae. Cuticle finely tuberculate.

Body: Length 0·6 mm. Antennae two-thirds as long as the head. Ant. III with sensory organ protected by two double-bent setae. Ocelli eight on each side. Postantennal organ absent. Abd. VI somewhat elongated and with six short straight anal spines without papillae.

Legs: Claw without any teeth. Empodial appendage and tenent hairs absent.

Furcula: Absent.

Locality: Known at present only from Pukekaroro Creek, Hills-borough, Auckland, from whence it was collected by Mr. E. D. Pritchard.

Polyacanthella proprieta sp. nov. Plate 42, figs. 53–57.

Colour: Medium bluish-grey all over.

Clothing: Sparsely clothed with short, plain setae. Cuticle finely tuberculate.

Body: Length 1 mm. Antennae two-thirds as long as head, third and fourth segments indistinctly separated. Body with paratergal swellings and of peculiar form. Seen from above abdomen very bunched up and not much longer than thorax. Head: thorax: abdomen as 15: 19: 28. Abd. VI very small and more or less enclosed, except for its posterior margin, in Abd. V. Four minute anal spines no larger than the cuticular granules, arranged on Abds. IV and V, one pair on each side of Abd. VI as in Fig. 54. Ocelli eight to each side, equal, and on raised black pigment patches, situated in a fold of the head cuticle. Postantennal organ equal to an ocellus and with seven peripheral lobes.

Legs: Claw with wide base and one prominent inner tooth at about centre. No outer teeth. Empodial appendage and tenent hairs absent. Claw with external basal tunica with serrated lateral edges.

Furcula: Absent.

Locality: In forest south of Bullock Creek, and between it and the Karangarua River, South Westland, in leaf debris on the forest floor.

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Type: Slide 3/946, Dominion Museum Collection.

Known at present from the type specimen only.

Genus Odontella Schaeffer, 1897.

Ocelli five to each side; post antennal organ present. Empodial appendage absent. Furcula generally with two-lobed lamella. Cuticle strongly tuberculate. Small, usually plump insects of a dark colour.

Two species occur in New Zealand, in both of which the furcula is more or less reduced, but which I think at the present stage are best left in this genus rather than erect a new genus for their reception.

– 297 –
Key To The New Zealand Species Of Odontella.
1. Anal spines two and on papillae, claw with small inner tooth. O. minutadentata sp. nov.
2. Anal spines two, not on papillae, claw without any teeth. O. minutissima sp. nov.

Odontella minutadentata sp. nov. Plate 43, figs. 61–65.

Colour: Deep blue-black. Antennae with a brownish tinge, legs brown.

Clothing: Clothed with short curved and long straight plain setae.

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Body: Length 0·85 mm. Antennae four-segmented 5/7 as long as head. Segments III and IV indistinctly separated. Ant. I: II: III+IV as 5: 6: 11. Post antennal organ alongside ocellar field in circular enclosure and with five lobes. Ocelli five on each side on dark-brown fields. Ant. IV with small apical sense knob, 4–7 short curved sense rods, and numerous very long plain setae. Anal spines on papillae, spines plus papillae half as long as claw. Cuticle very finely tuberculate and granulate.

Legs: Claw with very minute inner tooth at three-quarters from base. No outer teeth. Two long clavate tenent hairs much longer than claw to each foot. Empodial appendage entirely wanting.

Furcula: Very small. Dens and mucro indistinctly separated. Mucro tapering to a small upturned terminal tooth or hook. Manubrium: Dens: Mucro as 30: 40: 18.

Locality: Lake Roto-iti, South Island, under the bark of manuka trees.

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Type: Slide 3/342, Figured Paratype; slide 3/343, Dominion Museum Collection.

Odontella minutissima sp. nov. Plate 43, figs. 66–68.

Colour: A light creamy brown ground colour irregularly mottled with dark violet, which is heaviest in the anterior region of the body. From Abd. III posteriorly, the pigment dorsally is light and scattered.

Clothing: No setae dorsally except on Abd. V and Abd. VI, sparsely clothed laterally and posteriorly with short, plain setae. Cuticle very strongly tuberculate.

Body: Length 0·45 mm. Ocelli on black fields. Five large equal ocelli to each side. Post-antennal organ in pit alongside of ocellar field; difficult to make out but apparently with central boss and three lobes or possibly four. Ant. IV apically with several long setae and exertile sense organ. Abd. VI with two small sharply pointed spines without papillae but with their bases almost touching.

Legs: Claws long and tapering, without teeth. Empodial appendage and tenent hairs absent.

Furcula: Very much reduced, mucrodens tapering apparently to point.

Locality: Lewis Pass Saddle, 3100 ft., in leaf debris in forest.

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Type: Slide 3/345, Dominion Museum Collection.

Known at present only from the type specimen.

Genus Micranurida Börner, 1901.

Ocelli present or absent, if present reduced in number to 2, 4, or 6 to each side. Post-antennal organ present with from six to twenty-two tubercles. Empodial appendage and anal spines absent. Furcula generally absent or if present very much reduced. Mouth-parts styliform.

– 298 –

Micranurida decussa sp. nov. Plate 43, figs. 69–72.

Colour: Dark greenish-blue with a mid-dorsal bright orange coloured longitudinal stripe down Th. II and bright orange coloured crosses in centre of each of Th. III, Abd. 1, and Abd. II. On Abd. III and Abd. IV cross irregular in shape; it is absent from Abd. V and Abd. VI.

Clothing: Of very occasional short plain setae. Cuticle all over, finely tuberculate.

Body: Length 2·1 mm.; width 1 mm. Antennae equal to head in length, third and fourth segments indistinctly separated. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 9: 6: 4: 14. Apical sensory organ and sense rods absent, but Ant. IV with many short curved sensory hairs. Ocelli large, six to each side on dark brown tuberculate fields. Postantennal organ oval, with twelve irregular indistinct lobes. Mouth parts styliform.

Legs: Claw pigmented basally with large inner lump about one-third down and an adjacent inner tooth. No outer teeth. Empodial appendage and tenent hairs absent.

Furcula: Very small. Mucro present but blunt with blunt lateral tooth, and about half length of dens. Manubrium slightly shorter than dens.

Locality: Otitapu Range, near Rotorua, amongst debris under bracken.

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Type: Slide 3/346, Dominion Museum Collection.

At present this species is known only from the type specimen.

Genus Ceratrimeria Börner, 1906.
Platanurida Carpenter, 1925.

Generally large insects of flattened form measuring up to 10 mm. in length and having the paratergal regions swollen and enlarged. Frequently provided with spine-like processes of the cuticle or the cuticle with a hexagonal pattern. Ocelli either eight or five to each side. Postantennal organ present or absent and if present round or elliptical with from eight to thirty peripheral lobes or simply a closely-packed group of small indistinct lobes. Empodial appendage absent. Furcula either present or absent, and if present sometimes reduced.

This peculiar genus is represented in New Zealand by five indigenous species which may be keyed as follows:—

1. Body dorsally and laterally with spine-like processes of the cuticle. Eight ocelli to each side. 2
Body without such spine-like processes of the cuticle. 4
2. Body dorsally completely covered with spine-like processes. Claw with one inner tooth. Furcula absent. C. spinosa Lubbock
Body not completely so covered. 3
3. Spine-like processes of cuticle shorter and blunter and more widely spaced so that segmentation can be plainly seen from above. Claw with inner tooth and outer lateral teeth. Furcula absent. C. paucispinosa sp. nov.
– 299 –
4. Eight ocelli to each side. 5
Five ocelli to each side. 6
5. Deep blue-black species; claw with single inner tooth. Furcula well developed. C. novae-zealandiae Womersley
6. Bluish-black, covered all over with small bright orange spots. Claw with one inner tooth and one outer tooth. P.A.O. flat with nine lobes. Furcula reduced. C. marplesi sp. nov.
Purplish-gray with small yellow spots and yellowish pleural areas, P.A.O. dome-like with thirteen lobes. Furcula very much reduced. C. lata Carpenter

After a careful study of all of the above species I have been forced to the conclusion that there is insufficient difference between Carpenter's genus Platanurida and the genus Ceratrimeria to warrant the retention of the former. Platanurida was stated to differ essentially from Ceratrimeria in the absence of the furcula and in the presence of a circular postantennal organ with thirteen peripheral lobes. The furcula is, however, absent in several known species of Ceratrimeria. Moreover, re-examination of Carpenter's paratype of P. lata shows on the ventral surface of Abd. IV two small swellings similar to the furcula in C. marplesi n.sp., and which probably are the rudiments of a very much reduced furcula. These structures are very much more clear in the specimens of lata that I obtained from Bullock Creek. The circular rosette-like postantennal organ cannot be used as a character for the separation of Platanurida from Ceratrimeria as a similar postantennal organ occurs in the species C. novaezealandiae which could not be placed in the former genus on account of its well-developed furcula. Furthermore, the cuticle of P. lata shows very distinctly the hexagonal pattern characteristic of many species of Ceratrimeria. Abd. VI in both genera is hidden beneath Abd. V, and no other morphological detail can be found in Platanurida which would serve to distinguish it from Ceratrimeria. It seems necessary, therefore, that the former genus will have to be sunk as a synonym of the latter.

Ceratrimeria spinosa (Lubbock, 1899). Plate 44, figs. 76–77.

1925. Holacanthella spinosa Lubbock. Carpenter (in part).

1899. Anoura spinosa Lubbock.

1906. Holacanthella spinosa Lubbock. Börner.

Colour: Dark bluish-grey with some of the cuticular processes tipped with orange-yellow.

Clothing: Of fine short setae.

Body: Broad and flat, half as wide as long, length reaching to 10 mm.

Antennae shorter than head, segments indistinctly separated. First two antennal segments with cuticular processes. Ocelli eight to each side, but hidden in head-folds by cuticular processes. Post-antennal organ similarly hidden, but when observed, with about 25 peripheral lobes.

Spine-like processes on dorsal surface completely cover it and hide segmentation. Many of these processes bear two or more branches.

– 300 –

Legs: Claw large, with large inner tooth about one-third down. Tenent hairs absent.

Furcula: Absent.

Localities: Reported from Mount Arthur tableland, at 4,500 ft., by Womersley, 1937. A single specimen of this species was given to me some years ago by Miss M. Thomson, who collected it from an old rotten log on the Ngaio Hills at the back of Wellington, at an altitude of about 600 ft. This is the only specimen of this species I have ever seen, and I do not think that the species is at all as common as has been thought, being often confused with C. paucispinosa sp. nov. Apparently it is possible to find it at quite low altitudes; in fact, I find that the genus Ceratrimeria occurs in New Zealand at very low altitudes as compared with other countries, specimens frequently being found in moist situations down to within a few feet of sea-level.

Ceratrimeria paucispinosa sp. nov. Plate 44, fig. 81, Plate 45, figs. 82–83.

1925. Holacanthella spinosa Carpenter (in part).

Colour: In life dark slatey-blue, with bright red tubercular processes. In spirit and mounted body colour a dark greenish-blue and tubercular processes of cuticle yellow to orange.

Clothing: No dorsal setae, but a few ventro-lateral and lateral, plain setae around the posterior region.

Body: Length up to 3·5 mm. with width up to 2 mm. Body oval and fringed from rear of head backwards around posterior margin with long, orange to red tubercular or spine-like outgrowths of the cuticle. These also occur on the dorsal surface; but are shorter here and some are blue coloured. In this species these processes are shorter, blunter, fewer, and more widely spaced than in C. spinosa. The processes around posterior border may be considerably longer than those elsewhere. Segmentation distinct, with Abd. VI hidden below Abd. V. Very little folding or “humping” of the cuticle such as is found in C. tasmaniae. Head, however, divided by a transverse fold giving appearance of an extra segment. Antennae slightly longer than head, with third and fourth segments completely fused. Ant. I: II: III+IV as 6: 5: 17. Ocelli eight to each side. Post-antennal organ absent. Ant. IV with very short sensory hairs and at apex with one short curved strongly-ciliated seta. Cuticle finely tuberculate.

Legs: Claws tuberculate to tips. A strong inner tooth at one-quarter and a pronounced lateral ridge with two closely adpressed external lateral teeth.

Furcula: Absent.

Localities: Maruia Valley, under moss on the trunk of a beech tree in the heart of the native forest; Lake Mapourika, under the bark of kahikatea trees in the forest. Two specimens in the Canterbury Museum from Mount Algidus, Rakaia Gorge, Canterbury, and

– 301 –

labelled by Carpenter as Holacanthella spinosa, I find on re-examination are the above-mentioned species. In this connection it is interesting to note that Carpenter in describing these specimens states: “Though Dendy referred all the New Zealand forms to Lubbock's spinosa, I feel doubtful if all are really co-specific.”

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Type: Slide 3/349 and Figured Paratype: Slide 3/350, Dominion Museum Collection.

Ceratrimeria marplesi sp. nov. Plate 44, figs. 78–80; Plate 45, fig 84.

Colour: Bluish-black covered all over by small, irregular-shaped, bright orange spots, and with a brownish under colour showing through in places. Basal antennal segments black, terminal segment light blue speckled with dark blue. Cuticle with somewhat indistinct hexagonal pattern.

Clothing: Well clothed, with short, plain setae. Cuticle finely tuberculate.

Body: Length 3·2 mm., width 1·8 mm. Segmentation distinct, with Abd. VI hidden under Abd. V. Antennae shorter than head with segments III and IV fused. Ant. I: II: III+IV as 7: 8: 22. Body flattened above, but with prominent lateral paratergites, especially on Th. III and Abds. I–IV. Ocelli on dark brown fields situated on forward edge of head beside antennae. Five ocelli to each side all large, equal, and on posterior inner edge of field, between two of the ocelli, there are three minute circular black spots. Mouth parts cone-like. Postantennal organ rosette-like, but flat with central boss and nine peripheral lobes, slightly larger than an ocellus.

Legs: Claw with one prominent inner tooth at one-third and single strong outer tooth at two-thirds, claw strongly rugose. Tenent hairs absent.

Furcula: Present, but much reduced to two stumps without mucrones.

Locality: Bench Island, Dunedin. From a collection sent to me by Professor Marples, of Dunedin, after whom I have much pleasure in naming it.

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Type: Slide 3/351, Dominion Museum Collection.

At present this species is known only from the type specimen.

Ceratrimeria lata (Carpenter, 1925). Plate 44, figs. 73–75.

1925. Platanurida lata Carpenter.

Colour: Dorsally purplish-grey with irregular-shaped yellow areas and numerous very small yellow spots. The pleural areas yellow to orange. Ventrally pale grey with darker markings. Cuticle with strongly marked hexagonal pattern.

Clothing: Sparsely clothed with small plain setae.

Body: Length up to 4 mm. Width up to 2 mm. Antennae as long as or slightly shorter than head. Sensory organ at base of Ant. III not always present and probably peculiar to males. Always a very small bilobed sensory knob at apex of Ant. IV. Five large ocelli to each side. Postantennal organ circular, rosette-like with thirteen tubercles arranged on dome-like elevation slightly larger than an ocellus. Cuticle finely tuberculate.

– 302 –

Legs: Claw with two large outer lateral teeth about two-thirds down and one large inner tooth at one-quarter. Empodial appendage absent or very rudimentary. Tenent hairs absent. Claw tuberculate and pigmented basally.

Furcula: Very much reduced to two small knobs on anterior margin of Abd. IV.

Localities: First reported by Carpenter from Mount Algidus, Rakaia Gorge, and Lake Wakatipu. I have taken it at Bullock Creek, South Westland, amongst the leaf debris of the forest floor.

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Hypotype: Slide 3/948, Dominion Museum Collection. Paratype in the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Ceratrimeria novae-zealandiae (Womersley, 1936). Plate 45, figs. 85–87.

1936. Pseudachorutes novae-zealandiae Womersley.

Originally described under the genus Pseudachorutes in 1936, this species later (1937) was discussed as a Ceratrimeria. I am of the opinion that the species is a true Ceratrimeria.

Colour: Deep blue-black. Ocelli on black pigment patches.

Clothing: Sparsely clothed with short, fine setae. Cuticle finely-granulate.

Body: Length 5·0 mm. Antennae shorter than head, with third and fourth segments indistinctly separated. Ant. I: II: III+IV as 8: 10: 20. Ant. IV with 4–6 curved sensory rods. Ocelli eight on each side, all large and equal. Postantennal organ as large as an ocellus and with 8–10 lobes around central boss. Body with distinct pleural areas but without spine-like processes.

Legs: Claw with inner tooth at one-third. No outer teeth.

Furcula: Well developed. Dens three times as long as mucro. Mucro with indistinct apical knob or lobe and with rows of fine granulations along its length. Dens granulate with six fine ventral setae.

Locality: Reported from humus from Davies Bush, Manurewa, Auckland, by Womersley, in 1936. So far, not found elsewhere.

Genus Brachystomella Agren, 1903.

Mandibles absent. Ocelli eight to each side. Post-antennal organ and furcula present or absent. Empodial appendage absent.

This genus is represented in New Zealand by two species, one of which is endemic and the other of world-wide distribution.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Brachystomella.
1. Post-antennal organ present. 2
Post-antennal organ absent. 3
2. Tenent hairs long, but not or only indistinctly clavate. B. parvula Schaeffer
3. Tenent hairs absent. B. osextara sp. nov.

Brachystomella parvula (Schaeffer, 1896). Plate 45, figs. 91–93.

1896. Schottella parvula Schaeffer.

Colour: Mottled brown to reddish-violet.

Body: Length 1·0 mm. Cuticle finely-granulate. Ocelli eight to each side.

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Postantennal organ rosette-like, with from 5–8 tubercles.

Legs: Claw with one inner tooth and two outer lateral teeth. Two or three indistinctly clavate tenent hairs, sometimes absent, to each foot.

Furcula: Short; mucro tapering and about one-third the length of dens. Dens ventrally with five to six setae.

Locality: Specimens of this almost cosmopolitan species have been found so far in only one locality in this country, namely, Davies Bush, Manurewa, Auckland, from where they were reported by Womersley in 1936.

Brachystomella osxtara sp. nov. Plate 45, figs. 88–90.

Colour: Brown, with black shading around edges when seen from above. Antennae dark blackish-brown becoming black on IV. Legs and furcula bluish-black. Dark posterior band on Abd. V and Abd. VI.

Clothing: Sparsely clothed with short plain setae and on Abd. V and Abd. VI numerous longer, straight, plain setae. Cuticle very finely-tuberculate.

Body: Length 2·3 mm. Antennae slightly longer than head with segments III and IV indistinctly separated. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 10: 9: 3: 11. Ant. IV with many short curved sensory hairs and two short sense rods at apex. No exertile sac. Ocelli eight to each side all large and equal and on dark brown fields. Opposite centre of outer edge of each ocellar field is a strong seta. No trace of any post-antennal organ. Between most segments there are from two to three cuticular folds. Mouth parts elongate and styliform, projecting in front of head, mandibles wanting, maxillae toothed.

Legs: Claw with basal inner blunt tooth and prominent inner tooth just inside half-way down. No outer teeth. Empodial appendage rudimentary, consisting of short, three-toothed ridge. Tenent hairs absent.

Furcula: Well developed, but short. Dens twice length of mucro, tuberculate, pigmented, and with four ventral setae. Mucro with blunt apical tooth and broad spathulate inner lamella.

Locality: Huiarau Range, Urewera Country, in leaf mould in forest, 3,200 ft.

[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]

Type: Slide 3/352, Dominion Museum Collection.

At present known only from the type specimen.

Genus Pseudachorutes Tullberg, 1871.

Similar in general appearance to Acharutes but the mandibles are without any molar area. Ocelli either eight or five to each side. Post-antennal organ present, always with at least three lobes. Furcula present and well developed. Empodial appendage absent.

Represented in New Zealand by three species, all of which are endemic.

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Key to the New Zealand Species of Pseudachorutes.
1. Ocelli eight to each side, claw without any teeth.
Postantennal organ with five lobes. Colour black. P. algidensis Carpenter
Ocelli eight to each side, claw with teeth. 2
2. Post-antennal organ with four lobes. Colour dark-brown. P. pacifious Womersley
Post-antennal organ with eight lobes. Colour brown with dark transverse band on Abd. IV. P. brunneus Carpenter

Pseudachorutes algidensis Carpenter, 1925. Plate 46, figs. 97–99.

Colour: Black, furcula and distal segments of legs yellow.

Clothing: Evenly clothed with short, plain setae.

Body: Length 2–5 mm. Antennae two-thirds as long as head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 7: 9: 9: 7. Ant. IV apically with trilobed sensory sac. Ocelli eight to each side. Post-antennal organ with five lobes. Cuticle markedly tuberculate.

Legs: Claw elongate without teeth, but laterally with a series of transverse ridges. Tenent hairs and empodial appendage absent.

Furcula: Manubrium and mucrodens approximately equal. Mucro with small apical tooth and broad inner lamella which terminates before apex.

Locality: Mount Algidus, Rakaia Gorge.

Paratypes in Canterbury Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Pseudachorutes pacificus Womersley, 1936. Plate 45, figs. 94–96.

Colour: Dark brown.

Clothing: Of short, fine setae, rather longer on the antennae.

Body: Length 2·6 mm. Antennae as long as head, third and fourth segments indistinctly separated. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 7: 7: 8: 8. Ant. IV with small apical knob. Sense organ on Ant. III with two curved sense rods. Ocelli eight to each side, all large and equal. Post-antennal organ about equal to an ocellus and consisting of a central core with four peripheral lobes.

Legs: Claw with single inner tooth at about one-third. No outer teeth. Tenent hairs absent.

Furcula: Well developed, dens rather plump and slightly more than twice as long as mucro. Mucro blunt, without teeth, but with basal lamella.

Locality: Reported by Womersley from Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, and not since found elsewhere.

Pseudachorutes brunneus Carpenter, 1925. Plate 46, figs. 100–103.

Colour: Brown, with Abd. VI darker and dark posterior inter-segmental band on Abd. IV, antennae brown with Ant. IV very dark.

Clothing: Of numerous long, simple setae. Cuticle finely tuberculate.

Body: Length 2·5 mm. Antennae nearly as long as the head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 7: 8: 7: 9. Ocelli eight to each side. Post-antennal organ with eight lobes.

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Legs: Claw originally stated to have weak tooth in distal half but re-examination of Carpenter's material shows strong inner tooth at about one-third. I can find no trace of weak distal tooth. No outer teeth, empodial appendage rudimentary. Tenent hairs absent.

Furcula: Manubrium slightly longer than mucrodens. Dens with five prominent ventral setae. Mucro with upturned apical tooth and broad inner lamella.

Localities: Mount Algidus, Rakaia Gorge.

Paratypes in Canterbury Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Tribe Neanurini Börner, 1901.
Genus Neanura MacGillivray, 1893.

On account of the reversion to Achorutes Templeton in place of Hypogastrura Börner, it is necessary to revert to the use of Neanura MacGillivray for those forms that have been designated Achorutes by many recent workers in this field. The names Anoura Gervais and Anura Nicolet, which were erected in 1842 and 1847 respectively for the muscorum group of Templeton's genus Achorutes, were preoccupied when proposed and Neanura MacGillivray, 1893, therefore becomes the name of this genus, of which the genotype must be (Neanura) muscorum Templeton, 1835.

Maxillary head lancet-like without teeth or lamellae. Body segments with large bosses or tubercles. Cuticle tuberculate. Ocelli generally present, but post-antennal organ may be absent. Empodial appendage and furcula absent. Anal spines absent.

Four species and three subspecies of this genus occur in New Zealand and of these only one species and one subspecies is endemic. The remainder are all Australian species except for A. muscorum, which is a cosmopolitan species.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Neanura.
1. Three ocelli on each side. 2
Two ocelli on each side, colour usually white, but if pigmented, the pigment fades out in spirit. 4
2. In life coloured blue to bluish-grey, the colour not fading out in spirit. Setae long and generally white. Abd. VI visible from above and with two separated bosses. Abd. V with four bosses, the lateral ones, with those of Abd. VI, terminate the abdomen with four lobes. Claws without any teeth. N. muscorum Templeton
In life white, creamy, or pinkish-coloured forms. 3
3. In life creamy coloured, dorsal setae strong, blunt, and finely serrated. Abd. V with four bosses, Abd. VI with two. Ocellar bosses each with three setae. Claws without inner teeth. Bosses small. N. newmani Womersley
In life white, yellow, or pinkish-coloured, dorsal setae very long and serrated towards their tips. Abd. IV with ten bosses, V with four and Abd. VI with two bosses. All setae on bosses surrounded by 7–8 non-tuberculate radiating lines. Bosses very large. N. radiata sp. nov.
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4. In life pinkish coloured, dorsal setae simple without serrations, and the cuticle without granular fields around the bosses. Claws without inner teeth. N. rosacea Schött
Cuticle with distinct fields of granules around the bosses, the dorsal setae not simple but at least with minute serrations. Claws without inner teeth. 5
5. All the dorsal setae tapering to a fine point and with minute serrations only. N. hirtella subsp. schötti Womersley
All the dorsal setae ciliated along their whole length and apically brush-like. N. hirtella subsp. cirrata Schött
Some dorsal setae coarsely serrated and apically blunt or spoon-like; other dorsal setae tapering to a fine point and finely serrated. N. hirtella subsp. novae-zealandiae nov.

Neanura muscorum Templeton, 1835. Plate 46, figs. 104–105.

Colour: Bluish-grey to deep blue, granular.

Clothing: Of long, colourless to white setae.

Body: Length up to 2 mm. Antennae shorter than head, with the two apical segments indistinctly separated. Ocelli three to each side. Postantennal organ absent. Twelve bosses on head, six on Th. I, eight on each of Th. II–Abd. IV, four on Abd. V, and two on Abd. VI. Abdomen terminates in four lobes comprising the lateral bosses of Abd. V and the two of Abd. VI.

Legs: Claws without any inner teeth.

Furcula: Absent.

This cosmopolitan species was first recorded in New Zealand by Womersley, 1936, from Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland. I can now record it from a number of localities in both Islands, which are: From the South Island—Kidd's Bush, Lake Hawea, in old logs; Buller Gorge, near Westport, in old logs and under the bark of old stumps; Lake Mapourika, under the bark of kahikatea trees; Rocky Creek, Weheka, under stones; Pigeon Bay, in nest of ant, M. nitidum (Coll. E. W. Moore). From the North Island there were numerous specimens amongst a collection of Collembola sent to me by Mr. D. K. Ross, from Newbury, Palmerston North, where they were taken from an old log.

Neanura rosacea (Schött, 1917). Plate 47, fig. 121.

Colour: In life, pale to deep pink, sometimes pink anteriorly only. The pink colour quickly fades out in spirit.

Clothing: Of strong, simple setae. Cuticle evenly tuberculate.

Body: Length up to 2 mm. Antennae about as long as head. Ant. IV apically with trilobed sensory knob. Ocelli two to each side, unpigmented and situated on edge of a large head boss. Postantennal organ absent.

Legs: Claws long, without inner teeth or tenent hairs.

Furcula: Absent.

Locality: I have taken one specimen from the island in Lake Waikare-iti, Urewera Country, under bark.

Neanura newmani (Womersley, 1933). Plate 46, figs. 106–108.

Colour: In life, creamy to white.

Clothing: Of blunt but strong, finely serrated setae. Cuticle strongly tuberculate.

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Body: Length up to 3 mm. Antennae half as long as head. Ant. IV apically with about six sensory hairs. Three ocelli to each side, two of which are situated very close together and some considerable distance from them is the third, which is on exterior lateral face of adjacent posterior boss. Ocelli pigmented in life; pigment may or may not dissolve out in spirit. Dorsally on head three rows of two, five, and six bosses respectively. Abd. IV with six bosses; Abd. V with four bosses; Abd. VI with two bosses.

Legs: Claws tuberculate almost to their tips, with basal lateral teeth and one inner tooth. No tenent hairs.

Furcula: Absent.

Locality: This is a further Australian species which was abundant in a collection sent to me by Mr. E. W. Moore, and taken from old stumps and leaf mould in Hay's Bush, Banks Peninsula. In many of these specimens the pigment of the eyes was not dissolved by alcohol as is stated to happen with the Australian specimens.

Neanura hirtella (Börner, 1906), subsp. cirrata Schött, 1917, and subsp. schotti, Womersley, 1935.

These two varieties may be separated as in the preceding key. They are white species of 1·5 to 2 mm. in length, with the cuticle tuberculate and raised regularly into bosses. Two unpigmented ocelli to each side. The fourth antennal segment with typical trilobed apical sensory knob. The claws without inner teeth (in typical form, hirtella Börner, inner teeth are present).

Subsp. schotti (Womersley, 1935). Plate 46, figs. 109–111.

This Australian variety is fairly common in New Zealand, and when found is generally in large numbers. I have taken it at Lake Waikaremoana from a rotten log in the forest; at Awahuri, Palmerston North, from old logs under kowhai trees; at Lake Brunner, under the bark of the native white pine trees; and at Falls Creek, Hollyford Valley, from wet leaf mould.

Subsp. cirrata (Schött, 1917). Plate 46, figs, 112–113.

This further Australian variety was reported by Womersley in 1936 from Davies' Bush, Manurewa, Auckland. It has not been found since that time.

Subsp. novae-zealandiae nov. Plate 46, figs. 114–116.

In this variety the structure of the dorsal setae differs from that found in any of the other varieties. At the extreme posterior these are long and tapering, with very fine serrations towards the apex, which are similar to those of the variety schötti. The dorsal setae anterior to these are very coarsely serrated at their tips, sometimes with two spoon-like lobes. Towards the head these setae become more strongly serrated, the serrations extending over the apical third of their length, with finer serrations extending down to one-half; but the setae are never serrated for their entire length as in the variety cirratus. Long, tapering, finely-serrated setae also occur sparingly along the dorso-lateral surface.

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The antennae are shorter than the head, and Ant. IV apically is provided with a single eversible sac-like organ and four stout curved sensory rods. Ocelli two to each side. Claw simple and without teeth.

Localities: Lake Brunner, under the bark of white pine trees; Island in Lake Waikare-iti, under bark, elevation 2,995 ft.; Kapiti Island, in leaf debris in forest; Newbury, Palmerston North, from old logs (collected by Mr. D. K. Ross), and from leaf mould in the bush on the Huiarau Range, Urewera, 3,200 ft.; Akatarawa, in rotten log, 1,400 ft., Maruia Valley from rotten logs in forest.

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Type: Slide 3/902, Dominion Museum Collection.

Neanura radiata sp. nov. Plate 47, figs. 117–120.

Colour: White, sometimes pale yellowish or pinkish, but any pigment lost in spirit.

Clothing: Numerous very long dorsal setae arise from the bosses with, towards their tips, a few widely-separated serrations. Lateral bosses generally with two setae each and dorsal bosses with one.

Body: Length up to 2 mm. Antennae not quite as long as head, with III and IV indistinctly separated. Ant. IV at apex with an exertile sac and several sensory hairs. Ocelli three to each side, unpigmented, and arranged around edge of a large boss; two close together, one above the other; one on anterior lateral face of boss, other below and just off boss, while third is on posterior lateral face of boss. Whole body presents a greatly “blistered” appearance on account of development dorsally on head, on Abd. V and Abd. VI, and dorsolaterally on all remaining segments of extremely large bosses. Two on Abd. VI, four on Abd. V, and ten on Abd. IV. On side of each of other segments large lateral and large dorso-lateral boss visible from above. Between these, down centre of back, bosses are much smaller and variable. Many large bosses dorsally on head, posterior row of which shows six. Whole cuticle tuberculate, and from every boss long setae arise, each seta surrounded by a non-tuberculate circle from which radiate 7–8 non-tuberculate lines. This feature is characteristic.

Legs: Claw simple with single inner tooth at about one-third down. Empodial appendage and tenent hairs absent.

Localities: Huiarau Range, Urewera, in leaf mould in forest at about 3,000 ft.; Waihui Gorge, Urewera, in leaf mould; Akatarawa, in rotten log, 1,400 ft.

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Type: Slide 3/901, Dominion Museum Collection.

This species would appear to be closely allied to N. bakeri Hand. from the Philippines, from which it differs in the structure of the setae, the absence of a post-antennal organ, the arrangement of the eyes, and the radiating structure on the bosses. It is readily distinguished from N. newmani by its very large bosses and numerous long setae.

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Family Onychiuridae Lubbock, 1867.
Sub-family Onychiurinae Bagnall, 1935.

Genus Onychiurus Gervais, 1841.

Furcula if present then rudimentary. Pseudocelli present and with definite chitinous borders. Cuticle finely-granulate. Three species and one variety belonging to this genus are known from New Zealand, but none of these are endemic. They are world-wide species; and whether they were present in this country before the advent of European civilization is a question of some doubt.

Key to the Species of Onychiurus Found in new Zealand.
1. With anal spines. 2
Without anal spines. 3
2. (a) Senory organ on Ant. III with sensory clubs like a blunch of grapes. Post-antennal organ with 16–32 simple lobes. O. armatus Tullberg
(b) As above, but without anal spines. subsp. inermis Axelson
3. Sensory clubs of Ant. III smooth. Post-antennal organ with 12–16 bunches of tubercles. O. fimetarius Linné

Onychiurus armatus Tullberg, 1869. Plate 47, figs. 122–126.

1937. Onychiurus makarensis Salmon.

1894. Lipura incerta Moniez.

Colour: White

Clothing: Sparsely clothed with short setae.

Body: Length from 0·6 mm. to 2·5 mm. Antennae shorter than head. Sensory organ on Ant. III with sensory clubs rather like bunch of grapes. Post-antennal organ with from 16–32 simple tubercles. Anal spines present, long, slightly curved, and on papillae. Pseudocelli variable.

Legs: Claw without any teeth. Empodial appendage needle-like almost as long as claw.

Furcula: Absent.

Mr H. Womersley, of the South Australian Museum, Adelaide, drew my attention to the fact that my species O. makarensis possibly was the cosmopolitan species armatus; and I now have to confirm his view. Further localities for this species include:—Mount Manganui, Tauranga, amongst pine needles under a grove of pine-trees; Newbury, Palmerston North, in the soil along the banks of a stream; specimens have been taken also at several localities in the Urewera Country, notably in leaf mould in the bush around Lake Waikaremoana. From Tauhara Mountain, Taupo, specimens have been obtained under the bark of beech trees at an elevation of 3000 ft.; Makara coast and Orongorongo coast among roots of rushes; Lake Rotoroa in leaf mould; Lake Pukaki, under stones on edge of lake; Mount Cargill, Dunedin, in soil.

Subsp. inermis Axelson.

Similar to armatus but the anal spines absent.

Localities: From leaf debris under tree-ferns in the Awakino Valley and from amongst stones at the Whangarei Falls and Lake Waikaremoana, in leaf mould by lake.

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Onychiurus fimetarius Linné, 1766. Plate 47, figs. 127–130.

Colour: White.

Body: Length up to 2 mm. Antennae shorter than the head. Sensory organ of Ant. III with smooth sense clubs. Postantennal organ with 12–16 bunches of tubercles. Pseudocelli present dorsally as follows:—2 on antennal base, 1 posterior to base, 2 posteriorly on head, 2 on Th. I, 4 on each of Th. II and III, 6 on Abds. I to III inclusive, 10 on Abd. IV and 6 on Abd. V. Anal spines absent.

Legs: Claw without any teeth. Empodial appendage needle-like, slightly curved, and from a half to as long as the claw. Furcula absent.

Localities: Reported in New Zealand in 1936 by Womersley from Manurewa and Hillsborough, Auckland. Also now found on the Huiarau Range at an elevation of 3,200 ft., under the bark of a rimu tree, and at Te Whaiti in old logs and amongst leaf mould in the bush; Mount Ngamoko, Lake Waikaremoana, in old log, 3,600 ft.; in Wellington Botanical Gardens from roots of flax plants, and at Te Kuiti, in leaf mould (coll. by W. P. Bradley).

Sub-family Tulberginae Bagnall, 1935.

Genus Dinaphorura Bagnall, 1935.

Sensory organ of Ant. III with three sense clubs, protected by cuticular fold. Ant. IV apically with two sensory knobs. Pseudocelli present. Abd. VI with at least seven spine-like processes.

Represented in New Zealand by two endemic species.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Dinaphorura.
1. Abd. VI with nine different-sized spines. D. novae-zealandiae Womersley
2. Abd. VI with two large anal horns and nine equal-sized spines. D. laterospina sp. nov.

Dinaphorura novae-zealandiae Womersley, 1935. Plate 48, fig. 131.

In the original description of this species by Womersley no specific locality is given; but the material came from the vicinity of Christchurch. In his later publication on the “Primitive Insects of South Australia,” this species is again referred to and mis-spelt “D. novae-hollandiae” and “D. novae-hollandae.”

I have not, so far, come across this insect; but the following brief description is taken from Mr Womersley's original:—

Colour: White.

Clothing: Sparsely clothed with long spine-like setae.

Body: Length 0·9 mm. Antennae as long as head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 10: 10: 10: 15. Ant. IV with sensory organ at one-third from apex composed of a pair of stout curved rods and a guard seta behind a cuticular fold. Post-antennal organ with about 20 inclined, adpressed lobes. Anal spines nine, as follows:—A pair of strong, posterior, normal anal spines on stout papillae, the spines plus

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papillae half as long again as the claws; an anterior row of four blunt, stout, spine-like processes, the middle pair of which are smaller than the lateral ones. Between this row and the posterior spines is a small process on each side; and ventrally between the posterior spines is another small process. Pseudocelli large, arranged as follows:—One on each antennal base, a pair on the back of the head, and a pair on each thoracic and abdominal segment to V.

Dinaphorura laterospina sp. nov. Plate 48, figs. 132–136.

Colour: White.

Clothing: Sparsely clothed with short, plain setae, which are longer around the tip of the abdomen.

Body: Length 1·4 mm. Antennae equal in length to head, the four segments being related to one another as 12: 17: 12: 23. Ant. IV with strong apical seta and many long sensory setae. A sensory organ midway along Ant. IV on ventral side consists of two smooth inwardly-curved sense clubs and two sense rods behind a curved cuticular lip. A very small apical exertile knob and a second similar knob just below apex of Ant. IV. Ocelli absent. A single pseudocellus at base of each antenna, one on each side of the back of the head and from Th. II to Abd. V one on each side of each segment. On Abd. VI two large curved anal horns on papillae, horns plus papillae being one and a-half times length of hind claw. Abd. VI also bears nine short fat spines arranged as follows:—One median ventral below and between anal horns; one on outside of and slightly anterior to each anal horn; and anteriorly to anal horns a transverse row of six equal-sized spines, two of which are lateral, the remaining four arranged as two pairs, one pair being in front of each anal horn. Post-antennal organ curved and containing about thirty inclined tubercles. The head indistinctly separated from the thorax and tapering anteriorly with antennae inserted on extreme front.

Legs: Claw with no teeth and empodial appendage rudimentary on middle and hind feet; absent from front feet.

Locality: Falls Creek, Hollyford Valley, amongst very wet leaf mould in the bush in the immediate vicinity of the falls.

Type: Slide ¾26, Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Mesaphorura Börner, 1901.

Abd. VI with two simple spines and sometimes with an additional median ventral process. Post-antennal organ with twenty or more tubercles which usually are spindle-shaped and lying at an acute angle to the axis.

Mesaphorura krausbaueri Börner, 1901. Plate 48, figs. 137–138.

I have taken this cosmopolitan species from very wet leaf mould in the forest above Falls Creek, Hollyford Valley. It was first reported in New Zealand by Womersley, in 1936, from humus, Pukekaroro Creek, Hillsborough. It is a small white insect about 1 mm. long. The antenna are slightly longer than the head. Ant. III with a complex sense organ composed of two inwardly-curved sensory clubs, and two sense rods behind a cuticular fold, and three prominent protecting setae. Ant. IV with apical sensory knob and numerous

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curved sensory rods. Post-antennal organ with about 40 simple tubercles. A single pseudocellus on each antennal base, one on each side of the back of the head, one on each side of Thor. II to Abd. V. There are two small curved anal spines on papillae. Claws simple, empodial appendage vestigial.

Super-family Entomobryoidea Womersley.
Family Isotomidae Schaeffer, 1896.

Tribe Anurophorini Börner, 1906.
Genus Cryptopygus Willem, 1902.

Small species with Abd. VI concealed below Abd. V. Ocelli, postantennal organ and furcula all present, though the latter may be reduced.

This interesting and primitive southern genus is well represented in New Zealand by six species, of which five are endemic and the remaining one Australian.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Cryptopygus.
1. Mucro tapering, with apical tooth only or with no teeth. 2
Mucro with apical and pre-apical teeth. 5
2. Ocelli eight to each side, all large and equal. 3
Ocelli eight to each side, unequal. 4
3. Dens with two very long ventral setae almost as long as itself. Mucro with small apical tooth, claw with small inner tooth. Dark-blue species. C. minimus sp. nov.
4. Ocelli seven large and one small. Dens with two long ventral setae and one dorsal seta at apex. Very dark-blue species. Mucro with single terminal upturned tooth. Claw with a single inner tooth. C. okukensis sp. nov.
Dens with two long ventral setae. Mucro tapering without teeth but with narrow inner lamella. Claw with one strong inner tooth. Black species. C. niger Carpenter
5. Ocelli eight to each side, all large and equal. 6
Ocelli eight to each side, unequal. 7
6. Brilliant blue species with a tinge of violet on the head. Post-antennal organ equal to three ocelli in length. Dens with three prominent ventral setae. Mucro without inner lamella. C. haweaensis sp. nov.
Entirely blue species. Post-antennal organ equal to two ocelli in length, mucro with narrow inner lamella, and numerous long seta. C. loftyensis Womersley
7. Ocelli six large, two small, to each side. Post-antennal organ equal to two ocelli in length. Dens with two long ventral setae. Jet-black species. C. atratus sp. nov.

Cryptopygus minimus sp. nov. Plate 48, fig. 143.

Colour: In life, dark blue; mounted, dark blue, the head with a tinge of violet and the legs and antennae pale bluish-violet. Ocelli on black fields.

Clothing: Of comparatively long, plain setae.

Body: Length up to 0·65 mm. Antennae slightly longer than the head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 14: 18: 15: 32. Head very long, mesotergum almost completely covering prothorax. Head: Th. I and II:

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III: Abd. I : II : III : IV : V as 66 : 33 : 29 : 24 : 26 : 29 : 35 : 25. Abd. VI hidden under Abd. V. Ocelli eight to each side. Post-antennal organ large oval, not very clearly defined, but about equal to two ocelli. Ant. IV with long apical bristle and many long sensory setae.

Legs: Claw with single inner tooth at three-quarters. Empodial appendage two-thirds as long as claw, with broad inner lamella truncated at two-thirds and narrower outer lamella reaching to apex. Two clavate tenent hairs longer than claw to each foot.

Furcula: Very short, manubrium to dens to mucro as 15: 11: 4. The mucro tapering to small apical tooth. Dens with two very long ventral setae almost as long as itself.

Locality: Te Whaiti, Urewera Country, on the trunks of willow trees growing on the river bank.

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Type: Slide 3/427, Dominion Museum Collection.

Cryptopygus okukensis sp. nov. Plate 48, figs. 139–142.

Colour: In life a very dark blue; mounted specimens show a uniform deep blue-black.

Body: Length 1·25–1·5 mm. Clothed with short hairs, longer setae occurring around posterior region. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax and is related to head as 12: 22. Antennae four-segmented, the segments related as 5: 8: 5: 10, slightly longer than head. Ocelli eight to each side, seven large and one small. Post-antennal organ approximately equal in length to two ocelli diameters and elliptical. Ventral tube small. Abdomen IV to Abd. III as 15: 9. Abd. VI hidden under Abd. V.

Legs: Lightly clothed with long setae. Claw with single internal tooth about halfway from base of claw. Empodial appendage lanceolate with broad inner and narrower outer lamellae. Single tenent non-clavate hair to each foot, longer than claw.

Furcula: Short, manubrium: dens: mucro as 6 : 3 : 1. Mucro tapering with single terminal upturned tooth. A pair of long setae ventrally placed at distal end of manubrium and two long ventral setae on dens. A long dorsal seta arises from end of dens and reaches almost to tip of mucro.

Localities: Okuke Pass, Canterbury, collected by W. E. Moore; Opotiki Beach, Bay of Plenty, under pohutukawa bark; Lower Hollyford Valley, under beech bark and rimu bark; Haast Pass, under moss on tree trunks and under beech bark.

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Type: Slide 3/223, Dominion Museum Collection.

Cryptopygus niger Carpenter, 1925. Plate 48, figs. 144–145.

Colour: Black above, paler ventrally. Legs and furcula dark purple with pale mottling.

Clothing: Of short, plain setae.

Body: Length 1·5 mm. Antennae slightly longer than head. Ant. IV apically with small sensory knob.

Ocelli eight to each side, six large and equal, and two, the posterior inner two, smaller. Post-antennal organ oval, larger than ocellus.

– 314 –

Legs: In his original description, Carpenter stated the claw was without teeth; but I now find on re-examining his specimens that the claw has a strong inner tooth just beyond the centre; no outer teeth. Empodial appendage from one-third to a half as long as claw, with broad inner and narrow outer lamellae. Front feet with one, others with two clavate tenent hairs about as long as claws.

Furcula: Dens about twice length of mucro and with at least two long ventral setae. Mucro lightly curved and tapering, without teeth, but with narrow inner lamella.

Locality: Described originally from a large number of species collected at Ben More, Canterbury. Not found elsewhere since.

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Paratypes: In the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand. Two paratype slides, 3/985 and 3/986, in the Dominion Museum Collection.

Cryptopygus haweaensis sp. nov. Plate 48, figs. 146–148.

Colour: In life a brilliant blue. Mounted, a clear prussian blue, varying from pale to dark, with the head, legs, and antennae violet. The ocelli on black pigment patches. Pale, almost colourless inter-segmental bands may be present on the anterior margins of all segments.

Clothing: Sparsely clothed with short plain setae.

Body: Length 0·9 mm. Antennae a little longer than head, four segments related as 12: 21: 16: 36. Ocelli eight to each side and equal. Postantennal organ elliptical and equal to three ocelli in length. Head: Th. I: II: III: Abd. I: II: III: IV: V as 13: 11: 8: 6: 6: 7: 7.

Legs: Claw with single very small inner tooth a little past half-way down. No outer teeth. Empodial appendage about one-quarter length of claw with very broad inner lamella reaching halfway to apex, and outer lamella which reaches tip. Two long clavate tenent hairs to each foot.

Furcula: Dens with three prominent ventral setae. Mucro long and tapering, with apical tooth and short backwardly-sloping sub-apical tooth. Dens related to mucro as 3: 2.

Localities: I have taken large numbers of this really beautiful species from Kidd's Bush, on the shore of Lake Hawea, in old logs and leaf debris; and from Peel Forest, Canterbury, under the bark of totara trees.

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Type: Slide 3/452, Dominion Museum Collection.

Cryptopygus loftyensis Womersley, 1934. Plate 48, fig. 149.

Colour: Entirely blue, and the clothing is very heavy of numerous short simple setae.

Body: Length up to 1·2 mm. Antennae slightly longer than head, segments related as 17: 25: 23: 37. Ant. IV apically with small exertile sac. Ocelli eight to each side. Post-antennal organ elliptical and equal in length to two ocelli.

