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Volume 70, 1940-41
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Genus Achorutes Templeton, 1835.

Small dark-coloured forms with ocelli and a post-antennal organ with 4–7 peripheral lobes. Furcula and anal spines present. Mandibles with well-developed molar plates.

Represented in New Zealand by eight species of which four are endemic and four are cosmopolitan in distribution. The following key will assist in their separation:—

1. With a large exertile sac at junction of third and fourth antennal segments; post-antennal organ with four lobes; anal spines present or absent; mucro rounded apically and with a large lamella. A. armatus Nicolet
Without large exertile sac. 2
2. With very long anal spines as long as or longer than claw. A. longispinus Tullberg
Anal spines shorter than claw. 3
3. Body marked with large oval dark-coloured spots. A. morbillatus sp. nov.
Body not so. 4
4. With only one clavate tenent hair to each foot. 8
Species with three clavate tenent hairs to each foot. 5
5. The three clavate tenent hairs in line. A. viaticus Tullberg.
The three clavate tenent hairs not in line. 6
6. Anal spines simple, untoothed. 7
Anal spines with blunt outer ridge or tooth. A. campbelli Womersley.
7. Mucro long and tapering, with inner lamella. A. pseudopurpurascens Wom.
Mucro plump with apical hook and pre-apical tooth. A. omnigrus sp. nov.
8. Black species with no outer teeth to claw. A. rossi sp. nov.
Brownish species with outer basal teeth to claw. A. manubrialis Tullberg.

Achorutes armatus Nicolet, 1841. Plate 41, figs. 35–38.

1895. Acherutes armatus Nic.: Smith.

1925. Achorutes longispinus Carpenter.

Colour: Mottled brownish to almost black.

Clothing: Of long straight serrated setae and shorter curved setae.

Body: Length up to 2 mm. Antennae shorter than the head and with a large sac-like organ between segments three and four. Ant. IV also with seven thick sensory hairs around the apex. Ocelli eight to each side. Post-antennal organ with four peripheral lobes around a central circle.

Legs: Claw with a single inner tooth just past centre and a small lateral outer tooth. Empodial appendage needle-like with a broad inner lamella for about half its length. A single non-clavate tenent hair to each foot.

Furcula: Short, the dens twice as long as the mucro, which is rounded apically with a prominent lamella. Anal spines generally present, long and slender, on papillae usually touching at their bases.

Localities: First recorded in New Zealand by W. W. Smith in 1895, associating with ants; later from Clevedon and Manurewa, Auckland, by Womersley in 1936. This cosmopolitan species can

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now be recorded from the following further localities in New Zealand: North Island—Mount Maunganui Beach, in grass; Lake Rotomahana, in warm swamp; Lake Taupo, under stones at edge of lake; Makara and Palliser Bay, under the roots of rushes on the coast. South Island—Maruia Valley, in leaf mould deep in the native forest; Buller Gorge near Westport, in old logs on the edge of the bush; Lake Brunner, under the bark of kahikatea trees; Lake Mapourika, under the bark of kahikatea trees; Arthur's Pass, under stones and moss, 3000 ft.; Hays Bush, Banks Peninsula, from old stumps (collected by Mr. E. W. Moore); Mount Cargill, Dunedin, in leaf mould; Fish River Gorge, Haast Pass, under the bark of rimu trees; Hollyford Valley, in old logs in beech forest at 3000 ft.

Achorutes longispinus Tullberg, 1876. Plate 40, figs. 19–20.

This species was reported by Carpenter under the name of Achorutes longispinus in 1925, from Lincoln College farm, feeding on mushrooms. I have examined the material and find that it is all Achorutes armatus. The species also has been reported in New Zealand from Royal Oak, Auckland, by Womersley, 1936. So far, I have not come across it again. It is stated to differ from A. armatus in the absence of the exertile sac between antennal segments III and IV, in the presence of very long anal spines and a tuberculate mucro.

