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Volume 70, 1940-41
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Tribe Neanurini Börner, 1901.
Genus Neanura MacGillivray, 1893.

On account of the reversion to Achorutes Templeton in place of Hypogastrura Börner, it is necessary to revert to the use of Neanura MacGillivray for those forms that have been designated Achorutes by many recent workers in this field. The names Anoura Gervais and Anura Nicolet, which were erected in 1842 and 1847 respectively for the muscorum group of Templeton's genus Achorutes, were preoccupied when proposed and Neanura MacGillivray, 1893, therefore becomes the name of this genus, of which the genotype must be (Neanura) muscorum Templeton, 1835.

Maxillary head lancet-like without teeth or lamellae. Body segments with large bosses or tubercles. Cuticle tuberculate. Ocelli generally present, but post-antennal organ may be absent. Empodial appendage and furcula absent. Anal spines absent.

Four species and three subspecies of this genus occur in New Zealand and of these only one species and one subspecies is endemic. The remainder are all Australian species except for A. muscorum, which is a cosmopolitan species.

Key to the New Zealand Species of Neanura.
1. Three ocelli on each side. 2
Two ocelli on each side, colour usually white, but if pigmented, the pigment fades out in spirit. 4
2. In life coloured blue to bluish-grey, the colour not fading out in spirit. Setae long and generally white. Abd. VI visible from above and with two separated bosses. Abd. V with four bosses, the lateral ones, with those of Abd. VI, terminate the abdomen with four lobes. Claws without any teeth. N. muscorum Templeton
In life white, creamy, or pinkish-coloured forms. 3
3. In life creamy coloured, dorsal setae strong, blunt, and finely serrated. Abd. V with four bosses, Abd. VI with two. Ocellar bosses each with three setae. Claws without inner teeth. Bosses small. N. newmani Womersley
In life white, yellow, or pinkish-coloured, dorsal setae very long and serrated towards their tips. Abd. IV with ten bosses, V with four and Abd. VI with two bosses. All setae on bosses surrounded by 7–8 non-tuberculate radiating lines. Bosses very large. N. radiata sp. nov.
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4. In life pinkish coloured, dorsal setae simple without serrations, and the cuticle without granular fields around the bosses. Claws without inner teeth. N. rosacea Schött
Cuticle with distinct fields of granules around the bosses, the dorsal setae not simple but at least with minute serrations. Claws without inner teeth. 5
5. All the dorsal setae tapering to a fine point and with minute serrations only. N. hirtella subsp. schötti Womersley
All the dorsal setae ciliated along their whole length and apically brush-like. N. hirtella subsp. cirrata Schött
Some dorsal setae coarsely serrated and apically blunt or spoon-like; other dorsal setae tapering to a fine point and finely serrated. N. hirtella subsp. novae-zealandiae nov.

Neanura muscorum Templeton, 1835. Plate 46, figs. 104–105.

Colour: Bluish-grey to deep blue, granular.

Clothing: Of long, colourless to white setae.

Body: Length up to 2 mm. Antennae shorter than head, with the two apical segments indistinctly separated. Ocelli three to each side. Postantennal organ absent. Twelve bosses on head, six on Th. I, eight on each of Th. II–Abd. IV, four on Abd. V, and two on Abd. VI. Abdomen terminates in four lobes comprising the lateral bosses of Abd. V and the two of Abd. VI.

Legs: Claws without any inner teeth.

Furcula: Absent.

This cosmopolitan species was first recorded in New Zealand by Womersley, 1936, from Brookby, Manurewa, Auckland. I can now record it from a number of localities in both Islands, which are: From the South Island—Kidd's Bush, Lake Hawea, in old logs; Buller Gorge, near Westport, in old logs and under the bark of old stumps; Lake Mapourika, under the bark of kahikatea trees; Rocky Creek, Weheka, under stones; Pigeon Bay, in nest of ant, M. nitidum (Coll. E. W. Moore). From the North Island there were numerous specimens amongst a collection of Collembola sent to me by Mr. D. K. Ross, from Newbury, Palmerston North, where they were taken from an old log.

Neanura rosacea (Schött, 1917). Plate 47, fig. 121.

Colour: In life, pale to deep pink, sometimes pink anteriorly only. The pink colour quickly fades out in spirit.

Clothing: Of strong, simple setae. Cuticle evenly tuberculate.

Body: Length up to 2 mm. Antennae about as long as head. Ant. IV apically with trilobed sensory knob. Ocelli two to each side, unpigmented and situated on edge of a large head boss. Postantennal organ absent.

Legs: Claws long, without inner teeth or tenent hairs.

Furcula: Absent.

Locality: I have taken one specimen from the island in Lake Waikare-iti, Urewera Country, under bark.

Neanura newmani (Womersley, 1933). Plate 46, figs. 106–108.

Colour: In life, creamy to white.

Clothing: Of blunt but strong, finely serrated setae. Cuticle strongly tuberculate.