Legs: Claw with inner tooth just past centre. Empodial appendage about half as long as claw and with broad inner lamella. Two fine clavate tenent hairs as long as claw to each foot.

– 315 –

Furcula: Manubrium: dens: mucro as 35:28:7. Mucro with apical tooth, pre-apical tooth, and narrow inner lamella. Dens with numerous long setae.

Locality: This Australian species has been found in New Zealand in humus at Pukekaroro Creek, Hillsborough, Auckland, from whence it was reported by Womersley in 1936. It has not been found elsewhere.

Cryptopygus atratus sp. nov. Plate 48, figs. 150–151.

Colour: In life and mounted jet black all over, with sometimes, in mounted specimens, bluish tinge.

Clothing: Sparsely clothed with plain setae.

Body: Length 1·2 mm. Antennae slightly longer than head, four segments related as 2:8:6:12. Sensory knob at tip of Ant. IV Ocelli eight to each side, six large and two, posterior inner two, small. Post-antennal organ large and about size of two ocelli. Head related to meso-thorax as 47:27 and Abd. III to Abd. IV as 16:22. Ventral tube short and dome-like.

Legs: Claw with single inner tooth a little past half-way. No outer teeth. Empodial appendage about half as long as claw with outer lamella reaching to tip and broad circular inner lamella reaching about half-way. Two long clavate tenent hairs, longer than claw, to each foot.

Furcula: Short, manubrium: dens: mucro as 25:19:6. Mucro with prominent apical recurved tooth and smaller pre-apical tooth. Dens supplied ventrally with two long setae.

Localities: Lake Mapourika, under the bark of kahikatea trees; Ferguson's Bush, West Coast, under the bark of rimu trees; Lake Te Anau, under the bark of rimu trees; Bullock Creek, South West-land, under the bark of rimu trees; Lake Brunner, in bush soil and debris; Fish River Gorge, Haast Pass, under the bark of totara trees.

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Type: Slide 3/438 and Figured Paratype: Slide 3/439, Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Isotomodes Axelson, 1907.

Body elongate, the segments longer than they are wide. Abds. V and VI indistinctly separated. Ocelli absent. Post-antennal organ present. Furcula reduced. Dens basally with two large teeth on internal face.

Isotomodes productus Axelson, 1907. Plate 51, figs. 189–190.

This European species was recorded by Womersley, from Christ-church, in 1935. It has not been found again since.

It is a small white insect generally found in the soil and measuring up to 1 mm. in length and sparsely clothed with short, simple setae. Antennae slightly longer than head, the fourth segment apically with sensory pit and six sensory hairs. Post-antennal organ large, oval, and without any notch. Claw without any teeth, empodial appendage half as long as claw, lancet-like. Furcula not reaching Abd. III. Dens with two dorsal and two ventral setae. Mucro with two teeth. Manubrium: dens: mucro as 8:4:1.

– 316 –

Genus Folsomia Willem, 1902.

Generally unpigmented species, with ocelli reduced in number or entirely absent. Abd. segments IV, V, and VI fused. Empodial appendage present, Furcula present, mucro with two or three teeth. Dens, basally, generally with two large teeth or hooks on inner edge. In his paper in 1937 Womersley reported three cosmopolitan species of this genus as being found in New Zealand at Pukekaroro Creek, Hillsborough, Auckland, but only one of these species has been found again, namely, F. fimetarioides which was amongst a collection of S. termitum sent to me by Mr. E. D. Pritchard and collected from Niger Bay, Onehunga, Auckland.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Folsomia.
1. Species with two ocelli to each side. F. quadrioculata Tullberg
Species with less than two ocelli. 2
2. Mucro tridentate, ocelli absent. F. fimetarioides Axelson
Mucro bidentate, one ocellus to each side. F. diplopthalma Axelson

Folsomia fimetarioides Axelson, 1903. Plate 49, figs. 152–153.

Colour: White or yellowish.

Clothing: Of moderately long stout setae.

Body: Length up to 1·5 mm. Antennae twice as long as head. Ant. I:II:III:IV as 10:20:15:27. Ant. IV with ten sensory hairs, apical knob, and sub-apical papilla. Ocelli absent. Post-antennal organ narrow, straight, and double-outlined.

Legs: Claw without any teeth, empodial appendage lanceolate and half as long as claw. Tenent hairs absent.

Furcula: Almost reaching ventral tube, dens twice as long as manubrium, strongly annulated. Mucro tridentate, apical tooth long and equal to pre-apical, basal tooth smaller. Sometimes a fourth very small tooth near centre. Dens corrugated.

Folsomia diplophthalma Axelson, 1902. Plate 49, figs. 159–160.

Dirty grey or white in colour and measuring up to 1·2 mm. in length Antennae equal to head in length. A single ocellus to each side. Post-antennal organ from 4–7 times as long as ocellus. Claw without any teeth and from 2–3 times length of empodial appendage. Tenent hairs absent. Furcula short, dens and manubrium approximately equal in length. Mucro bidentate, pre-apical tooth the larger. Dens corrugated.

Folsomia quadrioculata Tullberg, 1871. Plate 49, figs. 154–158.

Colour: Dirty pale grey to greyish-black.

Clothing: Densely clothed with long, stiff, simple setae.

Body: Up to 1 mm. in length. Two ocelli to each side, each on its own pigment spot. Post-antennal organ narrow, three to four times as long as an ocellus, parallel-sided, and slightly curved. Ant. IV with terminal knob, sub-apical papilla and numerous sensory hairs.

Legs: Claw without teeth, empodial appendage lanceolate and from one-third to one-half as long as claw. Tenent hairs absent.

Furcula: Not quite reaching Abd. II. Manubrium: dens: mucro as 5:3:1. Mucro bidentate, apical tooth smaller and slightly hooked. Dens strongly corrugated.

– 317 –

Tribe Isotomini Börner, 1913.
Genus Acanthomurus Womersley, 1934.

Species similar to Isotomurus, but dentes bearing ventrally numerous slightly curved setae that are strongly serrated down one side, and all setae of body strongly ciliated.

This genus was erected for a single Australian species, A. plumbeus Wom., from which only up to the present it has been known. I now add three new species and a new subspecies from New Zealand.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Acanthomurus.
1. Plump species, body strongly flexed, with head much deeper than long. Body dorsally with many exceedingly long setae, much longer than any other body setae. Colour yellow with dark markings on sides. Post-antennal organ, narrow, elliptical, and about as long as an ocellus A. alpinus sp. nov.
Body not plump, but normal, not so strongly flexed. 2.
2. Dorsal setae not very much longer than other body setae. Colour yellowish below, dark brown to violet dorsally. A. womersleyi sp. nov.
Dorsal setae exceedingly long—longer than depth of body 3.
3. (a) Colour variable from greenish to yellow or orange-brown with bluish intersegmental bands and patches. Clothing of short ciliated setae and many exceedingly long setae. A. setosus sp. nov.
(b) As above, except that the whole of the ventral surface is coloured a deep-blue or violet. A. setosus subsp. violaceus nov.

Acanthomurus alpinus sp. nov. Plate 50, figs. 169–174.

Colour: In life, yellow with black markings on sides. Mounted specimens are ochreous yellow with a small irregular violet patch on the side of each segment near dorsal surface. On Abd. V a violet patch on the side near ventral surface and occasional patches of violet may occur along ventral edges of pleura. Legs and furcula yellow, tibio-tarsi sometimes pale violet. Antennae pale brown with violet joints and Ant. IV all violet. Ocelli on very large black pigment patches.

Clothing: Thickly clothed with short and occasional long ciliated setae. Along dorsal surface these setae are relatively enormous and longer than the depth of the insect's body. Bothriotrichia occur on Abd. III and Abd. IV. Appendages thickly clothed with ciliated setae, legs carrying many very long such setae.

Body: Strongly flexed and more plump than generally the case in Collembola. Length of body 1·4–2·7 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, the four segments related as 9 : 12 : 11 : 14. Head much deeper than long. Ocelli eight to each side, six very large and two, the posterior inner two, exceedingly small. Several short setae arise within area of ocellar group. Post-antennal organ very narrow, elliptical, and slightly longer than diameter of an ocellus. Ventral tube, long, cylindrical; Abd. III and IV sub-equal.

– 318 –

Legs: Claw with two inner teeth, one about half-way, the other just past three-quarters down from claw base, and a pair of exterior lateral teeth on outer edge. Empodial appendage reaching beyond distal tooth with broad inner and outer lamellae, inner with a large tooth on its forward edge. Inner lamella tapers more rapidly than outer. A small seta arises on each side of base of claw. Two slender non-clavate tenent hairs to each foot.

Furcula: Dens with a double row of serrated spines, stout and straight at base but becoming more slender and slightly curved towards mucro. Mucro with four teeth, a large apical and a larger sub-apical tooth, a smaller central tooth and a still smaller exterior lateral tooth. Furcula thickly clothed with short ciliated setae. Dens: mucrodens as 12:29.

Localities: Arthur's Pass, in beech forest above 2,500 ft. amongst leaf debris; at 3,000 ft. under stones and moss in alpine meadow; Lewis Pass Saddle, 3,100 ft. in leaf debris in bush; South Westland, under stones at Rocky Creek, near Weheka; Alex Knobb, Waiho, 3,000 ft. in leaf debris; Haast Pass summit, in old logs; Lake Gunn, Eglinton Valley, under beech bark.

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Type: Slide 3/464 and Figured Paratype: Slide 3/466, Dominion Museum Collection.

Acanthomurus womersleyi sp. nov. Plate 50, figs. 175–176.

Colour: In life, translucent ochreous brown; mounted, yellow-ish-brown to light brown, with sometimes isolated patches of violet along sides. Top of head and of each segment dark brown to brown-ish-violet. Legs and antennae pale to deep violet or violet-brown with tips of antennae deep blue-violet. Furcula brown.

Clothing: Densely clothed all over with moderately long and stout dark brown, finely-ciliated setae which are longer and more prominent on top of head and along dorsal surface. Generally, two very long backwardly-curved, strongly-ciliated setae on Abd. V dorsally. These may be male characters. Short sensory hairs present on Abd. IV dorsally and Abd. III laterally. Antennae thickly clothed with short, finely-ciliated setae, furcula with longer ciliated setae, legs with ciliated setae and occasional long ciliated hairs.

Body: Length 1·25 mm. Head diagonal almost equal to thorax in length. Antennae short, four-segmented, segments related as 5:9:9:12. Ocelli on very large black pigment patches, eight to each side, six large and two, the posterior inner two, extremely small and almost invisible. Postantennal organ long and elliptical. Ventral tube moderately long, cylindrical. Abd. III typically one and a-half times as long as Abd. IV.

Legs: Claw with single small outer tooth about one-third down claw from base, one small inner tooth about middle of inner edge, and another smaller one at three-quarters. Empodial appendage lanceolate with broad inner and outer lamellae, outer reaching to apex, inner to about two-thirds and having on its forward edge a small, blunt tooth. No tenent hairs.

Furcula: Manubrium: dens as 12:27. Dens with row of long, stout serrated spines, serrated on one side only, reaching about half-way, and at least one full-length row of serrated setae. Dens lightly

– 319 –

corrugated. Mucro with four teeth, an apical, two inner teeth larger than apical, and small exterior lateral tooth. Mucro not surrounded by setae, and more elongate than in A. alpinus.

Localities: Akatarawa, in bush soil; Bullock Creek, South West-land, under wet moss and lichen on a steep bank.

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Type: Slide 3/456, Dominion Museum Collection.

I have much pleasure in naming this species womersleyi after the founder of the genus.

Acanthomurus setosus sp. nov. Plate 49, figs. 161–164.

Colour: Very variable; in life, greenish to orange-brown. Mounted specimens show ground colour of brownish-orange becoming yellowish or greenish on ventral surface. Generally, a small dorsal intersegmental band of blue pigment between all segments except 4–5 and 5–6, and patches of blue or violet pigment on sides of thorax, particularly about bases of legs and on sides of Abd. II, III, V, and VI. Basal segments of legs and tibio-tarsi blue or violet, femora brownish. Antennae I and II brownish to greenish-yellow with central patches of violet; Ant. III and IV deep violet to black. Furcula pale brown to greenish-brown. Ocelli on black pigment patches.

Clothing: Densely clothed with short, ciliated setae and many specimens (probably the males) are adorned with enormous setae which frequently are longer than the width of the insect's body. These setae occur on the head and all over the body, reaching their greatest development on Abds. III and IV and on tibio-tarsi. Antennae clothed with very short ciliated setae and on Ant. IV, mingled with these many fine plain short sensory setae. Bothriotrichia occur on Abd. II (one dorsal), Abd. III (two lateral), and Abd. IV (two lateral).

Body: Length 2·5 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, the four segments related as 11:20:17:18. Ocelli eight to each side, posterior inner two very small, six remaining ones all large. Post-antennal organ oval, smaller than an ocellus and double-outlined. Ventral tube long and cylindrical, swollen distally, Abd. III longer than Abd. IV as 27:22.

Legs: Claw with two small inner teeth, one at middle and one at three-quarters and two outer lateral teeth a little above middle. Empodial appendage two-thirds as long as claw, sharply pointed, with broad outer lamella reaching to tip, and smaller inner lamella supplied with a long, thin tooth on its forward edge. A single, short, slender, non-clavate tenent hair to each foot.

Furcula: Manubrium: mucrodens as 5:13. Dens with single ventral row of stout, dark-coloured serrated spines on basal half and four rows of more slender serrated spines reaching to mucro. Whole dens in addition thickly clothed with short, ciliated setae. Mucro with four teeth, apical tooth, very large sub-apical tooth, large central tooth, and smaller exterior lateral basal tooth. Mucro protected dorsally by stout ciliated seta.

Locality: Lake Manapouri, under stones on the edge of the lake.

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Type: Slide 3/458 and Figured Paratype: Slide 3/459, Dominion Museum Collection.

– 320 –

Acanthomurus setosus subsp. violaceus nov.

A subspecies in which the whole of the lower (ventral) half of the body is coloured a deep blue or violet, with a sharp horizontal line of demarcation about half-way down the side of the body.

Locality: Lake Manapouri, under stones by the edge of the lake.

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Type: Slide 3/462, Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Tibiolatra nov.

Genotype: Tibiolatra latronigra sp. nov.

Facies similar to Acanthomurus but with the antennal segments III and IV annulated and the tibio-tarsi exceedingly broad and flattened.

Represented by one species.

Tibiolatra latronigra sp. nov. Plate 49, figs. 165–168.

Colour: In life, orange; in mounted specimens orange-brown with darker orange-brown on sides of thorax and Abd. I, II, and IV. A patch of black pigment between bases of antennae around the mouth parts, and very narrow bands of black down sides on anterior borders of metathorax and Abds. I, II, and VI. First two antennal segments dark orange-brown, last two black. Legs yellow with black tarsi and black claws. Manubrium dark brown, dens dark brown becoming white towards apex.

Clothing: Thickly clothed with short, ciliated setae, with occasional longer ones on head and at posterior margins of segments. Fine, ciliated hairs present or absent; if present, then a short, fine, ciliated hair on Abd. II near posterior margin, and another slightly longer one on Abd. IV, both dorsal. Legs thickly clothed with short, ciliated setae and occasional very long ones. Furcula clothed with ciliated setae. Distributed amongst ciliated setae of antennae are numerous very fine plain sensory hairs, particularly on Ant. III.

Body: Length 2·2 mm. Head diagonal approximately equal to thorax in length. Antennae three times as long as head diagonal, four segmented, the segments related as 7:17:20:24; third and fourth segments annulated faintly. Antennae situated on raised basal papillae. Ocelli eight to each side, all large, the anterior two largest, on black pigment patches. Postantennal organ elliptical, very small, being in length less than half diameter of nearest ocellus. Ventral tube short and cylindrical. Abd. III to Abd. IV as 18 : 13.

Legs: Claw long and thin with single external tooth about middle of outer edge. No inner teeth. Empodial appendage three-edged, broad at base and tapering to a fine point and about two-fifths length of claw. Claws pigmented black to dark grey, which is characteristic. Tibio-tarsi greatly broadened and flattened.

Furcula: Reaching to thorax. Dens with four rows of serrated black spines at apex, increasing to six rows at base. Manubrium: mucrodens as 18:32. Mucro with three teeth and broad basal spine. Apical tooth sharply-pointed, sub-apical broad and blunt, basal tooth large and slightly recurved. A stout curved ciliated seta arises dorsally from dens near junction with mucro.

– 321 –

Locality: Lake Pukaki, under stones on the bank of a stream running into the lake about 30 miles from the Hermitage.

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Type: Slide 3/242, Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Proisotomurus Womersley.

Species that are allied to Isotomurus and Acanthomurus but in which the dentes are armed vetrally with a double row of simple spines each arising from a distinct papilla. This also is a genus which was erected for the reception of a single Australian species and which is represented in New Zealand by the Australian species together with two endemic species and a subspecies.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Proisotomurus.
1. Inner lamella of empodial appendage without tooth. Claw with no inner teeth. Colour yellow with lateral shading of purple. P. novae-zealandiae sp. nov.
Inner lamella of empodial appendage with tooth. 2
2. (a) Claw with suggestion of blunt inner basal tooth. Colour dark ochreous to greenish ochreous with continuous unbroken dark-brown dorsal stripe. P. lineatus sp. nov.
(b) As above except that dorsal stripe is P. lineatus discontinuous. subsp. violaceus nov.
Not as above. 3
3. Claw without any inner teeth, but with outer lateral basal teeth. Greenish-yellow species with irregular dark-brown markings all over. P. papillatus Womersley

Proisotomurus novae-zealandiae sp. nov. Plate 50, figs. 179–182.

Colour: Pale yellowish-brown with purple shading on dorsal and lateral aspects of Abd. V and Abd. VI around bases of antennae and along ventral edges of thoracic pleura. Legs darker brown with tarsi very dark, antennae dark brown, becoming purplish on distal half of Ant. IV.

Clothing: Evenly clothed with dark brown setae. A sigle long, fine, ciliated hair occurs dorsally on Abd. II and on Abd. IV, and on each side of Abd. III. Generally two long backward curved ciliated setae arising dorsally on Abd. V. Occasional long ciliated setae on Abdominal segments III to VI, and on legs. Ventral tube clothed with fine hairs.

Body: Length 1·6 mm. Head approximately equal to thorax in length. Tergum of mesothorax almost covers prothorax. Antennae four-segmented, the segments related as 7: 10: 11: 13, almost twice as long as head and with sensory organ consisting of two very small projecting rods on Ant. III. Ocelli eight to each side, all large and equal. Postantennal organ elliptical, about twice as long as diameter of adjacent ocellus and with a double outline. Ventral tube finger-like and clothed with fine hairs. Abd. III slightly longer than Abd. IV as 17: 13.

Legs: Claw with two outer lateral teeth, but no inner teeth. Empodial appendage about half as long as claw, sharply pointed or stylet-like with very broad inner lamella reaching half-way down and medium outer lamellae reaching to end of appendage. Two non-clavate short tenent hairs to each foot.

– 322 –

Furcula: Reaching to thorax, manubrium: mucrodens as 15: 33, dens with two rows of spines mounted on small papillae. Dens also corrugated and annulated. Mucro with apical tooth, small inner middle tooth, two smaller lateral basal teeth and one small outer sub-apical dorsal tooth.

Localities: On edge of warm swamp on shore of Lake Rotomahana, near the Waimangu River, amongst rushes; Lake Waikaremoana, among rushes on bog by edge of lake; Palliser Bay, among rushes on the coast.

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Type: Slide 3/488, Dominion Museum Collection.

Proisotomurus lineatus sp. nov. Plate 50, figs. 177–178.

Colour: Ground colour of dark ochre which may vary to dark brown or greenish ochreous. A continuous line of dark brown along dorsal surface. Posterior portion of Abd. V and usually all Abd. VI violet. Dark pigment around and between bases of antennae, across back of head, and sometimes a dark patch on top of head. Generally, violet or greenish pigment along ventral edges of pleura and irregular pale patches on sides of abdomen. Antennae and legs usually darker in colour than rest of body, or sometimes greenish-brown. Antennae become very dark on Ant. IV; legs darker on tarsi. Furcula usually yellowish-brown.

Clothing: Body covered thickly with short simple setae and occasional longer ones. Some setae around tip of abdomen are ciliated. Fine ciliated sensory hairs on Abd. II dorsally, and on Abd. IV laterally. Legs and antennae heavily clothed with short setae and, on legs, occasional long ciliated setae.

Body: Length 2·2 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, four-segmented, the segments related as 11: 17: 19: 18: A sensory organ consisting of two short curved rods on Ant. III. Mesothoracic terga almost completely covers prothorax. Head approximately equal to thorax in length. Ocelli eight to each side, all large and on black pigment patches. Postantennal organ elliptical, equal to or longer than diameter of an ocellus, never less, and double outlined. Ventral tube long and swollen distally. Abd. III longer than Abd. IV as 27: 20.

Legs: Claw with a suggestion of blunt tooth near base on inner margin (not always present), and two lateral external teeth. Empodial appendage with broad inner and outer lamellae, inner with prominent blunt tooth at its widest part, and from one-third to three-quarters length of claw, sharply-pointed and truncate on inner margin. Two non-clavate short tenent hairs on each foot.

Furcula: Reaching to the ventral tube. Manubrium: mucrodens as 18: 34. Dens with two rows of long simple spines running its full length, each on prominent papilla. Mucro with prominent apical tooth, very prominent sub-apical tooth, smaller outer sub-apical dorsal tooth, and one lateral tooth.

– 323 –

Localities: Lake Waikaremoana, amongst rushes in a bog on the shore of the lake; Waioeka Valley, 2,000 ft., in grass; Akatarawa, in leaf debris in forest; Kelburn, Wellington, amongst grass of a lawn (collected by D. K. Ross); Newbury, Palmerston North, from rotten log (collected by D. K. Ross).

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Type: Slide 3/475, Dominion Museum Collection.

Proisotomurus lineatus subsp. violaceus nov.

This variety differs from the typical form in that the dorsal line is not continuous and that there is a suffusion of pale violet pigment on the sides of the segments, more particularly those of the abdomen. The tarsi are bright violet and the bases of the legs pale violet. The femur is pale ochreous. The antennae are violet, becoming darker on the apical half of Ant. IV.

Locality: Akatarawa, amongst fallen beech leaves on the riverbank.

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Type: Slide 3/487, Dominion Museum Collection.

Proisotomurus papillatus Womersley, 1934. Plate 50, figs. 183–184.

Colour: It is a greenish-yellow insect with irregular dark brown or purplish markings on sides and dorsal surface. Antennae greenish-brown, legs and furcula paler in colour.

Clothing: Thickly clothed with numerous long, simple setae, some of which, on legs, may be ciliated. Bothriotrichia on Abds. II-IV, but very short.

Body: Length up to 2·6 mm. Antennae about two and a-half times as long as head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 5: 8: 8: 8 ½. Ant. III with two small sensory rods. Ocelli eight to each side with posterior inner two smaller than rest. Postantennal organ smaller than an ocellus and elongate elliptical. Abd. III and Abd. IV approximately equal in length.

Legs: Claw with outer lateral teeth at about one-fifth down, but without any inner teeth. Empodial appendage about half as long as claw with broad inner and narrow outer lamellae, inner with a small tooth at angle. No tenent hairs.

Furcula: Reaching forward to ventral tube. Manubrium: mucrodens as 5: 9. Dens with double row of long, slender spines, each arising from distinct papilla. Mucro with approximately equal apical and pre-apical teeth or the pre-apical slightly larger, small outer dorsal tooth and outer lateral tooth.

Locality: I have taken this Australian species on a recently dug-up lawn at Karori, Wellington, where it was very plentiful.

Genus Archisotoma Linnaniemi, 1912.

Isotoma-like species with a tridentate mucro in which two of the teeth form a pair side by side on basal portion of mucro. Bothriotrichia present. Sense organ on Ant. III with two clubs.

Archisotoma brucei Carpenter, 1906. Plate 50, figs. 185–186.

Colour: Slatey-grey.

Clothing: Of short, plain setae with longer setae around Abd. VI.

Body: Length 1·75 mm. Antennae shorter than head. Ocelli six on each side. Postantennal organ elongate and narrow, longer than an ocellus. Abd. IV slightly longer than Abd. III.

– 324 –

Legs: Claw without any teeth. Empodial appendage needle-like with broad inner lamella for about half its length. No tenent hairs.

Furcula: Manubrium longer than dens. Mucro with strong apical tooth and a pair of larger, basal teeth.

This species was reported in New Zealand by Womersley in 1936 from Little Oneroa, Waiheke Island, where it was collected by Mr. E. D. Pritchard from amongst shore debris. The species was originally described from the South Orkney Islands, where it is stated to be very common.

Genus Isotomurus Börner, 1903.

Abd. III generally a little longer than Abd. IV. Furcula reaching forward to ventral tube, dentes about twice length of manubrium, long and tapering, generally corrugated and with ventrally numerous simple plain setae. Abdominal segments with bothriotrichia. A single species of this genus is present in New Zealand.

Isotomurus chiltoni (Carpenter. 1925.) Plate 50, figs. 187–188. 1925. Isotoma chiltoni, Carpenter.

Colour: Variable, generally of a yellowish ground colour with irregular dark purple markings. Somewhat similar in appearance to Proisotomurus papillatus.

Clothing: Numerous moderately-long, strongly-ciliated setae, becoming longer around the posterior region. Bothriotrichia present on Abds. II–IV.

Body: Length 3 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, the four segments related as 3: 4: 4: 6. Ocelli eight to each side, all large except posterior inner two, which are small. Postantennal organ elliptical and about half as long as the diameter of adjacent ocellus. Abd. III and Abd. IV approximately equal.

Legs: Claw with two exterior lateral teeth at about one-third, and one or two small inner teeth at about centre and three-quarters. Empodial appendage about one-third as long as claw with narrow outer lamella and broader inner lamella supplied with small tooth. A single non-clavate tenent hair to each foot.

Furcula: Mucro with four teeth. Apical and pre-apical teeth equal; small posterior lateral tooth and small exterior dorsal tooth.

Localities: First reported from Mount Algidus, Rakaia Gorge, by Carpenter, who described it in 1925, later from Clevedon, Auckland, by Womersley, in 1936, and to these I can now add Akatarawa Valley, under stones on the edge of a stream.

Genus Tomocerura Wahlgren, 1900.

Isotoma-like species, in which the dentes ventrally have one or more rows of strong, simple, spines. Bothriotrichia are absent. Mucro four-toothed and generally indistinctly separated from dens.

This genus has been up to the present represented by two species from South Patagonia and one from Australia. I can now add two endemic species from New Zealand.

– 325 –
Key to the New Zealand Species of Tomocerura.
1. Generally large yellowish species irregularly marked with violet and having row of bright red spots along dorsal surface of body. Eight ocelli to each side, two of which are small. T. rubenota sp. nov.
2. Orange-coloured species with black pigment arranged in definite posterior intersegmental bands. No red spots. Ocelli eight to each side, all large and equal. T. maruiensis sp. nov.

Tomocerura rubenota sp. nov. Plate 51, figs. 191–194.

Colour: In life, yellowish to olive green, mottled with black and with row of bright red dorsal spots. Easily recognised by its generally large size and row of red spots along dorsal surface.

Mounted specimens show ground of deep creamy-yellow with irregular violet markings all over body and, dorsally, on mesothorax, metathorax, and on Abds. III, IV, and V large irregular-shaped, bright orange-red markings. Red colour also is present on top of head, around bases of antennae, and on first antennal segment. Remaining antennal segments deep golden yellow with violet patches at joints and on tip of Ant. IV. Legs orange-red with violet patches; furcula orange-red, becoming pale yellow towards mucro.

Clothing: Of short, plain setae, some on dorsal surface of furcula ciliated, and occasional longer, plain setae. Around Abds. III to VI are several long setae irregularly and exceedingly coarsely ciliated, the cilia being very long.

Body: Length 2·2 to 5 mm. Antennae three times as long as head, four segments related as 10: 25: 25: 32. Head slightly longer than mesothorax, mesothorax and metathorax sub-equal. Ocelli eight to each side, six large and two, the posterior two, slightly smaller, situated on black pigment patches. Postantennal organ much smaller than an ocellus and oval in shape. Abd. III slightly longer than Abd. IV, as 22: 19.

Legs: Claw long and narrow with single small inner tooth at about one-third from base, and a pair of external lateral teeth at about one-third down outer edge. Claw striated on side in vicinity of teeth. Empodial appendage about two-thirds length of claw, sharply pointed with narrow inner and outer lamellae, inner one with prominent sharp tooth at its widest part. A sigle slender, non-clavate tenent hair to each foot.

Furcula: Manubrium to mucrodens as 25: 66. Dens with three rows of short stout simple spines running about half its length. Thickly-clothed with simple setae and dorsally some ciliated setae. Mucro short, with four teeth, being a prominent apical tooth, a prominent sub-apical tooth, a smaller exterior lateral tooth, and a very small dorsal sub-apical tooth. Dens annulated and corrugated.

Localities: Lake Brunner, in bush soil and leaf debris in the forest; South Westland, in the forest south of Bullock Creek, amongst leaf debris on the forest floor; Lake Ianthe, amongst leaf debris in forest; Weheka, amongst leaf debris in forest.

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Type: Slide 3/509 and Figured Paratype: Slide 3/510, Dominion Museum Collection.

– 326 –

Tomocerura maruiensis sp. nov. Plate 51, fig. 195.

Colour: In life, orange, with dark bluish-grey head. Mounted, dark orange-brown with narrow, broken, posterior, marginal, black intersegmented bands and similar band along ventral edges of thoracic pleura. Head mottled all over with deep blue and black pigment. Furcula dark brown tapering to yellow; legs dark brown, violet distally and basally. Antennae dark brown, violet at joints and apex. Ocelli on black pigment patches.

Clothing: Sparse, of long and short, plain setae and occasional coarsely-ciliated setae.

Body: Length 4 mm. Antennae three times as long as head, four segments related as 13: 26: 21: 35. Eight large ocelli to each side. Postantennal organ very small, elliptical. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax. Abd. III slightly longer than Abd. IV as 25: 22. Ventral tube small and dome-like.

Legs: Claw with inner tooth at one-quarter, and two large exterior lateral teeth. Empodial appendage long spine-like with prominent inner tooth at about one-fifth from base. A single non-clavate tenent hair to each foot.

Furcula: Manubrium: mucrodens as 22: 52. Dens strongly annulated and corrugated with double row of short simple spines running about half its length. Mucro with four teeth:—Large apical and sub-apical teeth, the latter ribbed on inner side, a smaller exterior lateral tooth and a small exterior dorsal tooth.

Locality: Maruia Valley, in leaf debris in beech forest.

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Type: Slide 3/517, Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Procerura nov.

Genotype: Procerura violacea sp. nov.

This genus is similar to Proisotomurus Wom., from which it is distinguished by the complete absence of abdominal bothriotrichia. There are four rows of slender papillate dental spines, two of which run the full length of the dens, the other two generally finishing between a half and two-thirds down from the base. The empodial appendage is tri-lamellate.

The genus contains five species and one variety. One of the species, P. violacea, being exceedingly common in the North Island.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Procerura.
1. Dark-coloured species with tenent hairs of tibio-tarsi clavate. 2
Lighter coloured species with tenent hairs of tibio-tarsi not clavate or entirely absent. 5
2. With one clavate tenent hair to each claw. 3
With three clavate tenent hairs in line across each tibio-tarsus. 4
3. Purple-coloured species. P. purpurea sp. nov.
– 327 –
4. Violet to slate-coloured forms
(a) With eight ocelli to each side, six of which are large and two small. P. violacea sp. nov.
(b) With eight large equal ocelli to each side. P. violacea subsp. aequaoculata nov.
Deep purple to black-coloured forms with a creamy-coloured head. P. montana sp. nov.
5. With two non-clavate tenent hairs to each claw. Apical and pre-apical teeth of mucro unequal. Post-antennal organ very large. P. fasciata sp. nov.
Without any tenent hairs to each claw. Apical and pre-apical teeth of mucro equal. Post-antennal organ very small. P. serrata sp. nov.

Procerura violacea sp. nov. Plate 51, figs. 200–201.

Colour: In life pale violet to purple-black or slate-coloured, with legs and antennae dark. Mounted specimens tend to lose their colour and appear pale violet to greyish-violet or dark blackish-violet. Antennae darker violet to grey, becoming dark bluish-violet at joints and on whole of Antennae IV. Legs and furcula pale violet.

Clothing: Of short simple setae and around posterior margin and on dorsal surface of Abds. IV–VI numerous longer, coarsely-ciliated setae in which the cilia become very large towards tips of setae. Some appear to be ciliated on one side only or mainly on one side. Generally whole body shows a rather pock-marked surface, and from each mark a seta arises.

Body: Length 1·2–2 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, four-segmented, segments related as 5: 7: 7: 10. Ocelli on dark pigment patches, eight to each side, six large and two of the inner ones very small. Postantennal organ very large, oval, and double-outlined. Ventral tube short. Abd. III longer than Abd. IV as 12: 10.

Legs: Claw with two small outer lateral teeth about one-third down from base and with two inner teeth, one about centre and the other about three-quarters down inner margin from base. Empodial appendage reaching to second inner tooth, sharply pointed with broad inner and outer lamellae. Inner lamella with prominent tooth at its widest part. Three clavate tenent hairs in line across each foot. A small spine-like seta arises one on each side of claw near base.

Furcula: Manubrium: mucrodens as 10: 31. Dens corrugated and annulated, with two rows of slender simple spines running about half its length and two rows running its full length, each spine arising from a papilla. Mucro with apical tooth, slightly longer sub-apical tooth and a long lateral tooth. Not very clearly separated from dens.

Localities: Aniwaniwa Arm, Lake Waikarenoana, under bark of fuchsia trees and in old logs. In old logs lying on the beaches around Lake Waikaremoana. Lake Waikare-iti Track, under rimu bark; Huiarau Range, 3,200 ft., under bark of rimu trees; Akatarawa, Divide, in rotten log, 1,400 ft.; Butterfly Creek, Wellington, in rotten logs; Maruia Valley, under bark of beech trees.

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Type: Slide 3/518, Dominion Museum Collection.

– 328 –

Procerura violacea subsp. aequaoculata nov.

This subspecies differs from the typical form in that all the eight ocelli are large and approximately equal in size. The pock-marking on the cuticle generally is not so well marked, and the specimens in the North Island, particularly, are much smaller, being usually in the vicinity of about 0·8 mm. South Island specimens, however, generally equal in size the principal form. The teeth of the foot claw generally are very much reduced in size and very difficult to detect.

Localities: Opepe Bush, Taupo, in old logs; Aniwaniwa Arm, Lake Waikaremoana, in old logs; Maruia Valley, under bark of fuchsia trees and beech trees; Waiho George, under bark of fuchsia trees.

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Type: Slide 3/536, Dominion Museum Collection.

Procerura montana sp. nov. Plate 51, fig. 202.

Although closely allied to P. violacea sp. nov., this form, on account of its mountain habitat and most distinctive coloration, must be classed as a species. In length it reaches 1·8 mm. and in morphological details agrees very closely with the type of P. violacea.

Colour: In life shining purplish-black with light creamy-coloured head. Mounted, head is yellowish, with very dark pruplish-brown pigment around bases of antennae and dorsally extending backwards to middle of head as an equilateral triangle. Thorax and abdomen very deep chocolate to almost purple-black. Legs yellow, furcula brown on manubrium, yellow on dens. Antennae of yellowish ground colour more or less suffused with very dark brown, the yellow showing through mainly around the basal portions of the segments.

The mucro is relatively longer and the empodial appendage shorter than in violacea, with the outer lamellae broader than the inner. Inner lamella reaching only two-thirds down.

Localities: Arthur's Pass, under stones and moss near the summit 3,000 ft., under stones Peg Leg Creek. In leaf debris in beech forest above 2,500 ft.

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Type: Slide 3/547, Dominion Museum Collection.

Procerura purpurea sp. nov. Plate 52, figs. 203–205.

Colour: Head and body of light purple colour with deeper violet along dorsal surface and ventrally on Abds. III, IV, and V. Legs violet. Antennae violet darkening towards apex. Furcula yellowish.

Clothing: Densely clothed with short, close setae and numerous longer, stouter setae, some of which are serrated. Dorsally on Abds. IV, V, and VI some long, curved setae.

Body: Length 1·7 mm. Antennae twice length of head, the four segments related as 7: 10: 10: 12. Ocelli eight to each side, the posterior inner two very small; remainder all large, but the anterior two somewhat separated from others. Postantennal organ oval and double-outlined, about equal to an ocellus in length. Abd. IV slightly longer than Abd. III as 6: 5.

Legs: Similar to P. violacea except that there is only one clavate tenent hair shorter than claw to each foot.

– 329 –

Furcula: Similar to P. violacea. Mucro surrounded by long setae.

Locality: Tauhara Mountain, Taupo, in bush soil near summit.

Remarks: This species is very similar to P. violacea sp. nov., from which it is distinguished by the different tenent hairs, the arrangement of the ocelli and the bright purplish colouring.

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Type: Slide 3/551, Dominion Museum Collection.

Procerura serrata sp. nov. Plate 52, figs. 206–208.

Colour: Yellow, with very narrow greenish-violet intersegmental bands around posterior margins of all segments. Ventrally a broad greenish-violet stripe running whole length of body. Antennae pale violet, becoming deep bluish-violet on last segment. Legs pale violet, furcula pale yellow. Ocelli on black fields.

Clothing: Of short and long simple setae and on Abd. IV, V, and VI several excessively long, coarsely-serrated setae, serrated on one side only.

Body: Length 1·2 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, the four segments related as 6: 8: 8: 14. Ocelli eight to each side, all large but not equal. Postantennal organ oval, single outlined, and about equal in length to half the diameter of adjacent ocellus. Abd. III to Abd. IV as 10: 8.

Legs: Claw with two outer lateral teeth at about one-third from base. No inner teeth. Empodial appendage longer than half claw, sharply pointed with outer lamellae reaching to tip and broad inner lamella reaching only to about one-third. No tenent hairs.

Furcula: Manubrium to mucrodens as 10: 21. Dens indistinctly annulated towards apex and with at least one row of papillate simple spines running its full length. Mucro with four teeth, three being equal apical and pre-apical teeth, a small exterior lateral tooth, and a very small sub-apical dorsal tooth.

Locality: Waiho Gorge, South Westland, under the bark of Olearia illicifolia trees.

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Type: Slide 3/553, Dominion Museum Collection.

Procerura fasciata sp. nov. Plate 51, figs. 196–199.

Colour: Pale ochreous with suffusion of greyish-violet; a sharply demarcated narrow band of dark greyish violet around posterior margin of every segment followed by a similar very pale ochreous band around anterior margins of each segment. A narrow dark violet stripe along ventral edges of terga and a dark, almost black, middorsal stripe along whole body, including head. Head brownish-ochreous with very pale-violet shading. Antennae greyish-violet darkening on Ant. IV. Legs and furcula greyish-violet near body, becoming pale to clear towards extremities.

Clothing: Of short plain setae with longer plain setae on Abds. III to VI.

Body: Length about 1 mm. Antennae one and a-half times as long as head, the four segments related as 4: 5: 5: 7. Ocelli eight to each side on black fields, six large and two, the posterior inner two, very small. Postantennal organ large and double outlined. Ventral tube long and cylindrical. Abd. III longer than Abd. IV as 9: 7.

– 330 –

Tenaculum prominent on ventral surface of Abd. III and consisting of two rami arising from corpus, which bears one long curved seta and several smaller ones. Each ramus has four teeth in a row along one edge.

Legs: Claw with two outer lateral teeth and an inner tooth a little past one-third down from claw base. Claw lightly striated on side near centre and with two small setae on each side near base. Empodial appendage about one-third as long as claw with central slightly outwardly-curved rib, very broad inner lamella reaching two-thirds from base and broad outer lamellae reaching to tip. Two non-clavate tenent hairs to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching to ventral tube with four rows of slender papillate spines, two of which reach to mucro and two about two-thirds down. Manubrium to mucrodens as 10: 18. Mucro small and relatively very long, with large apical, larger pre-apical, small dorsal sub-apical, and large exterior lateral teeth. Dens annulated and corrugated, uncorrugated portion 2 ½ times as long as mucro.

Locality: Akatarawa, in bush soil.

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Type: Slide 3/554, Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Papillomurus nov.

Genotype: P. fuscus sp. nov.

I have to propose here a new genus, which it is necessary to erect for the reception of an extraordinary insect of the Proisotomurus type, but in which all the setae of the body and appendages (except some on the dens) arise from prominent warts or papillae. Bothriotrichia are absent. Two species and a subspecies are known, one of which was originally described as an Isotoma.

Key to the Species of Papillomurus.
1. Claw with two inner teeth. 2
Claw without any inner teeth. Eight ocelli to each side, all large and equal. P. parvus Salmon
2. Eight ocelli to each side, of which two are reduced in size; dark-brown coloured species. P. fuscus sp. nov.
As above, but pale violet-brown in colour. P. fuscus subsp. pallidus nov.

Papillmurus fuscus sp. nov. Plate 52, figs. 209–211.

Colour: In life and mounted, uniform dark brown on body, a little paler on appendages with Ant. III and IV tinged with violet. Ocelli on black pigment patches.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with short plain setae and occasional larger coarsely-ciliated setae. These latter are mostly around posterior portion of the abdomen. All setae on head, body, legs, antennae, and manubrium arise each from a prominent raised papilla or wart. On dens two rows of such setae on each side, remaining setae of dens, except for a few near base, being non-papillose. Bothriotrichia absent.

Body: Length 1·6 mm. Antennae about twice length of head; the four segments related according to the formula 4: 7: 7: 7. Ocelli eight to each side, six large and the posterior inner two smaller. Postantennal organ smaller than on ocellus and oval. Ventral tube-short. Abd. III longer than Abd. IV as 9: 8.

– 331 –

Legs: Claw with two inner teeth, one at one-third, other at two-thirds, and two outer lateral teeth about one-third down outer edge. Empodial appendage about one-third length of claw, with broad inner and outer lamellae, former with small blunt tooth on its forward edge. Three strong clavate tenent hairs to each foot, about equal in length to inner edge of claw. A short basal seta on each side ofclaw.

Furcula: Manubrium to mucrodens as 14: 33. Dens annulated and corrugated. Mucro tridentate, with equal apical and sub-apical teeth and a small exterior lateral tooth. Unannulated portion of dens three times length of mucro.

Localities: Waiho Gorge, South Westland, under moss and lichen on stones; Lake Roto-iti, South Island, in leaf debris in beech forest; Buller Gorge, near Westport, in old logs; Summit, Haast Pass, in old logs; Opepe Bush, Taupo, in old logs.

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Type: Slide 3/497, Dominion Museum Collection.

Papillomurus fuscus subsp. pallidus nov.

A uniformly pale-coloured variety in which the colour in mounted specimens is a pale violet-brown with dark violet antennae. In life these are bluish-grey.

Localities: Alex Knob, Waiho, 3,000 ft., in old logs; Hollyford Valley, in logs in beech forest, 3,000 ft.

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Type: Slide 3/505, Dominion Museum Collection.

Papillomurus parvus (Salmon, 1937). Plate 53, figs. 229–230.

1937. Isotoma parva Salmon.

Colour: Dull reddish-brown to purple-brown, with pale purple to bluish-purple appendages.

Clothing: Short, slender hairs all over body, with occasional longer setae, especially around posterior region. All setae arise from prominent papillae.

Body: Length 1·2–1·5 mm. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers that of prothorax. Abd. IV and III approximately equal in length or III a little longer than IV. Antennae four-segmented and approximately half as long as trunk. Segments related in length as 7: 11: 11: 15. Ocelli eight on each side, all large and regularly arranged. Postantennal organ oval and about equal to an ocellus in length.

Legs: Claw with no inner teeth, but with a strong pair of outer teeth at one-third. Empodial appendage short with broad inner and outer lamellae. Tenent hairs absent.

Furcula: Dens twice as long as manubrium, prominently corrugated ventrally and provided on each side with double row of slender spines. Mucro with central conical tooth, terminal almost vertical tooth, proximal lateral oblique tooth and small dorsal sub-apical tooth.

Localities: Akatarawa and Butterfly Creek, Wellington, in leaf mould on the floor of the native bush.

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Type: Slide 3/194, Dominion Museum Collection.

– 332 –

Genus Spinocerura nov.

Genotype: Spinocerura capillata sp. nov.

This new genus, which is allied to Proisotomurus Wom., on the one hand, and Tomocerura Wahl., on the other, is characterized by the complete absence of abdominal bothriotrichia and the presence of two types of papillate dental spines. There are two rows of slender simple spines, one running the full length of the dens, the other generally finishing before the mucro is reached. In addition, there are from one to three rows of short, stout, dark coloured spines running from the base of the dens to about two-thirds down. In both types each spine arises from small raised papilla. Abdomen IV is slightly shorter than Abd. III. The setae are of a peculiarly coarsely-ciliated type in which the cilia are more like small spines. The slender spines are of the Proisotomurus type, the stout spines of the Tomocerura type. So far, the genus contains only one species.

Spinocerura capillata sp. nov. Plate 52, figs. 212–216.

Colour: Dark brown with dark blue markings, as follows: Narrow broken cross bands around posterior margins of all segments, a broad broken line along ventral edges of pleura and scattered, irregular-shaped marks all over body. A dark band around bases of and between antennae. Irregular-shaped dark patches on top and sides of head. Legs brownish with tibia darker brown and tarsi very dark brown. Antennae medium brown on I, darker on II and III and Ant. IV a deep blue-black. Dark blue rings around distal ends of Ant. II and III. Furcula pale-brown.

Clothing: Short simple setae and long stout ciliated setae. These latter setae not like the usual ciliated setae met with in Collembola, but very coarsely ciliated, the cilia being more like small spines. They are irregularly placed on most setae, and of varying size and may be on one side of a seta only. Ant. I and II are thickly clothed with moderately long setae, but Ant. III and IV with only short setae. Legs clothed with short and occasional very long setae ciliated as above.

Body: Length up to 4·4 mm. Antennae two and three-quarters as long as head. Head half as long as thorax. Antennae four segmented, the segments related as 11 : 14: 14 : 18. Ocelli on black pigment patches, eight to each side and all large. Postantennal organ very small and widely elliptical. Ventral tube short and slightly swollen distally. Abd. III longer than IV as 19: 13.

Legs: Claw with single inner tooth at a little less than half-way from base, two external outer lateral teeth at about one-third from claw base. On sides, claw is lightly striated near centre. Empodial appendage sharply pointed, lanceolate, with central rib and inner and outer lamellae, inner lamella with prominent tooth just above centre and rib with blunt tooth near base. Empodial appendage about half as long as claw. Tenent hairs absent.

Furcula: Bearing many coarsely-ciliated setae. Dens with one row of slender spines running entire length, one row running two-thirds of its length, and two rows of shorter, stouter, spines running about one-half its length, each spine on a raised papilla. Mucro

– 333 –

with very large apical and sub-apical teeth, a smaller external dorsal sub-apical tooth, a small proximal lateral tooth on outer side with a lateral rib. Manubrium to mucrodens as 17:36.

Localities: Akatarawa Divide, 1,400 ft., amongst lichen growing on a rocky face; Aniwaniwa Arm, Lake Waikaremoana, amongst leaf debris.