Achorutes pseudopurpurascens (Womersley, 1928). Plate 41, figs. 44–45.

Colour: Brownish, generally mottled, sometimes with a tendency to bluish-green, and often more or less pock-marked.

Clothing: Of moderately long setae.

Body: Length, the New Zealand species sometimes reach a length of 2 mm. but about 1·6 mm. is the usual. Ocelli and post-antennal organ as in preceding species. Antennae shorter than head; Ant. IV with 6–7 sensory rods and sub-apical pit with sensory knob. Two small anal spines not more than one-quarter length of hind claw.

Legs: Claw with strong inner tooth at two-thirds from base. No outer teeth. Empodial appendage needle-like with broad inner lamella for about half its length and reaching to tooth of claw. Three clavate tenent hairs to each foot, the lateral ones as a pair situated further from claw base than median one.

Furcula: Short. Dens three times as long as mucro. Mucro with apical hook and prominent inner lamella.

Localities: This cosmopolitan species is exceedingly common in New Zealand, and I have taken it at the following localities:—North Island—Awahuri; Palmerston North, under the bark of kowhai trees. South Island—Lake Rotoroa, in leaf debris; Fish River Gorge, Haast Pass, under bark of totara, beech and rimu trees; Haast Pass, under the bark of beech trees and in old logs in the forest; Kidds Bush, Lake Hawea, in bush debris; Lake Brunner, under the bark of the kahikatea trees; Lake Pukaki, under stones on the edge of the lake near inflowing streams; Lake Mapourika, under the bark of kahikatea trees; Lindis Pass, under stones on the bank of a stream; Hollyford Valley, in old logs in beech forest at 3000 ft.; Mount Cargill, Dunedin, among dead leaves.

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Achorutes viaticus Tullberg, 1872. Plate 41, figs. 42–43.

First described from the New Zealand region by Carpenter, who recorded it from Macquarie Island, this species later was recorded by the author from amongst rushes on the coast around Wellington. A further locality is from the surface of an unused well at Papanui, Christchurch, from whence it was collected by Mr. E. W. Moore and kindly sent to me.

This species is entirely a deep blue-black in colour, with a clothing of short, curved setae, some of which generally are serrated. Antennae shorter than head and apically with 4–5 sensory setae. Ocelli and post-antennal organ as in preceding species, but the latter is smaller than an ocellus. Anal spines small and on papillae, spines alone one-quarter length of hind claw.

Legs: With very small inner tooth at two-thirds, no outer teeth. Empodial appendage as in preceding species and reaching beyond tooth. Three long clavate tenent hairs to each foot arranged in one line across tibiotarsus.

Furcula: Short; dens three times as long as mucro. Mucro with apical hook and broad lamella terminating before apex.

Achorutes campbelli (Womersley, 1930). Plate 40, figs. 25–28.

Colour: Entirely bluish-brown, somewhat lighter ventrally, and often with distinct oval pock-marks.

Clothing: Of moderately-long serrated setae, more numerous around posterior portion of abdomen.

Body: Length up to 1·7 mm. Antennae a little longer than head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 8: 9: 10: 12. Ant. IV apically with sensory pit and knob, and seven sense rods. On Ant. III, two small sense rods protected by a cuticular fold. Ocelli eight to each side, equal. Post-antennal organ with four peripheral lobes. Two strong, distinctly curved and characteristic anal spines, each with an outer tooth or ledge. Each spine about one-third as long as hind claw and mounted on a large papilla, the two papillae touching basally.

Legs: Claw with a strong inner tooth at two-thirds. No outer teeth. Empodial appendage needle-like, reaching to tooth of claw and with a broad inner lamella for two-thirds of its length. Three clavate tenent hairs longer than claw, to each foot, lateral hairs farther from claw than central one.

Furcula: Dens about two and a-half times as long as mucro, and with one very long ventral seta and five smaller ones. Mucro long and tapering, with a narrow inner lamella.