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Body: Length up to 3 mm. Antennae half as long as head. Ant. IV apically with about six sensory hairs. Three ocelli to each side, two of which are situated very close together and some considerable distance from them is the third, which is on exterior lateral face of adjacent posterior boss. Ocelli pigmented in life; pigment may or may not dissolve out in spirit. Dorsally on head three rows of two, five, and six bosses respectively. Abd. IV with six bosses; Abd. V with four bosses; Abd. VI with two bosses.

Legs: Claws tuberculate almost to their tips, with basal lateral teeth and one inner tooth. No tenent hairs.

Furcula: Absent.

Locality: This is a further Australian species which was abundant in a collection sent to me by Mr. E. W. Moore, and taken from old stumps and leaf mould in Hay's Bush, Banks Peninsula. In many of these specimens the pigment of the eyes was not dissolved by alcohol as is stated to happen with the Australian specimens.

Neanura hirtella (Börner, 1906), subsp. cirrata Schött, 1917, and subsp. schotti, Womersley, 1935.

These two varieties may be separated as in the preceding key. They are white species of 1·5 to 2 mm. in length, with the cuticle tuberculate and raised regularly into bosses. Two unpigmented ocelli to each side. The fourth antennal segment with typical trilobed apical sensory knob. The claws without inner teeth (in typical form, hirtella Börner, inner teeth are present).

Subsp. schotti (Womersley, 1935). Plate 46, figs. 109–111.

This Australian variety is fairly common in New Zealand, and when found is generally in large numbers. I have taken it at Lake Waikaremoana from a rotten log in the forest; at Awahuri, Palmerston North, from old logs under kowhai trees; at Lake Brunner, under the bark of the native white pine trees; and at Falls Creek, Hollyford Valley, from wet leaf mould.

Subsp. cirrata (Schött, 1917). Plate 46, figs, 112–113.

This further Australian variety was reported by Womersley in 1936 from Davies' Bush, Manurewa, Auckland. It has not been found since that time.

Subsp. novae-zealandiae nov. Plate 46, figs. 114–116.

In this variety the structure of the dorsal setae differs from that found in any of the other varieties. At the extreme posterior these are long and tapering, with very fine serrations towards the apex, which are similar to those of the variety schötti. The dorsal setae anterior to these are very coarsely serrated at their tips, sometimes with two spoon-like lobes. Towards the head these setae become more strongly serrated, the serrations extending over the apical third of their length, with finer serrations extending down to one-half; but the setae are never serrated for their entire length as in the variety cirratus. Long, tapering, finely-serrated setae also occur sparingly along the dorso-lateral surface.

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The antennae are shorter than the head, and Ant. IV apically is provided with a single eversible sac-like organ and four stout curved sensory rods. Ocelli two to each side. Claw simple and without teeth.

Localities: Lake Brunner, under the bark of white pine trees; Island in Lake Waikare-iti, under bark, elevation 2,995 ft.; Kapiti Island, in leaf debris in forest; Newbury, Palmerston North, from old logs (collected by Mr. D. K. Ross), and from leaf mould in the bush on the Huiarau Range, Urewera, 3,200 ft.; Akatarawa, in rotten log, 1,400 ft., Maruia Valley from rotten logs in forest.

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Type: Slide 3/902, Dominion Museum Collection.

Neanura radiata sp. nov. Plate 47, figs. 117–120.

Colour: White, sometimes pale yellowish or pinkish, but any pigment lost in spirit.

Clothing: Numerous very long dorsal setae arise from the bosses with, towards their tips, a few widely-separated serrations. Lateral bosses generally with two setae each and dorsal bosses with one.

Body: Length up to 2 mm. Antennae not quite as long as head, with III and IV indistinctly separated. Ant. IV at apex with an exertile sac and several sensory hairs. Ocelli three to each side, unpigmented, and arranged around edge of a large boss; two close together, one above the other; one on anterior lateral face of boss, other below and just off boss, while third is on posterior lateral face of boss. Whole body presents a greatly “blistered” appearance on account of development dorsally on head, on Abd. V and Abd. VI, and dorsolaterally on all remaining segments of extremely large bosses. Two on Abd. VI, four on Abd. V, and ten on Abd. IV. On side of each of other segments large lateral and large dorso-lateral boss visible from above. Between these, down centre of back, bosses are much smaller and variable. Many large bosses dorsally on head, posterior row of which shows six. Whole cuticle tuberculate, and from every boss long setae arise, each seta surrounded by a non-tuberculate circle from which radiate 7–8 non-tuberculate lines. This feature is characteristic.

Legs: Claw simple with single inner tooth at about one-third down. Empodial appendage and tenent hairs absent.

Localities: Huiarau Range, Urewera, in leaf mould in forest at about 3,000 ft.; Waihui Gorge, Urewera, in leaf mould; Akatarawa, in rotten log, 1,400 ft.

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Type: Slide 3/901, Dominion Museum Collection.

This species would appear to be closely allied to N. bakeri Hand. from the Philippines, from which it differs in the structure of the setae, the absence of a post-antennal organ, the arrangement of the eyes, and the radiating structure on the bosses. It is readily distinguished from N. newmani by its very large bosses and numerous long setae.