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Type: Slide 3/555, Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Proisotoma Börner, 1906.

Abd. IV longer than Abd. III, Abd. V and Abd. VI separated. Ocelli variable in number. Postantennal organ and empodial appendage present. Furcula present and generally reaching ventral tube. Manubrium and dentes generally of approximately equal length. Only one species of Proisotoma is known from this country.

This genus has in the past been regarded by most workers as consisting of two sub-genera—Isotomina Börner and Proisotoma Börner, which are easily distinguished from each other by the fact that Isotomina has abdominal segments five and six fused. Both Proisotoma and Isotomina are extensive and world-wide in distribution and the treating of them as sub-genera appears to me to be quite unnecessary with two such distinct forms. Accordingly, I propose that Proisotoma and Isotomina henceforth be regarded as two distinct genera, separated as above.

Proisotoma aqualata sp. nov. Plate 52, figs. 217–219; Plate 53, fig. 220.

Colour: Pale brownish-violet, with a broad dorsal stripe of darker violet or blue running entire length and bordered laterally by a very narrow dark line. Legs, antennae, and furcula brownish-violet.

Clothing: Sparsely clothed, with very short, simple setae.

Body: Length up to 1·2 mm. Antennae shorter than head, the four segments related as 10: 14: 14: 30. Antennae III with two stout sensory rods. Ocelli eight to each side, all large and equal. Postantennal organ about equal to one and a-half ocelli, oval in shape, double outlined, and considerably distant forward from ocelli. Ventral tube very small. Abd. IV larger than Abd. III as 9:7.

Legs: Claw with no teeth. Empodial appendage about one-third as long as claw, truncate on inner margin, and with apical needle three-quarters as long as appendage. A single short, slender, non-clavate, tenent hair to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching forward to Abd. I. Manubrium and mucro-dens of equal length, dens tapering slightly and with many setae both dorsally and ventrally. Dens not annulated. Mucro short, not very clearly separated from dens, with apical tooth, longer pre-apical tooth, and broad basal lamella.

Locality: Lake Taupo, under stones on the edge of the lake.

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Type: Slide 3/559, Dominion Museum Collection.

– 334 –

Genus Isotomina Börner, 1906.

General facies of Proisotoma type, but with Abd. V and Abd. VI fused. Two species of this genus occur in New Zealand and both are endemic.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Isotomina.
1. Six large and two small ocelli to each side. Mucro with single terminal upturned tooth. I. nova-zealandia sp. nov.
2. Eight large equal ocelli to each side. Mucro with apical tooth and broad recurved sub-apical tooth. I. lamellata sp. nov.

Isotomina nova-zealandia sp. nov. Plate 53, fig. 224.

Colour: In life, blue-black; mounted, a deep brilliant blue, often tinged with violet, especially around abdomen; sometimes deep black-blue. Appendages generally a shade lighter in colour than body. Specimens from the North Island in general are lighter in colour and larger than those from the South Island.

Clothing: Of simple setae.

Body: Length up to 1·5 mm. Antennae about half as long again as head, the four segments related as 20: 30: 22: 51. Ocelli on dark fields, eight to each side, the posterior inner two very small, remainder all large and equal. Postantennal organ oval, equal to or smaller than an ocellus, never larger. Prothorax only partly covered by mesothoracic terga. Abd. IV slightly longer than Abd. III as 65: 58. Ventral tube short.

Legs: Claw with single inner tooth about two-thirds down, no outer teeth. Empodial appendage not quite as long as half the claw and with a broad outer lamella reaching to apex and a broad semi-circular inner lamella reaching about half-way. Two clavate tenent hairs longer than claw to each foot.

Furcula: Short, not reaching ventral tube. Manubrium to dens to mucro as 35: 16: 9. Dens with four long ventral setae arranged in two pairs, and one short dorsal seta at junction with mucro. Mucro long and tapering with single terminal upturned tooth.

Localities: Paiahia, North Auckland, under the bark of manuka trees and amongst leaf debris under tree-ferns; Lake Mapourika, under the bark of kahikatea trees.

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Type: Slide 3/567 and Figured Paratype: Slide 3/568, Dominion Museum Collection.

Isotomina lamellata sp. nov. Plate 53, figs. 221–223.

Colour: In life, a deep blue-black. Mounted specimens deep violet-blue on body, with pale intersegmental bands, antennae darker bluish-violet, especially distal half of Ant. IV. Ocelli on deep blue fields. Legs and furcula pale blue.

Clothing: Rather sparsely clothed with short, simple setae and some longer ones around tip of abdomen.

Body: Length 1·9 mm. Antennae slightly longer than head, the four segments related as 14: 20: 16: 35. Ocelli eight to each side and all large. Postantennal organ very large, elliptical, and at least as long as two ocelli. Abd. III to Abd. IV as 35: 41.

– 335 –

Legs: Claw very broad at base, and tapering to fine point with single inner tooth about half-way down. No outer teeth. Empodial appendage about half as long as claw, with very broad, almost semi-circular inner lamella reaching half-way from base; and a medium outer lamella reaching to tip. Two clavate tenent hairs as long as claw to each foot.

Furcula: Not reaching to ventral tube. Mucro long and tapering, slightly over half as long as dens, with an apical tooth and a broad recurved sub-apical tooth. Dens with three prominent ventral setae. Dens not annulated or corrugated.

Localities: Akatarawa Divide, 1,400 ft. altitude, in rotten logs; Fish River Gorge, Haast Pass, under rimu bark; Lake Brunner, in bush soil and debris; Maruia Valley, under bark of fuchsia trees; Buller Gorge, near Westport, in old logs; Waiho Gorge, South Westland, under bark of Olearia illicifolia; Lake Wakatipu, under stones, north end of lake.

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Type: Slide 3/576, Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Isotoma Bourlet, 1839.

Abd. III and Abd. IV approximately equal. Bothriotrichia absent. Ant. IV without sense rods. Ocelli eight to each side. Post-antennal organ present. Empodial appendage present. Furcula well developed, dentes much longer than manubrium. Furcula generally with many ventral setae. Three species of Isotoma occur in this country, two being endemic and the other almost cosmopolitan.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Isotoma.
1. All ocelli large and approximately equal. 2
Some ocelli distinctly smaller than the others. 3
2. Bluish-grey species. Mucro with three teeth in line. Claw without any teeth. I. maritima Tullberg
3. Violet species with ochreous intersegmental bands. Mucro with three equal teeth, not in line. Claw with two inner and two outer lateral teeth. I. pallidafasciata sp. nov.
Two ocelli on each side smaller than rest. Pale greyish-violet species. Mucro with three unequal teeth not in line. Claw with two small outer lateral teeth and one very small inner tooth. I. exiguadentata sp. nov.

Isotoma maritima Tullberg, 1871. Plate 53, fig. 225.

This littoral species, which is widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, was found among mussels on rocks at Muriwai, Auckland, and in shore debris, Waiheke Island, Auckland, by Mr. E. D. Pritchard, and was reported by Womersley in 1936. It has not been found elsewhere.

It is a small insect up to 1·3 mm. long, recognized by its bluish-grey colour and small head, which is not as long as Th. II and III together. There are eight ocelli to each side, postantennal organ broad elliptical, larger than an ocellus. Mucrodens twice as long as manubrium. Mucro tridentate, the three teeth almost in line and diminishing in size from apical tooth back. Claw without any teeth.

– 336 –

Isotoma pallidafasciata sp. nov. Plate 53, figs. 226–228.

Colour: Ochreous brown with an overlay of pale greyish-violet. Narrow pale ochreous bands on the anterior margins of the metathorax and Abds. I, II, III and IV. A very dark violet narrow band around posterior margin of Abd. III and partly around Abd. IV. Strong violet coloured pigment along mid-dorsal line and on sides of Abd. VI. Legs bluish-violet, furcula pale yellow. Antennae violet on first segment and very dark bluish-black on other three segments.

Clothing: Thickly clothed with moderately long plain setae.

Body: Length 1·75 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, the four segments related as 7: 10: 10: 14. Ocelli eight to each side, all large, but the anterior two largest, and situated on dark fields. Post-antennal organ narrow, elliptical and longer than an ocellus. Ventral tube short. Abd. III very slightly longer than Abd. IV.

Legs: Claw with two external lateral teeth and two inner teeth, one just past one-third down from claw base and the other, a very small tooth, at about two-thirds down. Empodial appendage reaching half-way down claw, sharply pointed, with narrow outer lamella reaching to tip and broader inner lamella reaching to about half-way. Inner lamella supplied with small blunt tooth on its forward edge. A single non-clavate tenent hair to each foot. Claw lightly striated.

Furcula: Well clothed with setae. Manubrium to mucrodens as 12: 33. Mucro with three teeth, apical, sub-apical and external lateral all of equal height.

Locality: Aratiatia Rapids, in soil.

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Type: Slide 3/587, Dominion Museum Collection.

Isotoma exiguadentata sp. nov. Plate 53, figs. 231–234.

Colour: Pale greyish-violet, with narrow, colourless intersegmental bands on anterior margins of all segments. Legs, antennae, and furcula paler, but third and fourth antennal segments very dark violet.

Clothing: Well clothed with short, plain setae.

Body: Length 1 mm. Antennae only slightly longer than head, relative lengths of the four segments being as 10: 16: 20: 36. Ocelli eight to each side, the inner posterior two small, remainder all large. Postantennal organ very large, being long and elliptical and equivalent to about four ocelli. Abd. III and Abd. IV equal. Ventral tube short and cylindrical.

Legs: Claw with two outer very small lateral teeth at about one-third down and a single extremely small inner tooth at about one-third. (Both visible only with an oil immersion objective.) No tenent hair. Empodial appendage about one-third as long as claw, sharply-pointed with complete broad outer lamella and semi-circular inner lamella reaching to about half-way.

– 337 –

Furcula: Manubrium to mucrodens as 5: 7. Dens annulated and corrugated, mucro with apical tooth, larger central tooth, and small exterior lateral tooth.

Locality: Akatarawa, in bush soil.

Remarks: This species is rather similar to I. pallidafasciata sp. nov., from which it is distinguished by the different dentition of the claws and the excessively large post-antennal organ.

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Type: Slide 3/588, Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Parisotoma Bagnall, 1940.

Of Isotoma facies but with ocelli reduced to six or less to each side; postantennal organ present or absent; Ant. IV with sense rods or cones. Small species.

Represented in New Zealand by three species, two of which are Australian and the other European.

Key to the new zealand species of parisotoma.
1. Ocelli present. 2
Ocelli absent. 3
2. Ocelli six to each side; claw without any inner teeth, but with small pair of outer teeth; mucro tridentate. P. pritchardi (Womersley)
Ocelli four to each side; claw without any teeth; mucro tridentate. P. notabilis (Schaeffer)
3. Postantennal organ present, large and elliptical. Claw without any teeth; mucro tridentate with apical tooth the larger. P. linnaniemia (Womersley)

Parisotoma pritchardi (Womersley, 1936). Plate 53, figs. 235–237.

1936. Isotoma pritchardi Womersley.

Colour: Greenish-black.

Clothing: Clothed with short simple setae and, posteriorly on abdomen, longer erect coarsely ciliated setae.

Body: Length up to 1·8 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, four-segmented, the segments related as 7: 11: 11: 15. Ant. IV somewhat swollen apically. Ocelli six to each side, equal, and situated on dark fields. Postantennal organ oval, double outlined, and about one and a-half times as long as an ocellus. Abd. III and Abd. IV equal.

Legs: Claws without inner teeth but with two small outer teeth near middle of outer edge. Empodial appendage about one-third as long as claw with broad inner and outer lamellae. Tenent hairs absent.

Furcula: Slender and reaching to ventral tube. Mucro tridentate, apical and pre-apical teeth equal and a long lateral basal tooth. Dens apically with two long setae, one of which overreaches mucro.

Localities: Amongst shore debris Muriwai, Auckland, and Waiheke Island, Auckland (collected by E. D. Pritchard).

– 338 –

Parisotoma linnaniemia (Womersley, 1934). Plate 53, figs. 238–240.

1934. Isotoma linnaniemia Womersley.

Colour: It is entirely white.

Clothing: Of numerous short, simple setae with occasional longer ones on Abd. V and Abd. VI.

Body: Length 1·0 mm. Antennae a little longer than head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 3: 6: 6: 8. Ant. IV with small terminal knob. Ocelli absent. Postantennal organ large, elliptical, and double outlined, and with constriction near centre. Abd. III: Abd. IV as 5: 6: Abd. V and Abd. VI fused.

Legs: Claw without any teeth. Empodial appendage pointed with broad inner and narrow outer lamellae, inner lamella with a small tooth. Tenent hairs absent.

Furcula: Reaching only to Abd. II. Dens about twice as long as manubrium. Mucro elongate with three teeth, almost in line, of which the pre-apical is largest.

Locality: This is an Australian species reported by Womersley in 1936 as occurring at Davies Bush, Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland. So far, it has not been found elsewhere.

Parisotoma notabilis (Schaeffer, 1896). Plate 54, fig. 241.

1896. Isotoma notabilis Schaeffer.

Colour: Grey.

Clothing: Short plain setae and longer ciliated setae.

Body: Length 1·0 mm. Antennae half as long as head. Ocelli, four to each side. Postantennal organ oval and as long as an ocellus.

Legs: Claw without any teeth, empodial appendage half as long as claw and sharply pointed. No tenent hairs.

Furcula: Dentes about three times as long as manubrium. Mucro tridentate.

Locality: This European species was reported from Davies Bush, Manurewa, Auckland, by Womersley in 1936. It has not been found elsewhere.

Genus Isotomiella Bagnall, 1940.

Of Isotoma facies but without ocelli or postantennal organ. Ant. IV with sense rods or cones. Ventral surface of manubrium with but few sub-distal setae.

Represented in New Zealand by but one exotic species.

Isotomiella minor (Schaeffer, 1896). Plate 54, figs. 242–244.

1896. Isotoma minor Schaeffer.

Colour: White.

Clothing: Of long, stiff and slightly curved plain setae and longer ciliated setae.

Body: Length 0·9 mm. Antennae about one-quarter longer again than head, the segments related as 3: 7: 7: 10. Ant. IV with 6–7 sensory cones and several sensory rods. Ocelli and postantennal organ absent.

– 339 –

Legs: Claw without any teeth. Empodial appendage sharply pointed and from one-half to two-thirds as long as claw. Tenent hairs absent.

Furcula: Not quite reaching to ventral tube. Dens 2–3 times as long as manubrium; slightly corrugated on proximal half only. Mucro tridentate, all teeth reaching same height.

Locality: Reported in New Zealand from Pukekaroro Creek, Hillsborough, Auckland, in humus, by Womersley in 1936. So far, not recorded elsewhere.

Family Tomoceridae Schaeffer, 1896.
Sub-family Lepidophorellinae Börner, 1906.

Tribe Lepidophorellini Womersley, 1939.
Genus Lepidophorella Schaeffer, 1897.

Scaled species with dentes annulated and mucro falciform. Dentes with spines and often with spine-like scales. Ocelli present. Antennae not annulated.

This genus is well represented in New Zealand by five species and one variety. Two of these species range to Australia and one beyond. The remaining three are endemic.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Lepidophorella.
1. Species with strongly ribbed scales in which ribbing is plainly visible. 2
Species in which ribbing is not plainly visible and scales are more or less hyaline, ground colour of body bright reddish-brown. L. rubicunda sp. nov.
2. With one, three or four teeth to claw. 3
With two teeth to claw. 4
3. With one tooth to claw. L. unadentata sp. nov.
Three teeth to claw. L. communis Salmon
Four teeth to claw. L. brachycephala Moniez
4. Body colour straw-yellow or creamy-white. L. australis Carpenter
Body colour dark brown. L. australis subsp. fusca nov.

Lepidophorella brachycephala Moniez, 1894. Plate 54, fig. 251.

1894. Drepanura brachycephala Moniez.

This species is similar in general facies to L. australis, from which it differs in having four prominent inner teeth to the claw and the mucro relatively shorter.

First recorded in New Zealand by Carpenter in 1925 from Mount Algidus, Rakaia Gorge, and Ben More, Canterbury. The following further localities may now be added:—Lake Pukaki and Tasman Glacier moraine, under stones; Buller Gorge, in leaf debris in bush; Haast Pass, under moss on tree trunks; Ribbonwood Valley, Cass, in leaf debris of beech forest, 2,300 ft.; Lewis Pass, in leaf debris, 3,100 ft.; Craigieburn Mountains, in beech forest, 2,650 ft.

Lepidophorella australis Carpenter, 1925. Plate 54, fig. 252.

Colour: Variable, straw-yellow to creamy-white, with typically dark dorsal patches on Th. II and Abds. I, II, IV, and V. These dark dorsal patches may extend to all segments or may be completely absent. Dark purple basal rings on Ant. II, and Ant. IV wholly dark purple.

– 340 –

Clothing: Densely clothed with large, prominently-ribbed greyish to brown coloured scales and occasional setae. Long, ciliated setae around posterior region. At apex of mesotergum a bunch of stiff, straight setae sometimes ciliated but apically always divided into 3–4 short finger-like processes.

Body: Length up to 4 mm. Antennae three-quarters again as long as head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 12: 27: 27: 36. Ocelli eight to each side, all large and equal and on black fields. Th. II two and a-quarter times as long as Th. III. Abd. III a third as long again as Abd. IV. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax.

Legs: Claws with two large inner teeth inside basal half and two strong outer lateral teeth. Empodial appendage lanceolate and up to three-quarters as long as claw. Two short non-clavate tenent hairs to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching at least to middle pair of legs. Manubrium to mucrodens as 3: 4. Dens annulated and corrugated, heavily scaled and with numerous ventral spines. Mucro falciform and slightly curved.

Localities: Originally described by Carpenter from Campbell Island. I have taken this species from the following localities:—North Island—Urewera Country, from Lake Waikaremoana to Te Whaiti, in leaf debris in the forest; Waioeka Valley, under stones of shingle slide; Manawatu District, in open and in bush country; Newbury, Palmerston North, in old logs (coll. by D. K. Ross); Karori and Khandallah hills, Wellington, in old logs; Akatarawa, in bush debris and leaf mould; Butterfly Creek, Wellington, in leaf debris in forest. South Island—Lake Roto-iti and Lake Rotoroa, in leaf mould; Maruia Saddle, 1,900 ft., in leaf mould; Buller Gorge, in old logs; Haast Pass, under moss and under bark of beech trees; Fish River Gorge, Haast Pass, under bark of rimu trees; Lake Brunner, under bark of kahikatea trees; Alex Knobb, Waiho, 3,000 ft., in leaf debris; Monkey Flat, Hollyford Valley, under stones; Bench Island Dunedin (from a collection kindly sent to me by Prof. Marples, of Dunedin); Chaslands Bush, Otago, in old logs; Mount Cargill, Dunedin, in leaf mould.

Lepidophorella australis subsp. fusca nov.

Similar to the typical form except that the body colour is dark brown, the clothing of scales very heavy, and the scales relatively large and more deeply pigmented. Specimens of the variety attain a length of 6·3 mm.

Locality: Little Akatarawa River Bank, amongst leaf mould.

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Type: Slide 3/6, Dominion Museum Collection.

Lepidophorella communis Salmon, 1937. Plate 54, figs. 245–250.

Colour: Varies from pale cream to jet irridescent black according to denseness of clothing of scales. Pigment patches present or absent. If present they are, as in L. australis, brown or purple and with top of head and Abd. V dark.

Clothing: More or less completely clothed with scales. Scales are easily rubbed and specimens may be found in all intermediate stages and exhibiting, accordingly, varying degrees of colour pattern.

– 341 –

A tuft of short, stout bristles occurs at apex of tergum of mesothorax, branching at their tips into from three to seven short, finger-like processes. Occasional slender setae occur on head and trunk, especially towards posterior region. Terminal antennal segment generally scaled on lower half and clothed with short, slender hairs.

Body: Length 3·5–4 mm. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers that of prothorax. Ventral tube elongate, bi-lobed at its distal end and invested with a few short hairs. Tenaculum bifid and situated on posterior half of third abdominal segment. Abd. III: Abd. IV as 7: 6. Antennae four-segmented, the segments related as 5: 11: 11: 14. Eight large, regularly-arranged ocelli on each side.

Legs: Claw with three large inner teeth and two long exterior lateral teeth. Empodial appendage lanceolate and about two-thirds length of claw, and with small external basal tooth. A single non-clavate stout tenent hair shorter than claw to each foot.

Furcula: Dentes slightly longer than manubrium, strongly corrugated ventrally. Mucro falciform, gently curved, with or without basal scale.

Localities: North Island, Urewera Country, in leaf debris in native forest from Lake Waikaremoana to Te Whaiti; Morere Springs, in leaf mould in nikau bush; Rotorua, from leaf mould in native bush; Aratiatia Rapids, in soil; Opepe Bush and Tauhara Mountain, Taupo, in leaf mould, and on tree trunks; Flat Point Hills, Wairarapa, in leaf mould in beech forest; Mount Egmont, in leaf debris in forest, 3,270 ft.; Coast at Orongorongo, in soil; Karori, Wellington, in soil; Akatarawa, in leaf mould; Newbury, Palmerston North, in soil (coll. by D. K. Ross). In the South Island—Lake Brunner, under the bark of kahikatea trees; Lake Kanieri, in debris in kahikatea forests; Arthur's Pass, 2,000 ft., in leaf debris in beech forests; Fish River Gorge, Haast Pass, under bark of totara trees; Haast Pass, near summit, under bark of beech trees; Lake Gunn, Eglinton Valley, under bark of beech trees; Monkey Flat, Hollyford Valley, under stones; Tuatapere, Southland, in old logs in forest; Mount Cargill, Dunedin, in leaf mould; Hays Bush, Banks Peninsula (coll. by E. W. Moore).

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Type: Slide 3/16, Dominion Museum Collection.

Lepidophorella unadentata sp. nov. Plate 54, fig. 253–254.

Colour: Ochreous brown, antennae with a tinge of dark brown at joints, Ant. IV dark brown; legs and furcula ochreous.

Body: Length 1·2 mm. General facies of the Lepidophorella type. Antennae 1: 2: 3: 4 as 4: 5: 6: 11. Ocelli, eight to each side, equal, on dark pigment patches. Abd. III and Abd. IV equal.

Legs: Foot claw with two large external basal teeth and a single very prominent inner tooth a little past one-third down from claw base. Empodial appendage lanceolate and about half as long as claw.

– 342 –

Furcula: Typical, with falciform mucro and manubrium related to mucrodens as 15: 20. Mucro long and strongly curved with small basal inner lamella.

Locality: Lake Waikare-iti Track, Urewera, under bark, 2,200 ft. altitude.

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Type: Slide 3/235, Dominion Museum Collection.

Lepidophorella rubicunda sp. nov. Plate 54, figs. 255–257.

Colour: Ground colour of granulated, bright reddish-brown pigment with narrow, pale yellow transverse intersegmental bands on posterior margins of Abd. I and II. On Abd. IV a similar band on the anterior margin. Legs and manubrium orange, furcula pale yellow. Ant. I orange, II greyish-violet, III violet, IV very dark greyish-violet.

Clothing: Body heavily clothed with broad, oval-shaped pale grey scales, which are very translucent and almost invisible except when seen edge on. Longitudinal ribbing of scales much more difficult to detect than in other species of Lepidophorella. On top of head and at apex of mesotergum, groups of stiff bristles bearing typical finger-like processes at their tips. Those at apex of mesotergum also are finely-ciliated for their full length. Occasional short setae occur on body.

Body: Length up to 2·4 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, the four segments related as 2: 16: 17: 23. Ocelli, eight to each side, all large and equal, and arranged in two rows, an outer row of five and an inner row of three, respectively. Abd. III only slightly longer than Abd. IV. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax and slightly overlies rear of head.

Legs: Claw with four inner teeth and two long outer lateral basal teeth. Empodial appendage two-thirds as long as claw. Tenent hair very short, weak, and non-clavate.

Furcula: Manubrium to mucrodens as 36: 53. Mucro falciform, strongly curved, with broad inner lamella and surrounded by large scales. Dens with spines and heavily scaled, prominently annulated and corrugated, uncorrugated portion being six times length of mucro.

Localities: Tasman Glacier, under stones on terminal moraine near where vegetation is commencing to grow; Lindis Pass, under stones by stream.

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Type: Slide 3/625, Dominion Museum Collection.

Remarks: This species is close to L. brachycephala Moniez, from which it is readily distinguished by its reddish-brown ground colour and hyaline scales.

Genus Pseudolepidophorella gen. nov.

Genotype: Pseudolepidophorella longiterga (Salmon, 1937.)

From a further study of more specimens, taken from different localities, of the species formerly described by me as Lepidophorella longiterga, I have decided that the species is better placed in a new genus and, therefore, I now propose the name Pseudolepidophorella for this new genus. It is of typically Lepidophorellan facies,

– 343 –

except that the mesothoracic terga is at least three times as long as the metathorax and projects forward over the head for a considerable distance. On its inner margin it is supplied at the apex with a tuft of medium-length bristles, some of which are divided at their tips into 2–4 short, finger-like processes. The entire body is rather elongate.

Pseudolepidophorella longiterga (Salmon, 1937). Plate 54, figs. 258–259.

1937. Lepidophorella longiterga Salmon.

Colour: May vary from light cream or almost white to ochreous brown. Antennae darker brown apically.

Clothing: Clothing of scales may be heavy, and scales are often very large in proportion to size of insect. They are prominently striated with strong elevated longitudinal ridges. A tuft of finely ciliated setae at apex of mesotergum arising on inner surface of carapace, some of these apically divided into 3–4 finger-like processes.

Body: Length 2–4·5 mm. Antennae one and a-half times length of mesothorax. Abd. III twice as long as Abd. IV. Tenaculum with four warts on each side of rami.

Legs: Claw similar to L. communis, with upper tooth slightly smaller than lower two.

Furcula: Similar to L. communis, but mucro more curved. Dens twice as long as manubrium.

Localities: Waipoua Kauri Forest, amongst leaf debris; Paiahia, in leaf debris under tree ferns; Te Whaiti, in rotten log; Waihui Gorge, in leaf mould; Lake Waikaremoana, in leaf mould, 2,050 ft.; Waioeka Valley, under stones on shingle slide at 1,500 ft., and amongst fern debris at 500 ft.; Blue Lake, Rotorua, in leaf mould; Waimana Gorge, under stones; Aratiatia Rapids, in soil; Turangakuma Range, 3,000 ft., in leaf debris (coll. R. Forster).

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Type: Slide 3/29, Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Antennacyrtus nov.

Genotype: Antennacyrtus insolitus sp. nov.

I have to propose this new genus for the reception of a most peculiar insect found in the Arthur's Pass region. The insect bears a superficial resemblance to a Lepidophorella, but although the scales are Lepidophorella-Like in structure, they are almost completely hyaline as in Lepidocyrtus. The antennae have retractile sensory organs at their tips; but the most peculiar aspect of this insect is that both antennae appear to be only three-segmented. Between the last two segments there is a very small joint, rather like a coupling, which may represent a fourth segment. The fact that both terminal segments have complete sensory organs disposes of any suggestion that the fourth segments have been lost by accident. In addition, there are on the dens peculiar spine-like scales as sometimes occur in Lepidophorella; and the empodial appendage is complicated in structure. To sum up, the characteristics of the genus are:—Antennae apprently three-segmented; scales Lepidophorella-like but hyaline;

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mucro falciform; sensory knobs at tips of antennae; dens with elongate spine-like scales; Abd. III longer than Abd. IV; empodial appendage four-winged and bearing prominent teeth.

Antennacyrtus insolitus sp. nov. Plate 55, figs. 260–268.

Colour: In life, yellowish to creamy-brown. Mounted and viewed in transmitted light, yellow heavily mottled with black, but in reflected light yellow heavily mottled with white. Legs and furcula greyish-brown. Ant. I and II brown, III dark violet-brown. Ocelli on black fields.

Clothing: Heavy clothing of hyaline scales in which ribs are only just visible, and occasional short setae both ciliated and plain. At apex of mesotergum a tuft of setae which are ciliated and divided at their tips into from 2–4 short finger-like processes. A dense clothing of short ciliated setae around mouth. Along ventral edge of manubrium at least six straight, stiff, ciliated bristles.

Body: Length 3 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, the three segments related as 10: 18: 27. Each antenna with two sensory knobs at its apex and three sensory setae. Ocelli, eight to each side, all large and equal, and arranged in two rows of five and three respectively. Tergum of mesothorax longer than head and slightly overlying its hinder portion. Abd. III longer than Abd. IV and segments of body related as follows:—Th. I and II: III: Abd. I: II: III: IV: V: VI: as 27: 12: 8: 13: 22: 18: 10: 5. Ventral tube short and cylindrical. Anus ventral and protected by a large dorsal lobe, two large lateral lobes and two small latero-ventral lobes.

Legs: Claw with two long lateral external basal teeth and three prominent inner teeth equally spaced along basal half of inner edge. Empodial appendage lanceolate, three-quarters as long as claw and with four wings. On outer wing three prominent basal teeth. On inner wing two prominent teeth at about one-quarter from base. Also a large lateral basal tooth on each side of empodial appendage, and a smaller blunt tooth at base of each lateral wing. A short, slender, non-clavate tenent hair, half as long as claw, to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching beyond ventral tube, manubrium to the mucrodens as 20: 46. Dens very prominently annulated and corrugated. Uncorrugated portion six times length of mucro. Ventral edge of uncorrugated portion of dens finely-toothed, giving a saw edge. Mucro falciform with a peculiar basal open, hook-like lamella. Dens also heavily scaled both dorsally and ventrally and near its base on ventral side numerous long, narrow, sharply-pointed scales which at first sight might be mistaken for spines. Some of these scales are very long, others much shorter; they differ from the body scales in that instead of being longitudinally ribbed they are finely striated and resemble the scales of the genus Lepidobrya Wom. The dens also with several short spines near base.

Localities: Arthur's Pass, on the east side of the ranges amongst leaf debris in the beech forest at 2,000 ft.

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Type: Slide 3/629, Dominion Museum Collection.

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Sub-family Tomocerinae Börner, 1906.

Tribe Neocerini nov.

It is necessary to erect this new tribe for the reception of the following genus containing two species which are related partly to the Lepidophorellini and partly to the Tomocerinae, but which, owing to their peculiar characteristics, do not fall comfortably into either of the foregoing groups.

Genus Neocerus nov.

Genotype: Neocerus spinosus sp. nov.

The following characters serve to distinguish this genus:—Scales are present, Abd. III longer than Abd. IV; dens lightly annulated and corrugated, two or three-segmented and spined. Mucro haired. Third antennal segment shorter than fourth. Eight ocelli to each side. Tenent hairs much reduced. For explanation of formula for dental spines see under Tomocerus, p. 346.

Key to the Species of Neocerus.
1. Creamy-white to orange-coloured species with two short, non-clavate tenent hairs to each foot. N. spinosus sp. nov.
2. Greyish-violet coloured species with one short, clavate tenent hair to each foot. N. insolitatus sp. nov.

Neocerus spinosus sp. nov. Plate 55, figs. 269–272; Plate 56, fig. 273.

Colour: In life, cream to orange mottled with black; mounted and with scales present, greyish-orange; denuded of scales, cream to orange. Irregular black markings on sides of body, particularly in anterior region. First three antennal segments orange to brownish, Ant. IV mauve. Legs and furcula pale cream to brown, tibio-tarsi mauve.

Clothing: Heavy clothing of large, longitudinally-ribbed and transversally-striated scales. Occasional plain setae mainly around posterior region and on legs.

Body: Length up to 5·2 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, the four segments related as 10: 16: 17: 23. Ocelli, eight to each side, all large and arranged in two rows of 5 and 3 respectively. No post-antennal organ. Abd. III longer than Abd. IV as 20: 12. Ventral tube long cylindrical, with terminal knob-like swelling.

Legs: Claw with one very long inner tooth one-quarter down from claw base. Two long exterior lateral basal teeth. Empodial appendage simple, lanceolate, and passing into a long wavy filament which reaches beyond tip of claw. Two short slender non-clavate tenent hairs to each foot.

Furcula: Scaled and with occasional plain setae. Manubrium to mucrodens as 37: 55. Dens two-segmented, segments related to mucro as 19: 27: 9. Mucro with many long setae and four teeth, a large, recurved apical tooth, two small ventral teeth, and one extremely large ventral tooth supplied with stout basal spine. From seven to ten prominent corrugations at distal end of dens. At distal end of first segment of dens two very large tridentate spines. Remaining dental spines simple and arranged in

– 346 –

two series, one of equal spines and the other of unequal spines. Equal spines arranged according to formula 14/20–25, and unequal spines according to formula 9, 0–I, 0–1, 0–III/2, I, 1–2, I, 1, I, 1, I, 1, I, 1, III, 2. In addition, numerous scattered small spines.

Localities: Lake Brunner, in bush soil and debris in forest; South Westland, in forest near the Karangarua River, amongst bush debris and soil; Lake Kanieri, in leaf debris in kahikatea forest.

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Type: Slide 3/630 and Figured Paratype: Slide 3/631, Dominion. Museum Collection.

Neocerus insolitatus sp. nov. Plate 56, figs. 274–275.

Colour: In life and mounted, body, head, legs, and furcula strong greyish-violet.

Clothing: Of typical scales and occasional plain setae.

Body: Length up to 2·5 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, the four segments related as 7: 10: 11: 16. Mesothoracic terga completely covers prothorax and overlies slightly hind portion of head. Segmentation of body rather indistinct. Abd. III longer than Abd. IV as 19: 12. Ventral tube short and cylindrical. Ocelli, eight to each side, all large, arranged in two rows of five and three, respectively.

Legs: Claw with one large inner basal tooth, two exterior lateral basal teeth, and basally with up to eleven folds. Empodial appendage lanceolate and passing into a long wavy filament which reaches beyond end of claw. A single unusually short clavate tenent hair, about one-quarter length of claw, to each foot. A long prominent basal spine on each side of claw.

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Furcula: Manubrium to mucrodens as 27: 49. Dens three-segmented, last segment with five prominent corrugations. Dens faintly annulated and coarsely corrugated. Mucro similar to N. spinosus. Dental spines in two series, formula being 2, 11/8–12 and 0/12 with numerous irregularly-placed very small spines.

Locality: Waiho Gorge, amongst leaf debris in forest.

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Type: Slide 3/637, Dominion Museum Collection.

Tribe Tomocerini nov.

Owing to the erection of the new tribe Neocerini in the Tomocerinae it now becomes necessary to propose this new tribe Tomocerini to contain the old genus Tomocerus.

The Tomocerini have six ocelli to each side and Ant. III much longer than Ant. IV.

Genus Tomocerus Nicolet, 1841.

Ocelli, six on each side. Clavate tenent hairs well developed. Dentes spined, mucrons long and clothed with setae.

The occurrence and arrangement of the dental spines is of great importance in the diagnosis of species, and is expressed as a formula wherein large spines are shown as a number in bold type and small spines in lighter type. The dens usually is segmented and where the suture of a segment interrupts the series of spines an oblique line is shown. Variations in the numbers of spines are shown by hyphens.

– 347 –

Two species occur in New Zealand, one of which is a well-known European form.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Tomocerus.
1. Claw with 5–7 equal inner teeth and single clavate, spined tenent hair. Dental spines 4–8/2–8, I, 1–2, I. T. minor Lubbock
2. Claw with one large and five smaller inner teeth, one clavate and spined tenent hair, one non-clavate tenent hair, and dental spines 2–3, I, 2–3, I, 1, I/o. T. setoserratus sp. nov.

Tomocerus minor Lubbock, 1862. Plate 56, figs. 281–282.

Colour: Lead coloured with scales, but without scales varying from yellow to almost black. Yellow forms often with lateral black mottling.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with typical ribbed and striated scales.

Body: Length to 4 mm. Antennae shorter than body, with basal segment yellow and the others purple.

Legs: Claw with 5–7 small inner teeth, and two lateral external basal teeth. Empodial appendage half as long as claw with single small tooth. A single clavate and spined tenent hair shorter than claw to each foot.

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Furcula: Dental spines tridentate. 4–8/2–8, I, 1–2, I. Mucro with apical, longer sub-apical, paired unequal basal teeth and from 5–10 small intermediate teeth.

Locality: Ross, South Westland, in and under old logs.

Tomocerus setoserratus sp. nov. Plate 56, figs. 276–280.

Colour: In life, grey; mounted and with scales, grey over a basal colour of yellow; denuded of scales, yellow with black mottling along sides of body. Legs and furcula dirty yellow, tibio-tarsi pale violet. Antennae, I yellow, II grey, III and IV bluish-grey.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with longitudinally-ribbed, transversely-striated scales and occasional plain setae, which are most prevalent around posterior region of abdomen and on legs and furcula.

Body: Length up to 3·5 mm. Antennae shorter than body, four-segmented, the segments related as 8: 12: 42: 19. Ant. III and IV annulated. Ocelli six to each side, all large. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax. Ventral tube short and swollen distally. Abd. III longer than Abd. IV as 11: 7.

Legs: Claw with six inner teeth, one of which is large and situated at basal end, and five others of medium size arranged equally spaced in line; two outer lateral basal teeth and six basal folds. Empodial appendage lanceolate, about half as long as claw, and with long, thin inner tooth at about one-third from base. A single strong clavate and spined tenent hair to each foot, and immediately above it an equally strong non-clavate tenent hair.

Furcula: Manubrium to dens to mucro as 23: 28: 6. Dens three-segmented, but sutures very ill-defined. Dental spines large and tridentate, the formula being 2–3, I, 2–3, I, 1. I/o. In addition, last segment of dens bears along its whole length two rows of strongly serrated setae down one side, exactly similar to serrated setae of Acanthomrus Wom. Mucro heavily clothed with setae, with an

– 348 –

apical tooth, a very large sub-apical tooth, 5–7 smaller intermediate teeth, and large paired basal teeth. The numbers of intermediate teeth may vary between the two mucrones of the same individual.

Locality: Lake Brunner, in old logs.

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Type: Slide, 3/639, Dominion Museum Collection.

This species is somewhat similar to T. minor Lubb., from which it differs in the formula for the dental spines, the presence of serrated setae on the dens, in the dentition of the claw and empodial appendage, and in the arrangement of tenent hairs.

Family Entomobryidae Börner, 1913.
Sub-family Entomobryinae Börner, 1906.

Tribe Entomobryini Börner, 1906.
Genus Sinella Brook, 1882.

Pigmentation generally absent; tibio-tarsus on inside surface generally with two rows of long plain setae and claw with single large wing-like basal tooth and sometimes a smaller one also. Tenent hairs if present weak. Scales absent. Ocelli reduced in number or absent.

Three species of this genus are known to occur in New Zealand, and they may be keyed as follows:—

1. Mucro dentate. 2
Mucro falciform. S. coeca Schött
2. White species with pigment spots on head and thorax. S. termitum Schött
White species with brown bands on all segments except Abd. V. and VI. S. pulverafusca sp. nov.

Sinella termitum Schött, 1917. Plate 56, figs. 283–284.

1932. Entomobrya cuniculicola Pritchard.

Colour: White, sometimes with small reddish spots on head and thorax.

Clothing: Of ciliated setae with flexed setae on head and thorax.

Body: Length up to 1 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, four-segmented. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 15: 33: 27: 67. Ant. IV with an apical bristle. Abd. IV from three to four times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with a small lateral tooth and two unequal basal wing-like teeth. Tenent hairs absent. Empodial appendage with a very large outer wing-like tooth.

Furcula: Manubrium and mucrodens approximately equal in length. Dens annulated and corrugated. Mucro bidentate with basal spine. Uncorrugated portion of dens three times length of mucro.

Localities: This species, originally described from Australia, was first found in New Zealand at Niger Bay, Auckland, where it was taken from burrows of cicadas by Mr. E. D. Pritchard. A further locality is from under bark and moss on tree-trunks in the forest on the Huiaran Range, Urewera Country, at an altitude of about 3,000 ft.

– 349 –

Sinella coeca Schött, 1896. Plate 56, figs. 285–286.

Colour: Entirely white.

Clothing: Close-lying ciliated setae.

Body: Length up to 2 mm. Ocelli absent. Claws with two basal wing-like teeth and a strong inner tooth. Empodial appendage, with outer wing-like tooth. Mucro falciform with basal spine.

Locality: This cosmopolitan species was reported from Manurewa, Auckland, by Womersley in 1934.

Sinella pulverafusca sp. nov. Plate 56, figs. 287–289; Plate 57, fig. 290.

Colour: White with patches of granular chestnut-brown pigment on top and sides of head and broad transverse bands around all segments except Abd. V and Abd. VI. Posterior three-quarters of Abd. IV, brown. Legs, furcula, and antennae, white.

Clothing: Sparsely clothed along dorsal surface of head and thorax with many long flexed setae. Tip of abdomen, furcula, legs and antennae clothed with ciliated setae. Very short ciliated setae occur on body. Bothriotrichia present on Abd. III and on Abd. IV.

Body: Length up to 1·5 mm. Antennae two and a-half times length of head, the four segments related as 7: 10: 10: 20. Ocelli absent. Abd. IV three and a-half times as long as Abd. III. Ventral tube long and thin, swollen distally.

Legs: Claw with a pair of large basal wing-like teeth half as long as claw and a prominent inner tooth about one-quarter down. No outer teeth. A single short tenent hair about half as long as claw to each foot. Empodial appendage more than half as long as claw, truncate on inner margin, and with a broad outer wing-like tooth.

Furcula: Manubrium to mucrodens as 22: 27. Dens corrugated and annulated. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, apical tooth larger than pre-apical and elongate so that the two are well separated. Mucro surrounded by strongly-ciliated setae. Uncorrugated portion of dens twice as long as mucro.

Localities: Lake Brunner, under white pine bark and in bush soil and debris; Rocky Creek, Weheka, under stones; Lindis Pass, South Canterbury; under stones by a stream, and Arthur's Pass, under stones and moss, 3,000 ft.

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Type: Slide 3/646 and Figured Paratype: Slide 3/647, Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Drepanura Schött, 1891.

Closely related to Entomobrya, from which it differs only in having the mucro falciform. One species of this genus is known in New Zealand, and it is endemic.

Drepanura aurifera sp. nov. Plate 57, figs. 291–293.

Colour: Yellow to golden-yellow on the head and body. Abd. III and front of head darker. Legs pale purplish-brown darkening to violet on tibio-tarsi. Ant. I reddish-brown, Ant. II reddish-brown passing to violet towards Ant. III, Ant. III violet, and Ant. IV deep bluish-violet. Furcula pale yellow becoming brownish on dens.

– 350 –

Clothing: Clothed with short ciliated setae and many very long (up to 0·2 mm.) flexed setae, especially along dorsal surface of head, thorax, and anterior of abdomen. Furcula heavily clothed with both simple and ciliated setae, legs with moderately-long ciliated setae, antennae with moderately-long plain setae.

Body: Length 1·2 mm. Antennae about two and a-half times length of head, four-segemented, the segments related as 8: 14: 11: 20. Ocelli, six to each side, the two anterior very large, remainder some-what smaller and equal. Ocelli of each side situated on dark pigment patches. Ventral tube long and fat. Abd. IV six times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claws with three inner teeth, one pair about half-way down claw, and a single tooth about three-quarters down. Empodial appendage lanceolate and reaching to distal tooth. A single strong clavate tenent hair as long as claw, to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching to thorax. Manubrium to mucrodens as 25: 21. Mucro falciform, being very much reduced to almost a spike and not distinctly separated from dens. Mucro surrounded by short ciliated setae and overhung by a long stout ciliated spine and several smaller ciliated setae.

Locality: Tuatapere, Southland, in old logs in the bush.

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Type: Slide 3/244, Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Entomobrya Rondani, 1861.

Pigmentation generally well-developed. Ocelli, eight to each side. Scales absent. Clavate tenent hair usually present and well-developed. Abd. IV several times longer than Abd. III.

The species of this genus differ only slightly from one another in morphological details, and are separated mainly by their colour and colour markings. Entomobrya forms a large and unwieldy genus which, in my opinion, could with advantage be simplified by the splitting-off of a new genus characterized by the absence of the large external lateral basal teeth to the claw. For this new genus I propose the name Pseudentomobrya.

Large external lateral basal teeth present. Entomobrya Rondani
Large external lateral basal teeth present. Pseudentomobrya gen. nov.

The genus Entomobrya thus constituted contains at the present time in New Zealand twenty-one species and six subspecies, of which seventeen species and three subspecies are endemic. Of the remainder one species and one subspecies are Australian and the rest cosmopolitan.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Entomobrya.
1. Species of more or less uniform colour 2
Species with transverse bands or irregular markings. 5
Species with irregular black mottling. 13
2. Colour entirely blue or violet. 3
Colour otherwise. 4
– 351 –
3. Deep blue with yellowish streaks and spots on Abd. IV. E. lamingtonensis Schött
Deep blue to blue-blackish, whole cuticle pitted, sometimes with paler intersegmental bands. E. totapunctata sp. nov.
4. Entirely yellowish to green except for ocellar fields and a dark spot between antennae E. nivalis subsp. immaculata Schaeffer.
Greenish-yellow species with deep violet edging to thoracic terga, a deep violet band between antennal bases, and patch on sides of head. Entomobrya penicillata sp. nov.
Entirely a deep, rich brown. E. divafusca sp. nov.
Golden-yellow to pale orange; Th. II whitish dorsally, sometimes with a little scattered black pigment on head and thorax. E. clitellaria subsp. newmani Womersley
Pale to dark ochreous with suffusion of pale violet on sides of thorax and Abds. I, III, and IV. Black spot between antennae. Pale violet V on top of head. E. nonfasciata sp. nov.
5. Irregular or broken stripes on sides of thorax and Abds. I, II, and III. Whole ventral surface of Abd. IV violet. Orange or golden coloured species. E. auricorpa sp. nov.
Whitish-yellow with irregular black spots forming more or less longitudinal streaks. Ocelli normal. E. varia Schött
Similar to E. varia, but Abd. III dorsally dark and with narrow anterior marginal band down sides. Six ocelli very large, two very small, and all touching. E. obscuroculata sp. nov.
Narrow bands or broad bands on certain segments only. 6
6. One to three broad bands. 7
Many transverse bands. 8
7. Golden to orange coloured, with a single black band covering posterior portion of mesothorax, metathorax, and Abd. I. E. clitellaria subsp. australasia nov.
Yellow with dorsal violet saddle across posterior half of Abd. II and all Abd. III to halfway down sides. E. ephippiaterga sp. nov.
Body blue except for anterior portion of mesothorax. Abd. VI and head deep blue. E. livida sp. nov.
Ochreous-brown, with anterior half of mesoterga, Th. III, Abds. I, II, and III, and posterior two-thirds of Abd. IV deep blue. E. egmontia sp. nov.
Yellow, with Abds. II and III wholly blue. broad posterior blue bands on Abd. IV and Abd. V. E. salta sp. nov.
8. Ground colour whitish or yellowish. 10
Ground colour blue or violet. 9
– 352 –
9. Violet or ochreous-violet, with narrow posterior dark violet intersegmental bands on Th. II, Th. III, Abd. I, Abd. II, Abd. III, and broader bands on Abd. IV and Abd. V. E. exoricarva sp. nov.
Deep blue-black or violet, with occasional yellow spots on Th. II and Abd. IV. Narrow black intersegmental bands around posterior margins of all segments. On top of head a V-shaped mark. E. saxatila sp. nov.
10. Transverse bands only. 11
Bands lateral, stripes and edging to terga. 12
11. Abd. IV with two irregular but broken bands. Narrow posterior marginal bands on all segments, sometimes broken medially. E. multlifasciata Tullberg
Yellowish forms with blue anterior marginal bands on all segments. Four oval blue patches on each side of Abd. IV. E. aniwaniwaensis sp. nov.
12. Continuous latero-ventral band around body and narrow posterior marginal bands on all segments. E. nivalis Linné
Yellowish with a continuous lateral violet band and a broad discontinuous mid-dorsal band from apex of thorax to Abd. III. Abd. III wholly violet. Irregular posterior marginal bands on Abds. IV and V and violet patches on Abd. IV. E. opotikiensis sp. nov.
Pale-yellow, with a broad blue ventrolateral stripe along Th. II and III. Adbs. I, II, III, and IV. Broad dark blue posterior marginal bands on Abd. IV and Abd. V. E. duofascia sp. nov.
As above with additional bands around middle of Abd. IV and posterior margins of Th. II, Abd. I, Abd. II, and Abd. III. E. duofascia subsp. maxima nov.
As above, but with two or three of additional bands reduced or absent. E. duofascia subsp. variabila nov.
13. Pale yellowish with narrow blue posterior marginal bands on Th. II, Th. III, Abds. II, III, IV, and V. A violet V-shaped mark on top of head. Body mottled all over with black. E. nigranota sp. nov.
Pale yellowish species without blue band, but with body mottled with black. E. nigranota subsp. sinfascia nov.
Orange-brown to purplish, with deep purple-black mottled pigment along lower part of sides of body. E. hurunuiensis sp. nov.