Localities: Originally described from Kumara, where it was probably taken under rimu bark; also from Hays Bush, Banks Peninsula, amongst leaf mould (coll. by E. W. Moore) and from Lake Mapourika, under the bark of kahikatea trees, and Lake Rotoroa, South Island, in leaf mould.

Achorutes morbillatus sp. nov. Plate 41, figs. 29–34.

Colour: Body, legs and antennae all light to dark brown, coarsely mottled with large, very dark brown oval spots giving a somewhat “measly” appearance; sometimes a tendency to greenish colour.

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Body: Length 1·5–2·1 mm. Sparsely clothed with short setae. Cuticle very finely granulate. Head about three-quarters as long as thorax. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 10: 12: 14: 17. A complex sensory organ occurs at apex of each antenna and numerous (up to 20) long sensory hairs on Ant. IV, with, generally, 9–11 olfactory hairs in association with sense organ at tip. (Fig. 18.) Ocelli eight to each side, equal, on dark pigment patches. Post-antennal organ very obscure but with four peripheral lobes. Two anal spines about half as long as claw, raised on papillae which are about half length of spine.

Legs: Clothed with short, curved setae. Claw with one inner tooth a little past half-way down from claw base. Empodial appendage needle-like, reaching beyond tooth of claw, and with a very broad inner lamella for less than half of its length. Three long tenent hairs, slightly knobbed at their tips, to each foot, the lateral two further from the claw than the central one.

Furcula: Short, the ratio of manubrium, dens and mucro as 2: 3: 1. Mucro long and pointed, slightly recurved at the tip, and with a narrow inner lamella. Dens and manubrium with several long setae.

Remarks: This species is closely allied to H. pseudopurpurascens Wom., from which it is readily distinguished by its extraordinarily-marked cuticle, the slightly different and longer empodial appendage, the larger number of sensory hairs on Ant. IV and the peculiar sensory organs at the tip of the antennae.

Localities: Lake Mapourika, under bark of kahikatea trees; Lake Rotoroa, in leaf mould; Kidd's Bush, Lake Hawea, in debris of forest floor.

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Type: Slide 3/236, Dominion Museum Collection.

Achorutes rossi sp. nov. Plate 41, figs. 39–41.

Colour: Black all over.

Clothing: On antennae and dorsally and dorsolaterally on body with short curved coarsely-serrated setae. Ventrally on body and on legs, somewhat longer, straighter, plain setae. Cuticle is distinctly granular.

Body: Length up to 1·1 mm. Antennae shorter than the head; Ant. I: II: III: IV as 10: 14: 17: 23. Ant. IV with apical sensory pit and exertile organ; 5–6 curved sensory rods and several long plain setae. On some specimens Ant. IV has two large exertile sacs on the side, one at about one-third from base and the other at two-thirds. Ocelli eight to each side, all large and equal. Post-antennal organ very large and indistinct but with central boss and five peripheral lobes. Abd. VI with two small sharply-pointed spines each on wide basal papillae. Head long, approximately equalling first two thoracic segments in length.

Legs: Claw with one prominent inner tooth at centre or just past centre. No outer teeth. Empodial appendage spine-like and varying from one-quarter to three-quarters length of claw, and with no lamellae. A single clavate tenent hair much longer than claw to each foot.

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Furcula: Short. Dens about three and a-half times as long as the mucro and with one long and 4–5 shorter ventral setae. Strongly crenulate ventrally. Mucro tapering to fine blunt point, with pre-apical blunt tooth and strong inner basal lamella.

Localities: Kelburn, Wellington, in a lawn. Collected by Mr. D. K. Ross, after whom I have much pleasure in naming it. Also taken by myself on newly-dug ground at Karori.

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Type: Slide 3/907 and Figured Paratype; Slide 3/908, Dominion Museum Collection.

This species is closely related to H. manubrialis Tullb., from which it differs principally in colour, the strong inner tooth to the claw, and the clavate tenent hair.