Entomobrya totapunctata sp. nov. Plate 57, figs. 294–297.

Colour: Deep blue to blue-black, sometimess with violet tinge and generally with narrow darker-coloured intersegmental bands. Legs and furcula blue, becoming paler towards their extremities. Antennae dark blue. Whole cuticle has a finely-pitted or “pock-marked” appearance all over. Top of head ochreous.

Clothing: Sparsely clothed with short setae and occasional long flexed setae, the latter especially along top of head and at apex of mesotergum. Several very long, slender, ciliated hairs on Abd.

– 353 –

III and Abd. IV, and long, heavily-ciliated setae on Abds. V and VI. Legs lightly clothed with plain and ciliated setae and furcula with many finely-ciliated setae.

Body: Length 1·2–1·4 mm. Tergum of mesothorax almost completely covers prothorax. Antennae almost half as long as body, four-segmented, the segments related as 5: 10: 10: 14. Ocelli, eight to each side, two very large, four large and two very small. Ventral tube short and cylindrical. Abd. IV three times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw long, with one external tooth about middle of outer edge, two long lateral teeth and four inner teeth. there being one prominent pair about half-way down claw, another tooth at three-quarters, and a smaller one near apex. Sometimes latter tooth may be absent. Empodial appendage lanceolate, reaching about three-quarters down claw. A single clavate tenent hair to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching forward to ventral tube. Dens corrugated and annulated, related to manubrium as 25: 20. Mucro bidentate with slightly curved basal spine, sub-apical tooth large. Mucro surrounded by, generally, three long strongly-ciliated setae.

Localities: Awahuri, Palmerston North, in old log under kowhaitrees; Akatarawa, under bark of fuchsia trees and in soil; Butterfly Creek, in old logs; Ferguson's Bush, West Coast, under bark of rimu trees; Maruia Valley, under bark of fuchsia trees.

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Type: Slide 3/207, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya lamingtonensis Schött, 1917. Plate 57, figs. 302–303.

This Australian species was reported by Womersley in 1930, from Kumara, under stones. I have taken it at Lake Brunner under bark of kahikatea trees.

In colour it is entirely blue with yellowish spots and streaks on the anterior part of Abd. IV. Abd. IV 2 ⅓ times as long as Abd. III. Claw similar to multifasciata. Mucro narrow and elongate, tridentate with basal spine. Dens corrugated; uncorrugated portion four times as long as mucro. Mucro surrounded by long ciliated setae.

Entomobrya divafusca sp. nov. Plate 57, figs. 298–300.

Colour: Head, body, antennae and legs all a deep, rich brown. Furcula paler brown. Antennae very dark brown at tips. A suggestion of narrow darker brown cross bands around posterior margins of segments, but it is not very strongly marked. Abd. VI is very dark brown. A dark patch between bases of antennae and diffuse blackish-coloured blotches, not very strongly marked, occur on body, principally on thorax.

Clothing: Very heavily clothed with close coating of short setae and numerous longer setae. Along dorsal surface, especially on head and thorax, many long flexed setae. Many long ciliated hairs and shorter ciliated setae occur around posterior portion of abdomen both dorsally and ventrally. A long, backwardly-directed ciliated wavy hair arises from near posterior margin of Abd. IV. There are

– 354 –

many long, finely-ciliated hairs on legs and antennae, except on Ant. IV, where clothing is of short setae only. Furcula heavily clothed with ciliated setae.

Body: Length 1·6 mm. Antennae four-segmented and two and a-half times length of head; segments related as 12: 20: 12: 17. Ocelli, eight to each side on black pigment patches. Anterior pair very large, four others large, and posterior inner pair small. Ventral tube short and plump. Abd. IV three times as long as Abd. III. Head almost equal to thorax in length.

Legs: Claw with long external tooth reaching half-way down claw, two short lateral teeth, and five inner teeth. Proximal pair in centre of inner groove large and prominent, distal pair at about three-quarters down from base of claw not so large. Fifth tooth smaller and a little past half-way from distal teeth to apex of claw. A single long slender clavate tenent hair to each foot. Empodial appendage broad and lanceolate and about two-thirds as long as claw.

Furcula: Dens a little longer than manubrium and strongly annulated. Unannulated portion twice length of mucro. Mucro small, but rather elongate, with prominent apical and sub-apical teeth and a basal spine. Mucro surrounded with long and strongly ciliated setae which over-reach it.

Locality: Mount Egmont, in leaf debris, 2,000 ft., south side.

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Type: Slide 3/703, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya nonfasciata sp. nov. Plate 57, fig. 301.

Colour: Pale to dark ochreous with a faint trace of very pale violet on sides of thorax and Abd. I. A more definite suffusion of pale violet on sides of Abd. III and IV. First two antennal segments pale brown and last two pale violet. Legs and furcula pale ochreous. A black spot lies between antennae, and a line of very pale violet joins ocelli and bases of antennae. A very pale violet outlined triangular mark on top of head.

Clothing: Of short setae and numerous flexed setae, the latter especially along dorsal surface. Around tip of abdomen numerous long ciliated hairs and setae. Legs and antennae bear numerous long setae except on last segment of antennaee, where clothing is of very fine setae only. At least two fine ciliated sensory hairs on Abd. IV.

Body: Length up to 2 mm. Antennae two and a-half times length of head, four-segmented, the segments related as 7: 13: 12: 15. Ocelli on black pigment patches, eight to each side, six large and two slightly smaller. Ventral tube short and fat. Abd. IV approximately three times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with one outer tooth, two lateral teeth, half as long as claw, and five inner teeth; proximal pair about centre of inner groove, distal pair just past three-quarters down from claw base. Fifth single tooth near apex of claw. Empodial appendage lanceolate and two-thirds as long as claw. A heavy clavate tenent hair to each foot, slightly longer than the claw.

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Furcula: Dens strongly annulated, the unannulated portion at apex twice length of mucro. Mucro bidentate with a basal spine which reaches above sub-apical tooth, and surrounded by very long, strongly-ciliated setae. Edge of sub-apical tooth forms ledge along hinder portion of mucro.

Locality: Mount Egmont, in leaf debris, 2,000 ft., south side.

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Type: Slide 3/705, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya auricorpa sp. nov. Plate 58, figs. 304–306.

Colour: In life, bright orange with traces of dark pigment on sides; mounted, golden dorsally, becoming yellowish ventrally. A narrow edging of violet pigment runs along ventral edges of thoracic pleura and expands into a small patch of violet pigment which extends along sides of Abd. II and Abd. III, terminating at posterior margin of latter. Whole ventral surface of Abd. IV violet, extending upwards as a narrow, incomplete intersegmental band between Abds. III and IV. Small patches of violet on posterior margin of Abd. V and a broken line of violet along middle of sides of meso and metathorax and Abds. I–III. Ventral surface of head violet. Legs orange; violet on tibio-tarsi. Furcula pale orange. Ant. I orange, remainder dark orange-brown. Ant. IV being deep blue at tip.

Clothing: Densely clothed with short ciliated setae and around posterior region many long, wavy, ciliated setae. Dorsally very heavily clothed, especially on head and thorax, with long, flexed setae. Bothriotrichia on Abds. II and IV. Antennae with several long, ciliated sensory hairs.

Body: Length up to 2·1 mm. Antennae about three times as long as head, the four segments related as 10: 8: 15: 21. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorx. Ocelli eight to each side on dark pigment patche, five large and three small. Abd. IV 4 ½ to 5 times longer than Abd. III. Ventral tube long and cylidrical.

Legs: Claw with two short exterior lateral basal teeth and five inner teeth; one pair at centre, one pair at two-thirds, and a single distal tooth. Empodial appendage long and narrow, lanceolate and almost reaching to distal tooth. A single clavate tenent hair about equal in length to claw, to each foot.

Furcula: Manubrium to mucrodens as 32: 43. Dens prominently annulated and corrugated. Mucro typical, apical and sub-apical teeth equal. Surrounded by short but strongly-ciliated setae. Non-annulated portion of dens 1 ½ times length of mucro.

Locality: Lake Manapouri, under stones on the edge of the lake.

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Type: Slide 3/673. Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya varia Schött, 1917. Plate 59, fig. 318.

A widely-distributed Australian species reported in New Zealand in 1936 by Womersley, from Niger Bay, Hillsborough, Auckland. It has not been found elsewhere since.

It is a white to yellowish-coloured species with a series of irregular black marks on the sides of the segments, which tend to from longitudinal stripes. Body length up to 2·0 mm. In other respects similar to multifasciata.

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Entomobrya clitellaria Guthrie, 1903, subsp. australasia nov. Plate 58, fig. 307.

This variety of E. clitellaria Guthrie has the blue-black band commencing on posterior portion of mesothorax and ending abruptly at posterior boundary of Abd. I. Except for a slight shading on sides of head, remainder of body a bright orange-yellow. This form was first mentioned from Australia by Womersley (1934), who, however, did not raise it to varietal rank. In his original description of the species Guthrie states that the colour markings are remarkably constant, the blue-black band extending from anterior margin of metathorax to posterior margin of Abd. III. The reduced colour band on the New Zealand specimens is also remarkably constant and warrants, in my opinion, the erection of a specific variety.

Locality: From gardens at Karori, Wellington.

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Type: Slide 3/1003, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya clitellaria subsp. newmani Womersley, 1934.

In this subspecies newmani, from Australia, the blue-black band is entirely absent. In morphological detail these forms agree with E. multifasciata. Subspecies newmani has been found in New Zealand at Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, and in gardens at Karori, Wellington.

Entomobrya ephippiaterga sp. nov. Plate 58, figs. 308–309.

Colour: In life, yellow, with dark dorsal saddle on Abd. III; mounted, yellow, with transverse violet band on Abd. III extending half-way down each side. This band generally extends forward over Abd. II almost to its anterior margin, giving the appearance of a saddle. Similar very narrow bands may occur on posterior margins of meso and metathorax and Abd. V. Furcula yellow, legs yellow with violet tibio-tarsi. Antennae yellow on Ant. I, becoming reddishviolet on II and dark bluish-violet on III and IV. Ocelli on black fields. No frontal line joining ocelli.

Clothing: Densely clothed with short, coarsely-serrated setae with longer ciliated setae around tip of abdomen and on the legs and furcula. Numerous dorsal flexed setae on head and thorax. Setae of the antennae finely ciliated.

Body: Length up to 1·3 mm. Antennae twice length of head, the four segments related as 5: 12: 10: 15. Ocelli, eight to each side, posterior inner two small, others large. Mesotergum completely covers prothorax, and is approximately equal in length to the meta-thorax. Abd. IV five times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw similar to that of E. aniwaniwaensis.

Furcula: Reaching forward to ventral tube. Manubrium to mucrodens as 16: 25. Dens prominently annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated portion four times length of mucro. Mucro short, bidentate, with basal spine, apical tooth slightly smaller than preapical. Mucro surrounded by long, strongly-ciliated setae.

Locality: Lake Roto-iti, South Island, under the bark of manuka trees.

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Type: Slide 3/690, Dominion Museum Collection.

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Entomobrya salta sp. nov. Plate 58, figs. 310–312.

Colour: Yellow, with deep indigo-blue edging and posterior bands to mesothorax, metathorax, and sides only of Abd. I. The whole of Abds. II and III, the posterior two-thirds of Abd. IV, and posterior half of Abd. V all deep indigo-blue. A similar-coloured band joins the ocellar patches in front, while behind they are joined by a violet area which projects posteriorly as a broad “V.” Furcula pale yellow, legs yellow or pale violet, antennae violet with yellow showing on second segment, the last segment very dark violet. Ocelli on dark blue-black patches.

Clothing: Of ciliated setae, which posteriorly and on legs may be very long. Dorsally on head and thorax are many long flexed setae. Bothriotrichia are present on Abds. II, III, and IV.

Body: Length up to 1·8 mm. Antennae twice length of head, the four segments related as 5: 12: 11: 15. Ocelli, eight to each side, the posterior inner two smaller than remainder. Abd. IV 6–8 times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with two outer lateral basal teeth, one external tooth near base, and five inner teeth, the first pair at centre, another pair just past three-quarters, and a distal single tooth. Empodial appendage lanceolate, reaching to the first pair of inner teeth. A well-developed clavate tenent hair longer than claw to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching to ventral tube. Manubrium to mucrodens as 18: 22. Dens strongly annulated and corrugated, uncorrugated portion two and a-half times length of mucro. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, apical tooth slightly smaller than pre-apical. Mucro over-reached by long, ciliated setae.

Locality: Arthur's Pass, 3,000 ft.and higher, under stones and moss.

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Type: Slide 3/698, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya livida sp. nov. Plate 58, figs. 313–314.

This species is closely allied to E. salta, from which it differs as follows:—

Colour: Body entirely deep indigo-blue, except for Abd. VI, anterior three-quarters of mesothorax and head. A deep indigo-blue edging to mesothorax. Legs and dens pale yellow with manubrium blue. Antennae yellowish-brown, violet at apex. “V”-shaped area at top of head not so pronounced.

Claw: Similar to E. salta, but with empodial appendage longer, reaching to the second pair of teeth, and truncate on inner margin.

Furcula: Similar to E. salta.

Localities: Arthur's Pass, 3,000 ft., under stones and moss. Waiho Gorge, South Westland, and in the Lower Hollyford Valley, under the bark of fuchsia trees.

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Type: Slide 3/699, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya egmontia sp. nov. Plate 59, fig. 319.

Colour: Thorax, first three abdominal segments and posterior two-thirds of Abd. IV deep sapphire-blue. Anterior third of Abd. IV and whole of Abd. V and Abd. VI yellowish-brown. A broad but

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irregular ochreous band extends around posterior half of mesothorax. Head ochreous brown suffused with paler blue pigment than that on the other part of body. Proximal segments of legs blue, distal segments pale yellow. Manubrium blue and mucrodens pale yellow. Antennal segment I and the beginning of II ochreous, remainder deep violet. Ocelli situated on dark pigment patches.

Clothing: Thickly clothed with short setae and along dorsal surface especially on head and thorax, many long flexed setae. Abd. IV bears six to eight long, fine, ciliated sensory hairs and around tip of abdomen many ciliated setae. Legs and furcula clothed with long, plain setae.

Body: Length 1·6 mm. Head slightly shorter than thorax. Antennae twice as long as head, four-segmented, with a basal ring or papilla, the segments related as 8: 14: 12: 15. Ocelli, eight to each side, anterior two very large, four others medium size, and two, the posterior inner two, very small. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax. Ventral tube cylindrical and pointed. Abd. IV 3 ¼ to 4 times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with two outer lateral teeth almost half as long as claw and five inner teeth, the first pair about centre of inner groove, the second pair about two-thirds down from claw base, and a fifth single tooth between this and claw tip. Empodial appendage half as long as claw, narrow and acutely truncate on inner margin. A single clavate tenent hair about as long as the claw to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching to ventral tube. Mucrodens slightly longer than manubrium. Dens corrugated and annulated, unannulated portion 2 ½ times length of mucro. Mucro with prominent apical and sub-apical teeth and small basal spine and surrounded by long, ciliated setae.

Locality: Mount Egmont, in leaf debris in bush, 2,000 ft., south side.

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Type: Slide 3/693, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya exoricarva sp. nov. Plate 58, figs. 315–317.

Colour: In life, violet with darker markings; mounted, a ground colour of ochreous tinged with violet and with deep violet narrow intersegmental bands on posterior margins of thoracic and first three abdominal segments. A dark violet band joining ocelli and bases of antennae. Abd. IV dorsally and laterally deep-violet on posterior four-fifths, and with posterior three-quarters of Abd. V also deep violet. A narrow, broken, deep violet mid-dorsal stripe runs back on to Abd. IV. Irregular patches of deep violet occur on sides and dorsal surface of thoracic and first three abdominal segments. Legs pale violet-ochreous with wide, deeper violet bands. Antennae violet, darkening towards apex. Furcula yellow with some violet on the manubrium.

Clothing: Of short, ciliated setae, longer around tip of abdomen and on legs and antennae, with dorsally on head, thorax and first two abdominal segments many flexed setae.

– 359 –

Body: Length up to 2 mm. Antennae just over twice length of head, the four segments related as 8: 15: 14: 19. Ocelli, eight to each side, all large, except the posterior inner two, which are extremely small. Abd. IV 4–5 times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with two outer lateral basal teeth, a pair of large inner teeth at centre, a further large pair at three-quarters, and a very small single tooth near apex. Empodial appendage lanceolate and reaching to second pair of teeth. A long, clavate, tenent hair to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching to ventral tube. Dens finely annulated and corrugated, uncorrugated portion three times length of mucro. Mucro long, bidentate, with basal spine. pre-apical tooth the larger, and surrounded by long, ciliated setae.

Locality: Upper Waitohi, in leaf debris at mouth of shallow cave.

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Type: Slide 3/682, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya saxatila sp. nov. Plate 59, figs. 320–322.

Colour: In life, a deep blue-black; mounted, very deep reddish-violet, with the head ochreous on top. Between the ocellar patches a broad “V”-shaped violet mark with its apex directed posteriorly and area between it and bases of antennae filled with distinct reddish-violet pigment. Very narrow black intersegmental bands on posterior margins of all segments. Legs and furcula pale violet. Spots of yellow show through ground colour, particularly on mesothorax and Abd. IV. Ant. I and II violet, III and IV deep bluish-violet.

Clothing: Of ciliated setae with longer ones around posterior portion of abdomen and, dorsally, on head and thorax, numerous long, flexed setae. Bothriotrichia present on Abds. II and IV.

Legs: Claw with outer tooth, a pair of outer lateral basal teeth and inner teeth as follows:—A pair at centre, a single tooth at three-quarters, and a very small distal tooth. Empodial appendage lanceolate and about two-thirds as long as claw. A single clavate tenent hair as long as claw to each foot.

Furcula: Manubrium and mucrodens approximately equal in length. Dens strongly annulated and corrugated, uncorrugated portion twice length of mucro. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, apical tooth almost recurved and smaller than pre-apical. Mucro surrounded by strongly-ciliated setae.

Locality: Lake Manapouri, under stones on the edge of the lake.

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Type: Slide 3/704, Dominion Museum Collection.

Remarks: This species is close to E. marginata Tulb. and E. griseo-olivata Pack. from the former of which it differs in the presence of a “V”-shaped mark on the head and in the form of the mucro. From the latter it differs mainly in the colour and the relative proportions of the antennal segments and of Abd. III and Abd. IV.

Entomobrya multifasciata Tullberg, 1871. Plate 59, figs. 323–325.

Colour: Yellowish-brown with a definite but irregular dark blue band around posterior margin of each segment and with an extra

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band around middle of Abd. IV. Ventral edge of terga dark blue. Bands of Abds. II and III with lateral forward extensions.

Clothing: Typically clothed with stout ciliated setae with longer ones on Abds. IV–VI. Dorsally on head and thorax many flexed setae.

Body: Length up to 2·0 mm. Antennae three times as long as head, segments related as 10: 18: 18: 18. Ocelli, eight to each side. Abd. IV three times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with one outer tooth, two lateral basal teeth, and three pairs of inner teeth. Empodial appendage lanceolate, about half as long as claw. A single clavate tenent hair equal to claw in length to each foot.

Furcula: Dens slightly longer than manubrium, strongly corrugated and annulated. Mucro small, bidentate, with basal spine and surrounded by ciliated setae.

Localities: First recorded in New Zealand in 1895 by W. W. Smith as associating with ants. I can now record it from:—Mount Egmont, in leaf debris in bush, at 2,000 ft.; Lake Brunner, in old logs; Lake Wanaka, under stones on hillsides; Lake Wakatipu, southern end, among and under stones, or in earth-filled clefts in stony outcrops on hillsides rising from the lake.

Entomobrya aniwaniwaensis sp. nov. Plate 59, figs. 329–331.

Colour: In life, pale ochreous-brown with dark bluish-black markings; mounted specimens show a body colour of pale ochreous to yellow with dorsal and lateral bands of dark blue, as follows:—On head between and around bases of antennae, along sides, and a short dark longitudinal line in the middle of the top. On mesothorax a narrow band extends around anterior margin, and a short narrow dorsal band extends across the segment near posterior margin. On metathorax and first three abdominal segments broad bands extend around anterior margins of respective segments. A narrow band around anterior margin of Abd. IV and four oval-shaped blue patches on each side of the posterior half of this segment. Abdominal segments V and VI have broad anterior blue bands, or Abd. V may be entirely dark blue. Legs and furcula pale ochreous, antennae pale brown, becoming darker towards tips, the joints being bluish.

Clothing: More or less evenly clothed with short, fine setae. Numerous long, flexed setae occur over body, particularly along dorsal surface and at apex of mesotergum. Mingled with these are ciliated setae, particularly on the head. A group of long, ciliated setae occurs at tip of abdomen; and a single, long, wavy, ciliated seta occurs on each side of Abd. IV towards posterior margin. Antennae clothed with hairs and occasional long setae. Last antennal segment with short hairs only, which towards tip are ciliated. Furcula heavily clothed with setae, many of which are ciliated. The legs with hairs and occasional long setae.

Body: Length 1·7–1·9 mm. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax. Head almost equal to thorax in length. Antennae four-segmented, the segments related as 8: 14: 13: 17, and almost twice as long as head. Ocelli, eight to each side, situated on dark

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blue pigment patches. Front outer ocellus extra large, five of remainder large and two very small. Ventral tube moderately long. Abd. IV 4 ½ times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with a pair of exterior lateral teeth reaching half-way down claw, and a short external outer tooth, a pair of inner teeth about middle of its length, a second pair midway between this and apex, and a smaller fifth tooth generally present near apex. Empodial appendage about two-thirds length of claw, narrow, and sharply-pointed. A single clavate tenent hair to each foot about equal to claw in length.

Furcula: Reaching to ventral tube, mucrodens to manubrium as 32: 25. Dens corrugated and annulated, narrowing considerably towards mucro. Mucro bidentate with a single basal spine; the sub-apical tooth inclined slightly backwards. Mucro surrounded by long ciliated setae which over-reach it.

Locality: From old log on beach and from under stones on beach, Lake Waikaremoana.

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Type: Slide 3/179, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya nivalis Linné, 1758, sensu stricto. Plate 59, figs. 327–328.

Colour: Yellow to greenish with black ocellar fields and a dark band joining these and the antennal bases. A generally continuous (but somewhat broken) lateral, longitudinal, stripe across all segments. All segments with a dark posterior cross-band which is broken mid-dorsally, and which on thoracic and first two abdominal segments is broad and lengthened anteriorly at the sides and in the centre. Abd. IV dorsally with a large irregular “V”-shaped mark and lateral ventral stripes. Generally a black ventral edging to all segments.

Length: Up to 2 mm. Structural detail as in multifasciata.

Localities: This is a cosmopolitan species first reported in New Zealand by Womersley in 1936 from Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland. I can now add the following additional localities:—Maruia Valley, under the bark of beech trees; Haast Pass, under the bark of beech trees and in old logs; Tauhara Mountain, Taupo, under the bark of beech trees at 3,000 ft. elevation; Newbury, Palmerston North, along the banks of a stream; Waipoua Kauri Forest, under the bark of kauri trees.

Subspecies immaculata Schaeffer, 1896. Plate 59, fig. 326.

Differs in the entire absence of pigmentation except for a spot between the antennae. Usually found in association with the principal form.

Localities: Newbury, Palmerston North; Waioeka Valley, in grass, 2,000 ft. (not in association with typical forms).

Entomobrya obscuroculata sp. nov. Plate 60, figs. 340–342.

Colour: In life, apparently yellowish; but mounted, the type specimen is pinkish, which Womersley states in a letter to me in due to the action of the mounting medium. Rather similar generally to E. varia, but with Abd. III dorsally to half-way down the sides

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dark violet, with a downward extension as a narrow band on the anterior margin. Antennae, legs and furcula unpigmented. Ocelli on restricted black patches. A black spot between the antennae.

Clothing: Of short ciliated setae and dorsally many flexed setae.

Body: Length 1·8 mm. Antennae two and a-half times as long as head, the four segments related as 8: 17: 14: 20. Ocelli, eight to each side, six being very large, while the other two are very small and smothered with pigment, making them very difficult to detect. Superficially, the appearance is of six ocelli only. The ocelli are all in contact and extend out over the pigment area (fig. 341).

Legs: Claw with outer basal tooth, and a pair of outer lateral basal teeth and four inner teeth—a pair at one-third, a single large tooth at two-thirds, and a small distal tooth. Clavate tenent hair about as long as claw.

Furcula: Normal, mucro bidentate, teeth equal and with basal spine overtopping pre-apical tooth.

Locality: Niger Bay, Manukau, Auckland. Collected by Mr. E. D. Pritchard.

Type: In the South Australian Museum, Adelaide.

The specimen described above was kindly sent to me by Mr. Womersley, of the South Australian Museum, to whom it had been sent by Mr. E. D. Pritchard.

Entomobrya opotikiensis sp. nov. Plate 60, fig. 339.

Colour: Pale yellowish-cream ground with dark violet-blue markings, as follows:—A narrow band joins the two ocellar patches across front of head; a broad lateral band extends from apex of mesotergum to Abd. III, where it meets a broad band passing around dorsal half of Abd. III. A mid-dorsal band extends, with breaks, from thorax, to Abd. III. A mid-dorsal patch occurs on Abd. IV and broad posterior bands extend around this segment and Abd. V. Irregular-shaped pigment patches occur on sides of Abd. IV. Antennae violet-blue, deepening on last two segments. Legs yellowish with broad bands of pale violet.

Clothing: Thickly clothed with very long flexed setae, especially along dorsal surface and around posterior region. Two long ciliated setae occur dorsally on Abd. V. Antennae and legs clothed with hairs and occasional long setae. Furcula heavily clothed with setae, many of which are ciliated.

Body: Length 1·5 to 1·75 mm. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax. Head slightly less than thorax in length. Antennae four-segmented, the segments related as 5: 10: 9: 11, and twice as long as head. Ocelli situated on deep blue-black pigment patches, eight to each side, the posterior interior two, small; others large equal. Ventral tube very long, with a distinct foot. Abd. IV 4 ½ times to 5 times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with a single external outer tooth about one-quarter down from base; a pair of short lateral external basal teeth; a pair of well-developed inner teeth about middle of claw, a single well-developed tooth about three-quarters down from base, and a further

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very small tooth midway between this and apex of claw. Empodial appendage reaching to distal tooth, narrow and truncate. A single clavate tenent hair to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching forward to ventral tube. Mucrodens and manubrium practically equal in length. Dens corrugated and annulated, the unannulated portion of dens about twice as long as mucro. Mucro bidentate with a single basal spine and surrounded by three long ciliated setae.

Locality: Under pohutukawa trees on the coast at Opotiki.

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Type: Slide 3/218, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya duofascia sp. nov. Plate 60, fig. 333.

Subspecies maxima nov. Plate 60, fig. 332.

Subspecies variabila nov. Plate 60, fig. 334.

This is a very variable species with two colour varieties as well as the principal form.

Colour: Pale yellow with a broad longitudinal dark blue stripe along ventral edges of pleura, commencing on mesothorax and continuing unbroken to posterior margin of Abd. IV. It does not pass around anterior margin of mesothorax as a transverse band. Always a broad transverse dark blue band around posterior margin of Abd. IV, and a second similar band around posterior three-quarters of Abd. V. There also may be a broad transverse dark blue band (a) around the middle of Abd. IV, (b) posteriorly around Abd. III, (c) similarly around Abd. II, (d) narrow transverse dark blue bands around posterior margins of Abd. I and metathorax, respectively.

Forma principalis: If (a), (b), (c), and (d) are all very much reduced or absent.

Subsp. maxima if (a), (b), (c), and (d) are all present and well-developed.

Subsp. variabila if one or more of (a), (b), (c), or (d), but not all are very much reduced or entirely absent. In all forms legs and furcula are pale yellow with tibio-tarsi pale blue. Ant. I and II orange-brown, III and IV violet. Ocelli on black fields joined around bases of antennae by a line of dark blue pigment.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with short ciliated setae and, dorsally, on head and thorax with numerous long, flexed setae. Occasional longer ciliated setae occur over body and appendages and around tip of abdomen.

Body: Length 1·7 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, the four segments related as 7 : 15 : 15 : 20. Ocelli, eight to each side, the posterior inner two extremely small, remainder large and equal. Abd. IV three and a-half times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with two long outer lateral basal teeth and five inner teeth, one pair just past centre, another pair just beyond three-quarters and a further small distal tooth. Empodial appendage narrow, lanceolate, and about two-thirds as long as claw. A single long clavate tenent hair as long as claw to each foot.

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Furcula: Reaching to ventral tube. Dens a little longer than manubrium, strongly annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated portion three times as long as mucro. Mucro bidentate, with a basal spine with apical tooth slightly shorter than pre-apical. Mucro surrounded and over-reached by long, strongly-ciliated setae.

Localities: Homer Saddle, 3,000 ft., under beech bark; Lake Gunn, Eglinton Valley, under beech bark; Lake Wakatipu, south end, under stones.

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Type: Forma principalis, slide 3/676; subsp. maxima, slide 3/677; subsp. variabila, slide 3/679, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya nigranota sp. nov. Plate 60, figs. 335–336.

Colour: Ochreous to pale yellowish-white with narrow bluish-violet pigment bands around posterior margins of meso and metathorax, and Abds. II, III, IV and V. An irregular broken band around middle of Abd. IV and Abd. VI almost entirely pigmented except for apex. A band of blue between the ocelli and a very dark spot between the antennae. A triangular patch of violet on top of the head with its apex directed backwards and a suffusion of violet along sides of head. All over body, with the exception of the head, are large blotches which appear white in reflected light and black in transmitted light. A narrow broken band of darker bluish-violet extends along ventral edge of the terga. Ant. I bluish-violet, Ant. II ochreous, Ant. III ochreous, becoming violet towards joint with Ant. IV, which is darker violet. Legs ochreous with traces of pigment at all joints. Furcula ochreous. Ocelli on black pigment patches.

Clothing: Thickly clothed with small fine setae and occasional long flexed setae, which latter occur prominently along dorsal surface. Numerous long ciliated setae occur around tip of abdomen and several long fine ciliated hairs arise from Abds. II, III, and IV. Legs and furcula heavily clothed with moderately long setae.

Body: Length 1·8 mm. Antennae four-segmented, twice as long as head, the segments related as 11: 15: 15: 17. There is a prominent basal papilla to each antenna. Ant. I rather broader than long. Ocelli, eight to each side, five large, one medium and two, the posterior inner two, small. Ventral tube short. Abd. IV three times as long as Abd. III. Abd. VI constricted and projecting like a finger at the rear.

Legs: Claw with external tooth on outer edge, two long outer lateral teeth and five inner teeth; proximal pair about middle of inner groove, distal pair midway between this and apex of claw, followed by fine single tooth. Empodial appendage long and narrow, reaching to distal pair of teeth. A single clavate tenent hair as long as claw to each foot.

Furcula: Just reaching ventral tube. Manubrium to mucrodens as 25: 30. Dens strongly annulated. Mucro bidentate with basal spine and surrounded with long ciliated setae.

Locality: Mount Egmont, in leaf debris in bush, 2,000 ft., south side.

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Type: Slide 3/707, Dominion Museum Collection.

– 365 –

Entomobrya nigranota subspec. sinfascia nov.

This subspecies differs from the main species in that the bluish-violet pigment bands are entirely wanting. In all other respects the two forms are identical.

Locality: Mount Egmont, in leaf debris, 2,000 ft., south side.

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Type: Slide 3/709, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya hurunuiensis sp. nov. Plate 60, figs. 337–338.

Colour: Orange-brown to purple with deep purplish-black mottled pigment converging on lower part of sides of thorax and abdominal segments I, II, and III, ventral and ventro-lateral portions of Abd. IV, and sides of Abds. V and VI. Bands of dark pigment on sides of head and between bases of antennae. Antennae dark brown to black except for a trace of light brown on Ant. I and around base of Ant. II. Legs light brown, darker at joints, the coxal segments dark. Furcula light brown.

Clothing: Sparingly clothed with short ciliated setae and occasional long flexed setae with many ciliated setae around tip of abdomen. Legs clothed with fine, moderately-long, ciliated setae; antennae and furcula with fine, short, curved, ciliated setae.

Body: Length up to 1·7 mm. Head diagonal, slightly longer than thorax. Antennae about twice as long as head, four-segmented, the segments related as 6: 9: 9: 10. Ocelli, eight to each side, six large and two, the posterior inner two, very small, situated on dark pigment patches. Ventral tube very short and stumpy. Abd. IV four times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with one external tooth about one-third down outer edge, two short lateral teeth and two pairs of internal teeth, one pair situated about half-way down from claw base, the other about three-quarters down. Generally, a single small tooth is present between this and apex of claw. Empodial appendage long, narrow and lanceolate, reaching to second pair of teeth. A single clavate tenent hair to each foot.

Furcula: Manubrium to dens as 20: 36. Dens annulated and corrugated, the unannulated portion twice length of mucro. Mucro bidentate with basal spine. Towards its apex the dens bears numerous long, ciliated setae. There is a marked angle between dens and mucro at their junction.

Locality: Upper Hurunui River Bank, under stones. Collected by Mrs H. Dykes.

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Type: Slide 3/230, Dominion Museum Collection.

Entomobrya penicillata sp. nov. Plate 61, figs. 344–345.

Colour: In life, greenish-yellow. Mounted, greenish-yellow with depigmented spots and streaks. Ventral edges of the thoracic terga pigmented with deep violet, and a similar-coloured patch on each side of the head adjacent to the ocelli, and across front of head as a band between the antennal bases. Legs and furcula yellow. Antennae reddish-violet, paler at joints.

– 366 –

Clothing: Thickly clothed with very short ciliated setae and heavily clothed all over with long, flexed setae, giving the insect the appearance of a bottle brush. Long ciliated setae occur posteriorly around the tip of the abdomen and on the legs, furcula and antennae.

Body: Length up to 1·9 mm. Antennae two and a-half times as long as head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 24: 32: 35: 42. Each antenna with a large base almost equivalent to a segment. Ocelli, eight to each side, the posterior inner two smaller than remainder. Ocellar fields dark. Abd. IV three times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with two outer lateral basal teeth reaching to about one-quarter down, a pair of strong outer teeth at about centre of outer edge, and four inner teeth, being a large pair just past centre, a small single tooth at about three-quarters, and a very small distal tooth between this and apex of claw. A single strongly-clavate tenent hair as long as claw or slightly longer, to each foot. Empodial appendage lanceolate and three-quarters as long as claw.

Furcula: Mucrodens a little longer than manubrium. Dens annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated portion twice length of mucro. Mucro small bidentate, with basal spine and surrounded by long, ciliated setae.

Locality: Karori, Wellington, on newly-dug ground.

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Type: Slide 3/1006, Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Pseudentomobrya gen. nov.

Genotype: P. glaciata sp. nov.

Of Entomobrya facies but without large exterior lateral basal teeth to the claw.

The genus is represented in New Zealand by five species and one subspecies.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Pseudentomobrya.
1. Species with eight ocelli, all large. 2
Species with eight ocelli, two of which are smaller. 3
2. Claw with two small outer lateral teeth and five inner teeth. Mucro surrounded by long setae 4–5 times its length. P. proceraseta sp. nov.
3. Claw with small outer lateral teeth. 4
Claw without any outer teeth. 5
4. Claw with two small outer lateral teeth about one-fifth down. No inner teeth. Abd. IV 6–8 times longer than Abd. III. P. interfilixa sp. nov.
5. Claw with a pair of blunt inner teeth at centre and a single distal blunt tooth. Abd. IV 5 ½ times as long as Abd. III. Pale slatey-grey coloured species. P. glaciata sp. nov.
As above, but irregularly mottled along the sides with black. P. glaciata subsp. nigralata nov.
Claw with two pairs of inner teeth and single distal inner tooth. Abd. IV 4 ½ times longer than Abd. III, and Abd. VI with distinct projecting process. P. processa sp. nov.
Claw with two single inner teeth only. P. miniparva sp. nov.
– 367 –

Pseudentomobrya glaciata sp. nov. Plate 61, figs. 346–348.

Colour: In life, pale slate-grey, sometimes with pinkish irridescence. Mounted, a ground of pale dull yellow, lightly suffused with very pale blue along sides of head and thorax. Ventral edges of thoracic pleura deep blue-violet. Sides of Abd. III blue-violet; sides of Abd. IV covered by an area of blue-violet broken posteriorly. Abd. VI with a blue-violet band on the anterior half. Furcula yellow, legs pale yellow but distally slatey-blue. Antennae basally pale bluish-yellow, changing on II and III to brown. Ant. IV dark slate coloured. Ocelli on black pigment patches.

Clothing: Both plain and delicately ciliated setae, mainly short, but with longer ones around tip of abdomen, on the legs, antennae and furcula. Dorsally, especially on the head and thorax, are many medium-length flexed setae.

Body: Length 1·8 mm. Antennae with a basal ring and two and a-half times as long as head, the four segments related as 9: 18: 20: 25. Ocelli, eight to each side, six large and two, the posterior inner two, very small. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax. Ventral tube short, cylindrical. Abd. IV five and a-half times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw, inner margin with a pair of blunt teeth at centre and a single blunt tooth just past three-quarters. No outer teeth but a notch occurs on outer edge about one-quarter down. Empodial appendage narrow, lanceolate, two-thirds as long as claw. A single clavate tenent hair about as long as claw to each foot.

Furcula: Manubrium to mucrodens as 27: 35. Dens strongly annulated and corrugated, the non-annulated portion twice length of mucro. Mucro elongate and bidentate with basal spine which overtops sub-apical tooth. Sub-apical tooth longer than apical. Mucro surrounded by delicate ciliated setae.

Localities: Franz Josef Glacier, among the bare stones forming the terminal and lateral moraine. Under lichen and moss on boulders in the old glacial moraine deposits just below the glacier in the Waiho Gorge.

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Type: Slide 3/712 and Figured Paratype: Slide 3/713, Dominion Museum Collection.

Pseudentomobrya glaciata subspec. nigralata nov.

Differing from the typical species in having an irregular black mottling along the sides of the head and body.

Localities: Found in the same localities as the principal form.

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Type: Slide 3/732, Dominion Museum Collection.

Pseudentomobrya processa sp. nov. Plate 61, figs. 349–350.

Colour: Ground of pale yellow more or less suffused all over with pale violet and with additional darker violet bands as follows: Pale violet transverse bands around centre of mesothorax, metathorax, Abd. I and Abd. II. Abd. III almost wholly dark violet and tailing off along ventral surface of Abd. IV. Posterior three-quarters of Abd. IV dark violet with yellow dorsal and lateral patches

– 368 –

just past midway. Abd. V posteriorly and Abd. VI wholly deep violet. Legs and antennae pale violet, the antennae very dark apically. Furcula yellow.

Clothing: Of short ciliated setae with posteriorly and on the legs longer ciliated setae. Dorsally on head and thorax are many flexed setae.

Body: Length 1·5 mm. Antennae twice length of head, the four segments in the proportion of 5: 12: 10: 16. Ocelli on black fields, posterior inner two smaller than remainder. Abd. IV four and a-half times longer than Abd. III. Abd. VI with a distinct posteriorly projecting process.

Legs: Claw with a pair of large inner teeth at two-thirds, a larger pair at about three-quarters, and a further small distal tooth. No outer teeth. Empodial appendage lanceolate and reaching to distal tooth. A single clavate tenent hair as long as claw to each foot. The inner edge of the claw has a distinct angle at about one-fifth down.

Furcula: Reaching to ventral tube. Manubrium to mucrodens as 21: 27. Dens strongly annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated portion twice length of mucro. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, the apical tooth distinctly smaller than pre-apical. Mucro surrounded by ciliated setae.

Locality: Haast Pass, under moss covering tree-trunks.

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Type: Slide 3/717, Dominion Museum Collection.

Pseudentomobrya interfilixa sp. nov. Plate 61, figs. 351–352.

Colour: A ground colour of ochreous yellow overlaid with a coarsely-grained deep blue pigment with darker, narrower transverse bands on the posterior margins of the thoracic and first three abdominal segments. Abd. IV anteriorally with a transverse band of depigmented streaks.

Clothing: Of ciliated setae, those around the posterior being long. Dorsally on the head and thorax are many flexed setae.

Body: Length up to 1·4 mm. Antennae twice as long as the head, the four segments related as 8: 14: 12: 20. Ant. IV with a peculiar apical sense organ consisting of two projecting plate-like structures surrounded by ciliated setae. Ocelli, eight to each side, the posterior inner two smaller than the remainder. Abd. IV 6–8 times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with two very small lateral external teeth about one-fifth down. No inner teeth. Empodial appendage truncate on inner margin and about half as long as the claw. No tenent hair.

Furcula: Manubrium and mucrodens approximately equal in length. The dens strongly annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated portion two and a-half times as long as the mucro. Mucro rather elongate with two teeth and basal spine; the pre-apical tooth the longer, and showing a decided return slope.

Localities: Weheka, from among dead tree-fern leaves in the forest; Maruia Valley, from amongst moss on tree-trunk.

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Type: Slide 3/720 and Figured Paratype: Slide 3/721, Dominion Museum Collection.

– 369 –

Pseudentomobrya miniparva sp. nov. Plate 60, fig. 343.

Colour: Very pale yellow, almost white, with blue bands, as follows:—Around anterior margin of mesothorax and as two broken longitudinal stripes extending along each side, one along the ventral edge and the other about one-third up the side. A broad transverse band around posterior margins of Abds. II, III, IV, and V, and a similar band in the centre of Abd. IV. Traces of broken bands exist on Abd. I and on mesothorax and metathorax. There is blue pigmentation on the sides of the head. Legs pale blue, antennae darker blue, very dark at the joints and on Ant. IV. Furcula white. Ocelli on dark blue fields.

Clothing: Of ciliated setae and dorsally on the head and thorax many flexed setae.

Body: Length up to 0·75 mm. Antennae approximately twice length of head, the four segments related as 6: 10: 8: 25. Ocelli, eight to each side, the posterior inner two being very small, remainder all large. Head deeper than it is long. Abd. IV four and a-half times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with two strong inner teeth, one at about two-thirds and the other at three-quarters. No outer teeth. Empodial appendage lanceolate and about half as long as claw. A single clavate tenent hair longer than claw to each foot.

Furcula: Manubrium to mucrodens as 48: 64. Dens strongly annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated portion twice as long as the mucro. Mucro short and deep with two teeth and a basal spine.

Locality: Fish River Gorge, Haast Pass, under totara bark.

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Type: Slide 3/724, Dominion Museum Collection.

Pseudentomobrya proceraseta sp. nov. Plate 61, figs. 353–354.

Colour: Ground colour of pale yellow overlaid with coarsely-granulated bluish-black pigment. Head yellowish dorsally; Abd. IV on dorsal aspect with yellow showing through. Posterior margin of third abdominal segment with a very narrow dark band. Legs and antennae blue, furcula yellow. Ocelli on black fields.

Clothing: Closely clothed with short, ciliated setae with longer ciliated setae around the posterior. Dorsally on the head and thorax are numerous flexed setae. On antennae, legs and furcula are many long ciliated setae.

Body: The usual length is in the vicinity of 0·8 mm., but longer specimens measuring up to 1·25 mm. are occasionally found. Antennae half as long again as head, the four segments related as 15: 24: 21: 47. Ocelli, eight to each side, all large but rather indistinctly separated from their fields. Abd. IV 3 ½–4 times as long as Abd. III. Ventral tube short.

Legs: Claw with two small outer lateral teeth about one-third down outer edge; five inner teeth arranged as one very large pair at just past one-third, a distal pair at two-thirds, and a single distal tooth near apex. Empodial appendage lanceolate and reaching to distal pair of teeth. A strongly-clavate tenent hair equal to claw in length to each foot.

– 370 –

Furcula: Reaching to ventral tube; mucrodens a little longer than manubrium. Dens strongly annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated portion three times as long as the mucro. Mucro long, bidentate, with basal spine and surrounded by long, strongly-ciliated setae which over-reach it. These setae are 4–5 times as long as the mucro and about one-fifth as long as the dens.

Localities: Ferguson's Bush, West Coast, under bark of rimu trees; Buller Gorge, near Westport, in old logs on edge of bush.

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Type: Slide 3/726, Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Mesira Börner, 1903.

Scaled species. Ant. III and IV or only IV annulated. Mesotergum twice as long as metatergum and slightly overlapping the head. One species of this genus is native to New Zealand.

Mesira caeruleacrura sp. nov. Plate 61, figs. 355–357.

Colour: Yellowish with greyish-brown scales. Ocelli on dark violet fields connected anteriorly by a deep violet line which also touches the bases of the antennae. A trace of blue on ventral edges of thorax and Abd. I. Two large blue marks on each side of Abd. III and on Abd. IV two elongate blue marks on each side and one dorsally. Posterior halves of Abds. V and VI blue. Furcula yellow, legs blue, antennae violet, darkening towards apex.

Clothing: Of lightly striated, somewhat hyaline scales, and occasional plain and ciliated setae, the latter mainly at the apex of the mesotergum and on Abds. V and VI. Legs and furcula heavily clothed with ciliated setae. Antennae with scales on I only, remainder of antennae with short ciliated setae.

Body: Length 1·8 mm. Antennae four-segmented, twice as long as head, the segments related as 10: 18: 17: 26. Ant. IV faintly annulated. Ocelli, eight to each side, six large and two, the posterior inner two, very small. Mesotergum completely covers prothorax but only slightly overhangs head. Abd. IV four times longer than Abd. III. Ventral tube long, cylindrical, and hairy. Posterior finger-like process excessively developed and bearing a tuft of long ciliated setae.

Legs: Claw with a pair of small outer lateral teeth about one-quarter down. A pair of inner teeth at one-third, and a further single distal inner tooth at about two-thirds. Empodial appendage sharply pointed with inner angle, truncate on inner margin, and with a small tooth about one-fifth down outer margin. A well-developed, strongly-clavate tenent hair, shorter than claw, to each foot.

Furcula: Manubrium and mucrodens of equal length. Dens annulated and corrugated. Mucro bidentate with lateral basal spine; pre-apical tooth much larger than apical. Mucro protected by plumose setae.

Locality: Arthur's Pass, amongst leaf debris in beech forest, 2,000 ft., east side of ranges.

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Type: Slide 3/733, Dominion Museum Collection.

– 371 –

Genus Lepidocyrtus Bourlet, 1839.

Body scaled, the scales rounded and hyaline, with almost invisible striations. Ocelli, eight to each side. Clavate tenent hairs well-developed. Mucro bidentate, with basal spine. Dentes scaled but without spines.

Eight species belonging to this genus occur in New Zealand and of these six are endemic, one is Australian, and the other North American.

key to the new zealand species of lepidocyrtus.
1. deep blue to blue-violet. claw with two inner teeth and two outer basal teeth. l. lindensis sp. nov.
species otherwise. 2
2. light-coloured species of uniform colour except for 2–3 lateral dark-coloured spots. 3
with transverse segmental bands. 4
3. yellow, with one large indigo-blue spot on each side of abd. iii, and one on each side of abd. iv. l. submontanus sp. nov.
yellow with one large elongate dark blue mark on each side of abd. iv and a similar but very much smaller mark on each side of abd. v. l. moorei sp. nov.
4. with one broad transverse band; claw without inner teeth. 5
with several transverse bands; claw with outer and inner teeth. 6
5. thorax and first three abdominal segments deep blue, remainder of body yellow. claw with exterior lateral teeth only. l. nigrofasciatus womersley
entirely blue except for sides of the head and a broad yellow band around abd. iv. claws without any teeth. l. unafascia sp. nov.
6. yellow species with violet bands around abds. ii, iv, and v. abd. iii wholly violet. l. ratacnsis sp. nov.
ochreous to pale violet species with dark violet posterior bands around all segments except abd. iv. l. kauriensis sp. nov.
purple pigmented species with yellowish inter-segmental bands on all segments. l. cyaneus subsp. cinereus folsom

Lepidocyrtus lindensis sp. nov. Plate 61, figs. 358–360.

Colour: Mounted specimens, head and trunk deep blue to blue-violet, with a single patch of pale violet to ochreous around posterior dorsal and lateral areas of the head. First two segments of the antennae pale ochreous-violet, third deep violet, and fourth deep blue. Deep pigmentation around antennal joints. Proximal segments of legs deep blue to violet, distal segments pale ochreous. Furcula pale ochreous-brown. The whole cuticle coarsely granular. In some specimens it has the appearance of dried mud which has been baked by the sun and become traversed by myriads of fine cracks.

Clothing: Of hyaline scales and numerous short setae. Tufts of short setae occur along dorsal surface of thorax and at apex of mesothoracic tergum. Many medium to long ciliated setae around posterior region. Antennae thickly clothed with setae, some of which

– 372 –

are ciliated, those of the first three segments long, those of the fourth much shorter. Legs and furcula scaled, the latter heavily, and both with long plain and long ciliated setae.

Body: Length 0·5–1·2 mm. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax. Head long and narrow, being about two and a-half times as long as it is deep, flexed downwards, and slightly longer than the mesothoracic tergum. Antennae four-segmented, the segments related as 3: 5: 4: 9. Ocelli, eight on each side, all equal. Ventral tube short and fat. Abdomen IV 4–5 times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with two teeth spaced close together about three-quarters down from claw base and a pair of outer basal teeth. Empodial appendage long, narrow, lanceolate, reaching to first tooth. A single clavate tenent hair to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching forward to ventral tube. Manubrium slightly longer than mucrodens. Dens corrugated and annulated. Mucro bidentate, with basal spine, the apical tooth long, but the pre-apical tooth longer. Typically several long ciliated setae surround each mucro and scales occur down to tip of dens.

Localities: Amongst grass near beach Mount Maunganui, Tauranga; Lindis Pass, South Canterbury, under stones amongst tussock near streams.

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Type: Slide 3/174, Dominion Museum Collection.

Lepidocyrtus submontanus sp. nov. Plate 62, figs. 361–363.

Colour: Yellow, with one large indigo-blue spot on each side of Abd. III, and one on each side of Abd. IV. Ocelli on blackish fields joined by a brownish-black line across front of head. Posterior border of Abd. V dark brown. Ant. I yellow, II and III pale violet, IV dark bluish-violet. Furcula yellow. Legs yellow with broad pale violet bands. Irregular pale brown mottling occurs along lower half of sides of body.

Clothing: Heavily scaled with almost invisible scales and occasional ciliated setae, tufts of setae at the apex of the mesotergum, and at the tip of the abdomen. Legs and furcula heavily clothed with ciliated setae.

Body: Length up to 1·3 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, the segments related as 6: 15: 10: 19. Ocelli, eight to each side, the posterior inner pair very small, remainder all large. Segmentation rather indistinct. Abd. IV four times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with a pair of inner teeth at one-quarter and a distal tooth at three-quarters. No external teeth. Empodial appendage truncated on inner margin and about two-thirds as long as claw. A single clavate tenent hair slightly shorter than claw to each foot.

Furcula: Manubrium and dens equal in length. Dens strongly annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated part 2 ½ times as long as mucro. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, the two teeth being equal. Mucro over-reached by long, strongly ciliated setae.

Locality: Otira Gorge, 2,800 ft., amongst leaf debris.

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Type: Slide 3/747, Dominion Museum Collection.

– 373 –

Lepidocyrtus moorei sp. nov. Plate 62, figs. 364–366.

Colour: Yellow with one large dark blue elongate triangular mark on each side of Abd. IV and another similar but very much smaller mark on each side of Abd. V. A small dark dot on the posterior ventral corner of Abd. IV. A dark line joins the ocellar fields across front of the head. Ocellar fields dark brown. Anetennae violet, darkening towards apex. Legs and furcula yellow, with tibio-tarsi violet.

Clothing: A few short ciliated setae around tip of abdomen. Ciliated setae on furcula. Setae of the legs plain. Scales visible only when seen edge on.

Body: Length 1·7 mm. Antennae four-segmented, twice as long as head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 7: 13: 10: 17. Ocelli, eight to each side, six large and the posterior inner two smaller. Ventral tube long. Mesotergum completely covers prothorax but does not overlie the head. Abd. IV seven times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with two strong outer lateral basal teeth, and three inner teeth, being a pair at one-third and a large single tooth at three-quarters. Empodial appendage half as long as claw, truncate on inner margin. No tenent hairs.

Furcula: Manubrium distinctly longer than dens. Dens annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated portion one-third longer than mucro. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, the apical tooth very much smaller than the pre-apical.

Locality: Hay's Bush, Banks Peninsula, in old stump; from a collection kindly sent to me by Mr. E. W. Moore, of Christchurch, after whom I have much pleasure in naming it.

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Type: Slide 3/749, Dominion Museum Collection.

At present known only from the type specimen.

Lepidocyrtus nigrofasciatus Womersley, 1934. Plate 62, figs. 367–368.

Colour: Yellow, with deep blue pigment covering thorax and first three abdominal segments. Antennae and basal leg segments blue.

Clothing: Body densely scaled and clothed with short setae.

Body: Length 0·9 mm. Antennae equal to head in length, the segments related as 12: 15: 15: 26. Abd. IV 8 times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: In his original description Womersley stated that the claws have exterior lateral teeth only. However, in the specimens sent to me there is a pair of large inner teeth at centre and a large single tooth at three-quarters. Empodial appendage about half as long as claw and apically truncate. Clavate tenent hair shorter than claw.

Furcula: Long, manubrium longer than dens. Mucro bidentate with basal lateral spine. The pre-apical tooth considerably larger than the apical.

Locality: This Australian species was reported by Womersley in 1936 from Davies Bush, Manurewa, Auckland, but it has not been found elsewhere.

– 374 –

Lepidocyrtus cyaneus Tullberg, subspecies cinereus Folsom, 1924. Plate 62, fig. 369.

Colour: With scales, metallic grey. Without scales, white to orange, with broad bands of purple pigment around all segments but having the intersegmental margins clear. The mesonotum edged with black. Streaks and spots of yellow occur throughout the purple pigment. Antennae purple. Legs and furcula white or yellow.

Clothing: Densely scaled. Flexed setae around apex of the mesotergum. Bothriotrichia on Abds. II and IV. Short ciliated setae on antennae, legs, and furcula.

Body: Length 1·1 mm. Antennae slightly longer than head. Ocelli, eight to each side. Mesotergum completely covering prothorax.

Legs: Claw with a pair of large external lateral basal teeth and two pairs of inner teeth at centre and two-thirds respectively. Empodial appendage two-thirds as long as claw and lanceolate. A short, clavate tenent hair to each foot.

Furcula: Dentes and manubrium sub-equal in length. Dens corrugated, the uncorrugated portion three times length of mucro. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, the apical and pre-apical teeth equal.

Localities: Originally, this species was described by Folsom from North America. I have discovered it in New Zealand at Paiahia in debris under manuka scrub, and at Mount Manganui, Tauranga, amongst pine needles and amongst grass on the sandhills.

Lepidocyrtus unafascia sp. nov. Plate 62, figs. 370–372.

Colour: In life, irridescent bluish-grey. Mounted, entirely blue except for sides of head and a broad band around anterior margin of Abd. IV, which are yellow. Antennae blue, legs blue basally, yellow distally. Furcula yellow. The blue anterior to Abd. IV is deeper that that posteriorly. There is a suggestion of yellow showing through the blue on Abd. V. Clothing of scales, with occasional setae posteriorly and on legs, antennae, and furcula.

Body: Length up to 0·75 mm. Antennae approximately equal to head in length, the four segments related as 12: 20: 18: 30. Ocelli, eight to each side, all equal. Abd. IV three times longer than Abd. III. Mesothorax 2 ½ times longer than metathorax and completely covering prothorax. Ventral tube short.

Legs: Claw entirely without teeth. Empodial appendage almost as long as claw, sharply truncate on inner margin and with a broad inner lamella. Tenent hair half as long as claw, and not clavate.

Furcula: Reaching to thorax. Manubrium longer than mucrodens as 75: 60. Dens annulated and weakly corrugated, the uncorrugated portion twice as long as mucro. Mucro very elongated, with long apical tooth, slightly larger pre-apical tooth and basal spine.

Remarks: Superficially this species resembles very closely L. cyaneus cinereus Folsom, from which it differs in the structure of the feet and mucro.

– 375 –

Localities: Lewis Pass Saddle, 3,100 ft., amongst leaf debris in forest; Maruia Valley, under stones; Maruia Saddle, 1,900 ft., amongst leaf debris in forest; Waiho Gorge, South Westland, under the bark of Olearia illicifolia; Lake Brunner, in bush debris.

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Type: Slide 3/740, Dominion Museum Collection.

Lepidocyrtus kauriensis sp. nov. Plate 62, figs. 373–375.

Colour: Body ochreous to pale violet, with deep violet edge to thorax. Narrow violet intersegmental bands on posterior margins of mesothorax, metathorax, and Abd. I, with similar but broader bands on Abds. II and III. Abd. V and VI violet. Legs and furcula ochreous, with tibio-tarsi a deep blue-violet. Ant. I and II violet, III and IV deep violet. Ocelli on dark violet fields. Sides of the head pale violet.

Clothing: Of hyaline, almost invisible scales. Long ciliated setae occur around Abds. V and VI. Flexed setae occur dorsally on head and thorax, plain setae on the legs and first three antennal segments, Ant. IV with short ciliated setae. From four to six serrated setae on inner edge of each tibio-tarsus.

Body: Length 1 mm. Antennae twice length of head, the four segments related as 6: 8: 8: 12. Ocelli, eight to each side, the posterior inner two being very small and remainder all large. Ventral tube long. Abd. IV three times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with two long outer basal teeth and four inner teeth, there being one pair at centre, a single long tooth at three-quarters and a further well-defined but smaller distal tooth midway between this and the apex. Empodial appendage parallel-sided and truncate on inner margin; about half as long as claw on front and middle feet, but three-quarters as long on hind feet. A single clavate tenent hair as long as claw to each foot.

Furcula: Manubrium and mucrodens almost equal in length. The dens strongly annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated portion three times as long as the mucro. Mucro bidentate with basal spine; the two teeth equal, but the pre-apical with a slight return slope. Mucro surrounded with strongly ciliated setae.

Locality: Waipoua Kauri Forest, on the bark of kauri trees.

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Type: Slide 3/735, Dominion Museum Collection.

Lepidocyrtus rataensis sp. nov. Plate 62, figs. 376–377; Plate 63, fig. 378.

Colour: Pale yellow, with violet edging to mesothorax, both anteriorly and laterally, continued as a lateral line on to Abd. II. Posterior half of Abd. II bordered with violet. Abd. III wholly violet dorsally. Abd. IV with broad pale violet band posteriorly and violet pigmentation along sides. Abd. V with violet band on posterior half. Furcula pale yellow. Legs pale yellow with violet tibio-tarsi. Ant. I and II pale violet, III and IV deep violet.

Clothing: Of hyaline scales and short ciliated setae. Some very long ciliated setae around Abds. IV–VI and on the legs. Flexed setae occur dorsally on thorax and on top of head. Very long bothriotrichia occur dorsally, one on each of Abds. II, III, and IV.

– 376 –

Body: Length 1·1 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, the segments related as 6: 10: 8: 12. Ocelli, eight to each side, posterior inner two very small, remaining six all large. Abd. IV five times longer than III.

Legs: Claw with outer tooth, two long outer basal lateral teeth, and four inner teeth—a pair at about one-third, a large single tooth at three-quarters, and a smaller distal tooth. A well-developed clavate tenent hair as long as claw to each foot. Empodial appendage half as long as claw, parallel-sided and lanceolate.

Furcula: Dens annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated portion three times length of mucro. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, apical tooth much smaller than pre-apical. Mucro surrounded and over-reached by long strongly-ciliated setae.

Locality: Weheka, under the bark of rata trees.

Remarks: This is one of the few occasions on which I have ever found Collembola associated with rata trees.

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Type: Slide 3/738, Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Urewera Salmon, 1938.

Claw always with well-developed exterior lateral basal teeth. Scaled species, the body scales apically rounded and heavily striated. Scales of antennae and furcula are narrow, elongate and apically more pointed than are those of body. Ciliated and flexed setae and both-riotrichia present. Ocelli present, eight to each side with typically the anterior pair the largest and the posterior inner two the smallest. Ant. IV generally with apical sensory knob. Mucrodens apically always with a long narrow bow-like lamella stretching across the mucrodens junction and, generally, the dens near apex on ventral side with a distinct notch. (Fig. 381 and Fig. 393.) This structure must be carefully searched for as it is often obscured by the heavy clothing of ciliated setae.

Womersley, in his “Primitive Insects of South Australia,” criticises this genus on the grounds that exterior lateral basal teeth are present and well-developed in Lepidosira, but apparently he is not clear on the nature of these teeth. Exterior lateral teeth are present in Lepidosira but they are not basal as in Urewera. However, a re-examination of my Urewera material has brought to light a further distinct feature, mentioned above, in connection with the mucrodens, and which definitely does not occur in any species of Lepidosira. These two characters should now definitely establish the validity of the genus Urewera.

In this connection, to clarify the matter, I have endeavoured but without success to obtain specimens of Schött's species Lepidosira montana, the species described when he erected the genus in 1925. I have, however, many specimens of L. coerulea Schött, including one from Australia sent to me by Womersley. Schött did not name a genotype for his Lepidosira, but as he unhesitatingly referred L.

– 377 –

coerulea to this genus and as L. coerulea appears to be the commonest species of the genus found in both Australia and New Zealand, I suggest that L. coerulea be regarded as the genotype for the genus Lepidosira.

Urewera is represented in New Zealand by eleven species and four subspecies, all endemic.

Key to the Species of Urewera.
1. Claws with five inner teeth. 2
Claws with four inner teeth. 5
Claws with three inner teeth. 9
2. Heavily scaled irridescent species, scales in several layers. U. splendida sp. nov.
Not so heavily scaled, scales usually in one layer only, not irridescent 3
3. Yellowish species with dark bluish bands and markings. 4
Purplish-grey to violet species with deep blue bands. U. ianthina sp. nov.
4. Large species, mucrodens without notch, but with bow-like lamella. U. fuchsiata Salmon.
Small species, mucrodens with both notch and lamella. U. parva sp. nov.
5. Empodial appendage not reaching first distal tooth. 6
Empodial appendage longer, reaching to first distal tooth, second distal or apical tooth of claw sometimes missing. U. inconstans Salmon
6. Deep indigo-blue species with yellow head and yellow bands on Abds. IV, V, and VI. U. quadradentata sp. nov.
Not so:—
(a) Ground colour yellowish. 7
(b) Ground colour dull ochreous to brown. 8
7. Ground colour bright yellow or yellowish-green with dark pigment confined to narrow band and small lateral patches on Abd. IV. U. flava Salmon
Bright yellow with broad violet band on Abd. IV occupying almost whole segment. U. flava subspec. dorsalis nov.
8. Ochreous-brown with dark violet bands and markings. Generally a broad “V”-shaped mark dorsally on Abd. IV. U. magna Salmon
Ochreous ground colour suffused with pale violet. U. magna subspec. violacea Salmon
Body mottled with irregular black patches. U. magna subspec. lichenata Salmon
9. Body ground colour purple. 10
Body ground colour ochreous. 11
10. Body entirely purple coloured. U. purpurea Salmon
Body purple with ochreous bands. U. purpurea subspec. reducta Salmon
11. Pigment violet to blue, notch and bow-like lamella of dens both present. U. fuscata (Womersley)
Pigment reddish-brown. Apical notch of dens absent, bow-like lamella present. U. okarita (Salmon)
– 378 –

Urewera ianthina sp. nov. Plate 63, figs. 379–380.

Colour: In life, purplish-grey; mounted, head, body, and all appendages a beautiful deep but warm violet. Joints of legs paler and sometimes ochreous, furcula paler than body and sometimes blue, last two segments of antennae a deep blue-violet. Generally sides of head, anterior margin of mesothorax, ventral edges of thoracic pleura and Abds. I, II, and III and basal segments of the legs are picked out in an intense Prussian blue. Ocelli on black fields.

Clothing: Of very large oval and smaller rounded scales, light brown in colour with darker brown longitudinal striations made up of a series of short ribs. A large tuft of long flexed setae at apex of mesotergum. Flexed setae also occur on head and thorax, while around tip of abdomen and on legs are many long ciliated setae. Setae of antennae are simple, and the first three antennal segments are scaled. Bothriotrichia occur on Abds. II, III, and IV.

Body: Length up to 2·4 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, the four segments related as 9: 18: 16: 20. Head approximately equal in length to thorax. Eight ocelli to each side—the anterior two very large, the next two smaller, the posterior outer two still smaller, and the posterior inner two extremely small. Ventral tube short. Abd. III three times longer than Abd. I and Abd. IV four and a-half times longer than Abd. III. Mesothorax very slightly overlies rear of head.

Legs: Claw with a pair of small inner teeth at one-quarter, a pair of larger inner teeth at two-thirds, and a very small inner tooth at about seven-eighths. The two outer lateral basal teeth reach almost to the level of the first inner teeth. Empodial appendage outwardly curved, lanceolate, and reaching to about half-way down claw. A single strong clavate tenent hair about as long as claw to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching to ventral tube. Manubrium to mucrodens as 5: 6. Dens finely annulated and corrugated with many long ciliated setae and long narrow scales. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, the apical tooth the smaller, and over-reached by long ciliated setae. Uncorrugated portion of dens one and a-half times the length of mucro. Bow-like lamella present at apex of dens but notch absent.

Localities: Waipoua Kauri Forest and Trounson's Kauri Park, on trunks of kauri trees and in leaf debris on the floor of the kauri forest.

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Type: Slide 3/788, Figured Paratype: Slide 3/789, Dominion Museum Collection.

Remarks: This species may be very common on one kauri tree and yet completely absent from adjacent trees. Similarly, it may be found on one small area of forest floor and entirely absent from surrounding areas. This erratic distribution applies to Collembola in general in the kauri forests. Distinguished from U. magna violacea by its complete violet colouring, the blue pigmentation, and the different structure of the claw.

– 379 –

Urewera fuchsiata Salmon, 1938. Plate 63, figs. 390–393.

Colour: In life, pale olive-green to dark green, with darker bluish-green markings. Mounted, a body colour of pale yellowish-cream, with intersegmental margins marked by narrow posterior bands of blue. Patches of blue and greenish pigment occur irregularly over body, particularly on Abd. IV. Ventral edges of thoracic pleura and Abds. I, II, and III deep blue. A cross-hatched blue band anteriorly on Abd. IV. Antennae and legs pale ochreous, the latter with bands of dark blue. Scales greenish-brown, prominently striated.

Clothing: More or less evenly clothed with scales and occasional setae. Prominent tufts of flexed setae occur on head and at apex of mesotergum. Strongly ciliated setae surround tip of abdomen. Antennae thickly clothed with hair and occasional long setae. First three antennal segments scaled, these scales long, narrow, and pointed at the apex. Ventral tube invested at tip with a number of long, curved ciliated setae. Legs scaled and bearing numerous long setae. Furcula thickly clothed with long setae, many of which are ciliated. Dens scaled dorsally only, with long, narrow and easily rubbed off scales.

Body: Length 2·5–4 mm. Head diagonal somewhat longer than mesothorax. Antennae slightly longer than half the body, four-segmented, the segments related as 15: 30: 26: 34. Ocelli typical of genus, eight to each side, situated on dark pigment patches joined by a dark frontal line, often incomplete. Anterior pair of ocelli very large, four of remainder medium, and the posterior inner two small. Abd. IV 3–3 ½ times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with a pair of inner teeth about one-third from base, a distal pair at a little over two-thirds, and a single apical tooth a little past half-way between distal pair and apex. The two long outer basal teeth reaching to the level of the first pair of inner teeth. Empodial appendage about two-thirds as long as claw, lanceolate. A single clavate tenent hair almost as long as claw, to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching to ventral tube. Dens slightly longer than manubrium, corrugated, and annulated, the uncorrugated portion half as long again as mucro. Mucro bidentate with a single external basal spine. Dens apically without notch but with bow-like lamella.

Localities: North Island—Waihui Gorge, Urewera Country, from under the bark of native fuchsia trees; Waimana Gorge, Bay of Plenty, under stones. South Island—Bench Island, Dunedin (Prof. Marples); Haast Pass, near summit, from under bark of beech trees.

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Type: Slide 3/82, Figured Paratype: Slide 3/198, Dominion Museum Collection.

Urewera parva sp. nov. Plate 63, fig. 381.

Colour: In life, yellowish; mounted, pale yellow with deep violet edging to thoracic and first four abdominal pleura. Pale violet broad intersegmental bands on posterior margins of metathorax, Abds. I, II, III, IV and V, and an elongate area of violet on each side of Abd. IV. Antennae pale violet, becoming very dark on IV. Legs and furcula pale yellow, but tibio-tarsi deep violet. Ocelli on dark brown fields.

– 380 –

Clothing: Of scales and ciliated setae which are exceedingly long on Abds. IV, V, and VI. Flexed setae occur on head and mesothorax. Bothriotrichia occur on Abd. II, one dorsal, and on Abd. III, one dorsal.

Body: Length up to 1·2 mm. Antennae twice length of head, the four segments related as 4: 6: 6: 10. Ocelli, eight to each side, unequal, two very large, two large, two smaller, and two very small. Abd. IV four times longer than Abd. III. Ventral tube short.

Legs: Claw with two long exterior lateral basal teeth reaching to one-third down the claw, and five inner teeth, one pair at centre, one pair at three-quarters, and a single small distal tooth near apex. Empodial appendage reaching to second pair of teeth and truncate on inner margin. A well-developed clavate tenent hair, longer than claw to each foot.

Furcula: Dens only slightly longer than manubrium, annulated and corrugated. Mucro bidentate, with basal spine, the apical tooth the smaller; over-reached by long, strongly ciliated setae. Uncorrugated portion of dens three times as long as mucro. Dens with distinct notch from which bow-like lamella reaches to mucro.

Localities: Bullock Creek, South Westland, under bark of rimu trees; Lake Mapourika, under bark of kahikatea trees.

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Type: Slide 3/806, Dominion Museum Collection.

Urewera splendida sp. nov. Plate 63, figs. 382–386.

Colour: Fully clothed with scales. In life, jet black and highly irridescent. Denuded of scales, body colour dark orange-brown with dark violet pigment along ventral edge of thoracic and first two abdominal pleura. Meso and metathorax violet dorsally, and generally also partly down sides. Abd. I and Abd. II with violet bands around anterior margins and with further irregular patches of violet. Abd. III violet dorsally and half-way down each side with a sharp finish. Abd. IV with irregular patches of violet dorsally, laterally, and ventrally. Abd. V violet on posterior dorsal half and extending down sides as on Abd. III. Legs brown to black, ochreous at joints. Furcula lighter ochreous. Ant. I and II ochreous brown, III and IV darker brown to violet.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with many layers of dark brown, strongly striated scales. In reflected light these scales are highly irridescent and the whole insect glitters with many colours. Bothriotrichia occur on Abds. II, III and IV. On Abd. IV and around the tip of abdomen are many long ciliated setae, and similar setae occur on legs and antennae. Antennae scaled on first three segments and all segments heavily clothed with short ciliated setae. A very thick tuft of flexed setae at apex of mesotergum and numerous similar setae occur dorsally on head and thorax.

Body: Length up to 2·4 mm. Antennae two and a-half times as long as head, the four segments related as 9: 19: 18: 20. Ant. IV with retractile organ at apex protected by six short bristles. Abd. IV 3 ½–4 times longer than Abd. III. Ocelli, eight to each side, anterior pair very large, first inner pair very small; remainder medium.

– 381 –

Legs: Claw with outer lateral basal teeth outwardly curved, and from ⅓ to ½ as long as claw. A pair of small inner teeth at about one-third, a larger pair at three-quarters, and a smaller tooth at two-thirds from distal tooth to apex of claw. Empodial appendage lanceolate and almost reaching to second pair of teeth. A strong clavate tenent hair as long as claw to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching to ventral tube. Manubrium and mucrodens approximately equal in length. Dens strongly annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated portion twice length of mucro. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, the apical tooth much smaller than the pre-apical, which latter tooth has a slight return slope. Mucro surrounded and over-reached by strongly ciliated setae. Bow-like lamella present at apex of dens but notch is small and very shallow.

Locality: Awahuri, Palmerston North, under bark of kowhai trees and in old logs under kowhai trees.

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Type: Slide 3/782 and Figured Paratype: Slide 3/783, Dominion Museum Collection.

Urewera inconstans Salmon, 1938. Plate 64, figs. 394–396.

Colour: Ochreous brown in mounted specimens, with a broad band of deep violet along ventral edges of thoracic pleura and those of Abds. I, II and III. Abds. II and III entirely violet. Violet pigment along posterior edge of sides of Abd. IV. Sometimes thorax may be lightly suffused more or less all over with pale violet. Legs bluish, ochreous at joints. Basal two antennal segments brown; terminal two dark blue.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with short ciliated setae and scales. Bothriotrichia arise one from Abd. II and one from Abd. III. A tuft of long ciliated setae on each side of the posterior extremity of ventral groove. A row of short spines across posterior margin of head. Furcula clothed by ciliated setae which are very long towards tip of dens and considerably over-reach mucro. Dens heavily scaled. Scales of body oval in shape to round, narrower and pointed elsewhere, heavily striated.

Body: 1·8–2 mm. in length. Antennae a little more than one-third length of body; four-segmented, the first two segments scaled, and the four related in length as 6: 11: 8: 13. Ocelli typical. Head diagonal almost equal to thorax in length. Abd. IV from 4 to 4 ½ times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with a pair of inner teeth at one-third, a single distal tooth at about two-thirds, and generally, but not always, a third smaller tooth near apex of claw. Empodial appendage long, narrow, and lance-like, reaching as far as or just past first distal tooth. A single clavate tenent hair equal in length to claw, to each foot. Outer lateral basal teeth reaching to the level of the front pair of inner teeth.

Furcula: Manubrium and mucrodens related as 6: 7. Mucro elongate and bidentate, with basal spine, the sub-terminal tooth larger than the apical and with a slight return slope.

– 382 –

Localities: In leaf mould, Waihui Gorge; Lake Waikaremoana, in leaf mould on the shores of the lake; Huiarau Range, 3,200 ft., in leaf mould; under bark of rimu trees at Lake Waikareiti and Hopuruahine Gorge; Mount Ngamoko, 3,600 ft., under bark of beech trees; Blue Lake, Rotorua, in leaf mould; Akatarawa, in leaf mould; Cascade Creek, Eglinton Valley, under the bark of beech trees.

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Type: Slide 3/107, Dominion Museum Collection.

Urewera quadradentata sp. nov. Plate 63, figs. 387–389.

Colour: In life, black; mounted, a deep indigo-blue, almost a black-blue, or a deep violet-black, except for the head, which is deep yellow, and the dorsal anterior half of Abd. IV, which is deep orange-brown. Abd. VI is deep yellow, and there is a deep yellow band around the anterior margin of Abd. V. Furcula yellow, legs blue with yellow joints, antennae brown on I and II, violet on III and IV. Depigmented spots occur on Abd. IV.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with oval, strongly-striated scales and occasional ciliated setae, the latter especially around tip of abdomen, and on legs and antennae. Antenne scaled with narrow scales on first three segments.

Body: Length 1·6–2·5 mm. Antennae slightly over twice as long as head, the four segments in the proportion of 6: 17: 17: 17. Ocelli, eight to each side, anterior two largest, posterior inner two smallest, remainder all large. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax, Abd. IV 4 ½–5 times longer than Abd. III. Ventral tube short, cylindrical, and darkly-pigmented except for tip, which is yellow. Abd. VI with a pronounced posterior finger-like process bearing many long ciliated setae.

Legs: Claw with two long outer lateral basal teeth reaching to the level of the first inner teeth, a pair of inner teeth at one-quarter, a long single tooth at three-quarters, followed by a smaller single distal tooth. Empodial appendage lanceolate almost reaching to second tooth. A single well-developed clavate tenent hair as long as claw, to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching to thorax, manubrium to mucrodens as 24: 30. Dens annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated portion being twice length of mucro. Mucro long, bidentate, with basal spine, the apical tooth much shorter than the pre-apical. Notch of dens small, being from apex about one and a-half times length of mucro; bow-like lamella present.

Localities: Lake Mapourika, under the bark of kahikatea trees; Buller Gorge, near Westport, in old logs; Lower Hollyford Valley, under bark of rimu trees; Lake Brunner, in bush soil and debris; Fish River Gorge, Haast Pass, under bark of totara trees; Weheka, South Westland, under the bark of rata trees; Ohinekuku Hill, Taupo-Napier Road, under bark of matai trees.

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Type: Slide 3/795; Figured Paratype: Slide 3/796, Dominion Museum Collection.

– 383 –

Urewera flava Salmon, 1938. Plate 64, fig. 400.

Colour: Typically bright yellow, with or without dark markings. Readily recognized in life by the predominant bright yellow or sometimes yellowish-green body colour. Pigment if present may be brown or violet as stated in the original description or a brilliant but deep blue. It is confined to a narrow band or edging on the anterior region of the mesothorax and the ventral edges of the thoracic and first three abdominal pleura, a dorsal transverse band on Abd. III, and to restricted patches, being one on each side of Abd. IV and one on each side of Abd. V. Abd. IV ventrally is also shaded blue. Legs brown, yellowish at joints, tarsi bluish. Antennae brown, darkening to deeper colour or violet towards apex.

Clothing: As in U. magna. Body scales oval and yellow to pale brown in colour, heavily striated. Scales of legs, antennae and dens long, narrow, and apically-pointed.

Body: Length 2·5–2·75 mm. General facies very similar to U. magna. Antennae about equal to half the body in length. Four-segmented, the segments related as 11: 25: 25: 27. Abd. IV four times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw and empodial appendage as in U. magna with proximal paired teeth at about one-third from claw base.

Furcula: Similar to U. magna.

Localities: Under bark of beech and rimu trees, Mount Ngamoko, Lake Waikaremoana, from 2,500 ft., to summit, 3,640 ft.; Flat Point Hills, in leaf mould in beech forest and under beech bark; Opepe Bush, Taupo, under bark and in bush soil; Karori, Wellington, amongst grass of a lawn; Lake Rotoroa, under beech bark; Bullock Creek, South Westland, under bark of rimu trees.

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Type: Slide 3/100, Dominion Museum Collection.

Urewera flava, subspecies dorsalis nov. Plate 64, fig. 401.

Colour: In life, bright yellow with dark brown markings; mounted, ground colour of ochreous yellow with violet pigment as follows:—Dorsal portion of Abd. IV almost wholly violet, the pigment being broken up somewhat around posterior border; posterior three-quarters of Abd. V deep violet. Very narrow violet bands around posterior margins of mesothorax (pale) and Abd. I and Abd. II. Ventral edges of thoracic and first three abdominal pleura deep violet. Legs brown to violet-brown, yellow at joints. Antennae dark brown, darker at joints.

Length: Up to 2 mm.; otherwise similar to U. flava.

Localities: Lake Rotoroa, under the bark of beech trees; Maruia Valley, under the bark of beech trees.

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Type: Slide 3/779, Dominion Museum Collection.

– 384 –

Urewera okarita (Salmon, 1938). Plate 64, figs. 404–405.

1938. Lepidosira okarita Salmon.

Colour: In life, reddish-brown; mounted specimen shows basal body colour of pale ochreous with bright orange-brown pigment on front of head, along anterior ventral edge of mesothorax, and on basal segments of legs. Antennae basally pale brown, shading to pale violet apically. Legs ochreous, violet on tibio-tarsi. Body colour becomes darker or lighter as clothing of scales is heavy or light.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with scales of which there are two types: (1) Pale coffee-coloured, heavily striated, either oval or almost round in shape. On head and thorax they are mostly oval; on remainder of the body almost entirely round. Some of these scales are very large, a round one measuring up to 0·6 mm. in diameter. Basally, the scale-colour is very pale, becoming stronger at about one-third from base of scales. (2) Bright yellow scales, which are very transparent and lightly-striated, either round or oval in shape, many of them quite large. They occur mainly as bands between the segments, principally between abdominal segments II and III or III and IV. A few isolated yellow scales occur on Abd. IV. On antennae, legs, and furcula, particularly on the dens, the scales become long, narrow and lancet-like in shape. Antennae, legs, and furcula scaled and clothed with short ciliated setae. A row of short spines occurs across posterior dorsal margin of head. Numerous fine ciliated setae fringe ventral edge of thoracic pleura and abdominal segments III and IV. Bothriotrichia on Abd. II.

Body: Length 2·1 mm. Head slightly longer than mesothorax. Ocelli, eight to each side, five large, three small, on dark pigment patches. Retractile organ at apex of Ant. IV. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 7: 19: 15: 18. Abd. IV four times longer than Abd. III. Ventral tube short and yellow in colour.

Legs: Claw with paired inner teeth at about one-third from base and single distal tooth at about two-thirds. Basal external lateral teeth almost reaching level of proximal inner teeth. Empodial appendage lanceolate and reaching to distal inner tooth. A single clavate tenent hair to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching to ventral tube. Manubrium to mucrodens as 33: 38. Dens annulated and corrugated. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, the apical tooth the smaller. Strongly ciliated setae over-reach the mucro. Apical notch of dens absent but lamella well developed.

Localities: Lake Okarita, Rotorua, in leaf mould under tree-ferns; Mamaku Hill, Rotorua, in leaf mould.

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Type: Slide 3/117, Dominion Museum Collection.

Urewera magna (Salmon, 1937). Plate 64, figs. 397–399.

1938. Urewera tridentifera (Salmon.)

1937. Pseudosinella magna Salmon.

Colour: In life, the insect appears greenish-orange, irridescent, with very dark markings. Between Abd. III and rear of Abd. IV an angular area, apex directed posteriorly, of light ochreous colour,

– 385 –

bounded by lines of dark pigment. In the typical form mounted specimens have basal body colour pale ochreous with areas of deep violet to purple pigment as follows:—Across front and along sides of head, along ventral edges of thoracic pleura and Abd. I; across anterior and posterior portions of mesothorax, across and slightly down sides of posterior halves of metathorax and abdominal segments I and II, extending right down sides of Abdomen III, and on rear and sides of Abds. IV and V. Antennal segments I and II pale brown, III darker brown, IV very dark brown, with tinge of violet. Legs dark violet, ochreous at joints.

Clothing: More or less completely clothed by pale brown, oval-shaped scales, heavily striated. A tuft of flexed setae at apex of mesotergum. Occasional long, ciliated setae occur at random over body; but from Abdomen IV back numerous exceedingly long, ciliated setae extend out from body in all directions. Around tip of abdomen there often are a number of shorter plumose setae which probably are a sexual adornment. Bothriotrichia occur on Abd. II and Abd. IV. Antennae four-segmented, scaled on first three segments, thickly clothed with ciliated hairs and occasional long setae. Legs scaled, and bearing many ciliated setae. Furcula thickly clothed with ciliated setae which towards tip of dens become very long, over-reaching the mucro. The dens scaled, with long, narrow, apically-pointed scales.

Body: Length 2·8–4 mm. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax. Head double the length of the metathorax. Ocelli as in fuchsiata. Antennae four-segmented. I: II: III: IV as 18: 36: 34: 34. Abd. IV 3 ½–4 times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with inner proximal paired teeth situated about one-quarter down from claw base. A distal tooth at about three-quarters, and a third smaller apical tooth at about midway between distal tooth and apex of claw, exterior lateral basal teeth reaching to one-third of the length of the claw. Empodial appendage lanceolate, approximately half length of claw, never reaching down as far as the distal tooth. A single clavate tenent hair about equal in length to claw to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching forward to ventral tube. Mucrodens a little longer than manubrium. Dens corrugated and annulated. Mucro somewhat long, bidentate, with a single basal spine. Dens apically with notch and bow-like lamella.

Localities: Particularly common under the bark of old trees and fallen, decaying branches and logs in all native bush and amongst decaying leaves and debris on the forest floor or collected in the forks of trees; Waipoua Kauri Forest, under the bark of kauri trees; Urewera country, up to altitudes of about 2,500 ft.; Coromandel Peninsula, under the bark of rimu trees; Mount Egmont, in bush debris, 3,170 ft.; Opepe Bush, Taupo, in old logs; Awahuri, Palmerston North, under the bark of kowhai trees; Akatarawa Valley and divide, amongst leaf debris; Karori, Wellington, amongst grass of a lawn; Maruia Valley, under the bark of beech and fuchsia trees; Fish River Gorge, Haast Pass, under the bark of beech trees; Weheka,

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South Westland, under the bark of rata trees; Lower Hollyford Valley, under beech and rimu bark; Eglinton Valley, under fuchsia bark.

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Type: Slide 3/96, Dominion Museum Collection.

Urewera magna subspecies lichenata Salmon, 1938.

This distinct form found generally in association with lichens on tree-trunks has a suffusion of more or less irregular small black pigment patches all over the body. In life, it appears orange-brown with very dark brown markings.

Localities: Aniwaniwa Arm, Lake Waikaremoana, on tree-trunks in forest and under fuchsia bark; Akatarawa, in old logs; Waioeka Valley, on lichen on tree-trunks, 2,000 ft.; Lower Hollyford Valley, under the bark of beech and rimu trees.

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Type: Slide 3/86, Dominion Museum Collection.

Urewera magna subspecies violacea Salmon, 1938.

Another distinct form in which the body is completely diffused with pale violet or purple pigment, except for the head, where a tendency to pale ochreous may still persist. The areas of pigmentation occurring in the type are picked out in this variety as areas of deeper violet or purplish pigmentation. In life, dark greenish-brown with darker markings, sometimes approaching to an almost complete irridescent blue-black.

Localities: Ohinekuku Hill, Napier-Taupo Road, under the bark of matai trees; Aniwaniwa Arm, Lake Waikaremoana, under the bark of beech trees; Hopuruahine Gorge, under bark of beech trees; Akatarawa, under bark of fuchsia trees; Bullock Creek, South Westland, under the bark of rimu trees.

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Type: Slide 3/92, Dominion Museum Collection.

Urewera purpurea Salmon, 1938. Plate 64, figs. 402–403.

Colour: In life, pale purple to pale greyish-purple; mounted, head, thorax, and abdominal segments I, II, and III are wholly purple in colour. Anterior portion of Abd. IV paler and ground colour of body may show through as pale ochreous. The posterior portion of Abd. IV, Abd. V and Abd. VI deep purple. The dorsal surface of head generally paler in colour than the sides. Antennae purple, changing to deep violet on segments III and IV. Legs purple, with deep violet tarsi. Furcula purple at base, passing into pale ochreous on dentes.

Clothing: Heavily scaled with pale purple coloured scales, heavily striated. Setae as in U. inconstans. A single bothriotrichia arises vertically from Abd. II. A row of short spines across posterior dorsal margin of head. First two segments of antennae with long, narrow, pointed scales and ciliated setae. Third segment with plain setae and terminal segment clothed with short fine hairs. Legs clothed with ciliated setae and scales. Furcula clothed by ciliated setae, dens scaled. A prominent ring of stout scales on manubrium at junction with dens.

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Body: Length 1·9–2·4 mm. Ocelli typical. Head approximately equal to thorax in length. Antennae four-segmented and less than half the body in length, the segments related as 4: 10: 7: 10. Abd. IV 3–3 ½ times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with three inner teeth, a pair at about one-quarter from base, a distal at two-thirds. Outer lateral basal teeth not quite reaching to level of inner pair. Empodial appendage reaching to distal tooth, narrow and lanceolate. A single clavate tenent hair shorter than claw, to each foot.

Furcula: Manubrium and mucrodens equal. Dens corrugated and annulated. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, somewhat elongate and surrounded by ciliated setae. Apical notch and bow-like lamella present.

Localities: Mount Ngamoko, in old log, 3,000 ft., and among forest debris, 3,600 ft.; Waihui Gorge and Aniwaniwa Arm, Lake Waikaremoana, among leaf mould; Blue Lake, Rotorua, in leaf mould; Opepe Bush, Taupo, in old log.

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Type: Slide 3/143, Dominion Museum Collection.

Urewera purpurea subspecies reducta Salmon, 1938.

Specimens in which body is ochreous in colour with concentrations of purple pigment along ventral edges of terga and toward posterior region of Abd. IV and on Abd. V. Narrow, very pale bands of purple encircle anterior portion of each segment.

Localities: Mount Ngamoko, 3,600 ft., in log; Aniwaniwa Arm, Lake Waikaremoana, in old log; Waihui Gorge, in bush soil.

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Type: Slide 3/150, Dominion Museum Collection.

Urewera fuscata (Womersley, 1930). Plate 65, figs. 419–420.

1930. Lepidocyrtoides fuscata (Womersley).

1936. Lepidosira fuscata Womersley.

Colour: Brownish-yellow to yellow with edges of segments blue. Ant. I and II violet; III and IV deep blue. Legs blue. Furcula yellow, ocellar fields black and connected across front of head by a dark frontal line.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with brown, striated, oval and round scales. Ant. I and II dorsally with scales. Dens heavily scaled ventrally. Ciliated setae posteriorly on abdomen, and on furcula and legs.

Body: Length up to 2 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, the segments related as 2: 7: 7: 10. Ocelli, eight on each side, the anterior two the largest, posterior inner two the smallest, remainder medium. Abd. IV six times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with a pair of large inner teeth at one-third, a large distal inner tooth at two-thirds and external basal lateral teeth reaching about one-quarter down outer edge. Empodial appendage lanceolate and reaching to distal tooth of claw. A single clavate tenent hair to each foot about as long as claw.

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Furcula: Mucrodens slightly longer than manubrium. Dens annulated and corrugated. Bow-like lamella and deep apical notch both present. Mucro with small apical tooth, large slightly recurved sub-apical tooth, and basal spine. Much over-reached by long ciliated setae.

Locality: Kumara, under stones and under bark of rimu trees.

Type: In South Australian Museum, Adelaide.

Genus Lepidosira Schött, 1925.

Claws with lateral teeth, but never with exterior lateral basal teeth. Scales present, heavily striated. Scales of body generally longer and apically more pointed than in Urewera. Scales of the antennae and furcula narrow, elongate and pointed. Ocelli present, eight to each side. Mucro bidentate, with basal spine. Ant. IV always with apical sensory knob.

Ten species of Lepidosira occur in New Zealand, eight of which are endemic, the other two ranging to Australia, from whence they were first described.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Lepidosira.
1. Distinctly segmented species. 2
Segmentation more or less indistinct. Brown species, claw without any teeth. L. indistincta Salmon
2. Claw with four inner teeth to claw. 3
Claw with less than four inner teeth to claw. 4
3. Entirely blue species. L. coerulea Schött
Yellowish species with dark blue, saddle-shaped band posteriorly on Abd. III. Claw with proximal paired teeth and two single distal teeth. L. sagmarius Schött
4. With three inner teeth to claw 5
With two inner teeth to claw. 6
With only one inner tooth to claw. 7
5. Small brownish coloured species with Th. III, Abds. I, II and III, posterior portion of IV and V and VI with purplish pigment. Mucro normal. L. minuta Salmon
Yellow to dark-brown species with dark, narrow, posterior intersegmental bands on Th. II, Th. III. and Abds. I, II and III. Mucro normal. L. omniofusca sp. nov.
6. Empodial appendage truncate ochreous or brown-coloured species. 8
Empodial appendage lamellate and bluntly-pointed on inner margin. L. bidentata Salmon
7. Small violet-coloured species. L. minima Salmon
Large deep blue-coloured species. L. rotorua Salmon
8. Body with three dorso-lateral pigment spots on each side of abdomen. L. sexmacula Salmon
Body without spots. 9
9. Ant. III near its apex with large dome-like swelling. Scales normal. L. glebosa sp. nov.

Lepidosira indistincta Salmon, 1938. Plate 64, fig. 407.

Colour: A uniform pale ochreous. Legs and furcula ochreous or pale violet. Basal antennal segments ochreous with a violet tinge, distal segments deep violet.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with typical pale brown striated scales. Numerous long ciliated setae occur over the body, especially

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on abdominal segments IV, V, and VI. A prominent tuft of flexed setae at apex of mesothorax. Scales of furcula lancet-like. Legs not scaled but thickly clothed with short, heavily-ciliated setae. Mucro surrounded by long, ciliated setae.