Achorutes omnigrus sp. nov. Plate 42, figs. 46–49.

Colour: Black all over.

Clothing: Of moderately long, straight, coarsely-serrated setae and short, curved setae. Cuticle finely-granulate.

Body: Length up to 1·5 mm. Antennae about three-quarters as long as head. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 10: 10: 15: 17. Ant. IV at apex with sensory pit, three exertile knobs and two short sensory rods. Ocelli eight to each side all large and equal. Post-antennal organ indistinct, smaller than an ocellus, and with four peripheral lobes. Two short, slightly curved anal spines on papillae, spines alone about one-quarter length of hind claw.

Legs: Claw without any teeth. Empodial appendage two-thirds as long as claw, needle-like and with inner lamella for half its length. Three clavate tenent hairs not in line, to each foot, one pair longer than claw and further from it than single one, which is also not so long.

Furcula: Short. Dens three times as long as mucro and with one very long and three smaller ventral setae. Mucro plump, half as deep as long, with strongly recurved apical hook and prominent pre-apical tooth one-third from apex.

Locality: Days Bay, Wellington.

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Type: Slide 3/914 and Figured Paratype; Slide 3/913, Dominion Museum Collection.

Remarks: This species superficially resembles A. viaticus, from which it differs in the form of the mucro and the arrangement of the tenent hairs.

Achorutes manubrialis Tullberg, 1869. Plate 40, figs. 21–24.

Colour: Mottled dark brown or greyish-brown.

Clothing: Moderately clothed with short curved setae.

Body: Length up to 1·5 mm. Antennae four-segmented slightly longer than head, Ant. IV with 7–8 sensory setae. Ocelli eight to each side, equal. Post-antennal organ with central boss and five peripheral lobes. Two small anal spines on papillae, each spine about equal in height to its papilla.

Legs: Claw with single inner tooth at three-quarters and two basal lateral external teeth. A single finely clavate tenent hair, about as long as the claw to each foot. Empodial appendage needle-like with narrow inner lamella.

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Furcula: Mucro: dens as 3:2. Mucro slightly upturned apically and with broad basal lamella. Dens finely tuberculate and with numerous ventral setae.

Locality: Christchurch; specimens collected by W. A. Cottier and sent to Mr. Womersley, of Adelaide, who kindly passed them on to me for recording.

Sub-genus Schöttella Schaeffer, 1896.

Species in which the empodial appendage is rudimentary or absent. Represented in New Zealand by one species.

Schöttella subcorta sp. nov. Plate 42, figs. 50–52.

Colour: Black, legs and antennae streaky.

Clothing: Of short, curved, plain setae and occasional long straight plain setae.

Body: Length 0·75 mm. Antennae equal to head in length, four-segmented. Ant. I: II: III: IV as 5: 6: 7: 12. Each antenna arises from a very prominent antennal base, which is almost as long as first segment. Ocelli eight to each side, all large equal. Post-antennal organ larger than on ocellus with four elliptical lobes and central boss. Very indistinctly defined. Ant. IV with two large apical sense knobs and five thick curved sense rods as well as a strong apical setae and 6–7 shorter sensory setae. Two small anal spines one-third as long as hind claw.

Legs: Claw without any teeth. Empodial appendage rudimentary and represented by small bristle. Two clavate tenent hairs longer than claw to each foot.

Furcula: Dens and mucro indistinctly separated, junction being marked by shallow dorsal nick. Muero tapering evenly to blunt tooth. No lamella; but slight “dishing” just before apex. Dens with one long ventral seta near mucro. Dens 2 ½ times as long as mucro.

Locality: Lake Te Anau, under the bark of rimu tree.

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Type: Slide 3/341, Dominion Museum Collection.

This species is very close to S. glasgowi Folsom, of North America, from which it differs principally in the colour, the claws, the number of setae on the dens, the sensory organ on Ant. IV and the larger anal spines.