Body: Length 2·7 mm. Head diagonal, slightly longer than mesothorax. Ocelli, eight to each side, one large, five medium, and two small, situated on dark pigment patches joined across front of head by deep violet band, which also skirts bases of antennae. Antennae slightly less than half the body in length, four-segmented, related as 7: 12: 10: 17. Scaled on first two segments and well-clothed by setae, many of which are ciliated. Ant. IV bears very short setae only. A row of short spines across posterior dorsal margin of head. Segmentation very indistinct. Abd. IV about three times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw without any properly-defined teeth, but a slight irregularity like a rudimentary tooth about one-quarter from base. Empodial appendage sharply pointed with distinct inner and outer lamellae and “mid-rib.” A single tenent hair to each foot about equal in length to claw.

Furcula: Dens only feebly corrugated and annulated. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, somewhat long and parallel-sided.

Localities: Waioeka Valley, Urewera Country, from old rotten tree stump, 2,000 ft.; Lake Okarita, in leaf debris in bush; Mamaku Hill, Rotorua, 1,600 ft., in leaf mould.

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Type: Slide 3/47, Dominion Museum Collection.

Lepdosira coerulea Schött, 1917. Plate 64, figs. 408–409.

Colour: Entirely blue with sometimes some yellowish spots on Th. II and Abd. IV. Furcula yellow.

Clothing: Of scales with flexed setae dorsally on head and thorax, and long ciliated setae posteriorly.

Body: Length 2·3 mm. Antennae twice as long as head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 5: 12: 11: 16. Ant. IV with apical sensory knob. Ocelli, eight to each side. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax and may very slightly overlap rear of head. Abd. IV 3 ½ times to 4 times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with outer lateral teeth at about two-fifths down outer edge, and two pairs of inner teeth, one at centre, the other at about three-quarters. Empodial appendage lanceolate and from half to two-thirds as long as claw. A single clavate tenent hair about as long as the claw, to each foot.

Furcula: Manubrium slightly longer than mucrodens. Mucro bidentate, with basal spine, the pre-apical tooth the larger and slightly recurved.

Localities: First reported from New Zealand by Womersley in 1929 from Ross, South Westland, and later at Davies Bush, Manurewa, Auckland (coll. by E. D. Pritchard), in 1936; this species can now be recorded from Waipoua Kauri Forest, North Auckland, on the bark of kauri trees.

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Lepidosira sagmarius (Schött, 1917). Plate 64, fig. 406; Plate 66, fig. 430.

Colour: Yellowish with a dark saddle-shaped blue-black band posteriorly on Abd. III. There is a similar-coloured lateral posterior patch on each side of Abd. IV, on the sides of Th. II and around the posterior margin of Abd. VI. Antennae basally brown and distally blue.

Clothing: Of brownish scales with short but distinct striae.

Body: In length this species varies from 2 to 2·25 mm. Antennae about two and a-half times as long as head. Ant. IV with three-lobed apical knob. Ocelli, eight to each side, the posterior inner two smaller than the rest. Th. II longer than Th. III and slightly overlying the head. Abd. IV four times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with a pair of inner teeth at about one-quarter and two distal inner teeth at three-quarters and seven-eighths respectively; paired lateral outer teeth at about one-quarter down. A single clavate tenent hair longer than the claw to each foot. Empodial appendage lanceolate and from one-third to a-half as long as claw.

Furcula: Mucrodens about one-third longer than manubrium. Dens annulated and corrugated. Mucro bidentate with a basal spine.

Locality: A single specimen of this species was identified by Womersely in 1930 from Kumara. It has not been found elsewhere.

Lepidosira minuta Salmon, 1938. Plate 65, figs. 417–418.

Colour: Ochreous brown to dark reddish-brown, with darker purple-brown markings along ventral edges of thoracic pleura. Metathorax, abdominal segments I, II, and III and from hinder portion of Abd. IV to tip of abdomen, dark purple-brown. Head ochreous-violet anteriorly. Antennae ochreous at base, changing to deep violet on terminal segment. Legs proximally brown, merging into dark violet distally. Furcula ochreous.

Clothing: Body scaled with brown oval or rounded, heavily-striated scales. Flexed setae occur on head and occasionally on body, with a prominent tuft at apex of thorax. Groups of long, ciliated setae occur around Abds. IV, V, VI. All antennal segments scaled and clothed by moderately long setae, the scales long, narrow, and apically-pointed. Legs covered with fine clothing of hairs and moderately long setae, the majority of which are finely ciliated. Furcula clothed with setae. Dens scaled with long, narrow, pointed scales.

Body: Length 1·4–1·6 mm. Head about equal to thorax in length. Ocelli, eight to each side, seven large and one small, on dark pigment patches. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 4: 8: 6: 11. Abd. IV four times as long as Abd. III. Ventral tube long and with two distinct lips.

Legs: Claw with three inner teeth, the larger and proximal tooth about one-third claw base, distal about two-thirds, and half-way between this and apex is a third very small tooth. Empodial appendage reaching almost to second tooth. A clavate tenent hair about equal in length to the claw, to each foot. No outer teeth to claw.

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Furcula: Reaching forward to hind pair of legs. Manubrium to mucrodens as 17: 14, dens corrugated and annulated. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, surrounded by long, ciliated setae. Apical tooth of mucro smaller than pre-apical.

Localities: Lake Waikare-iti, 2,300 ft., from old log; Mount Ngamoko, Lake Waikaremoana, in old log, 2,900 ft.

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Type: Slide 3/120, Dominion Museum Collection.

Lepidosira omniofusca sp. nov. Plate 65, figs. 421–422.

Colour: In life, varying from yellowish to very dark brown. Mounted specimens show a ground colour of yellowish-brown varying to dark brown, with generally darker violet-brown or reddish-brown narrow intersegmental bands on posterior margins of thoracic and first three abdominal segments. A similar narrow band around anterior margin of mesothoracic terga. Abds. II and III generally have dorsally a distinct broad area of darker reddish-brown reaching halfway down the sides, and similar coloration extends along ventral half of the sides of Abd. IV and Abd. V. Ant. I yellow-brown, II purple, III violet, and IV deep bluish-violet. Furcula pale brown. Legs pale brown, becoming violet on tibio-tarsi. Ocelli on very dark brown fields.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with very large brown heavily striated scales, which, on body, are rounded to oval in shape, but elongate and pointed on antennae, legs, and fulcula. A tuft of ciliated setae at apex of mesotergum and a few on top of the head and around tip of abdomen. Antennae and legs with many short ciliated setae.

Body: Length 0·75–2 mm. Antennae two and a-half times as long as head, the four segments related as 15: 30: 25: 37. The head is deeper than it is long. Ocelli eight to each side, the posterior inner two small, reainder all large. Ventral tube short and eylindrical. Abd. IV 4–4 ½ times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with a pair of strong inner teeth at one-fifth and a long single inner tooth at two-thirds; a pair of very small outer lateral teeth about one-fifth down outer edge. A single clavate tenent hair shorter than claw to each foot. Empodial appendage reaching just beyond distal tooth, sharply pointed, with a narrow outer lamella and a very broad, curved inner lamella.

Furcula: Manubrium to mucrodens as 25: 30. The dens strongly annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated portion twice the length of the mucro and unannulated portion one and a-half times. Mucro large, with equal apical and sub-apical teeth and basal spine; surounded and over-reached by several strongly ciliated setae.

Locality: Lake Brunner, under the brak of kahikatea trees.

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Type: Slide 3/819, Figured Paratype: Slide 3/820, Dominion Museum Collection.

Lepidosira bidentata Salmon, 1938. Plate 64, figs. 410–411.

Colour: Yellowish-brown, with deep blue to violet patches on sides and ventral surface of head and body segments. Legs bluish with femurs brown. Antennae deep blue with joints pale brown.

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Clothing: Scaled with brown, heavily striated and somewhat hyaline scales. A tuft of stout setae occurs at apex of thorax, and long strongly ciliated setae arise around posterior region of abdomen. Antennae thickly clothed with short setae, but no scales. Dens heavily clothed by ciliated setae, many of which overreach the mucro, and scaled with long, lancet-like scales.

Body: Length 2–3·25 mm. Antennae not quite as long as half the body, the segments related as 12: 23: 20: 34. Ocelli eight to each side, all large, on dark blue pigment patches joined by a line of dark blue pigment across front of head. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax. Abd. IV five times as long as Abd. III. Ventral tube long.

Legs: Claw without any outer teeth, but with one pair of large inner teeth at about one-quarter from base. Empodial appendage broadly lamellate, bluntly pointed on inner margin and sharply pointed apically. A single clavate tenent hair about equal to claw in length to each foot.

Fucula: Reaching forward to mesothorax. Manubrium slightly shorter than mucrodens. Mucro bidentate, with a single basal spine, the subterminal tooth very large. Dens annulated and corrugated.

Localities: Aniwaniwa Arm, Lake Waikaremona; Opepe Bush, Taupo, under bark.

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Type: Slide 3/125, Dominion Museum Collection.

Remarks: Examination of further specimens of this species obtained recently has to a certain degree left me in doubt as to whether it is a Lepidosira or a Lepidocyrtus. Most of the scales are very much more hyaline than is usual in Lepidosira, though not quite so hyaline as is usual in a Lepidocyrtus. The scales generally are more visible on the surface of the body than it is usual to expect in a Lepidocyrtus, and this, combined with the fact that some definite dark, heavily striated scales do occur on the body, inclines me to the belief that the species is best left in the genus Lepidosira. It may perhaps be best regarded as an in-between or transitional species between the two genera.

Lepidosira minima Salmon, 1936. Plate 65, figs. 414–416.

Colour: In life, pale violet; mounted, basal body colour very pale cream, more or less tinged with violet. A heavy violet line along ventral edges of pleura and broad violet bands around posterior margins of all segments, except Abd. IV. Abd. III all violet, and Abd. IV with broad violet band around middle. Head violet. Antennae violet, deepening towards apex. Legs violet; pale at joints. Furcula pale cream. Top of head ochreous.

Clothing: Scales scarce, the few present being yellowish-brown and striated. Flexed setae occur on top of the head and at apex of mesothorax. Occasional setae occur over body, and several long, slender setae arise from the posterior portion of Abd. IV and from Abds. V and VI. Antennae clothed with short setae. Legs with moderately long setae. Furcula clothed with setae, which around mucrones are long and ciliated. Dens scaled lightly with long, thin scales.

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Body: Length 0·75 mm. Antennae almost twice as long as head diagonal, the segments related as 3: 6: 6: 8. Ocelli eight to each side, all large, on dark pigment patches. Abd. IV three times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with single external basal tooth and one inner tooth near apex. Empodial appendage a little longer than half the claw. A single clavate tenent hair longer than the claw to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching forward to ventral tube. Manubrium to mucrodens as 11: 13. Mucro bidentate with basal spine; the terminal tooth shorter and over-reached by long, very strongly ciliated setae.

Locality: Akatarawa, in leaf mould.

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Type: Slide 3/146, Dominion Museum Collection.

Lepidosira rotorua Salmon, 1938. Plate 65, figs. 426–429.

Colour: In life, a very deep blue; in mounted specimens, body and appendages all a deep blue. Generally trace of yellowness along dorsal surface of thorax and abdominal segments I, II, III, and V.

Clothing: Lightly scaled with brownish scales strongly striated, a tuft of stiff setae at apex of mesothorax, and occasional similar setae over the body. Short, stiff, ciliated setae around tip of abdomen. Tufts of long, ciliated setae at ventral posterior edge of each side of ventral groove. Antennae scaled on first three segments and heavily clothed with short, finely ciliated setae. Legs and furcula with scales and ciliated setae. Scales of the dens are elongate and lancet-shaped.

Body: Length 2·8–3 mm. Head slightly longer than meso-thorax. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 9: 14: 12: 20. Ocelli eight to each side—six large, two small, on dark pigment patches. Mesothorax considerably longer than metathorax as 19: 10. Ventral tube short and stout. Abd. IV five times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with paired inner teeth at about one-third from base and small external tooth. Empodial appendage about two-thirds length of claw, finely-pointed, and truncate on inner margin. A single clavate tenent hair slightly less than the claw in length, to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching forward to ventral tube. Manubrium to mucrodens as 28: 32. Mucro bidentate, with a single basal spine. Apical tooth smaller and blunt. Mucro surrounded by long ciliated setae.

Locality: Blue Lake, Rotorua, from amongst dead leaves in bush.

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Type: Slide 3/128, Dominion Museum Collection.

Lepidosira sexmacula Salmon, 1938. Plate 65, figs. 412–413.

Colour: Pale yellow with a trace of blue pigment along ventral edge of mesothorax. Three prominent patches of blue pigment on each side of abdomen, one on Abd. III, one in centre of Abd. IV, and one on Abd. V. A small patch of blue pigment also on posterior ventral region of Abd. IV. Legs and antennae pale brown

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or blue, darker at joints and shading to violet in third and terminal segments. Furcula pale ochreous. Ocellar fields black, joined by dark blue line across front of head.

Clothing: Sparsely scaled, scales pale brown, striated, and oval in shape. A tuft of short setae at apex of thorax. A few short, ciliated setae around tip of abdomen. Body otherwise mainly bare. Scales of legs and furcula lancet-shaped.

Body: Length 2·25 mm. Head slightly longer than mesothorax. Ocelli, eight to each side, six large and two small. Antennae four-segmented, the segments related as 6: 10: 10: 15. Retractile organ at apex of Ant. IV. Mesothorax completely covers prothorax and is related to metathorax as 15: 9. Abd. IV five times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with two outer basal teeth, one to each side, and two prominent inner teeth, one at about one-quarter and the other at three-quarters. Empodial appendage about two-thirds length of claw and slightly truncate on inner margin. A single clavate tenent hair somewhat shorter than the claw to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching forward to anterior pair of legs. Manubrium to mucrodens as 20: 23. Dens annulated and corrugated. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, the apical tooth small. Mucro surrounded by short ciliated setae.

Localities: Okarita Lake, Rotorua, in bush debris on forest floor; Paiahia, North Auckland, amongst leaf debris under tree-ferns; Mount Cargill, Dunedin, in leaf debris; Lake Waikare-iti, Urewera, in leaf mould on edge of lake.

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Type: Slide 3/119, Dominion Museum Collection.

Lepidosira glebosa sp. nov. Plate 65, figs. 423–425.

Colour: Ochreous, with pale brown scales. Antennae I ochreous, with deep violet band at apex, II and III deep violet, ochreous basally, IV bluish-grey, legs and furcula pale ochreous, tibio-tarsi with a pale violet band. Ocelli on black fields.

Clothing: Heavily clothed with strongly striated scales and posteriorly with short ciliated setae. Antennae, legs and furcula heavily clothed with ciliated setae.

Body: Length 1·5 mm. Antennae twice as long as head, the four segments related as 8: 12: 10: 16. Ant. III near apex with a peculiar large dome-like lump or swelling which, possibly, is some special form of sense organ. Mesotergum completely covers prothorax and slightly overhangs head. Segmentation not very clear. Abd. IV approximately 5 ½ times as long as Abd. III. Ocelli, eight to each side, the posterior inner two small, remainder large. Ventral tube long and fat.

Legs: Claw with two small outer lateral teeth near base and a pair of small inner teeth at one-quarter. A long, clavate tenent hair as long as claw, to each foot. Empodial appendage almost as long as claw, truncated on inner margin with a prominent central rib.

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Furcula: Manubrium and mucrodens approximately equal. Dens strongly annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated part half as long again as the mucro. Mucro bidentate with basal spine, the apical tooth much smaller than the pre-apical and somewhat removed from it. Mucro surrounded and over-reached by strongly ciliated setae.

Locality: Bullock Creek, South Westland, under wet moss on a steep bank.

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Type: Slide 3/829, Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Pseudosinella Schaeffer, 1897.

Ocelli usually reduced in number and sometimes absent. Pigment generally absent. Body with hyaline scales as in Lepidocyrtus. Claw with a pair of well-developed wing-like basal teeth sometimes reduced to one. Clavate tenent hairs reduced, mucro bidentate or falciform. Five species of this genus occur in New Zealand, three being endemic, one Australian and one North American.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Pseudosinella.
1. Ocelli present. 2
Ocelli absent. 3
2. Eight ocelli assymetrically arranged to each side. P. assymetrica Salmon
Six ocelli to each side. P. fasciata Womersley
Two ocelli to each side on black pigment spots. P. alba Packard
3. Ocelli entirely absent. P. nonoculata sp. nov.
Ocelli absent from sides of head, but with two yellow-coloured ocelli or pseudocelli on top of head between antennae. P. insoloculata sp. nov.

Pseudosinella assymetrica (Salmon, 1937). Plate 66, figs. 431–434.

1937. Entomobrya assymetrica Salmon.

Further examination of this species has revealed that it has scales and a distinct though small wing-like tooth to the claw, necessitating its transfer to Pseudosinella.

Colour: Pale lemon-yellow in colour with head orange and with a little irregular black mottling on body.

Clothing: Lightly scaled with hyaline scales. Almost deviod of setae but a few ciliated setae occur around the posterior. Tergum of mesothorax carries at apex a tuft of stiff ciliated setae. Antennae lightly clothed with ciliated setae.

Body: Length 0·8–1 mm. Abd. III: IV as 6·5: 15. Antennae four-segmented, segments related as 6: 8: 7: 14. Ocelli, eight on each side. Each ocellar group is assymetrically arranged as two unequal collateral groups of five and three, respectively, the larger being external, the whole set in a triangular mass of black pigment with its apex directed posteriorly.

Legs: Claw with basal wing-like tooth and large inner tooth at centre. No outer teeth. Empodial appendage lanceolate and about two-thirds length of claw. A short, clavate, tenent hair to each foot.

Furcula: Slender, reaching forward to thorax. Dens and manubrium about equal in length, dens corrugated and annulated. Mucro long and slender, bidenate with basal spine.

– 396 –

Locality: From a collection made by Mr. D. K. Ross from open country in the Manawatu district, near Newbury.

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Type: Slide 3/195, Dominion Museum Collection.

Pseudosinella alba Packard, 1873. Plate 66, fig. 435.

Colour: White.

Clothing: Of hyaline scales.

Body: Length 1 mm. Antennae half as long again as the head, the segments related as 10: 15: 14: 25. Ocelli, two to each side on individual black pigment spots. Abd. IV 2–3 times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with two short lateral basal teeth, a pair of basal wing-like teeth and a single inner tooth at centre. Empodial appendage often serrate on its outer edge. Tenent hair reduced and non-clavate.

Furcula: Manubrium shorter than mucrodens as 3: 4. Mucro bidentate with basal spine.

Locality: This North American species has been found at Manurewa, Auckland, from whence it was reported by Womersley in 1936. It has not been found elsewhere.

Pseudosinella fasciata Womersley, 1934. Plate 66, fig. 436.

Colour: Mounted, and denuded of scales, greyish-yellow with a band of blue on Abd. III. A slight blue suffusion dorsally on other segments.

Clothing: Simple oval or rounded scales and many finely-ciliated setae. Flexed setae on thorax.

Body: Length 1·5 mm. Antennae half as long again as head, the segments related as 10: 25: 25: 37. Ocelli, six on each side. Abd. IV four times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with a pair of inner basal wing-like teeth and a small distal inner tooth. Empodial appendage broad and truncate apically. Tenent hair half as long as claw and distinctly clavate.

Furcula: Heavily scaled. Manubrium slightly longer than mucrodens. Mucro bidentate with basal spine.

Locality: This common Australian species was reported in New Zealand by Womersley in 1936 from Clevedon, Auckland. It has not been found elsewhere.

Pseudosinella insoloculata sp. nov. Plate 66, figs. 437–439.

Colour: Entirely white.

Clothing: Of hyaline scales and short ciliated setae.

Body: Length 1 mm. Antennae half as long again as head, the four segments related as 7: 22: 20: 44. Tergum of mesothorax covers prothorax and is approximately equal to the head in length. There are two deep yellowish-coloured ocelli on top of the head between the bases of the antennae; these may be pseudocelli, but they have the appearance of true ocelli. No other ocelli are present. A sensory organ at apex of Ant. IV consisting of a central rod with two inwardly-curving protecting setae, Abd. IV four times longer than Abd. III. Ventral tube long and lobed distally.

– 397 –

Legs: Claw with two small outer lateral teeth about one-third down and two large basal wing-like teeth closely adpressed, giving the appearance, without close study, of being only one; immediately below and apparently arising between them is a single large median inner tooth. Empodial appendage lanceolate, two thirds as long as claw. Tenent hair very weak, short and non-clavate.

Furcula: Manubrium and mucrodens approximately equal in length. Dens corrugated and annulated, the uncorrugated portion being two and a-half times length of mucro. Mucro elongate and bidentate, with a basal spine, the apical tooth the smaller. Mucro surrounded with strongly-ciliated setae.

Locality: Waipoua Kauri Forest, amongst leaf debris.

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Type: Slide 3/830, Dominion Museum Collection.

Pseudosinella nonoculata sp. nov. Plate 66, figs. 440–441.

Colour: In life, white; mounted, a pale dirty yellow.

Clothing: Occasional scales and short ciliated setae. Dorsally on head are many flexed setae very strongly ciliated.

Body: Length up to 1·3 mm. Antennae approximately one and three-quarter times as long as head, the four segments related as 7: 20: 15: 27. Ocelli absent. Segmentation of body very indistinct, but Abd. IV is 2 ½–2 ¾ times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with a pair of large wing-like basal teeth and a large inner basal tooth about one-third down. A single clavate tenent hair, shorter than claw, to each foot. Empodial appendage half as long as claw and truncate on inner margin.

Furcula: Manubrium and mucrodens approximately equal in length. Dens strongly annulated and corrugated with numerous stout, strongly-ciliated setae. The uncorrugated portion is twice length of mucro. Mucro very elongate, bidentate, with a basal spine and surrounded by strongly ciliated setae. Mucronal teeth considerably separated, the apical tooth the larger.

Localities: Waiho Gorge, South Westland, amongst leaf mould in forest; Buller Gorge, under bark of beech trees; Alex Knob, Waiho, in leaf mould, 3,000 ft.; Punakaiki, amongst leaf debris in forest.

Remarks: This species is closely allied to P. violenta Folsom from North America, from which it differs chiefly in the structure of the foot claw, empodial appendage and mucro.

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Type: Slide 3/831 and Figured Paratype: Slide 3/832, Dominion Museum Collection.

Tribe Orchesellini Börner, 1906.
Genus Orchezelandia Salmon, 1937.

Genotype: Orchezelandia rubra Salmon, 1937.

Without scales. Antennae with five segments. Abd. IV three to four times as long as Abd. III. Mucro bidentate. Ocelli present. Post-antennal organ absent.

Orchezelandia rubra Salmon, 1937. Plate 66, figs. 442–446.

Colour: In life, bright red to orange-red, fading in spirit to orange-red or yellow, and mottled with black spots.

– 398 –

Clothing: Densely covered by short, fine setae, with prominent dorsal tufts of very long, stout setae. Similar long setae occur singly all over body. Antennae covered by hairs with occasional long setae. Ant. V thickly clothed with short hairs only.

Body: Length 1·5–2 mm. Antennae five-segmented and about twice as long as head. Ant. I: II: III: IV: V as 1: 3: 7: 4: 6. Ocelli, eight on each side, two of which are large, four medium, and two small.

Legs: Claw with one pair of inner teeth just past half-way, a large tooth at three-quarters and a very small tooth near apex. A pair of outer basal lateral teeth reaching to one-quarter down and two outer teeth about centre of outer edge. Empodial appendage lanceolate, and reaching to the second inner tooth. A single strongly clavate tenent hair as long as claw to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching forward to ventral tube. Dens a little longer than manubrium, slender, and corrugated ventrally. Mucro very small, bidentate, with basal spine, the apical tooth the larger.

Locality: In open country near Newbury, in the Manawatu district. (Coll. D. K. Ross).

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Type: Slide 3/196, Dominion Museum Collection.

Sub-family Paronellinae Börner, 1906.

Genus Paronellides Schött, 1925.

Without scales, antennae not longer than body. Body strongly convex longitudinally. Furcula well-developed. Mucro of typically Paronelline form and bidentate. Dens without spines. Only one species referable to this genus occurs in New Zealand.

Paronellides novae–zealandiae sp. nov. Plate 66, figs. 447–448; Plate 67, fig. 449.

Colour: Yellowish-brown with a suffusion of pale purple over head; Abd. II and Abd. III purple dorsally and the sides of Abd. IV from midway down to ventral surface completely purple. Abd. VI purple. Generally, a purple band along ventral edges of thoracic pleura. Legs and furcula yellow, with tibio-tarsi violet. Antennae purple with last segment deep violet. Sometimes a purple patch on the posterior dorsal three-quarters of Abd. IV and on Th. II and Abd. I. Ocelli on black pigment patches.

Clothing: Densely clothed with short ciliated setae and occasional longer ones. Dorsally on head, thorax and Abd. I many long, flexed setae. Two bothriotrichia occur on each side of Abd. IV about three-quarters back. Some long setae occur on antennae and legs.

Body: Length up to 1·6 mm. Antennae approximately equal in length to body and four times longer than head; the ratio of the four segments being 10: 16: 14: 29. Ocelli, eight to each side, the posterior inner two very small, remainder all large. Ventral tube short. Abd. IV eight times longer than Abd. III.

– 399 –

Legs: Claw with a pair of small exterior lateral teeth about one-third down outer edge. One pair of inner teeth at one-quarter and a single tooth at three-quarters. Empodial appendage two-thirds length of claw, sharply pointed. A single strong clavate tenent hair longer than claw to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching forward to prothorax. Manubrium to mucro-dens as 22: 26. Mucro with two equal blunt teeth and protected by a long ciliated spine-like appendage. The mucro is indistinctly separated from the dens.

Localities: Maruia Valley, Lewis Pass, amongst leaf mould in the forest and under stones by mountain streams; Otira Gorge, amongst leaf debris; 2,800 ft.; Lake Brunner, in bush soil and leaf debris; Punakaiki, in bush debris; Buller Gorge, amongst leaf mould; Maruia Saddle, amongst leaf debris in forest, 1,900 ft.

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Type: Slide 3/840 and Figured Paratype: Slide 3/841, Dominion Museum Collection.

Paronellides novae-zealandiae subspecies purpurea nov.

In this subspecies the basal body colour generally is of a darker orange-brown than in the principal form, and the purple pigment is much darker and much increased so as also to cover, dorsally, the mesothorax, metathorax, Abd. I, and Abd. V. There is purple also along the sides of the head. Abd. VI is a dark orange-brown.

Locality: Monkey Flat, Hollyford Valley, under stones, 2,100 ft.

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Type: Slide 3/858, Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Pseudoparonellides gen. nov.

Genotype: Pseudoparonellides badia sp. nov.

This new genus is closely allied to Paronellides Schött, from which it differs in having a mucro with three prominent teeth. Represented by one species.

Pseudoparonellides badia sp. nov. Plate 67, figs. 450–452.

Colour: In life, a reddish-brown. Mounted, more of an orange-brown, antennae and legs blue, furcula yellow. Narrow dark purple intersegmental bands on posterior margins of Th. I and II and of Abd. I; Abds. II, III, and V all purple, IV purple dorsally and with posterior half all purple.

Clothing: Densely clothed with ciliated setae and dorsally on head and thorax with many long, flexed setae. Bothriotrichia present on Abd. II.

Body: Length up to 1·2 mm. Antennae about five-eights the length of the body, the four segments related as 17: 28: 25: 43. The head is deeper than it is long. Abd. IV seven times longer than Abd. III. Ocelli, eight to each side, set on ill-defined dark brown fields. Six ocelli large, two a little smaller. Ventral tube long and cylindrical.

Legs: Claw with a single inner tooth at about one-quarter; no outer teeth. Empodial appendage lanceolate and nearly as long as claw. No tenent hairs.

– 400 –

Furcula: Reaching to thorax. Manubrium to mucrodens as 40: 50. Dens heavily clothed with ciliated setae and apically with two large spine-like appendages. Mucro very short with three strong teeth, one of which is apical; the others a pair pre-apical and ventral, giving the mucro the appearance of being three-winged.

Localities: Weheka, in leaf debris in the forest near the Fox Glacier; Bullock Creek, South Westland, under wet moss and lichen on a steep bank.

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Type: Slide 3/861 and Figured Paratype: Slide 3/862, Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Paronana Womersley, 1939.

Genotype: P. bidenticulata Carpenter.

Scaled species, scales long, narrow and ciliated (fig. 478), dens with at least one row of simple spines for the whole or part of its length. At the junction with the mucro are two scale-like plates ventrally and dorsally one or two long spine-like ciliated appendages. Mucro two toothed. Ocelli, eight to each side.

Seven species of this genus occur in New Zealand, of which six are endemic and one ranges to Australia.

Key to the Species of Paronana.
1. Head, thorax, Abd. I and anterior portion of Abd. II deep violet; remainder of body yellow. P. karoriensis Salmon
Pigment more generally distributed or absent. 2
2. Entirely yellow except for dorsal stripe along Th. II to Abd. I and small lateral spot on Abd. III. P. sufflava sp. nov.
Species with longitudinal stripes, cross bands, or spots. 3
3. Yellow with irregular pigment patches all over body. 5
Species with continuous longitudinal stripes and cross bands. 4
4. Yellow with a continuous narrow dark brown dorsal stripe for entire length of body. Mucro with unequal teeth. P. dorsanota sp. nov.
Yellow with a continuous lateral longitudinal reddish-brown stripe on each side along thorax, Abds. I, II and III. Abd. IV posteriorly with irregular reddish-brown band. Mucro with equal teeth. P. pigmenta sp. nov.
Yellowish or ochreous with continuous lateral longitudinal blue stripe along thorax and Abds. I, II, III, and IV. Broad posterior transverse blue bands around Abds. III, IV, and V. A central dorsal patch on Abd. IV. Mucro with unequal teeth. P. tasmasecta sp. nov.
5. Empodial appendage simple, lanceolate; claw with three inner teeth. P. maculosa Salmon
Empodial appendage with four teeth on outer edge; claw with three inner teeth. P. bidenticulata Carpenter
– 401 –

Paronana karoriensis (Salmon, 1937). Plate 68, figs. 461–465.

1937. Salina karoriensis Salmon.

Colour: Head, thorax, first abdominal segment and portion of second a deep violet colour, remainder of body a deep straw-yellow to yellow ochre. Occasional specimens have a trace of violet on the sides of Abd. IV. Legs ochreous, violet at joints, tibio-tarsi with violet bands. Furcula pale ochreous; antennae pale orange with violet joints and apex.

Clothing: Thickly clothed with long setae and, along dorsal surface, large groups of exceptionally long, flexed setae, particularly on head, thorax and first two abdominal segments. Many of these flexed setae measure up to ½ mm. in length. On Abd. IV dorsally are numerous very long straight setae and on Abd. V, six very long wavy ciliated hairs. Around tip of abdomen are many shorter ciliated setae. Legs and antennae thickly clothed with short, fine setae and occasional very fine long setae.

Body: Length of body 1.5–3.1 mm. Head not quite as long as thorax. Antennae slightly longer than body, four-segmented, the relative lengths of the segments is not constant, but generally about 32: 35: 25: 44 in large-sized specimens. Ocelli, eight to each side, six large and two, the posterior inner two, small. No post-antennal organ but the configuration of the pigment sometimes gives the appearance of one. Ventral tube long and bilobed, invested with a few short hairs. Abd. IV 6–7 times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claws with two large external lateral basal teeth, one to each side, a pair of prominent inner teeth, one on each side of the groove at about the middle of its length, a single large tooth at about three-quarters from base, and a smaller inner tooth between this and apex of claw. Empodial appendage three-quarters as long as claw, lanceolate. A single clavate tenent hair to each foot, about equal in length to claw.

Furcula: Reaching forward to prothorax, thickly clothed with moderately-long setae and scales. Manubrium to mucrodens as 32: 44. Each dens has a single row of simple spines extending from base to apex and increasing in length towards apex. Mucro short, with two blunt, unequal apical teeth and densely surrounded with short setae, some of which are finely ciliated. A large ventral scale-like plate at mucrodens joint, and dorsally two long ciliated spine-like setae of unequal length, the longer about three times as long as the mucro, the shorter about twice as long as the mucro.

Localities: In grass lawns and in soil at Karori, Wellington; Akatarawa, in bush soil; Awahuri, near Palmerston North, amongst the debris beneath kowhai trees; Lake Brunner, under bark of kahikatea trees.

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Type: Slide 3/199, Dominion Museum Collection.

Paronana pigmenta sp. nov. Plate 69, figs. 470–471.

Colour: Yellow, with a broad deep reddish-brown coloured stripe extending along sides of thorax and abdominal segments I, II and III. Posterior half of Abd. IV occupied by an irregular reddish-brown band, Abd. V dorsally a very dark reddish-brown. Head deep

– 402 –

reddish-brown except on ventral surface where it is yellow. Furcula and legs yellow, legs with narrow deep reddish-brown or violet bands. Antennae orange-coloured. Sometimes a trace of violet along ventral edge of Abd. IV.

Clothing: Similar to the preceding species, but much less dense.

Body: Length up to 3.3 mm. First antennal segment longer than head, and the four segments related as 35: 57: 35: 64. Head almost as long as thorax and Abd. IV is 7–10 times longer than Abd. III. Ocelli as in P. karoriensis.

Legs: Similar to P. karoriensis.

Furcula: Similar to P. karoriensis except that the two mucronal teeth are equal.

Localities: Arthur's Pass, in beech forest, 2,000 ft., east side of ranges; Lake Ianthe, among leaf debris in the forest; Tuatapere, Southland, in old log in the bush; Lake Roto-iti, South Island, in leaf debris in the forest.

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Type: Slide 3/869, Dominion Museum Collection.

Paronana dorsanota sp. nov. Plate 69, figs. 467–469.

Colour: Yellow, with continuous narrow dorsal dark brown or reddish-brown stripe running the entire length of the body. Abd. V and VI dark brown. A similar continuous dark brown stripe runs along the ventral surface expanding considerably on Abd. IV, after which it is broken. This ventral pigmentation may be considerably reduced in some specimens. Legs dark brown basally, otherwise bright orange-brown with slatey-blue tibio-tarsi. Furcula ochreous. Ant. I and II very bright orange-brown passing into violet on Ant. III and deep blue-violet on Ant. IV.

Clothing: A dense clothing of short ciliated setae. Dorsally, on head, thorax, and Abds. I and II are groups of extremely long flexed setae. On Abd. III, in the centre of Abd. IV, and posteriorly on Abds. IV and V are groups of very long, plain setae, some of which may be ciliated very finely towards their tips. Around extremity of abdomen are many ciliated setae. On legs, antennae, and furcula the short setae are ciliated, the longer ones plain.

Body: Length up to 3 mm. Antennae about one-third as long again as body, the four segments related as 15: 21: 14: 35. Ant. I related to head as 30: 27. Ocelli, eight to each side, the posterior inner two very small, remainder all large and equal. Abd. IV fourteen times as long as Abd. III. Ventral tube long and haired.

Legs: Claw typical, with a pair of inner teeth at centre and a single large distal tooth just beyond three-quarters. Two long outer basal teeth. Empodial appendage lanceolate and reaching to just beyond distal tooth. A single clavate tenent hair as long as claw to each foot. The clavate end is not so broad as in the preceding species of the genus.

– 403 –

Furcula: Reaching to beyond ventral tube. Manubrium to mucrodens as 35: 46. Dens with a single row of short stout spines for about two-thirds of its length, and heavily clothed with setae and scales. Mucro with blunt apical and sharper pre-apical tooth well back from the apex. Scale-like plate at apex of dens absent; but there is a long dorsal scale-like spine about twice as long as the mucro.

Localities: Mount Cargill, Dunedin, in leaf debris and under stones by a stream; Chaslands Bush, Otago, in leaf debris.

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Type: Slide 3/875, Dominion Museum Collection.

Paronana tasmasecta sp. nov. Plate 69, figs. 474–476.

Colour: In life, ochreous-grey with black markings. Mounted, pale yellow with deep blue pigment as follows:—Across front of head joining ocelli and antennal bases; across middle of head as a broad “V” between posterior boundaries of ocelli; around anterior margin of thorax and continuing as a longitudinal band along ventral edges of pleura to posterior border of Abd. IV. Broad transverse bands around posterior margins of Abds. III, IV and V. A central dorsal patch on Abd. IV and two lateral stripes running from the posterior dorsal around the sides to the mid-ventral of Abd. IV. Legs pale orange with deep blue bands. Furcula pale orange. Antennae orange with deep blue joints and Ant. IV entirely deep blue. There are small posterior dorsal patches of blue on the meso and metathorax and Abds. I and II. Ocelli on dark blue-black fields.

Clothing: A dense clothing of short ciliated setae, with dorsally on head, thorax and Abd. I many flexed setae. From the centre of Abd. IV backwards are groups of very long plain setae. The long setae around the tip of the abdomen are finely ciliated. The shorter setae of the antennae, legs, and furcula are ciliated, the longer ones are plain.

Body: Length up to 3.3 mm. Antennae about one-third as long again as body, the four segments in the proportion of 40: 53: 34: 64. Ant. I to head as 40: 34. Ocelli, eight to each side, the four outer ones large, the anterior inner two smaller, the posterior inner two very small. Ventral tube long and bearing numerous long curved setae. Abd. IV nine times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with long outer basal teeth and three large inner teeth, being a pair at two-thirds and a single tooth midway between this and apex. Empodial appendage narrow and lanceolate, reaching to distal tooth. A single broadly clavate tenent hair equal to claw in length to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching forward to prothorax. Manubrium to mucro-dens as 45: 56. Dens with a single row of stout spines for about half its length. Mucro with two blunt unequal teeth. Dens apically with a large ventral scale-like serrated plate and dorsally with a long scale like spine about two and a-half times the length of the mucro and projecting beyond it.

Locality: Tasman Glacier, under stones on the terminal and lateral moraine near where vegetation has commenced to grow.

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Type: Slide 3/881 and Figured Paratype: Slide 3/882, Dominion Museum Collection.

– 404 –

Paronana sufflava sp. nov. Plate 69, figs. 472–473.

Colour: Entirely pale yellow except for a narrow dorsal stripe of dark brown from posterior part of mesothorax to Abd. II, and a single small spot on each side of Abd. III.

Clothing: Dense clothing of short ciliated setae, with long plain setae on legs and antennae.

Body: Length up to 2.4 mm. Ocelli, eight to each side, the posterior inner two small but relatively not so small as in P. tasmasecta. The remaining six ocelli large but of varying size and irregular shape. Abd. IV ten times longer than Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with two long outer basal teeth and three inner teeth. A pair at centre and a large single tooth at three-quarters. Empodial appendage lanceolate, tapering gradually to a fine point and almost as long as claw. A strongly clavate tenent hair longer than claw to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching to mesothorax. Manubrium to mucrodens as 25: 35. Dens with a single row of stout simple spines running about half its length. Mucro with two blunt teeth, the pre-apical tooth nearer the apex than in tasmasecta. A very large ventral scale-like plate at apex of dens; but no sign on any of my specimens of the long scale-like spine present in other species of this genus. It is possible, however, that this may have been rubbed off.

Locality: Bench Island, Dunedin. Collected by Prof. Marples, of Dunedin.

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Type: Slide 3/886, Dominion Museum Collection.

Paronana maculosa (Salmon). Plate 68, fig. 466.

1937. Salina karoriensis var. maculosa Salmon.

Similar to P. karoriensis except in colour pattern and foot claws. Originally described as a variety of S. karoriensis; but I am now of the opinion that it is a definite species.

Colour: Ground colour of straw-yellow with irregular patches of violet or reddish-brown on head and along sides and dorsal surface of all segments, forming a more or less broken line along ventral edges of pleura and along dorsal surface. Legs banded and spotted with violet. Antennae brownish-orange with violet at joints and at apex. Furcula pale ochreous.

Body: Length seldom as long as P. karoriensis, 1.4–2.6 mm. Otherwise similar to karoriensis.

Claw: Similar to karoriensis, but relatively much smaller.

Furcula: As in karoriensis.

Localities: In open country, Karori, and in bush at Butterfly Creek, Wellington; Akatarawa, in bush soil; in debris under kowhai trees at Awahuri, near Palmerston North; in bush soil, Aratiatia Rapids; in bush soil, Mount Ngamoko, Lake Waikaremoana, at about 3,600 ft.

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Type: Slide 3/202, Dominion Museum Collection.

– 405 –

Paronana bidenticulata (Carpenter, 1925). Plate 69, figs. 477–479.

1936. Pseudoparonella bidenticulata Carpenter (Womersley).

1925. Paronella bidenticulata Carpenter.

Colour: Yellowish with irregular purplish markings along dorsal surface and on sides of abdomen, particularly Abd. IV. Antennae bluish. Hairs and scales brown.

Clothing: Clothed with numerous ciliated pointed scales and ciliated setae. Abdomen posteriorly with longer ciliated setae and fine sensory setae. Dens, Ant. I and Ant. II scaled.

Body: Length up to 3 mm. Antennae longer than body, the four segments related as 25: 35: 25: 58. Ant. IV annulated. Abd. IV five times longer than Abd. III. Ocelli, eight to each side, the anterior two smaller than the remainder.

Legs: Claw long and slender with three strong inner teeth, one pair at one-third and the other at two-thirds, and a pair of small outer teeth at about one-quarter down outer edge. A strong clavate tenent hair, slightly shorter than claw, to each foot. Empodial appendage lanceolate, about half as long as claw and with four small teeth on its outer edge about one-third down.

Furcula: Long and reaching to metathorax. Mucrodens to manubrium as 3: 2. A single row of simple spines running the length of the dens. Two scale-like lobes at apex of dens. Mucro with two unequal teeth.

Localities: Waiheke Island, Auckland, from a collection made by Mr. E. D. Pritchard; and Rakaia Gorge, Canterbury.

Paratype in the Canterbury Museum.

Genus Glacialoca nov.
Genotype: Glacialoca caerulea sp. nov.

I propose here a new genus for the reception of a peculiar species found on the moraine of the Franz Josef Glacier. The genus is closely related to Bromacanthus Schött, from which it differs in having a mucro with only two teeth.

Scaled species, the scales similar to Paronana, but narrower and somewhat more coarsely ciliated. Dens with at least one row of stout serrated spines. Mucro two toothed.

One species only of this genus is so far known.

Glacialoca caerulea sp. nov. Plate 67, figs. 453–455.

Colour: Blue, with an ochreous transverse band anteriorally on Abd. V and some ochreous colour showing through on the head. Antennae I and II blue, furcula yellow, basal leg segments yellow, distal blue, ocelli on black fields.

Clothing: Of short plain setae on body, short ciliated setae around tip of abdomen, short and long plain setae on legs, short ciliated setae on antennae, short ciliated setae and long plain setae on furcula.

Body: Length 2.5 mm. First antennal segment longer than head. Ant. I: II as 23: 35. Ocelli, eight to each side, the posterior

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inner two smaller than the remainder, which are large and equal. Ventral tube long and cylindrical. Abd. IV six and a-half times longer than Abd. III. Tergum of mesothorax completely covers prothorax.

Legs: Claw with two small outer lateral teeth at about one-quarter down; a pair of small inner teeth at one-quarter and a large single tooth at two-thirds. Empodial appendage narrow at base, widening and then becoming lanceolate and sharply pointed, reaching to distal tooth of claw. A single broadly-clavate tenent hair, slightly shorter than claw, to each foot.

Furcula: Manubrium to mucrodens as 29: 41. Dens with two irregular rows of short, stout, serrated spines for about half its length. Mucro with two blunt teeth, the apical much longer than the pre-apical.

Locality: Franz Josef Glacier, among bare stones of terminal moraine well removed from any vegetation.

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Type: Slide 3/887, Dominion Museum Collection.

Remarks: A rare insect difficult to catch. The above description is taken from the single specimen I was able to secure and which, unfortunately, has lost the distal segments of its antennae. Although I observed other specimens they got away among the loose stones.

Genus Parachaetoceras nov.
Genotype: Chaetoceras pritchardi (Womersley, 1936).

In his description of the species Chaetoceras pritchardi Womersley refers to the fact that the species differs from all known members of the genus in possessing well-developed dental spines, and, although placing it in the genus Chaetoceras, at the time he mentions that it may be necessary to erect a new genus for its reception, when more material has become available. I now have examined many specimens from all over the North Island, and, after studying Handschin's description of the genus Chaetoceras, I am definitely convinced that the New Zealand species requires the erection of a new genus for its reception. Accordingly, I propose the name Parachaetoceras for this new genus characterized by—Antennae over twice the length of the body and bearing ventrally many long setae which often are as long as or longer than a segment; dens with a single row of stout, simple spines. On the body are many long, narrow, flattened ciliated scale-like setae. Ant. IV annulated.

The genus differs from Chaetoceras Hand. in the possession of dental spines and the peculiar scale-like setae.

Parachaetoceras pritchardi (Womersley, 1936). Plate 67, figs. 456–460.

1936. Chaetoceras pritchardi Womersley.

Colour: Creamy-white to yellowish, with irregular patches of blue on sides of body and head. A dorsal, longitudinal brown stripe generally present. Legs and antennae blue to violet, ochreous at joints. Furcula yellow. Ocelli on black fields.

– 407 –

Clothing: With short, scale-like ciliated setae dorsally on thorax and abdomen. Numerous long ciliated setae on posterior part of abdomen and long flexed setae prominent on dorsal surface of head, thorax, and anterior portion of abdomen. On ventral surface of antennae and on legs are numerous very long simple setae. Furcula with many ciliated setae.

Body: Length up to 4.0 mm. Antennae about twice as long as body, the segments variable in length, but III is always shorter than IV. Ant. IV annulated. Ocelli, eight to each side, all large and equal. Abd. IV 4–5 times as long as Abd. III.

Legs: Claw with a pair of large outer lateral teeth and two inner teeth, one at about one-third and the other at two-thirds. Empodial appendage lanceolate, reaching to distal inner tooth of claw. A single clavate tenent hair as long as claw to each foot.

Furcula: Reaching forward to head. Dens half as long again as manubrium and bearing a single row of simple spines. Mucro indistinctly separated from dens and bidentate, the teeth approximately equal. The dens apically bears two long spine-like appendages which are easily rubbed off, but if absent the marks of their attachment can be plainly seen.

Localities: Originally reported by Womersley from among fallen leaves at Niger Bay, Hillsborough, Auckland, where it was collected by Mr. E. D. Pritchard. I now can add further localities which include Paiahia and the Bay of Islands, in debris under manuka scrub; Waipoua Kauri Forest and Trounson's Kauri Park, North Auckland, in leaf debris; Blue Lake, Rotorua, in leaf mould; throughout the Urewera Country, in leaf debris in the forests; Morere Springs, nikau forest, in leaf debris; Te Kuiti, in leaf debris; Lake Rotoma, Rotorua, in leaf debris.

Remarks: The peculiar scale-like setae found on this species are interesting as throwing some light on the possible means of evolution of the typical ribbed and striated Collembolan scale from the equally typical ciliated setae. In these long, narrow, flattened setae all the cilia have migrated to the surface, the outer surface, and by further enlargement, accompanied by a broadening of the setae and a fusion of the cilia, a structure similar to a Lepidosira scale could result. Further modification of the cilia structure could quite conceivably produce a ribbing such as is found in the scales of Lepidophorella, while reduction of the cilia structure could result in the formation of a hyaline scale such as is found in many Collembola. I suggest that it is along such lines that the scales of Collembola have developed.

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Hypotype: Slide 3/54, Dominion Museum Collection.

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Suborder Symphypleona Börner, 1901.
Family Neelidae Folsom, 1896.

Genus Megalothorax Willem, 1900.

Small species with body segmentation faintly indicated. Papillae present on the body. Dens two-segmented.

Only one species of this genus has so far been found in New Zealand.

Megalothorax swani (Womersley, 1932). Plate 70, figs. 480–483.

1932. Neelus swani Womersley.

Body: Small, up to 0.3 mm in length, whitish-yellow in colour, and sparsely clothed with short, simple setae. Head directed forwards. Antennae four-segmented, the apical segment with a number of stout, curved hairs. Between the antennal bases a pair, and further back another pair, of small papillae. Two pairs of dorsal papillae on the thorax, the anterior pair of which is large, and a further third pair posteriorly on the abdomen.

Legs: Claw with a pair of long lateral external teeth. No inner teeth. Empodial appendage about half as long as claw, lanceolate. Tenent hairs absent.

Furcula: Dens two-segmented and spined. Mucro long with fine serrations.

Locality: This Australian species was reported from New Zealand by Womersley in 1936, in leaf mould at Davies Bush, Manurewa, Auckland. It has not occurred elsewhere.

Sub-family Sminthuridinae Börner, 1906.
Tribe Katiannini Börner, 1913.

Genus Arrhopalites Börner, 1906.

Ocelli generally, but not always, reduced in number. Ant. IV subdivided. Ant. III generally with peg-like organ. Clavate tenent hairs absent. The dens dorsally and laterally with conical pegs.

This genus is represented in New Zealand by one endemic species.

Arrhopalites coccineus sp. nov. Plate 70, figs. 484–487.

Colour: In life, entirely a blackish-crimson to a bright crimson. Mounted, entirely a deep crimson-purple with occasional small blister-like markings on body, particularly on basal segments of legs.

Clothing: Sparsely clothed with moderately long plain setae.

Body: Length up to 0.85 mm. Antennae about as long as the head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 18: 25: 34: 61. Ant. IV with indistinct constrictions, not subdivided. Six large equal ocelli on each side on dark pigment patches.

Legs: Claw with prominent inner tooth at two-thirds and generally a small inner tooth at one-third. No outer teeth. Empodial appendage on front foot, slender, lanceolate, with sub-apical bristle curving inwards to tip of claw; on the other feet this appendage is more robust with an inner angle and with sub-apical bristle curving whip-like to, generally, beyond tip of claw. No tenent hairs.

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Furcula: Manubrium to dens to mucro as 20: 64: 27. Mucro tapering with terminal upturned blunt tooth and the lamellae with strong sharp tooth-like serrations. Dens ventrally with several extra long setae.

Locality: Karori, Wellington, on newly-dug ground.

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Type: Slide 3/965, Dominion Museum Collection.

Genus Sminthurinus Börner, 1901.

Abds. V and VI distinctly separated from remainder of body. Ant. IV unmodifed, simple. Ant. III generally with a wart-like structure. Ocelli, eight to each side. Claw with or without a tunica. Clavate tenent hairs present. Mucronal edges generally dissimilar.

Five species and one subspecies of this genus are at present known from New Zealand, of which two species and the subspecies are endemic.

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Key to the New Zealand Species of Sminthurinus.
1. Wart on Ant. III absent. Black species with golden-brown appendages. S. nigrafuscus sp. nov.
Wart on Ant. III present. 2
2. Wart on Ant. III dome-like, simple, without sub-divisions. Antennae one and a-half times as long as head. Claw with or without inner tooth.
(a) Entirely yellow species. S. aureus Lubbock
(b) Dorsal surface pigmented with violet to purple. S. aureus subsp. purpureus nov.
3. Wart on Ant. III subdivided into three sections. 4
4. Outer edge of the claw without a tunica or sheath having serrated edges. S. terrestris Womersley
Outer edge of the claw without any tunica. 5
5. Abdomen with laterally a large white ocellus-like marking. S. oculatus Schött
Abdomen with a large yellow hexagon surrounded by a wide circle of yellow markings. S. duplicatus sp. nov.

Sminthurinus nigrafuscus sp. nov. Plate 70, figs. 488–490.

Colour: In life and mounted, entirely black on body. Ant. I brownish-black but remainder of antennae golden-brown. Legs and furcula golden-brown.

Clothing: Very sparsely clothed with very short plain setae.

Body: Length up to 1.1 mm. Antennae slightly longer than head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 9: 13: 16: 31. Ant. IV apically with two small sensory knobs and 4–5 sense rods. Ant. III without wart-like organ. Ocelli, eight to each side, the central and adjacent inner ocellus very small.

Legs: Claw with one prominent inner tooth at about two-thirds. No outer tooth. Empodial appendage broad with inner angle and small blunt inner tooth at the angle. Terminal bristle curved and fairly short except on front feet where it is long and curved towards inner margin of claw. Empodial appendage of the front foot also is more slender and without inner tooth.

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Furcula: Manubrium: Mucrodens: mucro as 43: 57: 23. Mucro tapering with terminal blunt strongly-upturned tooth and smooth lamellae.

Locality: Karori, Wellington, on newly-dug ground.

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Type: Slide 3/960, Dominion Museum Collection.

Sminthurinus aureus Lubbock, 1862. Plate 70, figs. 491–494.

Colour: Yellow.

Clothing: Of moderately long simple setae.

Body: Length up to 1.0 mm. Ant. III with wart-like organ in basal third, simple without any subdivisions, and large. Ocelli, eight to each side, the central and the adjacent inner ocellus very much smaller than the rest.

Legs: Claw with a single inner tooth at about one-third. Empodial appendage broadly lamellate with long sub-apical bristle reaching to tip of claw. From three to five clavate tenent hairs shorter than claw to each foot.

Furcula: Dens three times length of mucro. Mucro tapering, with outer edge generally serrated.

Locality: In debris under manuka scrub at Paiahia, North Auckland.

Sminthurinus aureus subspecies purpureus nov.

In this subspecies the whole dorsal surface of the body, the vertex of the head, and a portion of the front of the head are pigmented with purple, showing through which are spots and streaks of yellow. The sides and anterior portion of the head, the whole of the undersurface of the body, the legs and furcula are yellow. Antennae purple becoming very dark towards apex.

Locality: Kelburn, Wellington, in a lawn. (Collected by Mr. D. K. Ross.)

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Type: Slide 3/991, Dominion Museum Collection.

Sminthurinus terrestris Womersley, 1932. Plate 70, fig. 495.

This species, which originally was described from South Africa and later from Australia, was recorded from New Zealand in 1936 by Womersley at Christchurch. It has not been found elsewhere.

Colour: Deep violet-black with appendages a little lighter.

Body: Length up to 1.5 mm. Antennae about one and a-half times as long as head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 3: 6: 8: 15. Ant. IV with apical knob, Ant. III with small wart-like organ which is three-segmented and in contact all round with cuticular granules.

Legs: Claw with an outer sheath, which is serrated on the edge, and a single inner tooth at about two-thirds. Empodial appendage with broad angular inner lamella and an apical bristle reaching to beyond the level of the claw tip. Three clavate tenent hairs half the length of the claw, to each foot.

Furcula: Dens: mucro as 11: 4. Mucro with inner edge finely serrated.

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Sminthurinus duplicatus sp. nov. Plate 70, figs. 496–499.

Colour: In life, dark, with light coloured appendages. Mounted, it has two distinct facies according to whether it is viewed by transmitted light or reflected light. In the former it is a deep black except for the lower half of the furcal segment, which is yellow; the head and antennae, which are brown with a black area between the ocellar fields; Abd. VI and the legs, which are orange-brown; and the furcula, which is pale orange. In reflected light the head, legs, furcula, the lower portion of the furcal segment, and Abd. VI are a bright golden orange. The ocellar fields are black and each is surrounded by a whitish-yellow area down the front of the head, with four regularly-spaced cogs on its inner edge. Remainder of body a dark greenish-grey to brownish-black, with occasional yellow spots. Posterio-laterally on abdomen is a large yellow hexagon surrounded by a wide circle of yellow marks.

Clothing: Very sparse and of short simple setae.

Body: Length 0.85 mm. Antennae about half as long again as head. Wart-like organ on Ant. III three-lobed, Ant. IV not subdivided. Ocelli, eight to each side, the central and adjacent inner ocellus small.

Legs: Claw with one inner tooth at just beyond centre. No outer teeth or tunica. Three clavate tenent hairs about half as long as the claw to each foot. Empodial appendage, with very broad angular inner lamella supplied with a spine at the angle, and a broad outer lamella. Apical bristle long and curved, reaching as far as tip of claw.

Furcula: Dens: mucro as 50: 23. Mucro long and tapering with small apical hook and outer edge finely serrated. Dens with a long apical ventral seta.

Locality: Kelburn, Wellington, in a lawn. (Collected by Mr. D. K. Ross:)

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Type: Slide 3/1000, Dominion Museum Collection.

Sminthurinus oculatus Schött, 1917.

This species, described originally from Queensland, Australia, was reported from New Zealand by Womersley in 1939 (Handbook Primitive Insects of South Australia). No precise locality is given by Womersley in his record, which simply states “a solitary specimen from New Zealand.”

The species structurally is similar to S. aureus, except that the wart on Ant. III is distinctly three-lobed. In colour it is yellowish to dark, the head with violet longitudinal and transverse streaks. The abdomen on each side with a large white ocellus having dark coloured edges.

Genus Katianna Börner, 1906.

Fairly large species having Ant. IV sub-divided and Ant. III with a distinct peg-like organ and long strong setae. Setae of head spine-like. Clavate tenent hairs present. Mucro with three unequal lamellae. Abd. III with three pairs of bothriotrichia. Abd. VI with one pair. Three species and one subspecies of this genus are known to occur in New Zealand.

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Key to The New Zealand Species of Katianna.
1. Claw with one inner tooth. 2
Claw with two inner teeth.
(a) Yellowish species with darker mottling. K. australis Womersley
(b) Olive-green species with yellow or lighter green spots K. australis subsp. tillyardi Womersley
2. Claw without tunica. Empodial appendage with inner lamella shorter than outer. Two tenent hairs to each foot. K. antennapartita sp. nov.
Claw with tunica. Inner and outer lamellae of empodial appendage equal in length. Three tenent hairs to each foot. K. purpuravirida sp. nov.

Katianna australis Womersley, 1932. Plate 71, figs. 507–509.

Colour: Yellowish-ochreous with darker mottling dorsally and laterally, terminal segments more yellow. Head with a dark area between the antennal bases and a further similar area on the front extending down to mouth. Antennae dark green, blackish-green apically. Legs and furcula yellow. Ocelli on black fields.

Clothing: Well-clothed with numerous strongly-curved setae.

Body: Length up to 1.75 mm. Antennae twice as long as head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 2: 5: 5: 11. Ant. IV subdivided into 4–6 sections and with numerous whorls of fine wavy hairs. Ant. III with a peg-like organ near middle. First three segments of antennae with long setae, of which the longest lie flat along the segments.

Legs: Claw long with two inner teeth, one at centre, the other near the tip. Empodial appendage with sub-apical bristle reaching to tip of claw and broad inner angular lamella supplied with two small teeth. Four or five clavate tenent hairs shorter than claw to each foot.

Furcula: Dens about 2 ½ times as long as mucro. Mucro with unequal lamellae, the inside lamellae with serrated margïn.

Locality: This common Australian species was reported from Brookby and Manurewa, Auckland, by Womersley, in 1936. It has not been found elsewhere.

Katianna australis subspecies tillyardi Womersley, 1932.

This differs from the principal form in being a uniform olive green colour with small yellow and lighter green coloured spots on the sides of the body, dorsally and on Abd. VI.

A specimen of this subspecies from Manurewa, Auckland (collected by Mr. E. D. Pritchard) was sent to me by Mr. Womersley, of Adelaide.

Katianna antennapartita sp. nov. Plate 71, figs. 503–506.

Colour: Legs and body ochreous suffused with violet, which is darker posteriorly and has a number of large circular ochreous-coloured marks showing through. Antennae ochreous on segments I and II, very dark brown on segments III and IV. Ocelli on black fields.

Clothing: Typical. Body with long stout setae and spine-like setae on top of head.

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Body: Length 0.6 mm. Cuticle distinctly granulated. Antennae one and one-third times as long as head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 3: 6: 8: 12. Ant. III with long stout setae on basal half. Ant. IV with particularly prominent subdivisions, making twelve distinct sections to the segment. Ocelli, eight to each side, six large and two small.

Legs: Claw with one small inner tooth just past half-way down; without tunica. Empodial appendage with bristle much longer than claw, outer lamella broad and long, inner lamella broad but short, truncated, only about half as long as outer and having a small spine at the angle. Two clavate tenent hairs as long as claw to each foot.

Furcula: Dens three times as long as mucro. Mucro with three lamellae, one completely serrated, one plain and the other with one tooth apically.

Locality: Akatarawa, amongst leaf debris in forest.

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Type: Slide 3/990, Dominion Museum Collection.

Katianna purpuravirida sp. nov. Plate 71, figs. 500–502.

Colour: Typically deep green with dorsally and laterally on larger part of body, an irregular mottling of bright purple, punctured with small yellow spots. Abd. VI yellow, head yellow, mottled with deep green on front and sides. Antennae dark purplish-brown. Legs green basally and dark brown distally. Furcula green basally, yellowish-brown distally. Ocelli on black patches. A broad green stripe down front of head. Sometimes the purple and the green pigment is more or less reduced when the specimen becomes more yellow.

Clothing: Dorsally and laterally with many long stout slightly curved setae. Similar but smaller setae on legs and antennae. Ant. III with 4–5 excessively long stout setae on basal half. On top of head are numerous shorter and stouter spine-like setae.

Body: Length 0.85 mm. Cuticle distinctly granulated. Antennae almost twice as long as head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 5: 8: 11: 24. Ant. III with peg-like organ. Ant. IV with 9–11 distinct annulations and apical exertile sac. Ocelli, eight to each side, the central and adjacent inner ocellus very small, remainder large and equal.

Legs: Claw with a single inner tooth at about two-thrids and external tunica. Empodial appendage almost as long as claw with broad inner and outer lamellae; the inner with three small teeth at its widest part. On front feet the empodial appendage bears a long curved sub-apical bristle. Three clavate tenent hairs a little longer than claw to each foot.

Furcula: The dens 3 ¾–4 times as long as mucro. Mucro with strongly recurved apical hook, one outer lamella prominently serrated, the other with a single tooth at the centre and the central lamella plain.

Locality: Awahuri, Palmerston North, amongst debris under kowhai trees and in pastures.

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Type: Slide 3/1004, Dominion Museum Collection.

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Genus Parakatianna Womersley, 1932.

General facies similar to Katianna. Peg-like sensory organ of Ant. III generally present. Clavate tenent hairs present. Spine-like setae of head and long setae of Ant. III absent.

To this genus, which up to the present has been known only from Australia and Macquarie Island, I now can add a further species from the New Zealand mainland.

Parakatianna hexagona sp. nov. Plate 71, figs. 510–514.

Colour: A basal body colour of yellow with greyish-green hexagonal-shaped pigment patches which coalesce to form two main areas of greyish-green pigment on each side. Dorsally, the pigment passes into transverse bands of a dark reddish-brown colour. There are five such bands on the anterior two-thirds of the body, and the posterior dorsal surface of the abdomen is irregularly marked with chains of reddish-brown hexagons. This hexagonal pattern is evident throughout all pigmentation on the body, including the head. Head greenish-grey with a yellow patch enclosing each dark brown ocellar field and antennal base. Antennae dark purplish-brown. Legs pale greenish-grey, furcula white.

Clothing: Sparsely clothed with short, gently curved simple setae. Posteriorly on Abds. V and VI large stout straight setae occur.

Body: Length 1.0 mm. Antennae about one and a-half times as long as head. Ant. III with sensory peg-like organ. Ant. IV subdivided into eleven distinct sections, of which the longer basal section has two further faint and incomplete annulations. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 7: 9: 19: 50. Ocelli, eight to each side, the anterior inner and three outer ones very large, the posterior inner two smaller, the inner central one smaller still and the central ocellus very small.

Legs: Claw long and curved with inner tooth near centre. No outer teeth. Empodial appendage with outer lamella and broad angular inner lamella supplied with a small spine. Apical bristle of empodial appendage long and wavy, considerably over-reaching tip of claw. Three clavate tenent hairs about equal in length to claw, to each foot.

Furcula: Dens two and a-half times as long as mucro. Mucro spoonlike with outer edge serrated.

Locality: Akatarawa Divide, in rotten log in the forest, 1,400 ft.

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Type: Slide 3/999, Dominion Museum Collection.

Sub-family Sminthurinae Börner, 1906.
Tribe Bourletiellini Börner, 1913.

Genus Bourletiella Banks, 1906.

Species with 2–3 clavate tenent hairs to each foot. Empodial appendage present or absent. Mucronal bristle absent.

Two species and one subspecies of this genus occur in New Zealand, of which the subspecies only is endemic.

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Key to The New Zealand Species of Bourletiella.
1. Colour entirely yellow, with both pairs of curved clasping spines on dorsal surface of the anal segment of male pointing posteriorly. B. arvalis Fitch
With posterior dorso-lateral portion of body violet pigmented and having a regular pattern of yellow spots B. arvalis subsp. dorsobscura nov.
2. Colour blue or slatey-blue, the pairs of clasping spines of male pointing in opposite directions. B. hortensis Fitch.

Bourletiella arvalis Fitch, 1863. Plate 72, figs. 517–518.

Colour: Body and legs entirely yellow. Antennae orange-brown, furcula pale yellow.

Clothing: Of stout, gently curved, simple setae.

Body: Length up to 1.5 mm. Antennae four-segmented, with fourth segment subdivided into seven sections, being a basal very long section, five equal smaller sections, and a long terminal section not so long as the basal. Ocelli, eight to each side, on black fields. The central and inner adjacent ocelli smaller than the rest. Curved clasping spines of male on dorsal aspect of Abd. VI pointing posteriorly.

Legs: Claw with two exterior lateral teeth and one inner tooth at about one-third. Empodial appendage about two-thirds as long as claw, and lamellate. Three long clavate tenent hairs (sometimes reduced to two) to each foot, longer than claw.

Furcula: Dens three times as long as mucro. Mucro spoon-like without teeth or serrations.

Localities: First reported from Clevedon, Auckland, by Womersley in 1936. I can now record it from Lake Waikaremoana, amongst rushes in a swamp on the edge of the lake; Lake Wanaka, under stones on a hillside by the lake; Awahuri, Palmerston North, in debris under kowhai trees.

Subspecies dorsobscura nov. Plate 71, figs. 515–516.

This subspecies differs from the typical form in that the hinder dorso-lateral part of the fused portion of the body is pigmented with deep violet which generally has a regular pattern of small yellow spots showing through.

Locality: On the sea coast near Thames, Coromandel Peninsula, amongst grass. Very common.

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Type: Slide 3/1001, Dominion Museum Collection.

Bourletiella hortensis Fitch, 1863. Plate 72, fig. 519.

Colour: Dark blue to slatey-blue. Ocelli on black fields.

Body: Similar to B. arvalis except that curved clasping spines of male point in opposite directions.

Legs: Claw with two exterior lateral distal deeth and one inner tooth at two-thirds. Empodial appendage and tenent hairs as in B. arvalis.

Furcula: Dens two and a-half times as long as mucro. Mucro as in B. arvalis.

– 416 –

Localities: First recorded in New Zealand from Lincoln College farm by Carpenter in 1925, and later from Christchurch, attacking strawberries, by Womersley in 1936. I have found it in large numbers amongst grass on the coast immediately north of Thames, Coromandel Peninsula.

Genus Deuterosminthurus Börner, 1901.

Antennae bent between segments III and IV. 2–3 clavate tenent hairs to each foot. Empodial appendage present and normal in structure. No swellings or prominences dorsally on abdomen.

Represented in New Zealand by one species, which is exotic.

Deuterosmithurus bicinctus subspecies repandus Agren, 1903. Plate 72, fig. 520.

This subspecies was reported from New Zealand by Womersley in 1936 from Christchurch. It has also occurred amongst rushes on the edge of Lake Waikaremoana.

Colour: Entirely yellow with ocellar patches black. Antennae brownish apically.

Clothing: Of fine, simple setae.

Body: Length up to 1.2 mm. and saddle-shaped. Ant. IV with five definite annulations and two basal and three distal whorls of hairs. Ant. IV with terminal knob. Ocelli, eight to each side. Abdomen with a transverse depression behind the middle, giving it a saddle shape.

Legs: Claw with inner tooth present or absent. Empodial appendage needle-like without any lamellae, 2–3 clavate tenent hairs to each foot.

Furcula: Dens two and a-half times as long as mucro. Mucro spoon-shaped without serrations.

Genus Corynephoria Absolon, 1907.

Generally with swellings or prominences on dorsal surface of body. Empodial appendage represented as an accessory fine clavate seta.

This remarkable genus is represented in New Zealand by one endemic species.

Corynephoria gibbera sp. nov. Plate 72, figs. 521–523.

Colour: Entirely yellow with ocelli on black fields, and irregular dark brown or black markings.

Clothing: Sparsely clothed with short plain setae except posteriorly on Abds. V and VI, where there are numerous long stout setae.

Body: Length 0.6 mm. Antennae about half as long again as head. Ant. IV subdivided into nine sections. Ocelli, eight to each side, the central or inner ocellus very small. Abdomen posteriorly and dorsally with a large dome-like swelling or hump which is supplied with gently-curved setae. A smaller hump dorsally on thorax also.

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Legs: Claw with a strong inner tooth at two-thirds, no outer teeth. Empodial appendage represented by a very fine seta not reaching to tooth of claw. I cannot be certain whether this seta is clavate but if so the clavate end is exceedingly minute. This seta also is protected by a very long heavily clavate tenent hair which is longer than the claw. There are as well three normally placed heavily clavate but distinctly shorter tenent hairs to each foot.

Furcula: Dens three times as long as mucro. Mucro long and tapering, upturned slightly at tip, granular and with a broad granulate inner lamella. Dens apically with a prominent ventral seta.

Locality: Newbury, Palmerston North, in soil by a stream. From a collection kindly sent to me by Mr. D. K. Ross.

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Type: Slide 3/988, Dominion Museum Collection.

Tribe Sminthurini Börner, 1913.
Genus Sphyrotheca Börner, 1906.

Antennae bent between segments III and IV. Ant. IV sub-divided. Setae of Ant. III approximately equal. Mucronal bristle absent. Claw with tunica. Clavate tenent hairs absent.

Represented in New Zealand by one species, which is endemic.

Sphyrotheca magnasetacea sp. nov. Plate 72, figs. 524–526.

Colour: Pale greenish-yellow, mottled all over with violet and purple pigment.

Clothing: Sparsely clothed with short plain setae and numerous short more or less clavate setae posteriorly on Abds. V and VI.

Body: Length 0.6 mm. Antennae about half as long again as head. Ant. IV subdivided into twelve sections and bearing many long setae, the longest and stoutest on the body. These become longer and more numerous towards apex. Apically a large “loop-like” organ with the appearance of a piece of stout wire bent around into a loop. Peg-like organ on Ant. III absent. Ocelli not on ocellar fields, unpigmented, grouped on hinder edge of head, and reduced in number, with three to each side; small and difficult to distinguish. Walls of ventral tube itself as well as filaments distinctly warted.

Legs: Claw very long with external basal tunica and prominent pair of inner teeth at about one-third. Empodial appendage about two-thirds as long as claw, curved, with broad inner lamella but no apical bristle. Tenent hairs absent.

Furcula: Dens to mucro as 21: 9. Dens with numerous stout spines, there being a particularly large stout spine on each side of the apex. Mucro elongate and tapering and slightly upturned apically; serrated on both edges.

Locality: Lower Hollyford Valley, under bark of beech trees.

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Type: Slide 3/1002, Dominion Museum Collection.

Remarks: Although I saw quite a number of these insects on beech trees in the Hollyford Valley, I found them exceedingly difficult to catch, and secured only the type specimen. They are easily recognised in life by their bright bluish colour. They appear to be a definitely bark-inhabiting species.

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Genus Sminthurus Latreille, 1804.

Ant. III with 4–5 strong setae much longer, stronger and stouter than the rest. Mucronal bristle present or absent. Tenent hairs present or absent. If present not overhanging claw but standing out at an angle from tibio-tarsus. Claw with or without a tunica. Dorsal gland openings of furcal segment absent.

Represented in New Zealand by the European S. viridis, which probably has been introduced into this country, and the Australian species S. denisi.

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Key to The New Zealand Species of Sminthurus.
1. Greenish species. Claw with tunica and two inner teeth. S. viridis Linné
2. Yellowish species. Claw with tunica and one inner tooth. S. denisi Womersley

Sminthurus viridis Linné, 1758. Plate 72, figs. 527–528.

Colour: Greenish-yellow to green, with light to dark brown markings on abdomen. Antennae apically brownish to reddish.

Clothing: Dorsal setae long and simple.

Body: Length up to 3.0 mm. Antennae about twice as long as head. Ant. IV with up to twenty whorls of hairs. Ocelli, eight to each side, on black patches.

Legs: Claw with a well-developed tunica and two inner teeth, one at a-third, the other at two-thirds. Empodial appendage narrow with long apical bristle over-reaching tip of claw and distinctly recurved at its apex. No tenent hairs.

Furcula: Mucro simple with basal bristle.

Localities: Awahuri, Palmerston North, and throughout the Manawatu district; Hawke's Bay, South Canterbury, and Otago in pastures; also at Pokeno and Maraekakaho.

Sminthurus denisi Womersley, 1932. Plate 72, figs. 529–530.

Colour: Yellow, with brown motting and a white medio-dorsal stripe.

Clothing: Numerous long stout simple setae.

Body: Length up to 2.0 mm. Antennae longer than body, the fourth segment with eighteen subdivisions. Ocelli, eight to each side on black patches.

Legs: Claw with outer tunica and one inner tooth just past centre. Empodial appendage with narrow inner lamella and long straight apical bristle reaching to level of tip of claw. Tenent hairs absent.

Furcula: Dens two and a-half times as long as mucro. Mucro with strongly toothed inner lamella and basal bristle.

Locality: This Australian species has been reported from Manurewa, Auckland (Womersley, 1936). It has not been found elsewhere.

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Sub-family Dicyrtomine Börner, 1906.

Genus Dicyrtomina Börner, 1906.

Antennae bent between segments II and III. Subdivisions on Ant. III and IV present or absent.

Represented in New Zealand by two species, one of which is endemic and the other exotic.

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Key to The New Zealand Species lOf Dicyrtomina.
1. Empodial appendage with spine on inner lamella.
Mucro serrated on inner and outer margins. D. nova-zealandica sp. nov.
2. Empodial appendage without spine on inner lamella. Mucro serrated on inner margin only. D. minuta Fabr.

Dicyrtomina nova-zealandica sp. nov. Plate 72, figs. 531–533.

Colour: Ochreous-brown having laterally on head and body large patches of violet with long depigmented streaks, spots and circles. Legs pale violet, furcula yellow. Antennae brown on I and II, purple on III and IV.

Clothing: Sparsely clothed with moderately long simple setae and with longer dorsal setae on anal and genital segments. Setae on head are rather spine-like as in the genus Katianna. Antennae well-clothed with relatively long setae.

Body: Length up to 1.4 mm. Antennae almost twice as long as head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 7: 25: 30: 7. Ant. IV with terminal retractile knob. Antennal segments II, III and IV all with prominent warts and tuberculate out-growths. Ocelli, eight to each side, equal, on black pigment patches.

Legs: Claw with outer tunica and one prominent inner tooth at one-third. Empodial appendage with broad inner lamella bering a strong spine, and a narrower outer lamella. Sub-apical terminal bristle long and wavy, very much over-reaching tip of claw.

Furcula: Dens two and a-half times length of mucro. Mucro with two prominently and completely serrated lamellae. Setae of dens plain.

Localities: South of Bullock Creek, South Westland, amongst leaf debris in native forest. Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland, in leaf mould. (Coll. by E. D. Pritchard.)

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Type: Slide 3/995, Dominion Museum Collection.

Dicyrtomina minuta Fabricius, 1873. Plate 72, fig. 534.

Colour: Yellow, with a square black patch posteriorly. Ocelli on black patches. Antennae darker towards the apex.

Body: Length 1.2 mm. Ocelli, eight to each side. Antennae about twice as long as the head.

Legs: Claw with tunica and prominent inner tooth at centre. Empodial appendage with long sub-apical bristle reaching to the tip of the claw.

Furcula: Dens two and a-half times as long as the mucro and without serrated setae. Mucro with the inner margin only serrated.

Locality: Reported from Brookby, Manurewa Auckland, in 1936, by Womersley, and not found elsewhere since.

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Distribution And Affinities Of The New Zealand Collembola.

Although the present paper does not record what might finally be termed the total Collembolan Fauna of New Zealand, it does raise the level of the knowledge of that fauna to a stage where some observations upon the possible derivation and distribution of the New Zealand Collembola can with advantage be made.

In a country so long isolated geologically, and in its virgin state with the greater part of the land covered by luxurious forests, enjoying an abundant rainfall and temperate climate, upon investigation one would expect to find a large and highly specialized Collembolan Fauna. Such has proved to be the case, but taking into consideration the relatively small size of New Zealand the results of this investigation have exceeded all expections.

Of the 185 species and 26 subspecies contained in the 62 genera now known from New Zealand, only 44 species and 6 subspecies are known to occur outside New Zealand, that is, roughly 23 per cent. of the Collembolan Fauna may be regarded as exotic in origin. In the remaining 77 per cent. which constitutes the indigenous fauna, no less than 12 of the genera are known only from New Zealand, and four are found in only New Zealand and Australia. Regarding the 44 exotic species, the question arises as to whether or not these are introductions to this country, brought here since European settlement began, or whether they were here prior to this data and although found in other parts of the world really are indigenous to New Zealand.

There has been in the past, I think, a tendency when investigating the origin of faunas of southern lands to regard species found therein which previously have been recorded from the Northern Hemisphere, particularly from Europe, as introductions to that land brought by human agency. In many cases this may be correct; but I am inclined to the view that in regard to the Collembola this may not always be so; and in the case of the New Zealand Collembola strong evidence exists to support my view. That the Collembola are very archaic group of insects there can be no doubt. The fossil Collembolan Rhyniella praecursor Hirst and Maulik, from the Middle Devonian of Scotland does not differ markedly from existing forms. It seems quite reasonable, therefore, to suppose that many of the more primitive groups of the Collembola attained an almost cosmopolitan distribution in very early geological time and that the present remarkable distribution of some species in what are now widely-separated land masses occurred before the factor of human agency entered into the picture.

That Collembola can be transported from one country to another by human agency there is no doubt. Such introductions generally multiply and spread at an abnormal rate, a fact that usually is taken as sound evidence that the particular insect has been so introduced. In New Zealand the Lucerne Flea Sminthurus viridis Linné has been so introduced into the Manawatu and Hawke's Bay districts, and to several areas of the South Island. Such rapid increase of a

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Collembolan species usually is observed to occur in cultivated districts and may arise from the secondary introduction of an indigenous species. The true test of whether a Collembolan species is indigenous or not comes when a detailed study is made of its distribution throughout the country; and it is upon these latter grounds that I base my views regarding several cosmopolitan species occurring in New Zealand.

New Zealand has been settled by Europeans for only a short space of time, and I find it difficult, if not impossible, to believe that such small insects with such a limited means of migration as the Collembola could in that short space of time spread so completely throughout the virgin forest and mountain districts of this country as have many of these so-called exotic species. Rather do I incline to the view that many of these species are part of our indigenous Collembolan fauna, having reached here from the north long before the last northern land connection of New Zealand was severed. In this category I would place the following cosmopolitan species occurring in New Zealand:—Achorutes armatus, Achorutes pseudopur-purascens, Achorutes viaticus, Neanura muscorum, Onychiurus armatus, Onychiurus fimetarius. The Australian species Lepidosira coerulea for the same reasons I would place amongst our indigenous species. It is difficult also to explain the occurrence of Mesaphorura krausbaueri in such a place as the Hollyford Valley, or of Entomobrya multifaciata, Entomobrya lamingtonensis, and Entomobrya nivalis deep in tracts of virgin bush country throughout New Zealand other than on the assumption that they are indigenous forms. Of the remaining exotic species a number of them have been so far recorded from only one locality, and it is probalble, though by no means certain, that the majority are introductions brought about by human agency. The species Lepidophorella australis and Lepidophorella brachycephala, though often referred to as Australian, were originally described from New Zealand material and are definitely indigenous species. If my views as expressed above are correct, then the non-indigenous portion of the New Zealand Collembolan fauna is reduced to about 18 per cent. of the whole.

Summarising, it may be stated that the Collembolan Fauna of New Zealand is relatively very extensive; that it contains a high proportion of indigenous forms, and that, due to the long geological isolation of this country, a large proportion of the genera are peculiar and not found elsewhere.

Of the distribution of the fauna within New Zealand itself there is little of note to be recorded. The majority of the genera are found in both the North and South Islands, though many of the species are restricted to certain localities. A few genera are restricted to one or other of the Islands, the genus Parchaetoceras in this respect being rather remarkable. Parachaetocras pritchardi Womersley is particularly common in the North Island, but is not found at all in the South Island. Almost any area of native forest will be found to abound with Collembola, with the exception, perhaps, of the kauri forests where Collembola do not appear to be so common as elsewhere. They occur in leaf mould and other forest debris; but the numbers

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occurring under the bark of trees is rather remarkable. In the wet rain forests of the West Coast of the South Island Collembola are more abundant than anywhere else in New Zealand.

All families and sub-families except the Poduridae, Actaletinae, Oncopodurinae and Cyphoderinae are represented in New Zealand. The absence of the Cyphoderinae is peculiar; but it is still possible that species of Cyphoderus may yet be found in New Zealand. The extraordinary and extensive occurrence of the genus Entomobrya is remarkable, New Zealand having the largest number of species belonging to this genus of any country in the world. The genus Lepidosira, originally described from Australia, finds its fullest development in this country; and the extensive development of the allied genera Urewera and Lepidocyrtus account for a further seventeen of the described species.

In discussions on the relationships of the New Zealand flora and fauna considerable emphasis generally is laid upon the relationship between this country and South America; but in the case of the Collembola this relationship is very weak compared with the relationship that exists between New Zealand and Australia. Among these New Zealand genera which are not peculiar to New Zealand, the strongest affinities are with Australia and countries north of Australia; and it is from this direction that I believe the majority of our Collembola have come.

In considering the relationships of the New Zealand fauna it is advisable to include those outlying islands which from part of the New Zealand region as a whole. I refer particularly to the subantarctic islands of New Zealand; for it is through these islands that we find a very interesting relationship existing among the Collembola, of which three sub-antarctic genera are represented in New Zealand. New Zealand proper possesses three species of Tricanthella, and one further species is found on Campbell Island. One of these species, T. alba Carpenter, is endemic to Campbell Island, and another, T. rosea Wahlgren, is found in Tierra del Fuego as well as in New Zealand proper. There is one species belonging to the genus Triacanthella in Patagonia and one in Australia. The genus Dinaphorura has one species in the Antarctic, one in South Australia, and two in New Zealand. Cryptopygus, a genus originally described from Antarctica, is now known to occur in the sub-antarctic region of South America, Australia, and New Zealand. Six species of Cryptopygus occur in the sub-antarctic, three in Australia (one being in Tasmania), and six in New Zealand. Of the Australian and New Zealand species, C. loftyensis Womersley, is common to both countries.

It is obvious, therefore, that a degree of relationship exists between the Collembolan fauna of Patagonia, Australia, and New Zealand through the sub-antarctic regions, and with the superabundance of species in New Zealand belonging to all three of these sub-antarctic genera it does not seem unreasonable to suppose that the direct route to the sub-antarctic was via the New Zealand region.

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If we turn now to the Neotropical region we find that the relationship so often emphasised between the faunas and floras of New Zealand and South America is, by comparison, remarkably weak in the case of the Collembola, that is in so far as the Collembola of South America are at present known. The genera Ceratrimeria, Lepidophorella, Lepidocyrtus, Katianna and Tomocerura have endemic species in both regions. The former genus with four species in the neotropical region together with Tomocerura and Lepidophorella form the strongest link between this region and New Zealand.

With the Australian and Indo-Malayan regions the New Zealand region shows the most remarkable and extensive affinities. The genus Ceratrimeria ranges throughout these regions with a total of ten species of which five are endemic to New Zealand, three are Australian, one is found in Java, one in the Philippines, and one in India.

The genus Pseudachorutes has endemic species in New Zealand and Australia, while Neanura is similarly represented in this country, Australia, and Java with several of the Australian and New Zealand species common to both countries.

The genus Lepidosira first described from Australia by Schött in 1917 and represented there by four species has one species in Borneo and eleven species in New Zealand.

The genera Acanthomurus and Proisotomurus, each known from only one species in Australia, are each represented in New Zealand by three species.

The relationship between Australia and New Zealand through the three genera Triacanthella, Dinaphorura, and Cryptopygus already has been mentioned. Other genera through which New Zealand shows affinities with the Australian and Indo-Malayan regions are:—

Isotomurus with I. chiltoni common to Australia and New Zealand.

Isotoma with endemic species in New Zealand, Australia, Sumatra and India.

Lepidophorella with two species common to Australia and New Zealand and three further species and a subspecies endemic to New Zealand.

Tomocerus with endemic species in New Zealand, Australia, and Sumatra.

Entomobrya. Although a cosmopolitan genus, there are 19 species in New Zealand of which 15 are endemic and endemic species are known from Australia, New Guinea, Java, and India.

Sinella with Sinella termitum in Australia and New Zealand.

Mesira with one endemic species in New Zealand and species in Australia, Java, and Sumatra, one of which is found in all three latter countries.

Lepidocyrtus with seven species and one variety in New Zealand one of which, L. nigrofasciatus, is found in Australia, and further endemic species in Australia, New Guinea, Java, and Malay.

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Pseudosinella with at least three endemic species in New Zealand, one species, P. fasciata, which is common to both Australia and New Zealand.

Paronana represented in New Zealand by seven species, of which one species, P. bidenticulata occurs also in Australia.

Megalothorax with two species in Australia, one of which, M. swani, ranges to New Zealand.

Katianna and Corynephoria with endemic species in New Zealand, Australia, and Java.

Parakatianna, an essentially Australian and New Zealand genus with one endemic species in New Zealand, one found only on Macquarie Island and nine species in Australia.

With the African region, New Zealand does not show very marked affinities; but the genera Ceratrimeria, Polyacanthella, and Brachystomella have endemic species in both these regions.

Relationship between New Zealand and the Nearctic region also exists, there being endemic species belonging to several cosmopolitan genera in both regions, in addition to one or two remarkable occurrences such as that of Isotoma maritima, which has been found in northern New Zealand; the close relationship of the New Zealand species Entomobrya saxatila with Entomobrya marginata and Entomobrya griseo-olivata of North America and the occurrence in New Zealand and Australia of two remarkable varieties of the North American species E. clitellaria, these being E. clitellaria newmani Womersley and E. clitellaria australasiae var. nov.

Summarising further we find that the Collembolan fauna of the New Zealand region contains a very ancient cosmopolitan element represented by the genera Achorutes, Neanura and Onychiurus. There is an exceptionally strong affinity, firstly, with the Australian and, secondly, with the Indo-Malayan regions; there is a well-marked sub-antarctic element, and a few, but nevertheless, important and striking affinities with the American and African regions have been shown.

In postulating as to how and by what routes the basic element of our Collembolan fauna reached New Zealand from a study of the foregoing affinities, three points must be borne in mind; firstly, the generally accepted southward migration of living forms from the northern land masses to the southern; secondly, the possible land bridges along which such migrations could have taken place, and thirdly, the possibility of reversals of the direction of migration at certain periods.

With the preponderance of affinity of the New Zealand fauna with that of Australia and Indo-Malaya, it seems highly probable that the bulk of our Collembolan fauna reached this region by land bridges, from time to time connecting New Zealand to Northern Australia and the islands north of it, and extending towards Malaya.

That there may have been a reversal of migration from New Zealand over these bridges to Australia from time to time cannot

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Figs. 1–3—Triacanthella setacea n.sp. Page 289. Fig. 1—Whole insect X 150. Fig. 2—Anal spines from side. Fig. 3—Dorsal seta.
Figs. 4–7—Triacanthella rubra n.sp. Page 288. Fig. 4—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 5—Ocelli and postantennal organ in relation to base of antennae. Fig. 6— Foot. Fig. 7—Anal spines from side.
Figs 8–12—Xenylla nova-zealandia n.sp. Page 287. Fig. 8—Foot. Fig. 9—Mucro and tip of dens. Fig. 10—Antenna. Fig. 11—Ocelli. Fig. 12—Anal spines from above.
Fig. 13—Triacanthella alba Carp. Page 288. Ocelli and postantennal organ.

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Figs. 14–18—Xenylla mantima Tullb. Page 287. Fig. 14—Sensory organ and apex of Ant. IV. Fig. 15—Anal spines from above. Fig. 16—Ocelli. Fig. 17—Foot. Fig. 18—Tip of manubrium and mucrodens.
Figs. 19–20—Achorutes longispinus Tullb. Page 291. Fig. 19—Anal spines from above.
Fig. 20—Hind foot drawn to same scale as anal spines.
Figs. 21–24—Achorutes manubrialis Tullb. Page 294. Fig. 21—Abd. VI and anal spine from side. Fig. 22—Anterior ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 23—Mucro. Fig. 24—Foot.
Figs. 25–28—Achorutes campbelli (Wom.). Page 292. Fig. 25—Anal spine from side.
Fig. 26—Dens and mucro. Fig. 27—Sensory organ on Ant. III. Fig. 28—Sensory organ and apex of Ant. IV.

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Figs. 29–34—Achorutes morbillatus n.sp. Page 292. Fig. 29—Ocelli and postantennal organ.
Fig. 30—Whole insect X 36. Fig. 31—Mucro. Fig. 32—Anal spine from side. Fig. 33—Sensory organ and apex of Ant. IV. Fig. 34—Foot.
Figs. 35–38—Achorutes armatus Nic. Page 290. Fig. 35—Sensory sac on Ant. III.
Fig. 36—Anal spine from side. Fig. 37—Mucro. Fig. 38—Foot.
Figs. 39–41—Achorutes rossi n.sp. Page 293. Fig. 39—Mucro. Fig. 40—Foot. Fig. 41—Anal spine from side.
Figs. 42–43—Achorutes viaticus Tullb. Page 292. Fig. 42—Mucro. Fig. 43—Foot.
Figs. 44–45—Achorutes pseudopurpurascens (Wom.). Page 291. Fig. 44—Anal spine from side. Fig. 45—Sensory organ and apex of Ant. IV.

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Figs. 46–49—Achorutes omnigrus n.sp. Page 294. Fig. 46—Foot. Fig. 47—Anal spines from above. Fig. 48—Apex of Ant. IV. Fig. 49—Mucro.
Figs. 50–52—Schotella subcorta n.sp. Page 295. Fig. 50—Sensory organ and apex of Ant. IV. Fig. 51—Mucro. Fig. 52—Foot.
Figs. 53–57—Polyacanthella proprieta n.sp. Page 296. Fig. 53—Enlarged view of edge of segment showing anal spine. Fig. 54—Tip of abdomen showing positions of anal spines (spines enlarged out of proportion). Fig. 55—Ocelli. Fig. 50—Foot. Fig. 57—Dorsal aspect X 50.
Figs. 58–60—Polyacanthella parva Wom. Page 296. Fig. 58—Foot. Fig. 59—Sensory organ on Ant. III. Fig. 60—Anal spines from above.

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Figs. 61–65—Odontella minutadentata n.sp. Page 297. Fig. 61—Dorsal aspect X 66. Fig. 62—Foot. Fig. 63—Anal spines from above. Fig. 64—Ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 65—Mucro.
Figs. 66–68—Odontella minutissima n.sp. Page 297. Fig. 66—Dorsal aspect X 132. Fig. 67—Anal spines from above. Fig. 68—Apex of Ant. IV.
Figs. 69–72—Micranurida decussa n.sp. Page 298. Fig. 69—Ocelli and postantennal organ.
Fig. 70—Foot. Fig. 71—Mucro. Fig. 72—Dorsal aspect X 27.

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Figs 73–75—Ceratrimeria lata (Carp.). Page 301. Fig. 73—Dorsal aspect X 15. Fig. 74—Ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 75—Foot.
Figs 76–77—Ceratrimeria spinosa (Lubb.). Page 299. Fig. 76—Foot. Fig. 77—Dorsal aspect X 8.
Figs. 78–80—Ceratrimeria marplesi n.sp. Page 301. Fig. 78—Mucro. Fig. 79—Dorsal aspect X 18. Fig. 80—Ocelli and postantennal organ.
Fig. 81—Ceratrimeria paucispinosa n.sp. Page 300. Dorsal aspect X 18.

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Figs. 82–83—Ceratrimeria pancispinosa n.sp. Page 300. Fig. 82—Apex of Ant. IV. Fig. 83—Foot.
Fig. 84—Ceratrimeria marplesi n.sp. Page 301. Foot.
Figs. 85–87—Ceratrimeria novae-zealandiae (Wom). Page 302. Fig. 85—Foot. Fig. 86—Ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 87—Dens and mucro.
Figs. 88–90—Brachystomella osextara n.sp. Page 303. Fig. 88—Dorsal aspect X 30.
Fig. 89—Foot. Fig. 90—Mucro, ventral aspect.
Figs. 91–93—Brachystomella parvula Schaeff. Page 302. Fig. 91—Anterior ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 92—Mucro. Fig. 93—Foot.
Figs. 94–96—Pseudachorutes pacificus Wom. Page 304. Fig. 94—Ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 95—Foot. Fig. 96—Tip of dens and mucro.

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Figs. 97–99—Pseudachorutes algidensis Carp. Page 304. Fig. 97—Foot. Fig. 98—Mucro.
Fig. 99—Ocelli and postantennal organ.
Figs. 100–103—Pseudachorutes brunneus Carp. Page 304. Fig. 100—Foot. Fig. 101—Whole insect X 24. Fig. 102—Mucro. Fig. 103—Ocelli and postantennal organ.
Figs. 104–105—Neanura muscorum Templ. Page 306. Fig. 104—Dorsal aspect X 40. Fig. 105—Ocelli.
Figs 106–108—Neanura newmani (Wom.). Page 306. Fig. 106—Ocelli. Fig. 107—Foot.
Fig. 108—Dorsal seta.
Figs. 109–111—Neanura hirtella subsp. schötti (Wom.). Page 307. Fig. 109—Dorsal seta.
Fig. 110—Ocelli. Fig. 111—Tip of Ant. IV.
Figs. 112–113—Neanura hirtella subsp. cirrata (Schött). Page 307. Fig. 112—Dorsal seta.
Fig. 113—Dorsal seta.
Figs. 114–116—Neanura hirtella subsp. novae-zealandiae n.subsp. Page 307. Fig. 114—Dorsal seta. Fig. 115—Tip of Ant. IV. Fig. 116—Foot.

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Figs. 117–120—Neanura radiata n.sp. Page 308. Fig. 117—Dorsal aspect X 33. Fig. 118—Foot. Fig. 119—Ocelli. Fig. 120—Dorsal seta.
Fig. 121—Neanura rosacea (Schött). Page 306. Ocelli.
Figs. 122–126—Onychiurus armatus Tullb. Page 309. Fig. 122—Sensory organ on Ant. III. Fig. 123—Postantennal organ. Fig. 124—Foot. Fig. 125—Dorsal aspect showing pseudocelli (legs obscured) X 33. Fig. 126—Anal spine.
Figs. 127–130—Onychiurus fimetarius Linné. Page 310. Fig. 127—Postantennal organ.
Fig. 128—Foot. Fig. 129—Sensory organ on Ant. III. Fig. 130—Dorsal aspect showing pseudocelli (legs obscured) X 30.

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Fig. 131—Dinaphorura novae-zealandiae Wom. Page 310. Anal spines from above.
Figs. 132–136—Dinaphorura laterospina n.sp. Page 311. Fig. 132—Side view showing pseudocelli X 63. Fig. 133—Foot. Fig. 134—Abd. VI and anal spines, side view. Fig. 135—Ant. IV showing sense organs. Fig. 136—Sense organ from centre of Ant. IV.
Figs. 137–138—Mesaphorura krausbaueri Born. Page 311. Fig. 137—Sense organ from Ant. III. Fig. 138—Anal spine from side.
Figs. 139–142—Cryptopygus okukcnsis n.sp. Page 313. Fig. 139—Ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 140—Mucro and tip of dens. Fig. 141—Whole insect X 36. Fig. 142—Foot.
Fig. 143—Cryptopygus minimus n.sp. Page 312. Dens and mucro.
Figs. 144–145—Cryptopygus niger Carp. Page 313. Fig. 144—Foot. Fig. 145—Mucro.
Figs. 146–148—Cryptopygus haweacnsis n.sp. Page 314. Fig. 146—Anterior ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 147—Mucro. Fig. 148—Foot.
Fig. 149—Cryptopygus loftyensis Wom. Page 314. Mucro.
Figs. 150–151—Cryptopygus atratrs n.sp. Page 315. Fig. 150—Foot. Fig. 151—Mucro.

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Figs. 152–153—Folsomia fimetarioides Ael. Page 316. Fig. 152—Mucro. Fig. 153—Postantennal organ.
Figs. 154–158—Folsomia quadrioculata Tulb. Page 316. Fig. 154—Whole insect X 20.
Fig. 155—Ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 156—Mucro. Fig. 157—Foot. Fig. 158—Teeth on dens near manubrium.
Figs. 159–160—Folsomia diplophthalma Axel. Page 316. Fig. 159—Ocellus and postantennal organ. Fig. 160—Mucro.
Figs. 161–164—Acanthomurus setosus n.sp. Page 319. Fig. 161—Anterior ocelli and post-antennal organ. Fig. 162—Whole insect X 25. Fig. 163—Foot. Fig. 164—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 165–168—Tibiolatra latronigra n.sp. Page 320. Fig. 165—Whole insect X 30. Fig. 166—Mucro. Fig. 167—Foot. Fig. 168—Ocelli and postantennal organ.

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Figs. 169–174—Acanthomurus alpinus n.sp. Page 317. Fig. 169—Whole insect X 24.
Figs. 170—Foot. Fig. 171—Ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 172—Mucro. Fig. 173— Serrated spines from basal half of dens. Fig. 174—Serrated setae from dens.
Figs. 175–176—Acanthomurus womersleyi n.sp. Page 318. Fig. 175—Mucro and tip of dens.
Fig. 176—Whole insect X 30.
Figs. 177–178—Proisotomurus lineatus n.sp. Page 322. Fig. 177—Mucro and tip of dens.
Fig. 178—Foot.
Figs. 179–182—Proisotomurus novae-zealandiae n.sp. Page 321. Fig. 179—Whole insect X 36. Fig. 180—Mucro. Fig. 181—Anterior ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 182—Foot.
Figs. 183–184—Proisotomurus papillatus Wom. Page 323. Fig. 183—Anterior ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 184—Whole insect X 24.
Figs. 185–186—Archisotoma brucei Linnan. Page 323. Fig. 185—Foot. Fig. 186—Mucro.
Figs. 187–188—Isotomurus chiltoui (Carp.). Page 324. Fig. 187—Foot. Fig. 188—Anterior ocelli and postantennal organ.

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Figs. 189–190—Isotomodes productus Axel. Page 315. Fig. 189—Whole insect X 50.
Fig. 190—Mucro.
Figs. 191–194—Tomocerura rubenota n.sp. Page 325. Fig. 191—Anterior ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 192—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 193—Whole insect (body twisted to show red spots—lett unshaded—on abdomen) X 24. Fig. 194—Foot.
Fig. 195—Tomocerura maruiensis n.sp. Page 326. Foot.
Figs. 196–199—Procerura fasciata n.sp. Page 329. Fig. 196—Foot. Fig. 197—Mucro.
Fig. 198—Whole insect X 45. Fig. 199—Ocelli and postantennal organ.
Figs. 200–201—Procerura violacea n.sp. Page 327. Fig. 200—Foot. Fig. 201—Mucro.
Fig. 202—Procerura montana n.sp. Page 328. Foot.

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Figs. 203–205—Procerura purpurea n.sp. Page 328. Fig. 203—Foot. Fig. 204—Mucro and tip of dens. Fig. 205—Ocelli and postantennal organ.
Figs. 206–208—Procerura serrata n.sp. Page 329. Fig. 206—Dorsal seta from Abd. V.
Fig. 207—Foot. Fig. 208—Ocelli and postantennal organ.
Figs. 209–211—Papillomurus fuscus n.sp. Page 330. Fig. 209—Setae on body. Fig. 210—Mucro. Fig. 211—Foot.
Figs. 212–216—Spinocerura capillata n.sp. Page 332. Fig. 212—Whole insect X 18.
Fig. 213—Mucro. Fig. 214—Foot. Fig. 215—Dorsal seta. Fig. 216—Group of spines from base of dens.
Figs. 217–219—Proisotoma aqualata n.sp. Page 333. Fig. 217—Foot. Fig. 218—Ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 219—Mucro and tip of dens.

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Fig. 220—Proistoma aqualata n.sp. Page 333. Whole insect X 45.
Figs. 221–223—Isotomina lamellata n.sp. Page 334. Fig. 221—Whole insect X 25.
Fig. 222—Mucro. Fig. 223—Foot.
Fig. 224—Isotomina nova-zealandia n.sp. Page 334. Dens and mucro.
Fig. 225—Isotoma maritima Tullb. Page 335. Mucro.
Figs. 226–228—Isotoma pallidafasciata n.sp. Page 336. Fig. 226—Foot. Fig. 227–Mucro.
Fig. 228—Anterior ocelli and postantennal organ.
Figs. 229–230—Papillomurus parvus (Salm.). Page 331. Fig. 229—Foot. Fig. 230—Mucro.
Figs. 231–234—Isotoma exiguadentata n.sp. Page 336. Fig. 231—Anterior ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 232—Whole insect X 45. Fig. 233—Foot. Fig. 234—Mucro.
Figs. 235–237—Parisotoma pritchardi (Wom.). Page 337. Fig. 235—Ocelli and postantennal organ. Fig. 236—Foot. Fig. 237—Mucro.
Figs. 238–240—Parisotoma linnaniemia (Wom.). Page 338. Fig. 238—Foot. Fig. 239—Postantennal organ. Fig. 240—Mucro.

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Fig. 241—Parisotoma notabilis Schaeff. Page 338. Ocelli and postantennal organ.
Figs. 242–244—Isotomiella minor Schaeff. Page 338. Fig. 242—Mucro. Fig. 243—Dorsal setae. Fig. 244—Apex of Ant. IV showing sense rods and sensory hairs.
Figs. 245–250—Lepidophorella communis Salm. Page 340. Fig. 245—Seta from apex of mesotergum. Fig. 246—Whole insect X 15. Fig. 247—Mucro and tip of dens. Fig. 248—Ocelli. Fig. 249—Foot. Fig. 250—Scale from body.
Fig. 251—Lepidophorella brachycephala Moniez. Page 339. Foot.
Fig. 252—Lepidophorella australis Carp. Page 339. Foot.
Figs. 253–254—Lepidophrella unadentata n.sp. Page 341. Fig. 253—Mucro. Fig. 254—Foot.
Figs. 255–257—Lepidophorella rubicunda n.sp. Page 342. Fig. 255—Mucro. Fig. 256—Ocelli. Fig. 257—Scale from body.
Figs. 258–259—Pseudolepidophorella longiterga Salm. Page 343. Fig. 258—Mucro.
Fig. 259—Whole insect X 15.

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Figs. 260–268—Antennacyrtus insolitus n.sp. Page 344. Fig. 260—Ocelli. Fig. 261—Whole insect X 20. Fig. 262—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 263—Foot. Fig. 264—Scale from base of dens. Fig. 265—Ciliated bristle from manubrium. Fig. 266—Scales from body. Fig. 267—Apex of Ant. IV. Fig. 268—Antenna.
Figs. 269–272—Neocerus spinosus n.sp. Page 345. Fig. 269—Whole insect X 18. Fig. 270—Scale from body. Fig. 271—Foot. Fig. 272—Mucro and apex of dens.

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Fig. 273—Neocerus spinosus n.sp. Page 345. Dens and mucro with spines.
Figs. 274–275—Neocerus insolitatus n.sp. Page 346. Fig. 274—Ocelli. Fig. 275—Foot.
Figs. 276–280—Tomocerus setoserratus n.sp. Page 347. Fig. 276—Dental spines.
Fig. 277—Mucro. Fig. 278—Serrated seta from dens. Fig. 279—Foot. Fig. 280—Ocelli.
Figs. 281–282—Tomocerus minor Lubb. Page 347. Fig. 281—Foot. Fig. 282—Mucro.
Figs. 283–284—Sinella termitum Schött. Page 348. Fig. 283—Foot. Fig. 284—Mucro.
Figs. 285–286—Sinella coeca Schött. Page 349. Fig. 285—Foot. Fig. 286—Mucro.
Figs. 287–289—Sinella pulverafusca n.sp. Page 349. Fig. 287—Foot. Fig. 288—Mucro.
Fig. 289—Dorsal flexed seta.

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Fig. 290—Sinella pulverafusca n.sp. Page 349. Whole insect X 40.
Figs. 291–293—Drepanura aurifera n.sp. Page 349. Fig. 291—Mucro and tip of dens.
Fig. 292—Ocelli. Fig. 293—Foot.
Figs. 294–297—Entomobrya totapunctata n.sp. Page 352. Fig. 294—Portion of body showing segmental margin and “pock” markings. Fig. 295—Mucro. Fig. 296—Foot.
Fig. 297—Ocelli.
Figs. 298–300—Entomobrya divafusca n.sp. Page 353. Fig 298—Mucro. Fig. 299—Whole insect X 36. Fig. 300—Foot.
Fig. 301—Entomobrya nonfasciata n.sp. Page 354. Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 302–303—Entomobrya lamingtonensis Schött. Page 353. Fig. 302—Abds. III and IV.
Fig. 303—Mucro.

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Figs. 304–306—Entomobrya auricorpa n.sp. Page 355. Fig. 304—Whole insect X 25.
Fig. 305—Foot. Fig. 306—Ocelli.
Fig. 307—Entomobrya chtellaria subspec. australasiae nov. Page 356. Whole insect X 27.
Figs. 308–309—Entomobrya ephippiaterga n.sp. Page 356. Fig. 308—Whole insect X 40.
Fig. 309—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 310–312—Entomobrya salta n.sp. Page 357. Fig. 310—Mucro. Fig. 311—Dorsal aspect X 21. Fig. 312—Foot.
Figs. 313–314—Entomobrya livida n.sp. Page 357. Fig. 313—Foot. Fig. 314—Whole insect X 21.
Figs. 315—317—Entomobrya exoricarva n.sp. Page 358. Fig. 315—Foot. Fig. 316—Ocelli.
Fig. 317—Whole insect X 30.

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Fig. 318—Entomobrya varia Schött. Page 355. Dorsal aspect of head and trunk.
Fig. 319—Entomobrya egmontia n.sp. Page 357. Whole insect X30.
Figs. 320–322—Entomobrya saxatila n.sp. Page 359. Fig. 320—Head and mesothorax, dorsal. Fig. 321—Foot. Fig. 322—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 323–323—Entomobrya multifasciata Tullb. Page 359. Fig. 323—Foot. Fig. 324—Head and trunk, dorsal, showing pigmentation. Fig. 325—Mucro.
Fig. 326—Entomobrya nivalis subspec. immaculata Schaeff. Page 361. Dorsal view of head showing pigment spot.
Figs. 327–328—Entomobiya nivalis Linné. Page 361. Fig. 327—Whole insect X 27.
Fig. 328—Abds. III and IV to show “V” mark and mid-dorsal break in pigment bands.
Figs. 329–331—Entomobrya aniwaniwaensis n.sp. Page 360. Fig. 329—Whole insect X 45.
Fig. 330—Foot. Fig. 331—Mucro.

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Fig. 332—Entomobrya duofascia subspec. maxima nov. Page 363. Whole insect X 33.
Fig. 333—Entomobrya duofascia n.sp. Page 363. Trunk to show pigmentation.
Fig. 334—Entomobrya duofascia subspec. variabila nov. Page 363. Trunk to show pigmentation.
Figs. 335–336—Entomobrya nigranota n.sp. Page 364. Fig. 335—Whole insect X 40, head flexed over to show dorsal marks. Fig. 336—Ocelli.
Figs. 337–338—Entomobrya hurunuiensis n.sp. Page 365. Fig. 337—Whole insect X 30.
Fig. 338—Mucro and apex of dens.
Fig. 339—Entomobrya opotikiensis n.sp. Page 362. Whole insect X 30.
Figs. 340–342—Entomobrya obscuroculata n.sp. Page 361. Fig. 340—Foot. Fig. 341—Ocelli. Fig. 342—Mucro and apex of dens.
Fig. 343—Pseudentomobrya miniparva n.sp. Page 369. Foot.

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Figs. 344–345—Entomobrya penicillata n.sp. Page 365. Fig. 344—Foot. Fig. 345—Whole insect X 30.
Figs. 346–348—Pseudentomobrya glaciata n.sp. Page 367. Fig. 346—Whole insect X 36.
Fig. 347—Mucro. Fig. 348—Foot.
Figs. 349–350—Pseudentomobrya processa n.sp. Page 367. Fig. 349—Mucro. Fig. 350—Abds. V and VI.
Figs. 351–352—Pseudentomobrya interfilixa n.sp. Page 368. Fig. 351—Foot. Fig. 352—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 353–354—Pseudentomobrya proceraseta n.sp. Page 369. Fig. 353—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 354—Foot.
Figs. 355–357—Mesira caeruleacrura n.sp. Page 370. Fig. 355—Whole insect X 30.
Fig. 356—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 357—Foot.
Figs. 358–360—Lepidocyrtus lindensis n.sp. Page 371. Fig. 358—Portion of cuticle showing “dried mud” appearance. Fig. 359—Mucro. Fig. 360—Foot.

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Figs. 361–363—Lepidocyrtus submontanus n.sp. Page 372. Fig. 361—Whole insect X 40.
Fig. 362—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 363—Foot.
Figs. 364–366—Lepidocyrtus moori n.sp. Page 373. Fig. 364—Mucro. Fig. 365—Foot.
Fig. 366—Whole insect X 30.
Figs. 367–368—Lepidocyrtus nigrofasciatus Wom. Page 373. Fig. 367—Foot. Fig. 368—Mucro.
Fig. 369—Lepidocyrtus cyaneus subspec. cinereus Folsom. Page 374. Foot.
Figs. 370–372—Lepidocyrtus unafascia n.sp. Page 374. Fig. 370—Foot. Fig. 371—Mucro. Fig. 372—Whole insect X 48.
Figs. 373–375—Lepidocyrtus kauriensis n.sp. Page 375. Fig. 373—Whole insect X 20.
Fig. 374—Foot. Fig. 375—Mucro.
Figs. 376–377—Lepidocyrtus rataensis n.sp. Page 375. Fig. 376—Foot. Fig. 377—Mucro.

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Fig. 378—Lepidocyrtus rataensis n.sp. Page 375. Whole insect X 20.
Figs. 379–380—Urewera ianthina n.sp. Page 378. Fig. 379—Mucro. Fig. 380—Foot.
Fig. 381—Urewera parca n.sp. Page 379. Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 382–386—Urewera splendida n.sp. Page 380. Fig. 382—Whole insect X 20 to show areas of pigment when denuded of scales. Fig. 383—Scale from body. Fig. 384—Scales on body. Fig. 385—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 386—Foot.
Figs. 387–389—Urewera quadradentata n.sp. Page 382. Fig. 387—Whole insect X 25.
Fig. 388—Foot. Fig. 389—Abd. VI (side view).
Figs. 390–393—Urewera fuchsiata Salm. Page 379. Fig. 390—Whole insect X 16.
Fig. 391—Ocelli. Fig. 392—Foot. Fig. 393—Mucro and apex of dens.

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Figs. 394–396—Urewera inconstans Salm. Page 381. Fig. 394—Whole insect X 25 to show pigmentation. Fig. 395—Foot. Fig. 396—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 397–399—Urewera magna Salm. Page 384. Fig. 397—Whole insect X 16. Fig. 398—Abds. III and IV showing dorsal “V” mark. Fig. 399—Mucro and apex of dens.
Fig. 400—Urewera flava Salm. Page 383. Trunk showing pigmentation X 20.
Fig. 401—Urewera flava subspec. doisalis nov. Page 383. Trunk showing pigmentation X 20.
Figs. 402–403—Urewera purpurea Salm. Page 386. Fig. 402—Mucro and apex of dens.
Fig. 403—Foot.
Figs. 404–405—Urewera okarita (Salm.). Page 384. Fig. 404—Foot. Fig. 405—Mucro and apex of dens.
Fig. 406—Lepidosira sagmarius Schött. Page 390. Foot.
Fig. 407—Lepidosira indistincta Salm. Page 388. Foot.
Figs. 408–409—Lepidosira coeruleus Schött. Page 389. Fig. 409—Mucro and apex of dens.
Fig. 409—Foot.
Figs. 410–411—Lepidosira bidentata Salm. Page 391. Fig. 410—Foot. Fig. 411—Mucro.

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Figs. 412–413—Lepidosira sexmacula Salm. Page 393. Fig. 412—Whole insect X 24.
Fig. 413—Foot.
Figs. 414–416—Lepidosira minima Salm. Page 392. Fig. 414—Foot. Fig. 415—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 416—Whole insect X 66.
Figs. 417—418—Lepidosira minuta Salm. Page 390. Fig. 417—Mucro and apex of dens.
Fig. 418—Foot.
Figs. 419–420—Urewera fuscata (Wom.). Page 387. Fig. 419—Foot. Fig. 420—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 421–422—Lepidosira omniofusca n.sp. Page 391. Fig. 421—Foot. Fig. 422—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 423–425—Lepidosira glebosa n.sp. Page 394. Fig. 423—Foot. Fig. 424—Antenna showing sensory swelling on III. Fig. 425—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 426—429—Lepidosira rotorua Salm. Page 393. Fig. 426—Foot. Fig. 427—Typical scale. Fig. 428—Ocelli. Fig. 429—Mucro.

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Fig. 430—Lepidosua sagmarius Schott, Page 390. Dorsal to show pigmentation.
Figs. 431–434—Pseudosinella assymetrica (Salm.). Page 395. Fig. 431—Whole insect X 20 to show pigmentation. Fig. 432—Foot. Fig. 433—Ocelli. Fig. 434—Mucro and apex of dens.
Fig. 435—Pseudosinella alba Pack. Page 396. Foot.
Fig. 436—Pseudosinella fasciata Wom. Page 396. Foot.
Figs. 437—439—Pseudosinella insoloculata n.sp. Page 396. Fig. 437—Anterior dorsal portion of head showing ocelli. Fig. 438—Mucro. Fig. 439—Foot.
Figs. 440–441—Pseudosinella nonoculata n.sp. Page 397. Fig. 440—Mucro. Fig. 441—Foot.
Figs. 442–446—Orchezelandia rubra Salm. Page 397. Fig. 442—Whole insect X 25.
Fig. 443—Antenna. Fig. 444—Mucro. Fig. 445—Foot. Fig. 446—Ocelli.
Figs. 447–448—Paronellides novae-zealandiae n.sp. Page 398. Fig. 447—Foot. Fig. 448—Mucro.

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Fig. 449—Paronellides novae-zealandiae n.sp. Page 398. Whole insect X 40.
Figs. 450–452—Pseudoparonellides badia n.sp. Page 399. Fig. 450—Whole insect X 40.
Fig. 451—Foot. Fig. 452—Mucro.
Figs. 453—455—Glacialoca caerulea n.sp. Page 405. Fig. 453—Mucro. Fig. 454—Foot.
Fig. 455—Dental spines.
Figs. 456–460—Parachaetoceras pritchardi (Wom.). Page 406. Fig. 456—Whole insect X 20. Fig. 457—Scale-like setae. Fig. 458—Foot. Fig. 459—Mucro. Fig. 460—Spines from dens.

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Figs. 461–465—Paronana karoriensis (Salm.). Page 401. Fig. 461—Whole insect X 36.
Fig. 462—Ocelli. Fig. 463—Mucro and tip of dens. Fig. 464—Portion of dens showing spines, scales and setae. Fig. 465—Foot.
Fig. 466—Paronana maculosa (Salm.). Page 404. Whole insect X 36.

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Figs. 467–469—Paronana dorsanota n.sp. Page 402. Fig. 467—Whole insect X 24.
Fig. 468—Foot. Fig. 469—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 470–471—Paronana pigmenta n.sp. Page 401. Fig. 470—Trunk showing pigmentation.
Fig. 471—Mucro.
Figs. 472–473—Paronana sufflava n.sp. Page 404. Fig. 472—Foot. Fig. 473—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 474—476—Paronana tasmasecta n.sp. Page 403. Fig. 474—Whole insect X 27.
Fig. 475—Foot. Fig. 476—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 477–479—Paronan bidenticulata (Carp.). Page 405. Fig. 477—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 478—Scales from dens. Fig. 479—Foot.

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Figs. 480–483—Megalothorax swani (Wom.). Page 408. Fig. 480—Whole insect X 135.
Fig. 481—Foot. Fig. 482—Mucro. Fig. 483—Terminal segment of antenna.
Figs. 484—487—Arrhopalites coccineus n.sp. Page 408. Fig. 484—Whole insect X 36.
Fig. 485—Foot. Fig. 486—Ocelli. Fig. 487—Mucro.
Figs. 488–490—Sminthurinus mgrafusca n.sp. Page 409. Fig. 488—Apex of Ant. IV.
Fig. 489—Hind foot. Fig. 490—Mucro.
Figs. 491–494—Sminthurinus aureus (Lubb.). Page 410. Fig. 491—Mucro. Fig. 492—Foot. Fig. 493—Ocelli. Fig. 494—Wart-like organ on Ant. III.
Fig. 495—Sminthurinus terrestris Wom. Page 410. Foot.
Figs. 496–499—Sminthurinus duplicatus n.sp. Page 411. Fig. 496—Wart-like organ on Ant. III. Fig. 497—Foot. Fig. 498—Mucro. Fig. 499—Front of head.

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Figs. 500–502—Katianna purpuravirida n.sp. Page 413. Fig. 500—Mucro. Fig. 501—Foot. Fig. 502—Whole insect X 42.
Figs. 503–506—Katianna antennapartita n.sp. Page 412. Fig. 503—Mucro. Fig. 504—Antenna. Fig. 505—Foot.Fig. 506—Spine-like setae on top of head.
Figs. 507–509—Katianna austialis Wom. Page 412. Fig. 507—Foot. Fig. 508—Ant. III with peg-like organ. Fig. 509—Mucro.
Figs. 510—514—Parakatianna heaagona Page 414. Fig. 510—Whole insect X 36.
Fig. 511—Ocelli. Fig. 512—Hexagon pattern of cuticle. Fig. 513—Mucro.Fig. 514—Foot.
Figs. 515–516—Bourletiella arvalis subspec. dorsobscura nov. Page 415. Fig. 515—Clasping spines on Abd. VI. Fig. 516—Whole insect X 27.

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Figs. 517–518—Bourletiella arvalis Fitch. Page 415. Fig. 517—Mucro. Fig. 518—Foot.
Fig. 519—Bourleticlla hortensis Fitch. Page 415. Clasping spines on Abd. VI.
Fig. 520—Deuterosminthurus bicinctus subspec. repandus Agren. Page 416. Whole insect X 25.
Figs. 521–523—Corynephoria gibbera n.sp. Page 416. Fig. 521—Whole insect X 55.
Fig. 522—Foot. Fig. 523—Mucro and apex of dens.
Figs. 524–526—Sphyrotheca magnasetacea n.sp. Page 417. Fig. 524—Antenna. Fig. 525—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 526—Foot.
Figs. 527–528—Sminthurus viridis Linné. Page 418. Fig. 527—Foot. Fig. 528—Mucro.
Figs. 529–530—Sminthurus denisi Wom. Page 418. Fig. 529—Foot. Fig. 530—Mucro.
Figs. 531–533—Dicyrtomina nova-zealandica n.sp. Page 419. Fig. 531—Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 532—Foot. Fig. 533—Antenna.
Fig. 534—Dicyrtomina minuta Fabr. Page 419. Mucro.

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be ruled out; though I think it rather unlikely. Such an occurrence is indicated by the genera Acanthomurus and Proisotomurus; but the fact that many species of these genera may have been present orginally in Australia and have become extinct there while surviving in New Zealand must be borne in mind, and I think it is highly important.

There is also the possibility that species have been transported from the Australian continent to New Zealand on drifting logs and rafts. The main drift and direction of trade winds is from Australia towards New Zealand and this method of transportation of soil insects cannot be lightly dismissed. It must also be taken into account in considering affinities which may arise between New Zealand and South America as the Collembolan fauna of the latter country becomes more extensively known.

The transportation of these small soil insects over short distances of sea between chains of islands may have occurred during the geologic past upon the feet of birds. Such means of dispersal may also be active within the boundaries of a given land mass.

In his discussion on the Zoogeographical relationships of the Genus Ceratrimeria (Linnean Society's Journal, Vol. XL, No. 272), Womersley suggests that this distribution is evidence of the former existence of the Gondwana Continent. I never have been convinced of the possibility or feasibility of raising large continental masses from the abysmal depths of the sea to explain the zoogeographical relationships of animals and plants; and I think that zoogeographers should endeavour to use land bridges in places where these reasonably could have been supposed to exist, as, for instance, through chains of islands arising from submerged continental shelves or along the lines of such submerged continental shelves.

From the evidence here presented I suggest a Northern origin for Collembola somewhere in Europe or Asia from which, later, commenced large migrations in three principal streams—one southward to Africa, one eastward across Beharing Straits to North America, and the third southward through the Malay Archipelago to Australia and New Zealand. From the New Zealand region certain genera spread further south into Antarctica and from there reached the sub-antarctic regions of America, Africa, and Australia. These migrating streams would account for the general distribution of such archaic genera as Achorutes, Onychiurus and Ceratrimeria, and of such cosmopolitan genera as Isotoma, Lepidocyrtus, and Entomobrya. During the course of migration new genera have arisen; and so we obtain the definite relationships which exist between New Zealand and Australia through such genera as Lepidosira, Acanthomurus, etc.

In deriving the New Zealand Collembola from Northern sources my views closely parallel those put forward by Oliver in 1925 for the derivation and relationships of many of the New Zealand plants.

After the New Zealand region finally became isolated or, possibly, before this, the majority of the endemic genera peculiar to New Zealand and the sub-antarctic arose.

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To summarise finally, I have postulated a northern primary evolution for Collembola, with a later tri-directional migration to Africa, North America, and Australasia. This affords an explanation of the general basic relationships which exist between the Collembola of these Southern lands. Further, through a southern extension of New Zealand several peculiar genera which had developed in the New Zealand region spread to the antarctic regions; and remnants of this latter migration persist to-day in isolated areas of the sub-antarctic.

The following table gives a list of genera of Collembola occurring in New Zealand. Those marked * are confined to New Zealand, while those marked * are found only in New Zealand and Australia. Pseudentomobrya, though at present described only from New Zealand, should prove to have a wide distribution outside this country:—

Collembolan Genera Of New Zealand.
Xenylla Tullb. Lepidophorella Schaeffer
Triacanthella Schaeff. * Pseudolepidophorella n.g.
Achorutes Templ. * Antennacyrtus n.g.
Schotella Schaeff. * Neocerus n.g.
Polyacanthella Schaeff. Tomocerus Nicolet
Odontella Schaeff. Sinella Brook
Micranurida Börner Drepanura Schött
Ceratrimeria Börner Entomobrya Rondani
Brachystomella Schaeff. Pseudentomobrya n.g.
Pseudachorutes Tullb. Mesira Börner
Neanura MacGill. Lepidocyrtus Bourlet
Onychiurus Gervais * Urewera Salm.
Dinaphorura Bagnall Lepidosira Schött
Mesaphorura Börner Pseudosinella Schaeffer
Cryptopygus Willem * Orchezelandia Salm.
Isotomodes Axelson Paronellides Schött
Folsomia Willem. * Pseudoparonellides n.g.
Acanthomurus Wom. Paronana Wom.
* Tibiolatra n.g. * Glacialoca n.g.
Proisotomurus Wom. * Parachaetoceras n.g.
Archisotoma Linnan Megalothorax Willem.
Isotomurus Börner Arrhopalites Börner
Tomocerura Wahlgren Sminthurinus Börner
* Procerura n.g. Katianna Börner
* Papillomurus n.g. Parakatianna Wom.
* Spinocerura n.g. Bourletiella Banks
Proisotoma Börner Deuterosminthurus Börner
Isotomina Börner Corynephoria Absolon.
Isotma Bourlet Sphyrotheca Börner
Parisotoma Bagnall Sminthurus Latreille
Isotomiella Bagnall Dicyrtomina Börner

Selected Bibliography.

Agrell, T., 1936. Une espèce nouvelle de genre Pseudosinella, Opuscula Entom., 1, no. 1, p. 27.

Agren, H., 1904. Lapplandische Collembolen, Ark. f. Zool., 2, no. 1.

Alexander, W. R., 1913. Aptera of Australia, Austr. Ass. Adv. Sci., Melbourne, 14, p. 267.

– 427 –

Bagnall, R. S., 1934. Notes on British Collembola, Entomologists' Monthly Magazine, vol. LXX, pp. 275–277.

—— 1935. The British Tullberginae, pt. 1, Ent. Month. Mag., LXXI, pp-164–173.

—— 1935. On the Classification of the Onychiuridae with particular reference to the Genus Tullbergia Lubb. and its Allies, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, (10), 15, pp. 236–242.

—— 1936. The British Tullberginae, pt. II, Ent. Mon. Mag., LXXII, pp. 34–40.

—— 1939. Notes on British Collembola, Ent. Mon. Mag., LXXV, pp. 21–28; pp. 91–102; pp. 188–200.

—— 1940. Notes on British Collembola, Ent. Mon. Mag., vol. LXXXVI, pp. 97–102; pp. 163–174.

BÖRner, C., 1906. Das System der Collembolen, nebst Beschreibungen neuer Collembolen des Hamberger Naturhistorischen Museums, Mitt. Nat. Hist. Mus. Hamburg, pp. 147–188.

—— 1913. Zur. Collembolenfauna Javas, Tijdschr, v. Ent., 56, p. 44.

—— 1913. Neue Cyphoderinen, Zool. Anz., 41, p. 274.

—— 1913. Die Familien der Collembolen, Zool. Anz., 41, p. 315.

Brown, J. M., 1926. On some Collembola from Mesopotamia, Journ. Linn. Soc. London (Zool.), 36, pp. 201–219.

—— 1926. Some African Apterygota, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9), 18, pp. 34–43.

Carpenter, G. H., 1900. Collembola from Franz-Josef Land: Scientific Proceedings of Royal Dublin Soc., vol. IX (N.S.), pt. III, no. 16 and 17, pp. 271–277.

—— 1904. Collembola in Fauna Hawaiiensis III, London, pp. 299–303.

—— 1906. Collembola from the South Orkney Islands, Proc. Roy. Soc., Edinburgh, 26, pt. VI, pp. 473–483.

—— 1909. On Some Subantarctic Collembola, The Subantarctio Islands of New Zealand, vol. I, pp. 377–383.

—— 1913. “Apterygota” Clare Island Survey, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 31, p. 32.

—— 1916. The Apterygota of the Seychelles, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 33, ser. 3, no. 1.

—— 1917. “Collembola,” Records of the Indian Museum, vol. VIII, pp. 561–570.

—— 1921. Insects, pt. I, Collembola, British Antarctic (“Terra Nova”) Expedn., 1910, Zoology, 3, no. 9, pp. 259–266.

—— 1925. Some Collembola from Southern New Zealand, Proc. Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc., 69, 11.

—— 1928. Apterygota, Insects of Samoa (British Museum).

—— 1935. Collembola of the Society Islands, Bull. B. P. Bishop Mus., Honolulu, 113, pp. 135–141.

—— 1935. Marquesan Collembola, Bull. B. P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, 114, pp. 365–378.

—— and Phillips, J. K. C., 1922. The Collembola of Spitzbergen and Bear Island, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 36, ser. B, no. 2, pp. 11–21.

Collinge, W. E., and Shoebotham, J. W., 1909. Description of a new genus of Collembola of the Family Neelidae Folsom, Journ. Econ. Biol., 4, p. 45.

—— 1910. The Apterygota of Hertfordshire, Journ. Econ. Biol., 5, pt. 3, pp. 98–125.

Davenport, C. B., 1903. The Collembola of Cold Spring Beach, with special reference to the movements of the Poduridae, Cold Spring Harbour Monographs, no. 11, Brooklyn.

Davidson, J., 1933. The Distribution of Smynthurus viridis L. in South Australia, based on Rainfall, Evaporation, and Temperature, Aust. Journ. Exp. Biol. and Med. Sci., 11.

—— 1931. The Influence of Temperature on the Incubation Period of Eggs of Smynthurus viridis L., Aust. Journ. Exp. Biol. and Med. Sci., 8.

—— 1932. On the Viability of the Eggs of Smynthurus viridis in Relation to their Environment, Austr. Journ. Exp. Biol. and Med. Sci., 9.

– 428 –

Davidson, 1932. Factors affecting Oviposition of Symnthurus virdis, Aust. Journ. Exp. Biol. and Med. Sci., 9.

—— 1933. Environmental Factors affecting Development of the Eggs of Smynthurus viridis, Aust. Journ. Exp. Biol. and Med. Sci., 10.

—— 1933. On the Control of the “Lucerne Flea” in Lucerne in South Australia, Journ. Agric. S. Aust., 36, pp. 994–1006.

—— 1934. The “Lucerne Fles,” Smynthurus virdis L., in Australia, C.S.I.R. Bull. 79.

Davies, W. M., 1932. Swarming of Collembola in England, Nature, 130, p. 94.

—— 1934. Additions to the British List of Collembola with Records of some Rare Species, Entomologists' Monthly Magazine, vol. LXX, pp. 90–94.

—— 1935. The Percy Sladen and Godman Trusts Expedition to the Islands in the Gulf of Guinea, 1932–33. IV—Collembola, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 15, pp. 146–150.

Denis, J. R., 1923. Notes sur les Apterygotes. Ann. Soc. Entom. France, XCII.

—— 1931. Collembola de Costa Rica avec une contribution au species de l'ordre, Boll. Lab. Zool. Portici, 25, pp. 69–170.

—— 1933. Contributo alla cocoscenza del Microgenton di Costa Rica III, Collemboles de Costa Rica avec une contribution au species de l'ordre Boll. Lab. Zool. Portici, 27, pp. 222–322.

—— 1936. Yale North India Expedition Report on Collembola, Mem. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sci., 10, pp. 261–282.

Dumbleton, L. J., 1938. The Lucerne Flea (Smynthurus viridis) in New Zealand, N.Z. Journ. Sci. and Tech., XX (4A), pp. 197A–211A.

Folsom, J. W., 1898. Japanese Collembola, pt. I, Bull. Essex. Inst., 29, p. 51.

—— 1899. The Anatomy and Physiology of the Mouth-parts of the Collembolan Orchesella cincta L., Bull. Museum Comp. Zool., Harvard, 35, no. 2.

—— 1899. Japanese Collembola, pt. II, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci., 34, p. 261.

—— 1900. The Development of the Mouth-parts of Anurida maritima Guer., Bull. Museum Comp. Zool., Harvard, 36, no. 5.

—— 1901. The Distribution of Holarctic Collembola, Psyche, 9, pp. 159–162.

—— 1901. Review of the Collembolan genus Neelus, and description of N. minutus n.sp., Psyche, 9, 210.

—— 1902. The Identity of the Snow-flea (Achorutes nivicola Fitch), Psyche, 9, no. 311.

—— 1902. Papers from the Harriman Alaska Expedition, XXVII, Apterygota, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., 4, pp. 87–116.

—— 1908. The Golden Snow-flea, Aphorura cockleyi n.sp., Canad. Ent., 40, pp. 199–201.

—— 1913. North American Springtails of the Sub-family Tomocerinae, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 46, pp. 451–471.

—— 1916. North American Collembolan Insects of the Sub-families Achorutinae, Neanurinae and Podurinae, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 50, pp. 477–525.

—— 1917. North American Insects of the Sub-family Onychiurinae, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 53, pp. 637–659.

—— 1919. Collembola from the Crocker Land Expedition, 1913–17, Bull. American Mus. Nat. Hist., 41, p. 271–303.

—— 1919. Collembola of the Canadian Arctic Expedition, 1913–18, Rep. Canad. Arct. Expedition, 1913–18, 3, Pt. A, Collembola, pp. 1–29.

—— 1923. Termitophilous Apterygota from British Guina, Zoologica, 3, no. 19.

—— 1924. Apterygota of the Williams Galapagos Expedition, Zoologica, 5, no. 5.

—— 1924. New Species of Collembola from New York State, Amer. Museum Novitates, no. 108.

—— 1924. East Indian Collembola, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard, 65, no. 14, pp. 505–517.

—— 1927. Insects of the Sub-class Apterygota from Central America and the West Indies, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 72, no. 2702, ad. 6, pp. 1–16.

—— 1932. Hawaiian Collembola, Proc. Haw. Ent. Soc., 8, no. 1, pp. 51–88.

– 429 –

Folsom, 1937. Nearetic Collembola or Springtails of the Family Isotomidae, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 168.

—— and Mills, H. B., 1938. Contribution to the Knowledge of the genus Sminthurides Börner, Bull. Museum Comp. Zool., Harvard, 82, no. 4, p. 231.

Guthrie, J. E., 1903. The Collembola of Minnesota, Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey of Minnesota, Zool. ser. IV.

Handschin, E., 1921. Die Onychiurien der Schweiz, Ver. Nat. Ges. in Basel, 32, pp. 1–37.

—— 1925. Beiträge zur Collembolenfauna der Sundainseln, Treubia, 6, pp. 225–270.

—— 1926. Oest-indische Collembolen III. Beiträge sur Collembolenfauna von Java und Sumatra, Treubia, 8, pp. 446–461.

—— 1926. Collembola from the Phillppines and New Caedonia, Phillip, Journ. Sci., 30, pp. 235–239.

—— 1927. Collembolan aus Costa Rica, Ent. Mitteil, 16, no. 2, pp. 110–118.

—— 1928. Collembola from Mexico, Journ. Linn. Soc., London (Zool.), 36, pp. 533–552.

—— 1928. Collembolen aus Java, nebst einem Beiträge zu einer Monographie der Gattung Cremastocephalus Schött, Treubia, 10, pp. 245–270.

—— 1929. Collembola from Abyssinia, Trans. Ent. Soc., London, 77, pt. 1, pp. 15–28.

—— 1930. Phillippine Collembola III, Phillip, Journ. Sci., 42, pp. 411–428.

—— 1938. Check List of the Collembola of Oceania, Ent. Month. Mag., LXXIV, pp. 139–147.

Imms, A. D., 1906. Anurida, Liverpool Mar. Biol. Mem., 13.

—— 1912. On some Collembola from India, Burma, and Ceylon, with a Catalogue of the Oriental Species of the Order, Proc. Zool. Soc., London, 1912, pt. 1, pp. 80–125.

Jackson, C. H. N.,1926. On two Species of Collembola, Lepidocyrtus paradoxus Uzel and L. anglicanus n.sp., Entom. Month. Mag., vol. LXII, p. 104–6.

—— 1927. On some new Collembola from Trinidad, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9), 19, pp. 485–497.

Lubbock, Sir J., 1873. Monograph of the Collembola and Thysanura, Ray. Soc., London.

—— 1879. On a new genus and species of Collembola from Kerguelen Island, Tullbergia, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc., London, vol. 168, p. 249.

—— 1899. On some Spitzbergen Collembola, Journ. Linn. Soc., London, 26, pp. 616–619.

—— 1899. On some Australasian Collembola, Journ. Linn. Soc., Zool., 27, p. 334.

Mills, H. B., 1934. A Monograph of the Collembola of Iowa, Collegiate Press, Ames, Iowa, Mono. no. 3, Div. Ind. Sci. Iowa State Coll.

Moniez, R., 1894. Lipura incerta Mz. and Drepanura brachycephala Mz., Rev. Biol. Nord. France, VI.

Oliver, W. R. B., 1925. Biogeographical Relations of the New Zealand Region, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot., 47, p. 99.

Pritchard, E. D., 1932. Entomobrya cunicunicola from Niger Bay, Auckland, Rec. Auck, Inst. Mus., 1, pp. 135–137.

Rainbow, W. J., 1907. Two new Species of Australian Collembola, Rec. Aust. Mus., Sydney, 6, pp. 313–314.

Salmon, J. T., 1937. Descriptions and Notes on Some New Zealand Collembola, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 67, pp. 352–358.

—— 1938. A New Genus of Collimbola in New Zealand and the Genus Lepidosira, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 68, pp. 349–361.

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Schaeffer, C., 1891. Die Collembolen von Sud-Georgien nach der Ausbeute der deutschen Station. von 1882/83, Jahrb. der Hamburg. Wissen. Anst. 9.

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Schaeffer, 1896. Die Collembola der Umgebung von Hamburg und benachbarter Gebiete, Mitt. Naturhist. Mus. Hamburg, XIII, pp. 147–216.

—— 1900. Die Arktischen und subarktischen Collembola, Fauna Arctica, 1, no. 2, pp. 237–258.

Schött, H., 1896. North American Apterygogenea, Proc. Californ. Acad. Sci., ser. 2, 6, pp. 169–196.

—— 1917. Results of Dr. Mjoberg's Swedish Scientific Expeditions to Australia, 1910–13, No. 15, Collembola, Ark. Zool., 11, no. 8.

—— 1925. Collembola from Mount Murud and Mount Dulit in Northern Sarawak, Sarawak Mus. Journ., 3, pp. 107–127.

Shoebotham, J. W., 1911. Some records of Collembola new to England, with a description of a new species of Oncopodura, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), 8, p. 32.

—— 1914. Notes on Collembola, Part 2. Some Irish Collembola and Notes on the Genus Orchesella, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 8, vol. 13, pp. 59–68.

Smith, W. W., 1895. Thysnura associating with Monomoria in New Zealand, Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 28, p. 475.

Templeton, R., 1835. Descriptions of the Irish Species of Thysanura, The Entomol. Soc. of London Trans., vol. I.

Tillyard, R. J., 1920. The Insects of Macquarie Island, Science Rep. Australas. Antarctic Expedn., 1911–14, ser. C, 5, pt. 8, pp. 1–35.

—— 1925. Primitive Wingless Insects, Part II: The Orders Protura and Collembola, N.Z. Journ. Sci. and Techn., 7, no. 5, pp. 298–303.

Turk, F. A., 1932. Swarming of Collembola in England, Nature, 129, pp. 830–31.

Wahlgren, E., 1906. Antarktische and subantarktische Collembolen gesammelt von der schwedischen Sudpolarexpedition, Wiss. Ergeb. Schwed. Sud-polarex., 1901–3, 5, pt. 9, pp. 1–22.

Willem, V., 1902. Collemboles, recueillis par l'Expedition antarctique belge, Résultas du voyage du S.Y. Belgica, pp. 1–19.

Womersley, H., 1928. Apterygota from the New Hebrides, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (10), 2, pp. 56–61.

—— 1928. Some Records of Apterygota from Lundy Island, Devonshire, with the Description of a New Species of Entomobrya (Collembola), Ann. Mag. Nat Hist. (10), 2, pp. 62–65.

—— 1929. Some Records of Collembola from Southern Rhodesia, Ent. Month. Mag., vol. LXV, p. 152.

—— 1929. Additions to the Collembola of New Zealand, Ent. Month. Mag., LXV, p. 272.

—— 1930. Notes on some new and rare British Collembola, Ent. Month. Mag., LXVI, p. 33.

—— 1930. A Further Collection of Collembola from New Zealand, Ent. Month. Mag., LXVI, p. 57.

—— 1930. Apterygota collected in British Guiana by the Oxford University Expedition, 1929, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (10), 6, pp. 305–317.

—— 1930. The Collembola of Ireland, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 39, B.11, pp. 160–202.

—— 1932. Tasmanian Collembola of the Family Sminthuridae, Proc. and papers Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 1931.

—— 1932. Some Collembola of the Family Sminthuridae from South Africa, Ann. Sth. Afr. Mus., 30, pp. 137–156.

—— 1932. Collembola-Symphypleona of Australia, C.S. and I.R. Pamphlet 34.

—— 1933. Collembola-Arthropleona of Australia. I: Poduroidea, Trans. Roy. Soc. Sth Aust., 57, pp. 48–71.

—— 1933. Additions to the Sminthurid Fauna of Australia: Stylops (11), 2, pp. 241–247.

—— 1933. Collembola-Arthropleona from South Africa and Southern Rhodesia, Ann. Sth. Afr. Mus. (3), 30, pp. 441–475.

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Womersley, 1934. Collembola-Arthropleona of Australia. II: Entomobryoidea, Trans. Roy. Soc. Sth. Austr., 58, pp. 86–132.

—— 1935. New Records and Species of Australian and New Zealand Collembola, Trans. Roy. Soc. Sth. Austr., 59, pp. 207–218.

—— 1936. On the Collembola Fauna of New Zealand, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 66, pp. 316–328.

—— 1936. Further Records and Descriptions of Australian Collembola, Rec. Sth. Austr. Mus. (4), 5, pp. 475–485.

—— 1937. New Species and Records of Australian Collembola, Trans. Roy. Soc. Sth. Austr., 61, pp. 154–157.

—— 1937. Collembola, B.A.N.Z.A.R. Exped. Reports, Ser. B (1), 4, pp. 1–7.

—— 1937. Apterygota from New Guinea and the New Hebrides, Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London, Ser. B., Taxonomy (11), 6, pp. 204–210.

—— 1937. Distribution of Collembola of the Genus Ceratrimeria Börner, Journ. Linn. Soc. London (Zool.), 40, pp. 373–382.

—— 1939. Primitive Insects of South Australia.

—— 1940. A New Species of Ceratrimeria (Collembola) from Tasmania, Trans. Roy. Soc. Sth. Austr., vol. 64, pt. 1, p. 137.